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3MART'ROWTH
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2EAL!DVANTAGES
Pic¡aicu unuci ihc uiicciion ol ihc NAR Smaii Giowih Piogiam Auvisoiy Giou¡
Daviu WluIa, 2uu0 CLn..»nr
Bol IlccI, 2uu0 V.·e-CLn..
]im Hamilion, 2uu: CLn..»nr
Piinci¡al Auihois: Kaicn-Icc Ryan, Daviu Golulcig, anu Bailaia McCann
Euiiois: Daviu Golulcig, Bailaia McCann, ]osc¡h R. Molinaio, anu Hugh Moiiis
Gia¡hic Dcsign: GO! Cicaiivc, IIC
Phoio cicuiis: Covci aciial imagc ly Alcx S. MacIcan/Ianusliucs, covci ¡lanning imagc ly
Tim McCalc, USDA NRCS.
NAR Pio|cci Managci: Hugh Moiiis
Diiccioi, NAR Smaii Giowih Piogiams: ]osc¡h R. Molinaio
Auuiiional smaii giowih inloimaiion liom NAR can lc lounu ai www.icalioi.oig/smaiigiowih
NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam is an clcmcni ol ihc Communiiy Ouiicach Dc¡aiimcni which
hcl¡s REAITOR
®
RR associaiions anu mcmlcis siicngihcn ihcii communiiy lcaucishi¡ clloiis
ihiough ioolIiis, icchnical assisiancc, iiaining anu gianis.
Thc o¡inions cx¡icsscu in ihis ToolIii uo noi ncccssaiily icucci ihc o¡inions oi ¡olicy ol ihc
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
© Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
, 2006
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
|crºwcr1
Albert Einstein once saio: "lt´s not that l´n so snart, it´s just that l stay with problens longer.¨
Smaii giowih is noi a shoii-icim challcngc, anu ihcic is no onc
singlc soluiion. Ii`s a long-icim ¡ioccss - onc ihai REAITORS
®
musi siay involvcu in loi as long as wc scivc oui communiiics.
Communiiics wani io giow anu ¡ios¡ci ovci ihc long icim. Bui
ihai giowih, il ii ¡uis a siiain on communiiy sciviccs, coulu aciually
icuucc ¡ios¡ciiiy anu qualiiy ol lilc. Thc challcngc is io maIc suic
giowih is in haimony wiih ihc icsouiccs availallc in ihc communiiy.
Thai`s whcic REAITORS
®
comc in.
REAITORS
®
unucisianu, ¡ciha¡s lciici ihan anyonc clsc, how
uilhculi ii can lc io achicvc lalanccu giowih ihai cnhanccs qualiiy
ol lilc. As ¡iolcssionals, wc hcl¡ luilu communiiics - wc wani io
liing ihc lcnchis ol housing io moic ¡co¡lc, anu wc naiuially wani
io cx¡anu oui lusincsscs. As icsiucnis ol ihc communiiics wc scivc,
wc also ica¡ ihc icwaius whcn communiiics giow anu ¡ios¡ci.
Smaii giowih is a local issuc. Thc challcngcs aic uniquc io cvciy ciiy anu iown in Amciica. Whilc
somc aicas may havc aucquaic housing choiccs, ihcy may noi havc ihc iighi iians¡oiiaiion oi
schooling o¡iions io maIc ihc communiiy viallc. On ihc oihci hanu, communiiics wiih gicai
schools anu salc ncighloihoous may lc oui ol icach loi low anu miuulc incomc lamilics.
To auuicss cvciy as¡cci ol smaii giowih, REAITORS
®
nccu a hosi ol ucxillc soluiions. Thai`s
whcic S»n.ì C.owìL: A TooII.ì ¡o. FEA1TOFS
©
SS can hcl¡. Cha¡ici Onc ¡ioviucs an ovcivicw ol ihc
©
issuc anu iis im¡oiiancc io REAITORS
®
. Cha¡ici Two cx¡lains ihc ¡iinci¡lcs ol smaii giowih,
iis oiigins, anu cuiicni iicnus. Cha¡ici Thicc ¡ioviucs an in-uc¡ih icvicw ol io¡ics covcicu.
Cha¡ici Ioui covcis smaii giowih in ¡iaciicc, incluuing ¡lanning anu icgulaiion anu ¡olicics.
Cha¡ici Iivc auuicsscs how REAITORS
®
can gci moic involvcu in smaii giowih, incluuing
icsouiccs anu casc siuuics. Cha¡ici Six ¡ioviucs lcaus io moucl lcgislaiion.
I congiaiulaic anu ihanI NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam Auvisoiy Giou¡ who s¡cni many houis
¡uiiing ihis incicuillc icsouicc iogcihci. I ho¡c you all will usc ihc inloimaiion in ihis guiuc io
lccomc moic involvcu in luiluing hcalihy, siiong communiiics - iouay anu in ihc ycais ahcau.
Ilcm+s M. Stºrºrs, CKB, CKS, ûKl
1JJâ |rºsi1ºrt
N+ticr+l ksscti+ticr c| K|kLI9KS
®
|cr mcrº ir|crm+ticr ]c tc www.K|kLI9K.cr]/sm+rt]rcwtl
l. lNIK9|UCIl9N: K|kLI9KS
®
kN| SMkKI ûK9üIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I
ll. SMkKI ûK9üIB lN |KlNCl|L| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . â
A. Thc Oiigins ol Smaii-Giowih Planning anu Dcvclo¡mcni........................................................... i ò
B. Changing Dcmogia¡hics, Changing Aiiiiuucs, Changing MaiIcis..............................................S
C. Thc Piinci¡lcs ol Smaii Giowih ....................................................................................................1S
Cicaic Rangc ol Housing O¡¡oiiuniiics anu Choiccs ............................................................. 14
Cicaic WalIallc Ncighloihoous ............................................................................................... 1ò
Encouiagc Communiiy anu SiaIcholuci Collaloiaiion.......................................................... 1ò
Iosici Disiinciivc, Aiiiaciivc Communiiics wiih a Siiong Scnsc ol Placc ................................ 16
MaIc Dcvclo¡mcni Dccisions Picuiciallc, Iaii anu Cosi Ellcciivc ......................................... 1S
Mix Ianu Uscs ............................................................................................................................ 1S
Picscivc O¡cn S¡acc, Iaimlanu, Naiuial Bcauiy anu Ciiiical Enviionmcnial Aicas ........... 20
Pioviuc a Vaiiciy ol Tians¡oiiaiion Choiccs ............................................................................. 20
Siicngihcn anu Diicci Dcvclo¡mcni Towaius Exisiing Communiiics .................................... 22
TaIc Auvaniagc ol Com¡aci Builuing Dcsign ........................................................................... 2S
lll. I9|lCS lN SMkKI ûK9üIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1â
A. O¡cn S¡acc.....................................................................................................................................2ò
B. Tians¡oiiaiion ................................................................................................................................27
C. Rcviializing Ciiics anu Oluci Suluils ..........................................................................................S0
D. Schools anu Ncighloihoou Planning ..........................................................................................S2
E. Housing Alloiualiliiy..................................................................................................................... y S4
I. Pullic Hcalih...................................................................................................................................S6
G. Economic Piogicss anu Iiscal Piuucncc ......................................................................................SS
H. Smaii Giowih in a Ruial Sciiing...................................................................................................40
I+|lº c| Ccrtºrts
l\. SMkKI ûK9üIB lN |KkCIlC| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1â
A. Planning anu Rcgulaiion...............................................................................................................4ò
Communiiy-Bascu Planning: Choosing a Iuiuic ...................................................................... 4ò
Sccnaiio Planning: Cicaiing a Shaicu Vision loi ihc Iuiuic................................................... 47
Ncw Tools loi Iniciaciivc Planning ............................................................................................ ò0
TaIing ihc IEED in Giccning ihc Ncighloihoou ................................................................... òò
Innovaiions in Zoning anu Dcvclo¡mcni Coucs ...................................................................... ò6
B. Smaii Giowih Policics....................................................................................................................6S
Picsciving Im¡oiiani Ianusca¡cs ...............................................................................................6S
Tians¡oiiaiion Policy O¡iions ................................................................................................... 66
Im¡ioving Tians¡oiiaiion O¡iions ............................................................................................ 67
Rccognizing ihc Valuc ol Tians¡oiiaiion Alicinaiivcs ............................................................. 69
Rcviializing Communiiics........................................................................................................... 7S
Cooiuinaicu Planning ................................................................................................................ 76
Communiiy Dcsign...................................................................................................................... 7S
Housing Alloiualiliiy.................................................................................................................. y 79
Schools ......................................................................................................................................... S1
Iiscal Piuucncc............................................................................................................................ SS
Giccn Builuing ............................................................................................................................ S4
Piohlcs: Ioui Siaics TaIing a Com¡ichcnsivc Smaii Giowih A¡¡ioach................................ S6
C. Builuing Smaii ............................................................................................................................... i 91
Tiauiiional Ncighloihoou Dcvclo¡mcni .................................................................................. i 91
Rcclaiming Suluilan ¨Gicyhclus"............................................................................................. 94
Commcicial ComclacIs: Biinging Moucin Rciail io Ciiics anu Oluci Suluils ................... 9ò
Tiansii-Oiicnicu Dcvclo¡mcni .................................................................................................. i 9S
Rcclaiming Inuusiiial Biownhclus........................................................................................... 101
Miliiaiy Basc Rcucvclo¡mcni ................................................................................................... i 102
Ncw Towns in Ruial Aicas: Saving Ruial S¡acc wiih Smaii Giowih...................................... 104
\. K|kLI9K
®
lN\9L\|M|NI lN SMkKI ûK9üIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IJI
REAITOR
®
RR Associaiions in Aciion ..................................................................................................109
Washingion REAITORS
®
` Qualiiy ol Iilc Cam¡aign ............................................................. 109
Iloiiua Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
Smaii Giowih Council ................................................. 112
Ncw Mcxico Cusiomizcu Siaic Icgislaiion .............................................................................. 114
Vcniuia Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
anu HOME ......................................... 116
YoiI Ciiy Savvy: REAITORS
®
Gci io Know Thcii Homciown ................................................ 119
Sclling Ciiy Owncu Pio¡ciiics Elhcicnily ¸SCOPE) in Baliimoic:
]oini Pio|cci Unlcashcs MaiIci Ioiccs on Tough Piollcm ................................................... 121
Michigan Ianu Usc Acaucmics: REAITORS
®
Icain io Pui ihc BiaIcs on S¡iawl .............. 124
Ncw YoiI Siaic Assocaiion ol REAITORS
®
Smaii Giowih Awaius Piogiam ........................ 127
REAITORS
®
in Aciion......................................................................................................................129
Kcn ]acIson, CCIM, CRS, GRI, Iloicncc, Souih Caiolina ..................................................... a 129
Iinua ClaiI, Ioii Woiih, Tcxas ................................................................................................ 1S2
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols, CRS, GRI, Vicc Mayoi, Ciiy ol Kissimmcc, Iloiiua ........................... a 1S4
Bicnua Ellswoiih, Mayoi, Ash Giovc, Missouii ....................................................................... 1S6
REAITOR
®
RR Aciion Guiuc .................................................................................................................1S7
Gciiing Involvcu: A REAITOR
®
RR `s Aciion Guiuc ..................................................................... 1S7
TaIing Aciion ............................................................................................................................ 1S9
Iinishing U¡.............................................................................................................................. 14S
\l. SkM|L| L|ûlSLkIl9N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I1â
|cr mcrº ir|crm+ticr ]c tc www.K|kLI9K.cr]/sm+rt]rcwtl
lntroouction to
Snart Crowth
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®
sl+rº tlº s+mº tcrtºrr +s
tlºir rºi]l|crs, +r1 +s |tsirºss pºcplº, K|kLI9KS
®

+rº wºll +w+rº c| tlº impcrt+rtº tc +ll tititºrs c| s+|º
rºi]l|crlcc1s, º|htiºrt tr+rspcrt+ticr, +ttºssi|lº
p+r|s, +r1 tlº+r +ir +r1 w+tºr.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l
l. lrtrc1ttticr: K|kLI9KS
®
+r1 Sm+rt ûrcwtl
S
ince the eno oI Worlo War ll, the U.S. population has ooubleo to
3OO nillion people ano continues to grow by three nillion people
annually, aooing a new person every l3 seconos. This rapio population
growth, conpounoeo by oevelopnent patterns that encourage bigger
houses ano longer connutes, is Iorcing us to Iace an inportant question: How
shoulo our connunities grow?
Thc consiani inuux ol ncw ¡co¡lc ucmanus
ncw ucvclo¡mcni, lui ihc loim ii iaIcs is
liIcly io lc ciiiical io ihc long-icim qualiiy ol
lilc anu cconomic sialiliiy ol oui iowns, ciiics
anu naiion. In icccni ycais oui mciio aicas
havc s¡iawlcu ouiwaiu. Ii has lccn casici loi
ucvclo¡cis io golllc u¡ hclus anu loicsis
wiih ncw suluivisions whilc lcaving oluci
aicas io languish, wiih ucclining ¡o¡ulaiion,
uccaying inliasiiuciuic anu a slum¡ing iax
lasc. As laims suiicnuci io lig-lox sioics anu
woous givc way io as¡hali, ihcic is mouniing
liusiiaiion ovci incicascu iialhc, uccicascu
o¡cn s¡acc, inaucquaic ¡ullic sciviccs,
ovciciowucu schools, lacI ol alloiuallc
housing anu loss ol communiiy viialiiy. In
oui mosi cconomically viliani mciios, many
young lamilics lacc a ¡ainlul choicc lciwccn
closc-in ncighloihoous ihai aic cx¡cnsivc
cvcn whcn ihcy aic lcss-ihan-ucsiiallc, anu
cvci moic-uisiani suluivisions ihai conucmn
ihcm io a lilc s¡cni lchinu ihc whccl.
