 This word came from a Latin word “communis” meaning “common”. To be common means “to come together” or to “commune”—“to share something in common”. It means of coming together, sharing a “common frame of reference” or a “common field of experience”.

Communication skills  The ability to speak and listen effectively—are the top factors in helping college graduates find jobs in an increasing competitive workplace, ranking higher than technical competence, work experience and specific degree earned.

The Components of Communication:
   Speaker –the source or the originator of the communication message Receiver –it is the audience Messages –(speech) it contains messages presented to an audience through words, sounds, and action symbols selected and organized by the speaker and interpreted by the members of the audience

Models of Communication Process

All communication models contain common elements in that there must be a sender, encoding on the part of the sender, a message, a channel through which the message travels, a receiver, decoding on the part of the receiver and, in many situations, feedback.

Linear Model The linear model views communication as a one-way or linear process in which the speaker speaks and the listener listens. It was explained by Harold Laswell. Laswell’s (1948) model was based on the five questions below, which effectively describe how communication works:

Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) model includes noise or interference that distorts understanding between the speaker and the listener. Figure 1.3 shows a linear model of communication:

Figure 1.3: A linear model of communication Source: Wood, J. T. (2009). Communication in our lives (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth

(2009). This model also fails to show that communication is a dynamic process which changes over time. Schramm (1955) in Wood (2009) came out with a more interactive model that saw the receiver or listener providing feedback to the sender or speaker. “Transactional” means that communication is an ongoing and continuously changing process. and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. The speaker or sender of the message also listens to the feedback given by the receiver or listener. Both the speaker and the listener take turns to speak and listen to each other. and your environment is also continually changing as well. Communication in our lives (4th ed. each element exists in relation to all the other elements.). In any transactional process. You are changing. Feedback is given either verbally or non-verbally. the people with whom you arecommunicatingare changing. T. . Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener. There is this interdependence where there can be no source without a receiver and no message without a source. This model also indicates that the speaker and listener communicate better if they have common fields of experience. J. There are three implications in the transactional model: i.4): Figure 1.Interactive Model The main flaw in the linear model is that it depicts communication as a one-way process where speakers only speak and never listen. The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are interdependent. CA: ThomsonWadsworth Transactional Model The main drawback in the interactive model is that it does not indicate that communicators can both send and receive messages simultaneously. or fields which overlap (please refer to Figure 1.4: An interactive model of communication Source: Wood. ii. It also implies that listeners listen and never speak or send messages. Belmont. or in both ways.

The model also labels each communicator as both sender as well as receiver simultaneously. Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background. Schramm’s Model   Developed by Wilbur Schramm He notes that communication always requires three elements –the source. etc). religion. prior experiences. T.).g. . family. J. the message and the destination. Aristotle’s Model  Here. Figure 1. Aristotle speaks of a communication process composed of a speaker. friends. attitudes. (2009). and culture) or personal systems (e. a common campus. in Figure 1. and a listener. The outer lines of the model indicate that communication happens within systems that both communicators share (e. It also takes into account changes that happen in the communicators’ fields of personal and common experiences.iii. hometown. Belmont. Note he points out that the person at the end of the communication process holds the key to whether or not communication takes place..g..5: A transactional model of communication Source: Wood. cultural beliefs and self-esteem.5 shows a transactional model of communication that takes into account “noise” or interference in communication as well as the time factor. Communication our lives (4th ed. CA: ThomsonWadsworth. a message. Communication Models: To explain how and why communication takes place.

and feeling --all the things you do internally. remembering. it involves thinking. It involves images rather than words   .Channel R . Berlo’s model of communication operates on the SMCR model.Receiver Types of Communication: Intrapersonal Communication  This is your knowledge of and communication with yourself. It is the most basic because it involves a single individual communicating with him or herself. communication is difficult. In the SMCR model:     S . if not impossible. Berlo’s Model  While the Aristotle model of communication puts the speaker in the central position and suggests that the speaker is the one who drives the entire communication. the Berlo’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. or only a small area in common. If there is no overlap.Message C . communication can take place.Stands for Source M . If the source’s and destination’s fields of experience overlap.

