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Investigator: _____________________________
_________

Date:

Unit 4: HOMEOSTASIS AND IMMUNITY Review


Concept 1: Homeostasis, Body Systems, and Feedback Mechanisms
*Homeostasis:
*Dynamic Equilibrium:
Draw a graph of it
*Your body is able to maintain homeostasis when all of its organ systems work together.
Explain the major purpose of each organ system.
-Respiratory System:

-Circulatory System:

-Digestive System:

-Endocrine System:
*Hormone:
-Excretory System:

-Nervous System:
*Neurotransmitter
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*Define Feedback mechanism:
-The main purpose of a feedback mechanism is
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Non-Human Example:

Example in your body: Regulating body temperature


Its cold outside.
_____________________

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Your body starts to ______________


to create movement, generating heat.

Example in your body: The release of Insulin to control blood sugar


You eat an M&M pack and
a pastelito for breakfast.

_____________________

Blood sugar ______________

Your pancreas releases _____________


To decrease the level of sugar in the blood.

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Concept 2: Disease
**A loss of homeostasis can result in _______________________ or death.
Diseases You Should KNOW:
1. CANCER
Cancer occurs when cells copy themselves uncontrollably. This means that they
constantly go through _____________ (process in which cells replicate). This
uncontrolled growth of cells may result in a ____________ (lump of cancerous
cells).
2. DIABETES
The major problem in a person with diabetes is:
_____________________________________________________.
The major treatments for someone with diabetes:
-

____________________

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3. HIV/AIDS
The V in HIV stands for _______________________.

HIV can be spread by using used needles, ____________________


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The major reason HIV can be spread in the ways mentioned above is

because _________________________________________

HIV attacks the _______________________ system of the body.

___________ is the virus that causes AIDS

What happens to homeostasis in someone with HIV or AIDS?

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Concept 3: Immune System


*The major function of the Immune system is:___________________________
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*The cells of the Immune system are called: ____________________________
* Define the following terms:
Pathogen:
Antigen:
Antibody:
*Shape is important in the immune system because ________________ must match up
exactly with ________________ in order for the body to kill them.

Concept 4: Vaccines
*Vaccine:

*Explain how vaccines work:


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Lets practice!
1. Which situation is not an example of
the maintenance of a dynamic
equilibrium in an organism?
(1) Guard cells contribute to the
regulation of water content in a
geranium plant.
(2) Water passes into an animal cell
causing it to swell.
(3) The release of insulin lowers the
blood sugar level in a human after
eating a big meal.
(4) A runner perspires while running a
race on a hot summer day.
Explain your answer:
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2. The pancreas produces one hormone
that lowers blood sugar level and
another that increases blood sugar
level. The interaction of these two
hormones most directly helps humans
to
(1) maintain a balanced internal
environment
(2) digest needed substances for other
body organs
(3) dispose of wastes formed in other
body organs
(4) increase the rate of cellular
communication

Base your answers to questions 3


through 5 on the diagram below and on
your knowledge of biology.

3. The process represented in the


diagram best illustrates
(1) cellular communication
(2) muscle contraction
(3) extraction of energy from nutrients
(4) waste disposal
4. Which statement best describes the
diagram?
(1) Nerve cell X is releasing receptor
molecules.
(2) Nerve cell Y is signaling nerve cell
X.
(3) Nerve cell X is attaching to nerve
cell Y.
(4) Nerve cell Y contains receptor
molecules for substance A.
5. A drug is developed that, due to its
molecular shape, blocks the action of
substance A. Which shape would the
drug molecule most likely resemble?

Two types of human cells are shown in the diagram below.

6. Cell A causes the cells at B to contract. This activity would be most useful for
(1) lifting a book from a bookshelf
(2) coordinating the functions of organelles
(3) digesting food in the small intestine
(4) carrying out the process of protein synthesis

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Explain your answer: _______________________________________________________________

7. A process that occurs in the human body is represented in the diagram below.

Which statement is most closely associated with the diagram?


(1) Small molecules are obtained from large molecules during digestion.
(2) Certain molecules are replicated by means of a template.
(3) Receptor molecules play an important role in communication between cells.
(4) Energy from nutrients is utilized for waste disposal.
Explain your answer: _______________________________________________________________
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8. The diagrams below represent some of the systems that make up the human body.