Thc a¡¡ioach io ¡lanning anu ucvclo¡mcni
ihai has comc io lc Inown as smaii giowih
gicw oui ol an clloii ly ¡olicy maIcis, ical
csiaic ¡iolcssionals, ¡lanncis anu uilan
ucsigncis, cnviionmcnialisis, Icy cm¡loycis
anu many oiuinaiy ciiizcns io hnu ways io
casc ihcsc icnsions. Ii is an aiicm¡i io hnu a
miuulc way lciwccn giowih-ai-any-cosi anu
ihc ¨no-giowih" icaciion io ii. Thc iuca is io
involvc ciiizcns, ¡ullic olhcials anu myiiau
siaIcholucis in woiIing iogcihci io ¡lan
ahcau loi ucvclo¡mcni accoiuing io a sci ol
common-scnsc ¡iinci¡lcs. Thc vision is ihai
communiiics gci lciici as ihcy giow, whilc
icmaining loih cconomically viallc anu
cnviionmcnially ics¡onsillc.
Thc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic ucsciilcs smaii-
giowih ¡iinci¡lcs as a way ¨io iucniily
a common giounu whcic ucvclo¡cis,
cnviionmcnialisis, ¡ullic olhcials, ciiizcns,
anu oihcis can all hnu accc¡iallc ways io
accommouaic giowih." Usually ihis mcans
woiIing io sicci ucvclo¡mcni io ihc mosi
suiiallc ¡laccs anu oiganizc ii inio lciici-
connccicu, moic com¡aci loims. Wiih
cxccllcni ucsign anu loicihoughi, ¡co¡lc can
livc wcll on lcss lanu. In laci, ihcy can livc
lciici, lccausc ihcii communiiics will lc moic
walIallc anu gcncially moic convcnicni, anu
ihcii cnviionmcni will lc lcss ucgiaucu ly
milcs ol siii¡ malls anu ¡aiIing lois. Anu ihcsc
wcll-¡lanncu ncighloihoous holu ihcii valuc,
iaihci ihan lccoming almosi uis¡osallc, as so
many ¡osi-wai suluils havc lccomc.
Though ihcy may lc a¡¡licu uillcicnily in
vaiious communiiics, smaii-giowih concc¡is
gcncially involvc:
W Using lanu moic clhcicnily,
W Picsciving o¡cn s¡acc anu ihc cnviionmcni,
W Cicaiing moic iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions,
incluuing iail anu lus iiansii anu siucwalIs,
io casc iialhc,
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
2
W Builuing moic aiiiaciivc, wcll-ucsigncu
ncighloihoous ihai allow loi walIing anu
communiiy iniciaciion,
W Incicasing ucnsiiy whcic a¡¡io¡iiaic io
maIc lciici usc ol inliasiiuciuic,
W Ex¡anuing housing choiccs as wcll as
alloiuallc housing o¡¡oiiuniiics,
W Mixing housing, iciail anu cm¡loymcni
uscs in oiuci io cicaic com¡lcic ncighloi-
hoous whcic uaily nccus aic closc ai hanu.
Whilc lcw ¡co¡lc uisagicc wiih ihc inicni ol
ihcsc ¡iinci¡lcs, a hosi ol ingiaincu ¡olicics
anu ¡iaciiccs sianu in ihc way ol ¡uiiing
ihcm io woiI. This incluucs cvciyihing
liom convcniional zoning io ioau ucsign io
iciailcis` inciiia. Wc`ll auuicss ihcsc anu oihci
challcngcs in ihis ioolIii.
K|kLI9KS
®
+r1 Sm+rt ûrcwtl
REAITORS
®
a¡¡icciaic ihc incicasing inicicsi
in ¡icsciving anu im¡ioving communiiics`
qualiiy ol lilc anu auuicssing ihc challcngcs
ol giowih. As mcmlcis ol ihc communiiy, wc
shaic ihc samc conccins as oui ncighlois.
Anu as lusincss ¡co¡lc, wc aic wcll awaic
ol ihc im¡oiiancc io homcluycis anu all
ciiizcns ol salc ncighloihoous, clhcicni
iians¡oiiaiion, acccssillc ¡aiIs anu o¡cn
s¡acc anu clcan aii anu waici.
¨Unuci ihc Couc ol Eihics, all REAITORS
®
havc an olligaiion io im¡iovc ihcii
communiiics anu scll qualiiy ol lilc," says Tim
Calncn, who has s¡cni moic ihan 2ò ycais wiih
ihc Conncciicui Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
.
Hc ciics ihc Couc`s Picamllc:
UrJe. nII .· ìLe InrJ. U¡or .ì· w.·e uì.I..nì.or
nrJ w.JeI, nIIo·nìeJ owre.·L.¡ Je¡erJ ìLe
·u....nI nrJ ¿.owìL o¡ ¡.ee .r·ì.ìuì.or· nrJ o¡
ou. ·...I..nì.or. FEA1TOFS
©
·LouIJ .e·o¿r..e
©
ìLnì ìLe .rìe.e·ì· o¡ ìLe rnì.or nrJ .ì· ·.ì..er·
.equ..e ìLe L.¿Le·ì nrJ be·ì u·e o¡ ìLe InrJ nrJ
w.Je·ì J.·ì..buì.or o¡ InrJ owre.·L.¡. TLe,
.equ..e ìLe ·.enì.or o¡ nJequnìe Lou·.r¿, ìLe
bu.IJ.r¿ o¡ ¡ur·ì.or.r¿ ·.ì.e·, ìLe Je.eIo¡»erì
o¡ ¡.oJu·ì..e .rJu·ì..e· nrJ ¡n.»·, nrJ ìLe
¡.e·e..nì.or o¡ n LenIìL¡uI er...or»erì.
Noiing ihai ihc Couc uaics io 191S, Calncn
says, ¨Evcn ihcn, ihcy wcic ihinIing aloui
lalanccu anu uivcigcni uscs ol lanu."
Bcyonu ihc Couc ol Eihics, ihcic aic s¡ccihc
icasons REAITORS
®
may wani io auvocaic loi
smaii-giowih ¡lanning anu ucvclo¡mcni:
@ Cuality oI liIe. REAITORS
®
caic aloui ihc
qualiiy ol ihcii own communiiics, as wcll as
ihc qualiiy ol ihc communiiy in which ihcii
clicnis aic luying anu sclling homcs.
@ Problens oI excessive regulations.
Too many icgulaiions can uisioii ihc
ical csiaic maiIci anu maIc homcs
lcss alloiuallc, icuucing choicc in ihc
housing maiIci¡lacc.
@ Cpportunities Ior new housing narkets.
Tasics in housing iy¡cs anu locaiions
Ilº ]c+ls c| sm+rtºr ]rcwtl
Smaii Giowih Amciica, a naiional
coaliiion ol oiganizaiions su¡¡oiiing
smaii-giowih ¡iinci¡lcs, iucniihcs
scvcial Icy ouicomcs ihai goou ¡lanning
anu ucvclo¡mcni shoulu ¡iouucc:
W A scai ai ihc iallc loi cvciyonc wiih
a siaIc in ihc communiiy.
W Bioau choiccs among salc, convcnicni
anu aiiiaciivc ncighloihoous.
W Rcauy acccss io |ols, uaily ncccssiiics
anu lun, wiih lcss iimc in iialhc.
W Thiiving ciiics, suluils anu iowns.
W Pioicciion loi whai`s lcsi aloui ihc
¡laccs wc livc.
W Iowci ¡cisonal cosis anu clhcicni
usc ol oui iax moncy.
W A shoi ai ihc Amciican uicam ol
o¡¡oiiuniiy loi all.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 3
is uivcisilying ia¡iuly, lui mcciing ihis
ucmanu will icquiic ncw ihinIing in
¡lanning, zoning, ucsigning anu maiIciing
loi com¡aci, walIallc communiiics.
@ Future inventory oI hones. Whai gcis
luili iouay ucicimincs whai REAITORS
®
will lc sclling iomoiiow.
How siaic anu local govcinmcnis mcci
ihc challcngc ol ia¡iu giowih allccis ihc
vciy livclihoou ol REAITORS
®
anu ihc
viial inicicsis ol oui cusiomcis - Amciica`s
homcowncis, ¡io¡ciiy owncis anu icnanis.
Thc hnal scciions ol ihis ioolIii ucmonsiiaic
how REAITORS
®
aic alicauy maIing a
uillcicncc - ly cuucaiing ihcii communiiics
aloui giowih, ly ¡iomoiing icviializcu
ncighloihoous, ly woiIing loi lciici
schools anu siiccis anu ihc ¡olicics nccucu
io cicaic ihcm.
REAITORS
®
aic a ¡osiiivc loicc in oui
communiiics lccausc wc unucisianu
ncighloihoous insiuc anu oui. Wc Inow
ihc housing maiIcis anu ihc im¡aci local
conuiiions will havc on housing valucs, choicc,
anu alloiualiliiy. As REAITORS
®
lccomc vocal
auvocaics loi loiwaiu-looIing ¡lanning anu
ucvclo¡mcni, wc ¡osiiion ouisclvcs as lcaucis
in oui communiiics, hcl¡ing io losici cuucaicu
uiscussions anu cicaiivc soluiions. This ioolIii
will ¡ioviuc ihc inloimaiion ncccssaiy loi
REAITORS
®
io lccomc involvcu. Ii uciails how
smaii giowih is im¡lcmcnicu anu ¡ioviucs
iools loi incicasing ¡ullic ¡aiiici¡aiion. Ii
shaics smaii-giowih succcss sioiics ol inuiviuual
REAITORS
®
anu associaiions all acioss ihc
couniiy. NAR`s goal in cicaiing ihis icsouicc is
io cnsuic ihai REAITORS
®
havc ihc Inowlcugc
ihcy nccu in oiuci io woiI on lchall ol ihc
qualiiy ol lilc in ihcii communiiics.
Snart Crowth
in Principle
1
1
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1
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S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 5
Ii was aiounu ihai iimc ihai ihc concc¡i ol
¨smaii giowih" cmcigcu anu lcgan io gain
in ¡o¡ulaiiiy. Dcvclo¡cu as a collaloiaiion
among Icy ihinIcis in ciiy ¡lanning,
uilan ucsign, ical csiaic ucvclo¡mcni,
cnviionmcnialism, iians¡oiiaiion, lusincss,
govcinmcni anu oihci hclus, smaii giowih
woulu lc a ihiiu way. Giowing ¨smaii" woulu
mcan, hisi, ihai iowns, ciiics anu mciio
icgions woulu acInowlcugc ihai giowih
anu changc aic a ncaily incviiallc laci ol
lilc. Ncxi, ii woulu mcan involving ciiizcns
in maIing a ¡lan loi ihc luiuic woulu ihai
cnsuic a wiuc choicc in housing o¡iions
loi ¡co¡lc ol all incomcs anu agcs, ¡ioicci
laimlanu anu naiuial aicas, icviializc, anu noi
unuciminc, ihc ¡laccs wc hau alicauy luili,
anu ¡ioviuc o¡iions loi how io gci aiounu,
anu avoiu unncccssaiy iiavcl. Thc ho¡c was
ihai ly uoing ihcsc ihings, communiiics woulu
gci lciici as ihcy giow. Oi, as Souih Caiolina
REAITOR
®
RR Kcn ]acIson succincily ¡uis ii:
¨Smaii giowih is ucvclo¡mcni ihai cnhanccs
oui qualiiy ol lilc."
Touay, many ciiics, iowns, anu icgions acioss
ihc naiion aic using smaii-giowih concc¡is
io auuicss local issucs anu maIc ucvclo¡mcni
uccisions. Somc local uiscussions locus on
ihc ¡iollcm ol iialhc congcsiion anu how
io managc ii. In oihci ¡laccs, ihc ¡ullic ¡ays
aiicniion io ucvclo¡mcni ovciiaIing laimlanu
anu oihci o¡cn s¡acc. Somc convcniional,
¡osi-wai suluils aic lulhlling ihcii ucsiic loi a
moic iiauiiional ¡aiicin ol ucvclo¡mcni ihai
cicaics ¡cucsiiian-liicnuly communiiy ccnicis
wiih iciail, olhcc, anu a mix ol housing iy¡cs,
liom a¡aiimcnis anu iownhouscs io sianu-
alonc houscs. Bclow aic a lcw cxam¡lcs ol how
smaii-giowih iucas aic lcing ¡ui io woiI:
Preserving lano Ior open space. In icccni
ycais, voicis havc a¡¡iovcu lillions ol uollais
loi o¡cn s¡acc ¡uichasc ihiough ncaily 6ò0
siaic anu local lalloi mcasuics. Accoiuing io
ihc Tiusi loi Pullic Ianu`s IanuVoic uaialasc,
moic ihan 7S ¡ciccni ol ihc conscivaiion
hnancc lalloi mcasuics ¡ui io voicis lciwccn
1999 anu 200S wcic a¡¡iovcu, gcnciaiing
llk. Ilº 9ri]irs c| Sm+rt·ûrcwtl
|l+rrir] +r1 |ºrºlcpmºrt
B
y the nio-lººOs - 5O years aIter the eno oI Worlo War ll hao kickeo oII a
sustaineo boon in housing ano roao-builoing, - "growth¨ hao becone
sonething oI a bao woro in nany connunities arouno the country.
Because it oIten seeneo unplanneo ano unIocuseo, growth ano
oevelopnent hao cone to be associateo with the oisappearance oI treasureo
lanoscapes, a rise in traIfc congestion, environnental oegraoation ano other
negative inplications Ior quality oI liIe. The worlo seeneo increasingly to be
oivioeo into "pro-growth¨ ano "no-growth¨ canps.
"Snart growth is oevelopnent that enhances our quality oI liIe.¨
- Kºr !+t|scr, K|kLI9K
®
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
6
moic ihan S26 lillion io ¡icscivc lanu loi
iccicaiion, laiming oi cnviionmcnial hcalih.
Wiih lunus loi ouiiighi ¡uichascs limiicu,
howcvci, ncw icchniqucs aic lcing ucvclo¡cu
io hcl¡ communiiics ¡icscivc laimlanu anu
loicsis anu ¡ioicci waicishcus anu wilulilc
haliiai. Thcsc can incluuc conscivaiion
cascmcnis, iianslci ol ucvclo¡mcni iighis, anu
¡uichasc ol ucvclo¡mcni iighis, clusiciing
ol ucvclo¡mcni anu oihci mcihous, io lc
uiscusscu laici in ihis ioolIii.