Eye contact. It emphasizes how our mind works in communication. Interpersonal Communication  This second type of communication refers to interaction between two people or relatively small group. talking and conflict resolutions. It can mean as the ability to relate to people in written as well as verbal communication. it determines our relationships with others and simultaneously.     Public Communication  This type of communication involves one-to-many situation in which a speaker presents a message to an audience. determines who we are.   Public speaking –involves a speaker or speakers transmitting a speech to a live audience. It can be characterized as the sending of the messages or copies of the same message by one or more transmitters to a large number of receivers or groups of receivers.Intrapersonal Communication Model   It is language use or thought internal to the communicator. rationalizing. body movement and hand gestures are also part of interpersonal communication. It is defined as interaction between two or more individual both speaks and listens. facial expressions and body movements. Two classifications of public communication: public speaking and mass communication. The most common function of interpersonal communication are listening. Thinking. reflecting are examples of interpersonal communication. applause. . Receiver responses to the message are often limited to nonverbal forms such as laughter. one engages primarily in a monologue rather than a dialogue. at this level.

 The primary territory of a person is their personal area. Public: Addressing groups of people.    Personal space The personal space around my body includes a number of concentric circles where the closer areas are reserved for more trusted people. depending on the place and the time. Social-consultative: four to twelve feet: formal transactions. and the motion pictures. for example. Secondary territory is where they also feel comfortable. Casual-personal: 18 inches to four feet: Informal conversation with friends. but it is neutral.      Hall (1966) found four key zones: Intimate: touching to 10 inches. Public territory is not owned by us or people we trust. If you are closer to me. which may be a house. a bedroom. It is assumed I can communicate with relative privacy within this space. PROXEMICS Proxemic communication is communicating with others by virtue of the relative positioning of your bodies. It includes the transmission of messages via radio. Here. so I will seek to keep close areas safer by forbidding all but approved friends. HAPTICS Haptic communication is a form of nonverbal communication and the way by which people and other animals communicate via touching. This may be neutral places such as bars and restaurants or other private places such as at a friend's house or a club. is extremely important for humans. People who live in towns and cities are used to squeezing closer to people so have smaller spaces. Interaction territory is a temporary private space where I am having a conversation with others.Mass communication –refers to the transmission of message to many different audiences that remain essentially unknown to the transmitter and unknown to each other. Geographic territory There are different parts of the world where people act differently. This may be in a café or even moving along a corridor. where they feel most at home. a den or study. Touch. and vital in conveying physical intimacy. you may attack me. There may be threat or safety here. parks and other public places. For close friends and family. as well as providing information about surfaces and textures it is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships. whilst country people stand so far apart they have to lean forwards to shake hands. . may have smaller distances whilst introverts may prefer to keep their distance. television. or the haptic sense. they can be themselves and be relaxed. Extraverts. This includes streets. Note that this distance can vary significantly.

people face the same way and hence it is difficult to see the other's face. volume. If the distance is too far. then the person may be seen as 'stand-offish' or distant (perhaps insultingly so). and it includes the pitch. intonation of speech. When side-by-side. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. Direct face-to-face can be confrontational or intimate and so many conversations are held with people sitting or standing at an angle to one another. an appropriate proximity needs to be sustained. in some cases. Body angling   Bodies may be angled with other people ranging from side-to-side to face-to-face. This is done as a practical step when walking or may be deliberately used to 'face the same problem'.  PARALANGUAGE Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion.Also the distance varies greatly with nationality. and. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously. The study is known as paralinguistics. . For example the casual-personal distance may be:      North America: 18 inches Western Europe: 14 to 16 inches Japan: 36 inches Middle East: 8 to 12 inches For close conversation.

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