Select one of the pairs of systems and write its number below. For the pair selected,
identify each system and state one function of that system. Explain how the two
systems work together to help maintain homeostasis in an individual. [3]
Pair ___________
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9. After a hormone enters the
bloodstream, it is transported
throughout the body, but the hormone
affects only certain cells. The reason
only certain cells are affected is that
the membranes of these cells have
specific
(1) receptors
(3) antibodies
(2) tissues
(4) carbohydrates
Explain your answer:

10. Feedback interactions in the human


body are important because they
(1) determine the diversity necessary
for evolution to occur
(2) direct the synthesis of altered
genes that are passed on to every cell
in the body
(3) regulate the shape of molecules
involved in cellular communication
(4) keep the internal body environment
within its normal range

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Explain your answer:

_____________________________________

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11. The most immediate response to a


high level of blood sugar in a human is
an increase in the
(1) muscle activity in the arms
(2) blood flow to the digestive tract
(3) activity of all cell organelles
(4) release of insulin
Explain your answer:
________________________________________
________________________________________
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12. People with AIDS are unable to
fight multiple infections because the
virus that causes AIDS
(1) weakens their immune systems
(2) produces antibodies in their blood
(3) attacks muscle tissue
(4) kills pathogens
Explain your answer:
________________________________________
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13. The immune system of humans


may respond to chemicals on the
surface of an invading organism by
(1) releasing hormones that break
down these chemicals
(2) synthesizing antibodies that mark
these organisms to be destroyed
(3) secreting antibiotics that attach to
these organisms
(4) altering a DNA sequence in these
organisms
Explain your answer:
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14. Antibody molecules and receptor
molecules are similar in that they both
(1) control transport through the cell
membrane
(2) have a specific shape related to
their specific function
(3) remove wastes from the body
(4) speed up chemical reactions in cells

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Explain your answer:

Explain your answer:

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15. The diagram below represents one
possible immune response that can
occur in the human body.

18. Vaccinations help prepare the body


to fight invasions of a specific pathogen
by
(1) inhibiting antigen production
(2) stimulating antibody production
(3) inhibiting white blood cell
production
(4) stimulating red blood cell
production
Explain your answer:

The structures that are part of the


immune system are represented by
(1) A, only
(3) B and C, only
(2) A and C, only
(4) A, B, and C

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16. The diagram below represents


what can happen when homeostasis in
an organism is threatened.

19. The purpose of introducing


weakened microbes into the body of an
organism is to stimulate the
(1) production of living microbes that
will protect the organism from future
attacks
(2) production of antigens that will
prevent infections from occurring
(3) immune system to react and
prepare the organism to fight future
invasions by these microbes
(4) replication of genes that direct the
synthesis of hormones that regulate
the number of microbes

Which statement provides a possible


explanation for these events?
(1) Antibiotics break down harmful
substances by the process of digestion.
(2) Some specialized cells mark and
other cells engulf microbes during
immune reactions.
(3) Embryonic development of essential
organs occurs during pregnancy.
(4) Cloning removes abnormal cells
produced during differentiation.
17. Some human white blood cells
help destroy pathogenic bacteria by
(1) causing mutations in the bacteria
(2) engulfing and digesting the bacteria
(3) producing toxins that compete with
bacterial toxins
(4) inserting part of their DNA into the
bacterial cells

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Explain your answer:


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20. The use of a vaccine to stimulate
the immune system to act against a
specific pathogen is valuable in
maintaining homeostasis because
(1) once the body produces chemicals
to combat one type of virus, it can
more easily make antibiotics

(2) the body can digest the weakened


microbes and use them as food
(3) the body will be able to fight
invasions by the same type of microbe
in the future
(4) the more the immune system is
challenged, the better it performs

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Explain your answer:
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23. Many people become infected with the chicken pox virus during childhood. After
recovering from chicken pox, these people are usually immune to the disease for the
rest of their lives. However, they may still be infected by viruses that cause other
diseases, such as measles.
Discuss the immune response to the chicken pox virus. In your answer, be sure to
include:
the role of antigens in the immune response [1]
the role of white blood cells in the bodys response to the virus [1]
an explanation of why recovery from an infection with the chicken pox virus will not
protect a person from getting a different disease, such as measles [1]
an explanation of why a chicken pox vaccination usually does not cause a person to
become ill with chicken pox [1]

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