Provioing transportation options. In
auuiiion io luiluing ncw ioaus, communiiics
aic woiIing io cooiuinaic ucvclo¡mcni
wiih iians¡oiiaiion io maIc ii casici io walI,
licyclc, oi iaIc iiansii, oi cvcn io icuucc
ihc nccu io iiavcl loi uaily nccus. Dozcns
ol communiiics aic invcsiing in ncw iiansii
scivicc, anu iiansii usagc has sicauily incicascu
sincc ihc miu-1990s. Pioviuing iians¡oiiaiion
o¡iions can icmovc somc cais liom ihc
ioaus anu icuucc congcsiion, anu can also
¡ioviuc gicaici moliliiy loi ihosc wiihoui
cais. Tians¡oiiaiion im¡iovcmcnis can lc as
sim¡lc as ¡ioviuing salci ¡cucsiiian iouics
ly luiluing siucwalIs, oi as laigc as luiluing
mciio¡oliian iiansii sysicms ihai can incluuc
im¡iovcu lus scivicc, lighi iail, hcavy iail,
oi commuici iail. Many ma|oi mciio¡oliian
aicas, incluuing Dcnvci, Ailania, Minnca¡olis-
Si. Paul, Dallas, Sali IaIc Ciiy, Baliimoic,
anu San Dicgo havc u¡giaucu ihcii iiansii
sysicms in icccni ycais. Thcsc alicinaiivc
moucs ol iians¡oiiaiion woiI
¡aiiiculaily wcll whcic lanu
uscs aic mixcu anu ucnsiiics
aic high.
Revitalizing oowntowns
ano neighborhooos.
Though ihcy aic olicn
ncglccicu, uowniowns anu
oluci ncighloihoous aic
ccniially locaicu anu havc
inliasiiuciuic in ¡lacc io
hanulc somc ol ihc ncw
ucvclo¡mcni ihai has lccn
caiing u¡ o¡cn s¡acc.
Biownhclus, which aic
alanuoncu oi unuciuscu
inuusiiial anu commcicial ¡io¡ciiics ihai
may lc coniaminaicu ¸loimci gas siaiions,
vacani waichouscs, alanuoncu iail yaius), can
lc clcancu u¡ anu ¡ui lacI inio ¡iouuciivc
commcicial oi icsiucniial usc. In icccni
ycais, ncw housing consiiuciion has mauc
a comclacI in many ma|oi ciiics - liom
Washingion, D.C., io Kansas Ciiy, Missouii, io
Poiilanu, Oicgon - alici uccaucs ol inaciiviiy.
REAITORS
®
noic a giowing iicnu ol young
singlcs anu cou¡lcs as wcll as cm¡iy-ncsicis
sccIing convcnicni, closc-in ncighloihoous.
Reexanining local zoning cooes.
Zoning was cicaicu io ¡ioicci icsiucniial
ncighloihoous liom ihc noxious aciiviiics
ol an cailici inuusiiial agc. Unloiiunaicly,
in many ¡laccs iouay, ihc ciuuc iool ol
convcniional zoning has icsulicu in such
cxiicmc sc¡aiaiion ol cvcn com¡aiillc
uscs - onc Iinu ol housing liom anoihci,
loi cxam¡lc, oi homcs liom schools anu
convcnicni sho¡¡ing - ihai ii is im¡ossillc
io luilu com¡lcic communiiics. Many
communiiics now aic auo¡iing ncw loims
ol zoning ihai allow loi ihc wiucsi iangc ol
housing: singlc-lamily homcs, a¡aiimcnis,
iownhouscs, conuominiums, anu mixcu-usc
ucvclo¡mcni ¸such as a¡aiimcnis ovci sho¡s).
In ucsignaicu aicas, ihcy aic oncc again
allowing ¡co¡lc io livc ncai sho¡s, icsiauianis
anu olhccs, ihcicly cicaiing moic o¡iions
loi moic ¡co¡lc. Ncw ¨loim-lascu" coucs
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 7
woiiy lcss aloui scgicgaiing uscs, anu moic
aloui s¡ccilying ihc Iinu ol ucvclo¡mcni ihai
a communiiy wanis, s¡ccuing a¡¡iovals loi
ucvclo¡cis who can ¡ioviuc ii. Communiiics
such as Ailingion, Viiginia, Emmaus,
Pcnnsylvania, anu Pcialuma, Caliloinia ihai
havc auo¡icu ihcsc ncw oiuinanccs usually
havc lounu lavoiallc u¡iuins in ihcii ical
csiaic maiIcis.
ReIorning regulations. Suluivision anu
ucvclo¡mcni icgulaiions olicn icquiic
cx¡cnsivc, ovcily wiuc siiccis ihai cncouiagc
lasici iialhc anu uiscouiagc ¡cucsiiians.
In auuiiion, school-luiluing ¡lanncis
iy¡ically icquiic laigc school siics wiih lig
¡aiIing lois, cnsuiing ihai schools will noi
lc ncsilcu wiihin walIallc ncighloihoous,
lui iaihci will lc luili on lusy ioaus ai
ihc cugc ol communiiics. Builuing coucs
ucsigncu io icgulaic ncw consiiuciion olicn
maIc ihc ichaliliiaiion ol oluci homcs
anu a¡aiimcnis cconomically unlcasillc.
Thcsc aic cxam¡lcs ol ihc uninicnucu
conscqucnccs ol icgulaiions ihai maIc ii
uilhculi io luilu communiiics in a smaii
way. Many communiiics aic iacIling ihcsc
¡iollcms ly changing ihc icgulaiions. Smaii
Builuing Coucs havc lccn auo¡icu in siaics
anu localiiics io cicaic moic a¡¡io¡iiaic
sianuaius loi oluci luiluings. Euucaiois aic
changing siic icgulaiions anu luiluing ucsign
icquiicmcnis io ¡cimii ncw schools io lc
luili on small siics wiihin ncighloihoous.
Iocaliiics anu siaic highway uc¡aiimcnis aic
iiying uillcicni a¡¡ioachcs, such as naiiowci
siiccis, iialhc calming, anu iounualouis io
slow iialhc anu maIc ncighloihoous salci.
Town centers in the suburbs. Many suluilan
aicas wcic luili wiihoui a ¨uowniown," lui
as ihc ¡o¡ulaiion has incicascu, ihcic is a
giowing nccu anu maiIci loi giving ihcm
a local ¡oini ihai also scivcs communiiics
nccus. Thcsc ncw high-ucnsiiy uowniowns aic
¡o¡¡ing u¡ wiih incicasing licqucncy aiounu
ihc Uniicu Siaics anu can incluuc olhccs,
sioics, anu homcs in a ¡cucsiiian-liicnuly
uilan cnviionmcni.
Sm+rt ]rcwtl t+t|lºs
scmº |i] |tºsticrs
How can ciiics anu suluils giow in
¡o¡ulaiion whilc avoiuing ihc ncgaiivc
conscqucnccs loih ol auiomolilc-
uc¡cnucni s¡iawl anu ¡ooily ¡lanncu
ucnsiiy, whilc ¡icsciving ihc homc
owncishi¡ lcvcls anu ¡iivaic s¡acc ihai
Amciicans chciish.
Can moic anu moic ol us livc ihc
¨goou lilc," lui wiihoui cicaiing a
nighimaic ol iialhc |ams, ihiow-
away lanusca¡cs anu cnviionmcnial
ucgiauaiion.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
8
Touay, ihough, loi ihc hisi iimc cvci,
houscholus ol singlc ¡cisons ouinumlci ihosc
ol auulis wiih chiluicn ai homc ¸incluuing
singlc ¡aicnis), S2 ¡ciccni ol ihc ioial vcisus
S1 ¡ciccni. Maiiicu cou¡lcs wiih Iius aic an
cvcn smallci scgmcni, 2S.ò ¡ciccni. As icccnily
as 1970, cou¡lcs wiih chiluicn accounicu
loi moic ihan 40 ¡ciccni ol houscholus.
Thc cllcci on ical csiaic maiIcis is ¡al¡allc,
Michacl Cailinci, an cconomisi wiih ihc
Naiional Associaiion ol Homc Builucis,
iolu ihc Ios Angclcs Timcs in Augusi, 200ò.
Singlcs, hc saiu, ¨¡lacc a gicaici ¡iioiiiy on
lcing closc io ihc aciion. Thcy aic noi woiiicu
aloui school uisiiicis oi s¡acc, so ihcy ¡ui a
highci ¡iioiiiy io lcing closc in. Thai`s lccn a
lacioi in loosiing ucmanu loi uilan oi closc-
in suluilan housing." Gcnciaiion Xcis, ihosc
loin lciwccn 196ò anu 19S1, aic ¡osi¡oning
chiluliiih, anu giaviiaiing iowaiu ciiics in ihc
mcaniimc. Many aic looIing, noi loi ihcii
¡aicnis` housc in a suluivision on ihc mciio
liingc, lui loi ncighloihoous ihai comlinc
ihc convcnicncc anu viliancy ol uilan
ncighloihoous wiih ihc lamily-salc lcaiuics
¡iomiscu ly convcniional suluils.
In auuiiion, as laly-loom houscholus lccomc
cm¡iy ncsicis, ihc lasicsi giowing houscholu
iy¡c is cou¡lcs wiihoui minoi chiluicn living
ai homc. By 2010, S6 million houscholus,
ncaily a ihiiu ol ihc ioial, will lc cm¡iy
ncsicis, anu ihc occu¡anis will livc moic ycais
in ihai siaic ihan any ¡icvious gcnciaiion.
Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc changing naiuic ol
woiI anu ihc shili liom an inuusiiial io an
inloimaiion/scivicc cconomy is maIing
ncw aiiangcmcnis ¡ossillc anu ¡iclciallc.
Twcniy ycais ago ihcic was no maiIci loi
¨livc-woiI" uniis, whilc iouay ihc ucmanu
is siiong anu giowing. Piolcssionals anu
oihcis who incicasingly s¡cnu ai lcasi somc
iimc woiIing in homc olhccs aic looIing
loi ncighloihoous ihai inicgiaic ihc collcc
sho¡, lunch s¡ois anu lusincss su¡¡lics
anu sciviccs ihcy nccu. Many ¡aicnis aic
iaising ihcii chiluicn singlc-hanuculy anu
woulu iaihci s¡cnu iimc wiih ihc Iius ihan
commuiing io woiI. Somc o¡i io iun homc-
lascu lusincsscs, whilc oihcis |oin ihc
giowing ianIs ol iclccommuicis. Dcmanu
loi ncw housing in mosi laigc ccniial ciiics
has incicascu gicaily sincc ihc miu-1990s,
lucling ucmanu loi loli-siylc housing, livc-
woiI uniis, anu conuominiums, which
accounicu loi a iccoiu-high 1S ¡ciccni ol all
homcs solu in 200ò.
kttitt1ºs k|ctt ûrcwtl +r1 |ºrºlcpmºrt
MaiIciing suivcys anu ¡olls aic uocumcniing
ihcsc culiuial shilis anu changing ¡iclcicnccs.
A Sc¡icmlci, 2004 ¡oll ly NAR anu Smaii
Giowih Amciica lounu ihc ¡ios¡cci ol
lcngihcning commuics is lcauing moic
Amciicans io sccI walIallc ncighloihoous
closci io cm¡loymcni ccnicis - a icnci ol
smaii giowih communiiics.
llB. Cl+r]ir] |ºmc]r+plits, Cl+r]ir]
M+r|ºts, Cl+r]ir] kttitt1ºs
N
any recent changes in planning ano oevelopnent arise Iron
oenographic trenos, cultural shiIts, ano changing narkets. The
classic suburban oevelopnent nooel that grew up in the post-war
lº5Os was aineo at a housing narket ooninateo by new Ianilies
who were having chiloren as quickly as they coulo.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I º
AsIcu io choosc lciwccn iwo communiiics,
six in icn ¡ios¡cciivc homcluycis chosc
a ncighloihoou ihai ollcicu a shoiici
commuic, siucwalIs anu amcniiics liIc sho¡s,
icsiauianis, liliaiics, schools anu ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion wiihin walIing uisiancc ovci a
s¡iawling communiiy wiih laigci lois, limiicu
o¡iions loi walIing anu a longci commuic.
Thosc who aic in ihc maiIci io luy a homc
aic also moic liIcly io say ihcy wani io lc in oi
ncai a ciiy as o¡¡oscu io living in a laiihci oui
suluil oi iuial aica.
Ioi ihc ¡ui¡oscs ol ihc NAR/SGA suivcy, a
smaii giowih communiiy was ucsciilcu as a
mix ol a¡aiimcnis, conuos, iownhouscs, anu
uciachcu homcs on vaiious-sizcu lois wiih
siucwalIs anu ¡laccs io sho¡, cai, icau, anu
go io school wiihin walIing uisiancc. Ii was
also ucsciilcu as a ¡lacc wiih ncaily ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion anu a onc-way commuic ol lcss
ihan 4ò minuics. A s¡iawling communiiy was
ucsciilcu as a ¡lacc wiih only singlc-lamily
uciachcu houscs on onc-acic lois wiihoui
siucwalIs, whcic ¡laccs io sho¡, cai, icau, anu
go io school aic wiihin a lcw milcs. Pullic
iians¡oiiaiion is uisiani oi unavailallc anu
a onc-way commuic is 4ò minuics oi moic.
Alici hcaiing uciailcu ucscii¡iions ol iwo
communiiics, Amciicans lavoicu ihc aiiiiluics
ol walIallc, smaii giowih communiiics ovci
s¡iawling communiiics wiih longci commuics
òò ¡ciccni io 4ò ¡ciccni.
Womcn anu minoiiiics aic cvcn moic liIcly
ihan oihci Amciicans io choosc a walIallc
ncighloihoou ihai has a shoiici commuic,
wiih ò9 ¡ciccni ol womcn, ò7 ¡ciccni
ol His¡anics anu 7S ¡ciccni ol Aliican-
Amciicans sclcciing ihosc communiiics
ovci communiiics wiih liggci lois anu
longci commuics. This is signihcani lccausc
minoiiiics aic an incicasing ¡aii ol ihc homc-
luying ¡ullic.
NAR ¡olls consisicnily show ihai ¡co¡lc aic
noi o¡¡oscu io giowih lui ihcy uo wani ii
managcu moic. Ioi ihc ¡asi scvcial ycais,
ihc Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
has
conuucicu suivcys ihai show ¡co¡lc lavoi
giowih, lui noi ncccssaiily ai ihc cx¡cnsc ol
losing o¡cn s¡acc oi woiscning iialhc.
Suivcys in 2001 locuscu on ihcsc s¡ccihc
io¡ics, ¡ioviuing a lioauci s¡cciium ol
¡co¡lc`s vicws whilc iniiouucing somc
soluiions, incluuing a clcai call loi incicascu
¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion. A 2002 suivcy,
conuucicu wiih ihc Naiional Associaiion
ol Homc Builucis, suggcsicu maiIci-lascu
inccniivcs wcic ihc ¡iclciicu way ol achicving
smaii giowih as o¡¡oscu io icgulaiions.
9pºr Sp+tº Strrº¡
Whcn asIcu how ihcy lcli aloui incicascu
icsiucniial anu commcicial giowih in ihc
Maich 2001 o¡cn s¡acc suivcy, voicis wcic
ihicc iimcs moic liIcly io su¡¡oii giowih
¸S7%) ihan io uisa¡¡iovc ol ii ¸11%).
Anu hall inuicaicu ihai ihcii ¡osiiion on
giowih uc¡cnucu ¨on ihc siiuaiion anu
ciicumsiancc." Thc samc suivcy showcu
ihai somc wani giowih io lc managcu, lui
uncciiainiy aiiscs aiounu how much lanu
oi giowih managcmcni is ncccssaiy. An
ovciwhclming ma|oiiiy ¸S2%) siaicu ihai
uccisions aloui lanu usc anu o¡cn s¡acc
Even in CaliIornia, where everyone has a love aIIair with the car, people want
options. They want to keep their car, but they oon´t want to be in it all oay.
- K+¡ Ktrricr, ]crºrrmºrt +||+irs 1irºttcr |cr \ºrttr+ Cctrt¡ Cc+st+l ksscti+ticr c| K|kLI9KS
®
lO
üºrº + st|htiºrt rtm|ºr c| lcmºs +r+il+|lº ir ¡ctr
pritº r+r]º!
ülitl c| tlº |cllcwir] st+tºmºrts 1c ¡ct +]rºº
witl! l wisl.
K+tº tlº impcrt+rtº c| tlº |cllcwir] tcmmtrit¡
+mºritiºs.
üctl1 ¡ct |t¡ + lcmº ir + Sm+rt ûrcwtl
rºi]l|crlcc1!
7O
6O
5O
4O
3O
2O
lO
lO 2O 3O 4O 5O O
±3% nargin oI error
shoulu lc mauc ai ihc local lcvcl ly iown,
ciiy, oi couniy govcinmcnis. Moic ihan hall
ol ihc ¡ullic ¸ò4%) saiu ii lclicvcs in moic
managcmcni ol giowih lccausc ¨¡iollcms
associaicu wiih giowih nccu io lc auuicsscu."
Bui, a sizallc 42% uisagiccu, saying insicau
ihai giowih shoulu lc managcu lcss lccausc
¨ihcic aic alicauy ioo many govcinmcni
icgulaiions aloui how ¡co¡lc can usc
ihcii lanu." Whcic ¡co¡lc livc, as wcll as
gcnuci, hau somc lcaiing on ihcii o¡inion:
Thosc living in moic iuial aicas wanicu lcss
managcmcni ¸òS%) ihan uilan ¸42%) oi
suluilan ¸SS%) uwcllcis, whilc ncaily iwo-
ihiius ¸61%) ol suluilan womcn lavoicu
moic managcmcni.
In ihc o¡cn s¡acc suivcy, iwo ol ihicc
ics¡onucnis saiu ihcy woiiy aloui loss ol
o¡cn s¡acc io commcicial anu icsiucniial
ucvclo¡mcni. Howcvci, ihcy ¡laccu uillcicni
valucs on uillcicni iy¡cs ol o¡cn s¡acc.
In aicas unuci ucvclo¡mcni ¡icssuic, ihc
suivcy lounu S0 ¡ciccni ol voicis su¡¡oii
¡icsciving laimlanu, naiuial aicas, siicam
coiiiuois, iiuc wilucincss, anu hisioiic siics,
lui lcwci ¸òS%) su¡¡oiicu ¡icsciving lallow
hclus no longci uscu loi laiming. A siiong
ma|oiiiy also su¡¡oiicu cicaiing o¡cn s¡accs
wiih s¡ccihc communiiy ¡ui¡oscs, such
as ¡laygiounus ¸7ò% in lavoi), soccci anu
lasclall hclus ¸61%), anu ncighloihoou
¡aiIs ¸60%).
Amciicans clcaily su¡¡oii ihc ¡uichasc
anu ¡icscivaiion ol o¡cn s¡acc, ihough noi
ncccssaiily ai any cosi. In ihc 2001 o¡cn s¡acc
suivcy, 7ò% su¡¡oiicu local govcinmcnis anu
non-¡iohi giou¡s liIc lanu iiusis io luy anu
¡icscivc o¡cn s¡acc. Howcvci, ihc ¡ullic`s
cnihusiasm wancs as ihc ¡iicc iag incicascs.
Su¡¡oii loi lanu ¡uichasc anu ¡icscivaiion
uio¡¡cu io ò0% il ii woulu icquiic a Sò0
¡io¡ciiy-iax incicasc anu ¡lummcicu io S1%
il ii mcani a S100 iax hiIc.
Thc suivcys suggcsi ihc ¡ullic lccls giowih
anu lanu sicwaiushi¡ aic ¡osiiivc aciiviiics, noi
muiually cxclusivc goals. ¨Voicis aic iclling
us ihai ihcy lclicvc giowih can accommouaic
±3% nargin oI error
Sou.·e: NAF/NAHB 2uu2 ¡oII o¡ .e·erì Lo»ebu,e.·.
ll
wisc sicwaiushi¡ ol ihc lanu," noicu Poiilanu,
Oicgon REAITOR
®
RR Pai Ka¡lan, NAR
Ticasuici ai ihc iimc ol ihc suivcy.
Ir+rspcrt+ticr Strrº¡
Tialhc is ihc oihci chicl conccin whcn ii
comcs io giowih.
A NAR iians¡oiiaiion suivcy in Ociolci
2001 showcu ihai iwo oui ol ihicc Amciicans
aic incicasingly conccincu aloui iialhc
congcsiion, wiih 62% saying iialhc congcsiion
is gciiing woisc anu 69% cx¡cciing ii io woiscn
in ihc ncxi hvc ycais. As loi somc ol ihc causcs,
64% llamcu lacI ol convcnicni anu acccssillc
alicinaiivc iians¡oiiaiion, anu 60% saiu ioo
much commcicial anu icsiucniial ucvclo¡mcni
has cicaicu moic iialhc. Whilc 46% agiccu
ihai lusincsscs anu homcs shoulu lc luili
closci iogcihci io shoiicn commuics anu limii
congcsiion, ò1% uisagiccu.
Thc samc suivcy also showcu ihai ihc
¡ullic uchniicly wanis invcsimcni in ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion anu lclicvcs ihc govcinmcni
isn`i uoing cnough in ihis aica. Thc icsulis
lounu ihai mosi voicis aic uissaiishcu wiih
ihc way ihcii local govcinmcnis aic hanuling
iialhc congcsiion anu ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion.
Ncaily 60% ianIcu ihcii local govcinmcni
¨laii" oi ¨¡ooi" loi casing iialhc congcsiion
on local ioaus anu highways, anu moic ihan
ò0% saiu ihcii govcinmcnis aic uoing a
¨laii" oi ¨¡ooi" |ol ¡ioviuing ¡iaciical anu
convcnicni ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion.
In ihc 2001 iians¡oiiaiion suivcy, mosi
commuicis saiu ihcy woulu lc willing io usc
mass iiansii insicau ol uiiving ihcmsclvcs io
woiI il ii wcic convcnicni, salc, anu availallc.
Aloui iwo oui ol ihicc ¡co¡lc saiu ihcy woulu
lc willing io usc cai ¡ools oi iiuc shaics, 62%
saiu ihcy woulu lc willing io commuic ly iail
oi iiain, anu ncaily hall, 47%, saiu ihcy`u lc
willing io commuic ly lus.
Thcsc aiiiiuucs havc ¡cisisicu. NAR`s 2004
smaii giowih suivcy showcu ihai hall ol
all Amciicans lclicvc im¡ioving ¡ullic
8O
lOO
6O
4O
2O
O
üctl1 ¡ct |º willir] tc tcmmttº tsir] pt|lit |ts, r+il cr
tr+ir, i| tlº¡ wºrº tcrrºriºrt, s+|º +r1 +r+il+|lº!
8O
lOO
6O
4O
2O
O
Bcw impcrt+rt w+s º+tl isstº ir |crmir] +ttitt1ºs +r1
cpiricrs +|ctt wlºrº rctºrs tlcsº tc lirº!
±3.4% nargin oI error
ülitl st+tºmºrt 1c ¡ct mcst +]rºº witl!
±3.l% nargin oI error
±3.l% nargin oI error
Sou.·e: NAF 2uu1 ¡oII.
K+il/Ir+ir Bts
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l2
iians¡oiiaiion is ihc lcsi o¡iion io solving
long-icim iialhc ¡iollcms. Icss ihan 20%
lclicvcu ihai luiluing ncw ioaus is ihc answci.
Consisicnily, NAR suivcys show ihai im¡ioving
¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion anu ucvclo¡ing
communiiics whcic ¡co¡lc uo noi havc io
uiivc long uisianccs aic moic ¡o¡ulai ihan
luiluing ncw ioaus.
Whaicvci ihc ¡olicy mcchanism, Amciicans
ovciwhclmingly wani govcinmcni lunus
iaigcicu ai cxisiing communiiics lcloic
¡uiiing moncy inio ncw ucvclo¡mcnis laiihci
liom ciiics anu oluci suluils. In ihc 2004
suivcy, ncaily ninc in icn ¡co¡lc ¸S6%)
saiu ihcy wani im¡iovcmcnis in cxisiing
communiiics io icccivc ¡iioiiiy lunuing
ovci inccniivcs loi ncw ucvclo¡mcni in ihc
couniiysiuc ¸12%).
To hnu oui moic aloui NAR smaii giowih
¡olling, scc: www..enIìo..o.¿/¡oII.r¿
"Voters are telling us that they believe growth can acconnooate wise
stewaroship oI the lano.¨
|+t K+pl+r, |crtl+r1, 9rº]cr K|kLI9K
®
+r1 NkK Irº+strºr +t tlº timº c| tlº strrº¡
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l3
llC. Ilº |rirtiplºs c| Sm+rt ûrcwtl
W
ith the narket Ior walkable, nixeo-use neighborhooos growing,
citizens beconing increasingly anxious about Iallout Iron poorly
planneo growth, ano increasing nunbers oI netro areas running
into linits to their fnancial ano environnental resources, how
shoulo our cities grow in the Iuture? The set oI principles that have cone be to
reIerreo to as snart growth arose Iron attenpts by thousanos oI governnent
oIfcials, planners, environnentalists, business thinkers, oevelopnent ano real
estate proIessionals ano oroinary citizens to answer that question.
Smaii giowih is lcss a sci ol ¡icscii¡iions
ihan ii is a way ol ihinIing aloui how io
maIc gicai communiiics wiih lasiing valuc.
To giow ¨smaii" mcans involving ciiizcns
in choosing a luiuic ihai ¡ioviucs housing
o¡iions loi ¡co¡lc ol all incomcs anu agcs,
¡ioiccis laimlanu anu o¡cn s¡acc, icviializcs
ncighloihoous anu ollcis a vaiiciy ol
convcnicni o¡iions loi gciiing aiounu. Thc
siaic ol Maiylanu, whosc 1997 Smaii Giowih
aci hcl¡cu io ¡o¡ulaiizc ihc icim, iucniihcu
ihicc Icy goals: To sicci ucvclo¡mcni
iowaiu lanu ucsignaicu ly local communiiics
as a¡¡io¡iiaic loi ncw giowih, io sicci
ucvclo¡mcni away liom ucsignaicu naiuial
anu culiuial aicas, agiiculiuial lanus anu
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc zoncs, anu io cnsuic
ihai ucvclo¡mcni maIcs clhcicni usc ol lanu
anu ihc ioaus, scwcis, schools anu oihci
inliasiiuciuic wc all ¡ay loi.
Nonc ol ihcsc goals can lc accom¡lishcu
unlcss ihc icsuliing ucvclo¡mcni is a¡¡caling
io cuiicni - anu luiuic - icsiucnis. In laci,
maIing lciici communiiics ihai agc giacclully
is onc ol ihc lcsi aigumcnis loi a¡¡lying
smaii giowih concc¡is. Ioi ihai icason, much
ol ihc innovaiion lcing uonc unuci ihc smaii-
giowih lannci is aimcu ai maIing ¡laccs ihai
aic moic convcnicni, alloiuallc, lcauiilul anu
salc. Thc goal is io maIc ncighloihoous ihai
aic walIallc anu com¡lcic, wiih uaily nccus
closc ai hanu, anu ihai aic uisiinguishallc onc
liom anoihci, iaihci ihan having a onc-sizc-
his-all looI anu lccl.
You mighi hcai somc ¡co¡lc say ihai
¨smaii giowih mcans uillcicni ihings io
uillcicni ¡co¡lc." Thai`s iiuc in ihc scnsc
ihai siaic anu local communiiics aic licc io
im¡lcmcni ihcii ¨smaii" ¡lans as ihcy scc hi.
Ncvciihclcss, ihc ccniial ¡iinci¡lcs uiscusscu
lclow aic almosi univcisally iccognizcu
as uchning smaii giowih, anu ihcy havc
lccn cmliaccu noi only ly many ol ihc
naiion`s Icy conscivaiion, cnviionmcnial,
hisioiic ¡icscivaiion, alloiuallc housing
anu lusincss oiganizaiions, lui also ly ihc
naiional associaiions ol ¡lanncis, ucvclo¡cis,
ical csiaic ¡iolcssionals, local govcinmcni
olhcials anu lcucial agcncics. Ioi a ¡aiiial
lisi ol cnuoising oiganizaiions visii www.
·»n.ì¿.owìL.o.¿/·¿r/¡n.ìre.·.n·¡
TLe ¡oIIow.r¿ ·e·ì.or .· Je...eJ ¡.o» ìLe 1u
¡..r·.¡Ie· nJo¡ìeJ b, ìLe S»n.ì C.owìL Neìwo.I, nr
nII.nr·e o¡ ¿o.e.r»erì, ¡.o¡e··.ornI, bu·.re·· nrJ
oìLe. n¿er·.e· ìLnì Ln.e e»b.n·eJ ·»n.ì ¿.owìL.
1en.r »o.e nbouì ìLe S»n.ì C.owìL Neìwo.I nì
www.·»n.ì¿.owìL.o.¿
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l4
I. Crº+tº K+r]º c| Bctsir]
9ppcrttritiºs +r1 Clcitºs
Pioviuing qualiiy housing loi ¡co¡lc ol
all incomc lcvcls is an inicgial com¡oncni
in any smaii giowih siiaicgy. Housing is a
ciiiical ¡aii ol ihc way communiiics giow,
as ii is consiiiuics a signihcani shaic ol
ncw consiiuciion anu ucvclo¡mcni. Moic
im¡oiianily, howcvci, ii is also a Icy lacioi
in ucicimining houscholus` acccss io
iians¡oiiaiion, commuiing ¡aiicins, acccss
io sciviccs anu cuucaiion, anu consum¡iion
ol cncigy anu oihci naiuial icsouiccs. By
using smaii giowih a¡¡ioachcs io cicaic a
wiuci iangc ol housing choiccs, communiiics
can miiigaic ihc cnviionmcnial cosis ol
auio-uc¡cnucni ucvclo¡mcni, usc ihcii
inliasiiuciuic icsouiccs moic clhcicnily,
cnsuic a lciici |ols-housing lalancc, anu
gcnciaic a siiong lounuaiion ol su¡¡oii
loi ncighloihoou iiansii sio¡s, commcicial
ccnicis, anu oihci sciviccs.
No singlc iy¡c ol housing can scivc ihc vaiicu
nccus ol iouay`s uivcisc houscholus. Smaii
giowih ic¡icscnis an o¡¡oiiuniiy loi local
communiiics io incicasc housing choicc
noi only ly mouilying ihcii
lanu usc ¡aiicins on ncwly-
ucvclo¡cu lanu, lui also ly
incicasing housing su¡¡ly in
cxisiing ncighloihoous anu
on lanu scivcu ly cxisiing
inliasiiuciuic. Inicgiaiing
singlc- anu mulii-lamily
siiuciuics in ncw housing
ucvclo¡mcnis can su¡¡oii
a moic uivcisc ¡o¡ulaiion
anu allow moic cquiiallc
uisiiiluiion ol houscholus ol
all incomc lcvcls acioss ihc
icgion. Thc auuiiion ol uniis
- ihiough aiiachcu housing,
acccssoiy uniis, oi convcision
io mulii-lamily uwcllings - io
Sm+rt ûrcwtl Nºtwcr|´s Iºr |rirtiplºs c| Sm+rt ûrcwtl
@ Cicaic Rangc ol Housing
O¡¡oiiuniiics anu Choiccs
@ Cicaic WalIallc Ncighloihoous
@ Encouiagc Communiiy anu
SiaIcholuci Collaloiaiion
@ Iosici Disiinciivc, Aiiiaciivc
Communiiics wiih a Siiong
Scnsc ol Placc
@ MaIc Dcvclo¡mcni Dccisions
Picuiciallc, Iaii anu Cosi Ellcciivc
@ Mix Ianu Uscs
@ Picscivc O¡cn S¡acc, Iaimlanu,
Naiuial Bcauiy anu Ciiiical
Enviionmcnial Aicas
@ Pioviuc a Vaiiciy ol Tians¡oiiaiion
Choiccs
@ Siicngihcn anu Diicci Dcvclo¡mcni
Towaius Exisiing Communiiics
@ TaIc Auvaniagc ol Com¡aci
Builuing Dcsign
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l5
cxisiing ncighloihoous cicaics o¡¡oiiuniiics
loi communiiics io slowly incicasc ucnsiiy
wiihoui iauically changing ihc lanusca¡c. Ncw
housing consiiuciion can lc an cconomic
siimulus loi cxisiing commcicial ccnicis ihai
aic cuiicnily viliani uuiing ihc woiI uay, lui
sullci liom a lacI ol looi iialhc anu consumcis
in cvcnings oi wccIcnus. Mosi im¡oiianily,
¡ioviuing a iangc ol housing choiccs allow
all houscholus io hnu ihcii nichc in a smaii
giowih communiiy - whcihci ii is a gaiucn
a¡aiimcni, a iow housc, oi a iiauiiional
suluilan homc - anu accommouaic giowih ai
ihc samc iimc.
1. Crº+tº ü+l|+|lº Nºi]l|crlcc1s
WalIallc communiiics aic ucsiiallc ¡laccs
io livc, woiI, lcain, woishi¡ anu ¡lay, anu
ihcicloic a Icy com¡oncni ol smaii giowih.
Thcii ucsiialiliiy comcs liom iwo laciois.
Iiisi, walIallc communiiics locaic wiihin an
casy anu salc walI ol goous ¸such as housing,
olhccs, anu iciail) anu sciviccs ¸such as
iians¡oiiaiion, schools, liliaiics) ihai a
communiiy icsiucni oi cm¡loycc nccus on a
icgulai lasis. Scconu, ly uchniiion, walIallc
communiiics maIc ¡cucsiiian aciiviiy ¡ossillc,
ihus cx¡anuing iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions, anu
cicaiing a siiccisca¡c ihai lciici scivcs a
iangc ol uscis - ¡cucsiiians, licyclisis, iiansii
iiucis, anu auiomolilcs. To losici walIaliliiy,
communiiics musi mix lanu uscs anu luilu
com¡acily, anu cnsuic salc anu inviiing
¡cucsiiian coiiiuois.
WalIallc communiiics aic noihing ncw.
Ouisiuc ol ihc lasi hall-ccniuiy, communiiics
woiluwiuc havc cicaicu ncighloihoous,
communiiics, iowns anu ciiics ¡icmiscu
on ¡cucsiiian acccss. Wiihin ihc lasi hliy
ycais ¡ullic anu ¡iivaic aciions olicn
cicaicu olsiaclcs io walIallc communiiics.
Convcniional lanu usc icgulaiion olicn
¡iohiliis ihc mixing ol lanu uscs, ihus
lcngihcning iii¡s anu maIing walIing a lcss
viallc alicinaiivc io oihci loims ol iiavcl. This
icgulaioiy lias againsi mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni
is icinloiccu ly ¡iivaic hnancing ¡olicics ihai
vicw mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni as iisIici ihan
singlc-usc ucvclo¡mcni. Many communiiics
- ¡aiiiculaily ihosc ihai aic uis¡ciscu anu
laigcly auio-uc¡cnucni - cm¡loy siicci anu
ucvclo¡mcni ucsign ¡iaciiccs ihai icuucc
¡cucsiiian aciiviiy.
As ihc ¡cisonal anu socicial lcnchis ol
¡cucsiiian liicnuly communiiics aic icalizcu
- lcnchis which incluuc lowci iians¡oiiaiion
cosis, gicaici social iniciaciion, im¡iovcu
¡cisonal anu cnviionmcnial hcalih, anu
cx¡anucu consumci choicc - many aic calling
u¡on ihc ¡ullic anu ¡iivaic sccioi io laciliiaic
ihc ucvclo¡mcni ol walIallc ¡laccs. Ianu
usc anu communiiy ucsign ¡lay a ¡ivoial iolc
in cncouiaging ¡cucsiiian cnviionmcnis. By
luiluing ¡laccs wiih mulii¡lc ucsiinaiions
wiihin closc ¡ioximiiy, whcic ihc siiccis anu
siucwalIs lalancc all loims ol iians¡oiiaiion,
communiiics havc ihc lasic liamcwoiI loi
cncouiaging walIaliliiy.
í. |rtctr+]º Ccmmtrit¡ +r1
St+|ºlcl1ºr Ccll+|cr+ticr
Giowih can cicaic gicai ¡laccs io livc, woiI
anu ¡lay - il ii ics¡onus io a communiiy`s
own scnsc ol how anu whcic ii wanis io giow.
Communiiics havc uillcicni nccus anu will
cm¡hasizc somc smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs
ovci oihcis: ihosc wiih iolusi cconomic
giowih may nccu io im¡iovc housing choiccs,
oihcis ihai havc sullcicu liom uisinvcsimcni
may cm¡hasizc inhll ucvclo¡mcni, ncwci
communiiics wiih sc¡aiaicu uscs may lc
looIing loi ihc scnsc ol ¡lacc ¡ioviucu ly
mixcu-usc iown ccnicis, anu siill oihcis wiih
¡ooi aii qualiiy may sccI iclicl ly ollciing
iians¡oiiaiion choiccs. Thc common ihicau
among all, howcvci, is ihai ihc nccus ol cvciy
communiiy anu ihc ¡iogiams io auuicss ihcm
aic lcsi uchncu ly ihc ¡co¡lc who livc anu
woiI ihcic.
Ciiizcn ¡aiiici¡aiion can lc iimc-consuming,
liusiiaiing anu cx¡cnsivc, lui cncouiaging
communiiy anu siaIcholuci collaloiaiion
can lcau io cicaiivc, s¡ccuy icsoluiion ol
ucvclo¡mcni issucs anu gicaici communiiy
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l6
unucisianuing ol ihc im¡oiiancc ol goou
¡lanning anu invcsimcni. Smaii giowih ¡lans
anu ¡olicics ucvclo¡cu wiihoui siiong ciiizcn
involvcmcni will ai lcsi noi havc siaying
¡owci, ai woisi, ihcy will lc uscu io cicaic
unhcalihy, unucsiiallc communiiics. Whcn
¡co¡lc lccl lcli oui ol im¡oiiani uccisions,
ihcy will lc lcss liIcly io lccomc cngagcu
whcn iough uccisions nccu io lc mauc.
Involving ihc communiiy caily anu olicn in
ihc ¡lanning ¡ioccss vasily im¡iovcs ¡ullic
su¡¡oii loi smaii giowih anu olicn lcaus io
innovaiivc siiaicgics ihai hi ihc uniquc nccus
ol cach communiiy.
1. |cstºr |istirttirº, kttr+ttirº Ccmmtritiºs
witl + Strcr] Sºrsº c| |l+tº
Smaii giowih cncouiagcs communiiics io ciali
a vision anu sci sianuaius loi ucvclo¡mcni
anu consiiuciion which ics¡onu io
communiiy valucs ol aichiicciuial lcauiy anu
uisiinciivcncss, as wcll as cx¡anucu choiccs in
housing anu iians¡oiiaiion. Ii sccIs io cicaic
inicicsiing, uniquc communiiics which icucci
ihc valucs anu culiuics ol ihc ¡co¡lc who
icsiuc ihcic, anu losici ihc iy¡cs ol ¡hysical
cnviionmcnis which su¡¡oii a moic cohcsivc
communiiy laliic. Smaii giowih ¡iomoics
ucvclo¡mcni which uscs naiuial anu man-
mauc lounuaiics anu lanumaiIs io cicaic a
scnsc ol uchncu ncighloihoous, iowns, anu
icgions. Ii cncouiagcs ihc consiiuciion anu
¡icscivaiion ol luiluings which ¡iovc io lc
asscis io a communiiy ovci iimc, noi only
lccausc ol ihc sciviccs ¡ioviucu wiihin, lui
lccausc ol ihc uniquc coniiiluiion ihcy maIc
on ihc ouisiuc io ihc looI anu lccl ol a ciiy.
Guiucu ly a vision ol how anu whcic io giow,
communiiics aic allc io iucniily anu uiilizc
o¡¡oiiuniiics io maIc ncw ucvclo¡mcni
conloim io ihcii sianuaius ol uisiinciivcncss
anu lcauiy. Coniiaiy io ihc cuiicni mouc ol
ucvclo¡mcni, smaii giowih cnsuics ihai ihc
valuc ol inhll anu giccnhclu ucvclo¡mcni
is ucicimincu as much ly ihcii acccssililiiy
¸ly cai oi oihci mcans) as ihcii ¡hysical
oiicniaiion io anu iclaiionshi¡ wiih oihci
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l7
|ºrsit¡ +r1 \ctr Ccmmtrit¡
Dcnsiiy ¡ioviucs a vaiiciy ol lcnchis io
oui communiiics anu ciiics:
l. Density nakes walkable
neighborhooos. WalIallc ncighloihoous
havc ¡ossillc icsiucniial anu non-
icsiucniial lanu uscs closc io cach oihci.
Sho¡s, houscs, icsiauianis, schools, cic.
aic locaicu wiihin closc ¡ioximiiy io cach
oihci, ¡ioviuing ¡co¡lc ihc convcnicncc io
go oui io cai, walI io school, oi ¡uichasc a
quaii ol milI wiihin a ò-10 minuic walI.
2. Density supports housing choice
ano aIIoroability. Highci ucnsiiy givcs
ucvclo¡cis ihc ucxililiiy io inicgiaic
uivcisc housing iy¡cs in a givcn
ucvclo¡mcni, ¡iimaiily ly cx¡anuing
allowallc housing iy¡cs io incluuc loih
singlc anu muliilamily uniis. Onc common
icsuli ol highci ucnsiiy is cx¡anucu
housing choicc. Highci ucnsiiy mcans lcss
lanu ¡ci unii, icuuccu siic ¡ic¡aiaiion,
anu lowci ¡ci unii inliasiiuciuic cosis,
all laciois ihai icuucc ihc haiu cosis
ol consiiuciion. This gcncially allows
ucvclo¡cis io ¡ioviuc moic housing ai a
lowci cosi io ihc homcownci.
3. Density expanos transportation
choices. Highci ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcni
cx¡anus iians¡oiiaiion choiccs ly maIing ii
casici io usc non-auiomolilc iians¡oiiaiion
- walIing, licycling, lus oi iail, ly locaiing
aciiviiics closci iogcihci. Tians¡oiiaiion
choicc givcs ¡co¡lc ihc liccuom io
sclcci liom a vaiiciy ol iians¡oiiaiion
moucs as ihcy com¡lcic ihcii uaily iiavcl.
Tians¡oiiaiion choicc maIcs ii ¡ossillc loi
¡cisons io choosc ihc mcans ol iiavcl ihai
maIcs mosi scnsc loi ihcm.
4. Density helps nininize air pollution.
Sincc highci ucnsiiy communiiics can
¡ioviuc gicaici iians¡oiiaiion choicc,
ii is olicn ihc casc ihai ihcii icsiucnis
uiivc lcss. Onc San Iiancisco siuuy lounu
ihai ¡co¡lc in com¡aci ncighloihoous
mauc 42-¡ciccni lcwci auio iii¡s ihan
ihcii counici¡aiis in lcss com¡aci
ncighloihoous. Also, wiih aciiviiics closci
iogcihci, vchiclc iii¡s aic shoiici - wiih
lcss vchiclc milcs iiavclcu, lcss ¡olluiion
is ¡iouuccu.
5. Density enables protection
oI open space ano provision oI
parklano. Dcnsiiy allows communiiics
io accommouaic gicaici amounis ol
ucvclo¡mcni on a givcn ¡aiccl¸s) ol
lanu. This com¡aci ucvclo¡mcni iclicvcs
somc ol ihc ¡icssuic io ucvclo¡ o¡cn
s¡accs. As a icsuli, communiiics aic allc
io ¡icscivc cxisiing o¡cn s¡acc, cicaic
inicinal ncighloihoou ¡aiIs anu ¡ioicci
cnviionmcnially-scnsiiivc lanus.
6. Density helps protect water quality.
As communiiics cm¡loy ucnsiiy io ¡ioicci
o¡cn s¡acc, ihcy also achicvc waici qualiiy
lcnchis. Dcnsiiy ¡ioiccis waici qualiiy ly
minimizing ihc im¡civious suilacc ¡ci
houscholu. This in iuin icuuccs sioim
waici iunoll.
7. Density reouces inIrastructure cost. Ii
is chca¡ci io scivc moic houscholus in a
smallci, ucnsci aica ihan io scivc ihc samc
numlci ol houscholus acioss a laigci,
uis¡ciscu gcogia¡hic aica. Communiiics
aic iccognizing ihc icuunuancy ol ¡aying
loi ncw inliasiiuciuic whcn cxisiing
inliasiiuciuic is unuciuiilizcu.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l8
luiluings anu o¡cn s¡acc. By cicaiing high-
qualiiy communiiics wiih aichiicciuial anu
naiuial clcmcnis ihai icucci ihc inicicsis
ol all icsiucnis, ihcic is a gicaici liIclihoou
ihai luiluings ¸anu ihcicloic cniiic
ncighloihoous) will iciain ihcii cconomic
viialiiy anu valuc ovci iimc. In so uoing, ihc
inliasiiuciuic anu naiuial icsouiccs uscu io
cicaic ihcsc aicas will ¡ioviuc icsiucnis wiih
a uisiinciivc anu lcauiilul ¡lacc ihai ihcy can
call ¨homc" loi gcnciaiions io comc.
â. M+|º |ºrºlcpmºrt |ºtisicrs
|rº1itt+|lº, |+ir +r1 Ccst |||ºttirº
Ioi a communiiy io lc succcsslul in
im¡lcmcniing smaii giowih, ii musi lc
cmliaccu ly ihc ¡iivaic sccioi. Only ¡iivaic
ca¡iial maiIcis can su¡¡ly ihc laigc amounis
ol moncy nccucu io mcci ihc giowing
ucmanu loi smaii giowih ucvclo¡mcnis.
Il invcsiois, lanIcis, ucvclo¡cis, luilucis
anu oihcis uo noi cain a ¡iohi, lcw smaii
giowih ¡io|ccis will lc luili. Ioiiunaicly,
govcinmcni can hcl¡ maIc smaii giowih
¡iohiallc io ¡iivaic invcsiois anu ucvclo¡cis.
Sincc ihc ucvclo¡mcni inuusiiy is highly
icgulaicu, ihc valuc ol ¡io¡ciiy anu ihc
ucsiialiliiy ol a ¡lacc is laigcly allccicu ly
govcinmcni invcsimcni in inliasiiuciuic anu
govcinmcni icgulaiion. Govcinmcnis ihai
maIc ihc iighi inliasiiuciuic anu icgulaioiy
uccisions will cicaic laii, ¡icuiciallc anu cosi-
cllcciivc smaii giowih.
Dcs¡iic icgulaioiy anu hnancial laiiicis,
ucvclo¡cis havc lccn succcsslul in cicaiing
cxam¡lcs ol smaii giowih. Thc ¡ioccss io uo
so, howcvci, icquiics ihcm io gci vaiianccs
io ihc coucs - olicn a iimc-consuming, anu
ihcicloic cosily, icquiicmcni. Ex¡cuiiing ihc
a¡¡ioval ¡ioccss is ol ¡aiiiculai im¡oiiancc
loi ucvclo¡cis, loi whom ihc common
maniia, ¨iimc is moncy" vciy a¡ily a¡¡lics.
Thc longci ii iaIcs io gci a¡¡ioval loi
luiluing, ihc longci ihc ucvclo¡ci`s ca¡iial
icmains iicu u¡ in ihc lanu anu noi caining
incomc. Ioi smaii giowih io uouiish, siaic
anu local govcinmcnis musi maIc an clloii
io maIc ucvclo¡mcni uccisions aloui smaii
giowih moic iimcly, cosi-cllcciivc, anu
¡icuiciallc loi ucvclo¡cis. By cicaiing a
lciiilc cnviionmcni loi innovaiivc, ¡cucsiiian-
oiicnicu, mixcu-usc ¡io|ccis, govcinmcni can
¡ioviuc lcaucishi¡ loi smaii giowih ihai ihc
¡iivaic sccioi is suic io su¡¡oii.
â. Mi\ L+r1 Usºs
Smaii giowih su¡¡oiis ihc inicgiaiion ol
mixcu lanu uscs inio communiiics as a ciiiical
com¡oncni ol achicving lciici ¡laccs io
livc. By ¡uiiing uscs in closc ¡ioximiiy io
onc anoihci, alicinaiivcs io uiiving, such as
walIing oi liIing, oncc again lccomc viallc.
Mixcu lanu uscs also ¡ioviuc a moic uivcisc
anu sizallc ¡o¡ulaiion anu commcicial lasc
loi su¡¡oiiing viallc ¡ullic iiansii. Ii can
cnhancc ihc viialiiy anu ¡ciccivcu sccuiiiy ol
an aica ly incicasing ihc numlci anu aiiiiuuc
ol ¡co¡lc on ihc siicci. Ii
hcl¡s siiccis, ¡ullic s¡accs anu
¡cucsiiian-oiicnicu iciail again
lccomc ¡laccs whcic ¡co¡lc
mcci, aiiiaciing ¡cucsiiians lacI
onio ihc siicci anu hcl¡ing io
icviializc communiiy lilc.
Mixcu lanu uscs can convcy
sulsianiial hscal anu cconomic
lcnchis. Commcicial uscs in
closc ¡ioximiiy io icsiucniial
aicas aic olicn icuccicu in
highci ¡io¡ciiy valucs, anu
ihcicloic hcl¡ iaisc local iax
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lº
Nyth #l: Density creates traIfc
congestion. In ihc alscncc ol oihci moucs
ol iians¡oiiaiion - iail oi lus iiansii,
walIing, anu licycling - any ucvclo¡mcni
will auu io ncighloihoou iii¡s anu
congcsiion. To couniciaci ihis iicnu,
communiiics nccu io incicasc ihc vialiliiy
ol non-auio moucs ol iians¡oiiaiion. This
counicis congcsiion ly ¡ioviuing o¡iions
loi ¡co¡lc io maIc iii¡s ciihci on looi, ly
licyclc oi iail anu lus iiansii, iaihci ihan
only ly cai. Dcnsiiy maIcs a wiuci iangc ol
iians¡oiiaiion choiccs viallc. Thc lollowing
lcaiuics hcl¡ incicasc non-auio iiavcl:
- SiucwalIs on loih siucs ol all siiccis.
- Pcucsiiian iouics ihai aic siiaighi,
uiicci, anu unim¡cucu.
- PaiIing lchinu siiuciuics anu
luiluings closci io ihc siucwalI.
- Winuows anu uoois ol luiluings
lacing ihc siicci anu siucwalI uiiccily,
¡ioviuing ¨cycs on ihc siicci" ihai
cnhanccs salciy.
Nyth #2: Density clashes with existing
connunities. Ii is ¡ossillc io inicgiaic
ucnsiiy inio a ncighloihoou so ihai ii uocs
noi cngcnuci ¡ullic uisa¡¡ioval. Onc
¡ooily ucsigncu ucnsc ucvclo¡mcni can
lccomc a lighining iou loi communiiy
o¡¡osiiion io ucnsiiy in succcssivc
ycais. Ncw highci ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcni
shoulu hi inio ihc viciniiy inio which ii
is lcing iniiouuccu. Succcsslul ucnsc
ucvclo¡mcnis will incoi¡oiaic ¡ullic
¡aiiici¡aiion inio ihc ucsign anu a¡¡ioval
¡ioccss io cnsuic ihai communiiy
goals aic mci. Raihci ihan incicasing
o¡¡osiiion, a wcll-iun ¡ullic ¡ioccss
will icsuli in lcss o¡¡osiiion anu moic
cciiainiy loi luilucis.
Nyth #3: Density-oriven oevelopnent
will cost nore in the long run. Many
|uiisuiciions aic conccincu aloui ihc hscal
im¡aci ol ncw ucvclo¡mcni - ¡aiiiculaily
icsiucniial ucvclo¡mcni. Conccins aiisc
ihai ncw ucnsc ucvclo¡mcnis will ovciiax
cxisiing icsouiccs - schools, ioaus - anu
cosi ihc communiiy much moic ihan
lowci ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcnis. In iiuih,
ucnsc ucvclo¡mcnis hcl¡ usc cxisiing
icsouiccs mosi clhcicnily anu cosi ihc
communiiy much lcss ihan ihc samc
numlci ol uniis accommouaicu in low-
ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcni.
Nyth #4: Density eats up privacy ano
green space. Wcll-ucsigncu ucnsc
icsiucniial ucvclo¡mcnis incluuc ¡ullic
anu ¡iivaic s¡accs anu ¡ioviuc icsiucnis
wiih ihc o¡¡oiiuniiy anu s¡acc io gaihci
anu socializc. Common o¡cn anu civic
s¡accs can incluuc ¡lazas, small ¡aiIs,
anu squaics wiihin a ucvclo¡mcni. Piivaic
o¡cn s¡acc incluucs lalconics, couiiyaius,
¡oichcs, anu gaiucns connccicu io
icsiucnccs ihai ovcilooI oi aic au|accni io
ihc ¡ullic icalm: Siiccis, allcys, anu ¡aiIs.
Naking Density Work. To maIc ucnsiiy
woiI, io maIc ii accc¡iallc anu cvcn
soughi alici, icquiics woiIing wiih ihc
communiiy io cicaic a wcll-ucsigncu,
wcll ¡lanncu ucvclo¡mcni. Planning anu
ucsigning as a icam can minimizc ihc
¡ciccivcu ncgaiivc im¡acis ol ucnsiiy, anu
maximizc ¡osiiivc ouicomcs.
|ºrsit¡·rºl+tº1 "m¡tls¨
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
2O
iccci¡is. Busincsscs iccognizc ihc lcnchis
associaicu wiih aicas allc io aiiiaci moic
¡co¡lc, as ihcic is incicascu cconomic
aciiviiy whcn ihcic aic moic ¡co¡lc in an
aica io sho¡. In iouay`s scivicc cconomy,
communiiics hnu ihai ly mixing lanu uscs,
ihcy maIc ihcii ncighloihoous aiiiaciivc io
woiIcis who incicasingly lalancc qualiiy ol
lilc ciiiciia wiih salaiy io uciciminc whcic
ihcy will sciilc. Smaii giowih ¡ioviucs a mcans
loi communiiics io alici ihc ¡lanning conicxi
which cuiicnily icnucis mixcu lanu uscs
illcgal in mosi ol ihc couniiy.
I. |rºsºrrº 9pºr Sp+tº, |+rml+r1, N+ttr+l
Bº+tt¡ +r1 Critit+l |rrircrmºrt+l krº+s
Smaii giowih uscs ihc icim ¨o¡cn s¡acc"
lioauly io mcan naiuial aicas loih in anu
suiiounuing localiiics ihai ¡ioviuc im¡oiiani
communiiy s¡acc, haliiai loi ¡lanis anu
animals, iccicaiional o¡¡oiiuniiics, laim
anu ianch lanu ¸woiIing lanus), ¡laccs ol
naiuial lcauiy anu ciiiical cnviionmcnial
aicas ¸c.g. wcilanus). O¡cn s¡acc ¡icscivaiion
su¡¡oiis smaii giowih goals ly lolsiciing local
cconomics, ¡icsciving ciiiical cnviionmcnial
aicas, im¡ioving oui communiiy`s qualiiy ol
lilc, anu guiuing ncw giowih inio cxisiing
communiiics.
Thcic is giowing ¡oliiical will io savc ihc
¨o¡cn s¡accs" ihai Amciicans iicasuic.
Voicis in 2000 ovciwhclmingly a¡¡iovcu
lalloi mcasuics io lunu o¡cn
s¡acc ¡ioicciion clloiis. Thc
icasons loi such su¡¡oii aic
vaiicu anu aiiiiluiallc io ihc
lcnchis associaicu wiih o¡cn
s¡acc ¡ioicciion. Pioicciion ol
o¡cn s¡acc ¡ioviucs many hscal
lcnchis, incluuing incicasing
local ¡io¡ciiy valuc ¸ihcicly
incicasing ¡io¡ciiy iax lascs),
¡ioviuing iouiism uollais, anu
uccicascs local iax incicascs
¸uuc io ihc savings ol icuucing
ihc consiiuciion ol ncw
inliasiiuciuic). Managcmcni ol
ihc qualiiy anu su¡¡ly ol o¡cn
s¡acc also cnsuics ihai ¡iimc laim anu ianch
lanus aic availallc, ¡icvcnis uoou uamagc,
anu ¡ioviucs a lcss cx¡cnsivc anu naiuial
alicinaiivc loi ¡ioviuing clcan uiinIing waici.
Thc availaliliiy ol o¡cn s¡acc also ¡ioviucs
signihcani cnviionmcnial qualiiy anu hcalih
lcnchis. O¡cn s¡acc ¡ioiccis animal anu
¡lani haliiai, ¡laccs ol naiuial lcauiy, anu
woiIing lanus ly icmoving ihc ucvclo¡mcni
¡icssuic anu icuiicciing ncw giowih
io cxisiing communiiics. Auuiiionally,
¡icscivaiion ol o¡cn s¡acc lcnchis ihc
cnviionmcni ly comlaiing aii ¡olluiion,
aiicnuaiing noisc, coniiolling winu,
¡ioviuing ciosion coniiol, anu mouciaiing
icm¡ciaiuics. O¡cn s¡acc also ¡ioiccis
suilacc anu giounu waici icsouiccs ly
hliciing iiash, ucliis, anu chcmical ¡olluianis
lcloic ihcy cnici a waici sysicm.
ä. |rcri1º + \+riºt¡ c| Ir+rspcrt+ticr Clcitºs
Pioviuing ¡co¡lc wiih moic choiccs in
housing, sho¡¡ing, communiiics, anu
iians¡oiiaiion is a Icy aim ol smaii giowih.
Communiiics aic incicasingly sccIing
ihcsc choiccs - ¡aiiiculaily a wiuci iangc
ol iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions - in an clloii io
im¡iovc lclcagucicu iians¡oiiaiion sysicms.
Tialhc congcsiion is woiscning acioss ihc
couniiy. Whcic in 19S2 6ò ¡ciccni ol iiavcl
occuiicu in uncongcsicu conuiiions, ly 1997
only S6 ¡ciccni ol ¡caI iiavcl occuiicu uiu so.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 2l
In 1999 a s¡ccial Picsiucniial Auvisoiy
Giou¡ on Smaii Giowih ucvclo¡cu
hvc guiuing ¡iinci¡lcs s¡ccihcally loi
REAITORS
®
:
l. Provioe Housing Cpportunity
ano Choice: Homc owncishi¡ is ihc
coincisionc ol ihc Amciican uicam anu
ucscivcs a ¡iclciicu ¡lacc in oui sysicm
ol valucs as ii coniiiluics io communiiy
ics¡onsililiiy, civic, cconomic, lusincss,
anu cm¡loymcni sialiliiy, anu lamily
sccuiiiy anu wcll-lcing. Thcsc ol|cciivcs
can lc mci ihiough maiIci-uiivcn
housing a¡¡ioachcs ihai losici a wiuc
iangc ol uilan, suluilan, anu iuial
housing choiccs ai all ¡iicc lcvcls io suii a
uivcisc ¡o¡ulaiion.
2. Builo Better Connunities: Rcal
csiaic ol all iy¡cs uouiishcs lcsi in
livallc communiiics ihai ollci a high
qualiiy ol lilc ai a icasonallc cosi. Iivallc
communiiics ollci a vaiiciy ol alloiuallc
housing choiccs, goou schools, low
ciimc, qualiiy ¡ullic sciviccs, clhcicni
iians¡oiiaiion sysicms, am¡lc iccicaiion
anu ¡aiI aicas, o¡cn s¡acc, siiong
cm¡loymcni lasc, anu an cconomically
viallc commcicial sccioi. To ¡iomoic
ihcsc csscniial livallc communiiy
clcmcnis, giowih ¡olicics shoulu
cncouiagc maiIci-uiivcn anu culiuially
uivcisc giowih ¡aiicins ihai susiain anu
cnhancc a communiiy`s qualiiy ol lilc.
3. Protect the Environnent: To mainiain
a icgion`s qualiiy ol lilc anu io ¡ioicci ihc
cnviionmcni, govcinmcnis ai all lcvcls
shoulu consiuci ¡olicics anu ¡iogiams
ihai aiu ihc coniiol ol ¡olluiion, ¡ioviuc
loi ¡iogiams ihai cncouiagc ¡icscivaiion
ol naiuial icsouiccs, signihcani lanus anu
¡io¡ciiics ol hisioiic signihcancc, anu
luiihci cncouiagc, ihiough inccniivcs,
ihc ¡ioicciion ol cnuangcicu s¡ccics,
aquilcis, iivcis/siicams, agiiculiuial lanus,
wcilanus, sccnic visias, naiuial aicas, anu
o¡cn s¡acc. Govcinmcni musi iccognizc
ihc im¡oiiancc ol local uccision-maIing,
¡iivaic ¡io¡ciiy iighis, anu ihc valuc ol a
hcalihy cconomic sccioi.
4. Protect Private Property Rights:
Piivaic ¡io¡ciiy iighis aic lunuamcnial
io oui licc-maiIci cconomic sysicm
anu aic ¡ioiccicu ly ihc òih anu 14ih
Amcnumcnis io ihc Uniicu Siaics
Consiiiuiion. Thc coniinucu siicngih ol
oui naiion`s cconomy uc¡cnus on ihc
¡icscivaiion ol ihc iighi io liccly own, usc,
anu iianslci ical ¡io¡ciiy.
5. lnplenent Fair ano Reasonable
Public Sector Fiscal Neasures: To
su¡¡oii aucquaicly ihc inliasiiuciuic
nccus ol communiiics icsuliing liom
giowih, govcinmcnis ai all lcvcls
shoulu coo¡ciaic in ihc auo¡iion ol
lalanccu, laii, cquiiallc, anu inccniivc-
lascu a¡¡ioachcs io hnancc anu ¡ay
loi ihc ucvclo¡mcni, cx¡ansion, anu
mainicnancc ol ioaus, schools, waici, anu
scwci laciliiics. Rcvcnuc anu hnancing
mcchanisms csiallishcu io ¡ay loi
ncccssaiy inliasiiuciuic cosis shoulu lc
shaicu ¡io¡oiiionally ly ihosc scgmcnis
ol ihc ¡o¡ulaiion scivcu ly im¡iovcmcnis.
NkK |rirtiplºs |cr K|kLI9KS
®
+r1 Sm+rt ûrcwtl
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
22
In laci, accoiuing io ihc Tcxas Tians¡oiiaiion
Insiiiuic, congcsiion ovci ihc lasi scvcial
ycais has woiscncu in ncaily cvciy ma|oi
mciio¡oliian aica in ihc Uniicu Siaics.
In ics¡onsc, communiiics aic lcginning io
im¡lcmcni ncw a¡¡ioachcs io iians¡oiiaiion
¡lanning, such as lciici cooiuinaiing lanu usc
anu iians¡oiiaiion, incicasing ihc availaliliiy
ol high qualiiy iiansii scivicc, cicaiing
icuunuancy, icsilicncy anu conncciiviiy wiihin
ihcii ioau nciwoiIs, anu cnsuiing conncciiviiy
lciwccn ¡cucsiiian, liIc, iiansii, anu ioau
laciliiics. In shoii, ihcy aic cou¡ling a mulii-
moual a¡¡ioach io iians¡oiiaiion wiih
su¡¡oiiivc ucvclo¡mcni ¡aiicins, io cicaic a
vaiiciy ol iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions.
1. Strºr]tlºr +r1 |irºtt |ºrºlcpmºrt
Icw+r1s |\istir] Ccmmtritiºs
Smaii giowih uiiccis ucvclo¡mcni iowaius
cxisiing communiiics alicauy scivcu ly
inliasiiuciuic, sccIing io uiilizc ihc icsouiccs
ihai cxisiing ncighloihoous ollci, anu
conscivc o¡cn s¡acc anu iiic¡laccallc
naiuial icsouiccs on ihc uilan liingc.
Dcvclo¡mcni in cxisiing ncighloihoous
also ic¡icscnis an a¡¡ioach io giowih ihai
can lc moic cosi-cllcciivc, anu im¡iovcs ihc
qualiiy ol lilc loi iis icsiucnis. By cncouiaging
ucvclo¡mcni in cxisiing communiiics,
communiiics lcnchi liom a siiongci iax
lasc, closci ¡ioximiiy ol a iangc ol |ols
anu sciviccs, incicascu clhcicncy ol alicauy-
ucvclo¡cu lanu anu inliasiiuciuic, icuuccu
ucvclo¡mcni ¡icssuic in cugc aicas ihcicly
¡icsciving moic o¡cn s¡acc, anu, in somc
cascs, siicngihcning iuial communiiics.
Thc casc ol giccnhclu ucvclo¡mcni icmains
an olsiaclc io cncouiaging moic ucvclo¡mcni
in cxisiing ncighloihoous. Dcvclo¡mcni on
ihc liingc icmains aiiiaciivc io ucvclo¡cis loi
iis casc ol acccss anu consiiuciion, lowci lanu
cosis, anu ¡oicniial loi ucvclo¡cis io asscmllc
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 23
laigci ¡aiccls. Ty¡ical zoning icquiicmcnis in
liingc aicas aic olicn casici io com¡ly wiih,
as ihcic aic olicn lcw cxisiing luiluing iy¡cs
ihai ncw consiiuciion musi com¡lcmcni, anu
a iclaiivc alscncc ol icsiucnis who may ol|cci
io ihc inconvcnicncc oi uisiu¡iion causcu ly
ncw consiiuciion.
Ncvciihclcss, ucvclo¡cis anu communiiics
aic iccognizing ihc o¡¡oiiuniiics ¡icscnicu
ly inhll ucvclo¡mcni, as suggcsicu noi
only ly ucmogia¡hic shilis, lui also in
ics¡onsc io a giowing awaicncss ol ihc
hscal, cnviionmcnial, anu social cosis ol
ucvclo¡mcni locuscu uis¡io¡oiiionaicly on
ihc uilan liingc. ]ouinals ihai iiacI ical csiaic
iicnus iouiincly ciic ihc invcsimcni a¡¡cal
ol ihc ¨24-houi ciiy" loi cm¡iy ncsicis, young
¡iolcssionals, anu oihcis, anu ucvclo¡cis aic
lcginning io ics¡onu. A 2001 ic¡oii ly Uilan
Ianu Insiiiuic on uilan inhll housing siaics
ihai, in 1999, ihc incicasc in housing ¡cimii
aciiviiy in ciiics iclaiivc io avciagc annual
hguics liom ihc ¡icccuing uccauc cxcccucu
ihai ol ihc suluils, inuicaiing ihai inhll
ucvclo¡mcni is ¡ossillc anu ¡iohiallc.
IJ. I+|º k1r+rt+]º c| Ccmp+tt
Btil1ir] |ºsi]r
Smaii giowih ¡ioviucs a mcans loi
communiiics io incoi¡oiaic moic com¡aci
luiluing ucsign as an alicinaiivc io
convcniional, lanu-consum¡iivc ucvclo¡mcni.
Com¡aci luiluing ucsign suggcsis ihai
communiiics lc ucsigncu in a way which
¡cimiis moic o¡cn s¡acc io ¡icscivcu, anu
ihai luiluings can lc consiiucicu which maIc
moic clhcicni usc ol lanu anu icsouiccs.
By cncouiaging luiluings io giow vciiically
iaihci ihan hoiizonially, anu ly incoi¡oiaiing
siiuciuicu iaihci ihan suilacc ¡aiIing,
loi cxam¡lc, communiiics can icuucc ihc
looi¡iini ol ncw consiiuciion, anu ¡icscivc
moic giccn s¡acc. Noi only is ihis a¡¡ioach
moic clhcicni ly icquiiing lcss lanu loi
consiiuciion, ii also ¡ioviucs anu ¡ioiccis
moic o¡cn, unucvclo¡cu lanu ihai woulu
cxisi oihciwisc io alsoil anu hlici iain waici,
icuucc uoouing anu sioim waici uiainagc
nccus, anu lowci ihc amouni ol ¡olluiion
washing inio oui siicams, iivcis anu laIcs.
Com¡aci luiluing ucsign is ncccssaiy io
su¡¡oii wiuci iians¡oiiaiion choiccs,
anu ¡ioviucs cosi savings loi localiiics.
Communiiics sccIing io cncouiagc iiansii
usc io icuucc aii ¡olluiion anu congcsiion
iccognizc ihai minimum lcvcls ol ucnsiiy
aic icquiicu io maIc ¡ullic iiansii nciwoiIs
viallc. Iocal govcinmcnis hnu ihai on
a ¡ci-unii lasis, ii is chca¡ci io ¡ioviuc
anu mainiain sciviccs liIc waici, scwci,
clcciiiciiy, ¡honc scivicc anu oihci uiiliiics
in moic com¡aci ncighloihoous ihan in
uis¡ciscu communiiics.
Rcscaich lascu on ihcsc ucvclo¡mcnis has
shown, loi cxam¡lc, ihai wcll-ucsigncu,
com¡aci Ncw Uilanisi communiiics ihai
incluuc a vaiiciy ol housc sizcs anu iy¡cs
commanu a highci maiIci valuc on a ¡ci
squaic looi lasis ihan uo ihosc in au|accni
convcniional suluilan ucvclo¡mcnis.
Pciha¡s ihis is why incicasing numlcis ol
ihc ucvclo¡mcni inuusiiy havc lccn allc io
succcsslully inicgiaic com¡aci ucsign inio
communiiy luiluing clloiis. This ucs¡iic
"[Snart growth isj Crowing in an econonically eIfcient nanner so that the
new aooition provioes a positive contribution to the greater whole oI the
built environnent.¨
- \irtº ûr+l+m, |ctr1ºr +r1 1ºrºlcpºr c| tlº +w+r1·wirrir] sm+rt ]rcwtl tcmmtrit¡ l´9r rº+r Cl+rlºstcr, Scttl C+rclir+
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
24
cuiicni zoning ¡iaciiccs - such as ihosc ihai
icquiic minimum loi sizcs, oi ¡iohilii mulii-
lamily oi aiiachcu housing - anu oihci laiiicis
- communiiy ¡cicc¡iions ol ¨highci ucnsiiy"
ucvclo¡mcni, olicn ¡iccluuc com¡aci ucsign.
REAITORS
®
acioss ihc couniiy havc lccn
cuucaiing ihcmsclvcs anu ihcii communiiics
aloui ihc ¡iinci¡lcs ol smaii giowih. Rcau
aloui ihc Iloiiua Associaiion`s Smaii Giowih
TasI Ioicc anu ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Acaucmy in Scciion V.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF S»n.ì C.owìL Lo»e¡n¿e:
www.rcaltor.org/smartgrowth
S»n.ì C.owìL Neìwo.I:
www.smartgrowth.org
S»n.ì C.owìL A»e..·n:
www.SmartGrowthAmcrica.org
A»e..·nr PInrr.r¿ A··o·.nì.or:
www.planning.org/sgrcadcr
Topics in
Snart Crowth
í
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+s tlº¡ ]rcw wlilº rºm+irir] |ctl ºtcrcmit+ll¡ ri+|lº +r1
ºrrircrmºrt+ll¡ rºspcrsi|lº.
í
.

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S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 25
lllk. 9pºr Sp+tº
A
s recently as a century ago, the tern "open space¨ woulo have
sounoeo strange to nost Anericans. Though inoustrialization hao
brought a lot oI people to the rapioly growing cities, the U.S. was
largely a rural country. But as our nation has becone increasingly
urban, with nost people now living within the orbit oI a city, the concept oI
open space - the lano we choose not to builo upon - has growing salience.
Alihough vasi aicas ol ihc couniiy icmain
unucvclo¡cu, ihis is liiilc comloii io icsiucnis
ol ia¡iuly s¡icauing mciio aicas, who scc
viallc laims, loicsis, coasial maishcs anu
oihci iicasuicu lanusca¡cs anu ccologically
scnsiiivc lanus ovciiaIcn oi maiicu ly ¡ooily
¡lanncu ucvclo¡mcni. Dcvclo¡mcni in uilan
aicas is incicasing ai a lasici iaic ihan in
ihc ¡asi anu laimlanu loss iosc uiamaiically
uuiing ihc 1990s. Whilc ihc ¡ciccni ol U.S.
lanu ihai is ucvclo¡cu is csiimaicu io lc
lciwccn hvc anu scvcn ¡ciccni, ihc Amciican
Iaimlanu Tiusi csiimaics ihai 1ò ¡ciccni
ol all lanu ucvclo¡cu in U.S. hisioiy was
ucvclo¡cu in ihc mosi icccni hvc-ycai ¡ciiou.
Bciwccn 1992 anu 1997, ihc naiion losi 1.2
million acics ol laim anu ianch lanu cach
ycai - ò1 ¡ciccni highci ihan ihc ¡icvious
10 ycais.
Iionically, cvcn as wc havc lccomc a moic
uilan naiion, wc havc aciually lccomc
lcss conscicniious aloui ¡lanning loi
¡ullic giccn s¡acc, ¡aiiiculaily in ia¡iuly
ucvclo¡ing suluils. In ihc laic 1S00s anu
caily 1900s, ciiy govcinmcnis anu vcnciallc
lanusca¡c aichiiccis liIc IicuciicI Iaw
Olmsicu - cicaioi ol Ncw YoiI`s Ccniial
PaiI anu Washingion D.C.`s Naiional Zoo
- mauc giccn s¡acc an inicgial ¡aii ol ihc
ucvclo¡ing lanusca¡c, anu ciiics laigc anu
small cicaicu ¡ullic ¡aiIs. Alici Woilu Wai
II, whcn Amciica`s giowih shilicu io ihc
suluils, ¡lans olicn callcu loi ucvclo¡cis
sim¡ly io lcavc a cciiain
¡ciccniagc ol lanu wiihin
ihcii ¡io|ccis unucvclo¡cu,
icsuliing in ¨o¡cn s¡acc" ol
liiilc ical valuc oi ¡ciccivcu
lcnchi. In icccni ycais, moic
¡co¡lc aic icalizing ihai ihis
ha¡hazaiu a¡¡ioach is noi
in ihc ¡ullic`s lcsi inicicsi
anu aic looIing loi ncw ways
io ¡ioicci anu ¡lan loi o¡cn
s¡acc ihai mccis local nccus
anu ¡icscivcs ihc chaiacici
ol a ¡lacc.
A lunuamcnial concc¡i
ol smaii ¡lanning is ihai
communiiics musi maIc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
26
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
T.u·ì ¡o. PubI.· 1nrJ:
www.tpl.org
A»e..·nr En.»InrJ T.u·ì:
www.aIt.org
1nrJ T.u·ì AII.nr·e:
www.lta.org
P.o¡e·ì ¡o. PubI.· S¡n·e·:
www.pps.org
a conscious choicc aloui whai lanu will lc
ucvclo¡cu anu whai will icmain o¡cn, whcihci
as a ¡aiI, ¡icscivc, woiIing laim, wcilanu,
siicam lullci, wilulilc haliiai oi oihci lunciion.
In icccni ycais a giowing numlci ol siaics
anu localiiics havc a¡¡iovcu lonu anu oihci
hnancing io luy anu ¡ioicci lanu. Though
¡o¡ulai, ihcsc mcasuics iaicly ¡ioviuc cnough
moncy loi all ihc lanu ihai communiiics may
hnu ncccssaiy oi ucsiiallc io ¡ioicci. Ioi
ihai icason, communiiics acioss ihc couniiy
aic ucvclo¡ing a iangc ol icchniqucs loi
ucsignaiing anu ¡ioicciing naiuial anu o¡cn
aicas. Thcsc can incluuc maIing caiclul
uccisions aloui ihc cx¡ansion ol inliasiiuciuic
io su¡¡oii ucvclo¡mcni, oi uiawing aciual
lounuaiics loi uilan sciviccs. In somc cascs,
ihc ¡ullic oi non-¡iohis may ¡uichasc ihc
¨ucvclo¡mcni iighis" on ¡io¡ciiy, iaihci
ihan ihc lanu iiscll, oi may allow ucvclo¡cis
io ¡uichasc ihosc iighis in cxchangc loi
highci ucnsiiy in a zonc ihai is ucsignaicu
loi ucvclo¡mcni. Suluivisions may ¨clusici"
homcs on smallci lois, lcaving laigc iiacis
unucvclo¡cu. Thcsc anu oihci icchniqucs aic
ucsciilcu in uciail in Scciion IV, ¨Smaii Giowih
in Piaciicc.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 27
Whcn ii comcs io iians¡oiiaiion, mosi
Amciicans havc liiilc choicc lui io uiivc
cvciywhcic loi cvciyihing ihcy uo. Wc lovc
ihc moliliiy cais can ¡ioviuc, lui ihc nccu
io s¡cnu giowing numlcis ol houis lchinu
ihc whccl is noi ha¡¡cning ly choicc. Rush
houi iiavcl iimcs havc iii¡lcu ovci ihc ¡asi
iwo uccaucs, whilc ihc avciagc annual uclay
¡ci ¡cison incicascu liom scvcn houis in ihc
caily 19S0s io 26 houis in 200S, accoiuing
io ihc U.bnr Aob.I.ì, SìuJ, ly ihc Tcxas ,
Tians¡oiiaiion Insiiiuic ¸TTI).
A numlci ol laciois aic involvcu, lui ihcy lall
inio ihicc main caicgoiics:
@
Roao systen oesign
In ihc lasi lcw uccaucs, ioau nciwoiIs havc
lccn luili, noi as an iniciconnccicu giiu
sysicm ihai ollcis many iouics, lui accoiuing
io a hiciaichy ihai loiccs laigc volumcs ol
iialhc onio a lcw Icy coiiiuois. Suluivision
siiccis cnu in cul-uc-sacs iaihci ihan
conncciing, anu all iialhc musi lcavc ihiough
onc oi iwo cxiis, usually onio a collccioi siicci
ihai lcaus io a lusy aiiciial ioau. Thcsc samc
aiiciials, which caiiy all ihc aica`s commcicial
iialhc, lcau io liccways ihai aic ovciloaucu
wiih local iialhc, cvcn whcn ihcy osicnsilly
aic ucsigncu as ¨inicisiaics" oi ¨ly¡asscs".
@
Haphazaroly planneo oevelopnent
Many local govcinmcnis, ¡aiiiculaily in ia¡iuly
giowing aicas, allow ucvclo¡mcni io ha¡¡cn in
lllB. Ir+rspcrt+ticr
T
raIfc congestion is one oI the biggest irritants oI nooern liIe in nost
Anerican connunities. ln NAR surveys, people consistently rank traIfc
congestion as one oI their top concerns. A substantial najority also say
that nerely laying nore pavenent is unlikely to solve the problen by
itselI. They intuitively realize what nany transportation ano planning experts
have cone to unoerstano in recent years: The unoerlying problen is not a
shortage oI pavenent, but rather the way we builo cities ano netro regions.
a way ihai ovciwhclms ioau sysicms. Aiiciials
lccomc cloggcu wiih cais cniciing anu lcaving
sho¡¡ing ccnicis anu uiivc-ihioughs, cach
wiih ihcii own uiivcway anu laigc ¡aiIing loi.
Anu lccausc ihc ucvclo¡mcnis uon`i conncci
io cach oihci anu walIing anu licycling aic
hazaiuous, ¡co¡lc musi uiivc liom onc sioic
io anoihci. Unuci convcniional zoning, ihc
siiici sc¡aiaiion ol sioics liom olhccs, olhccs
liom homcs, anu schools liom ncighloihoous
¡icvcnis luiluing mixcu-usc uisiiicis whcic
¡co¡lc coulu accom¡lish many ihings wiih
lcwci, shoiici cai iii¡s oi ly walIing.
@
Lack oI alternatives
Mcanwhilc, many communiiics lacI
convcnicni ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion sciviccs,
whcn ihcy havc iiansii ai all. In somc ways
ihis is a chicIcn-anu-cgg conunuium: Placcs
ucsigncu loi auiomolilc uc¡cnucncc maIc
iiansii scivicc uilhculi oi im¡ossillc io
¡ioviuc, lccausc ucsiinaiions aic ioo s¡icau
oui, anu walIing io anu liom sio¡s oi siaiions
is uangcious oi uninviiing. Thcsc aicas aic ioo
s¡icau oui loi cconomical iail scivicc oi luscs
ihai comc olicn cnough io lc convcnicni. In
many ol ihc samc aicas, ¡cucsiiians along ihc
high-s¡ccu ioaus musi maIc uo wiih a uusiy
uiii iiacI ihiough ihc giass, anu ¡co¡lc iiuing
licyclcs lccl unwclcomc anu unsalc.
Wiih so many ¡co¡lc having io maIc long
commuics io hnu housing ihcy can alloiu,
ihc iising cosis ol gasolinc, insuiancc anu
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
28
vchiclcs ihcmsclvcs is cicaiing iis own luiucn.
Amciicans now s¡cnu ihicc iimcs moic on
iians¡oiiaiion ihan ihcy uo on hcalih caic.
Accoiuing io ihc Suilacc Tians¡oiiaiion
Policy Pio|cci ¸STPP), U.S. iians¡oiiaiion
cosis consumcu ncaily 20 ccnis ol cvciy
uollai s¡cni in 2001, scconu only io housing,
which cosi aloui SS ccnis ol cvciy uollai.
An avciagc lamily ¡ays S7,6SS annually loi
cais, insuiancc, gas, mainicnancc, anu oihci
cx¡cnscs, com¡aicu io aloui S1S,000 loi
housing anu S2,000 loi hcalih caic. Pco¡lc
who livc in isolaicu suluils ¡ay moic loi
iians¡oiiaiion, anu a highci ¡ciccniagc
ol ihcii incomc io iians¡oiiaiion, ihan
¡co¡lc who livc in closc-in ¡laccs wiih moic
o¡iions. Thc Ccnici loi Tiansii Oiicnicu
Dcvclo¡mcni has cicaicu a Housing anu
Tians¡oiiaiion Alloiualiliiy Inucx ihai
asscsscs ihis iclaiionshi¡ in 42 ciiics.
Rcgaiulcss ol locaiion, low-incomc lamilics
lccl ihc iians¡oiiaiion ¡inch ihc mosi. Thc
¡ooicsi 20 ¡ciccni ol Amciican houscholus
s¡cnu moic ihan 40 ¡ciccni ol ihcii incomc
on iians¡oiiaiion, which olicn ¡uis homc
"The elenents oI snart growth are all about livability ano transportation is
the thing that can nake an area least livable.¨
- |+t K+pl+r, K|kLI9K
®
, c| K+pl+r Kº+l |st+tº ûrctp
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 2º
owncishi¡ oui ol icach anu limiis ihcii aliliiy
io im¡iovc ihcii hnancial siiuaiion.
Many communiiics havc lcgun io iccognizc
ihcsc inicilocIing issucs anu aic siaiiing io
¡lan how ihcy giow so ihai ucvclo¡mcni,
ihc ioau nciwoiI anu iiansii scivicc aic
cooiuinaicu anu icinloicc cach oihci. Thcy
may coniinuc io invcsi in hxcs loi cxisiing
ioau loiilcnccIs. Bui loi long-icim congcsiion
iclicl ihcy aic woiIing io givc ¡co¡lc moic
o¡iions, so ihai ihcy may chosc a locaiion
wiihin a icgion ihai ollcis a shoiici commuic
oi lcwci cai iii¡s, oi a ncighloihoou whcic
uaily nccus aic closc ai hanu. Oi, ihcy may
choosc io uiivc loi somc iii¡s whilc iaIing a
iiain, lus oi licyclc loi oihcis.
¨Thc clcmcnis ol smaii giowih aic all
aloui livaliliiy," says REAITOR
®
Pai
Ka¡lan ol Ka¡lan Rcal Esiaic Giou¡, ¨anu
iians¡oiiaiion is ihc ihing ihai can maIc
an aica lcasi livallc." Communiiics acioss
ihc couniiy aic uiscovciing ihai im¡ioving
iians¡oiiaiion coiiiuois lcaus io incicascu
homc valucs anu incicascu cconomic
aciiviiy. Ioi cxam¡lc, in Washingion DC,
ihc Gicai Siiccis` ¡iogiam im¡iovcs uilan
iians¡oiiaiion coiiiuois s¡ccihcally as an
cconomic ucvclo¡mcni mcasuic. REAITOR
®
Iinua ClaiI in Ioii Woiih, Tcxas iclls hci
sioiy ol how cicaiing a com¡lcic siiccis`
hcl¡ icviializc a commcicial uisiiici in hci
communiiy in Scciion V.
Onc ol ihc mosi ¡o¡ulai ways io uclivci
iians¡oiiaiion choicc is io lcgin io luilu whai
is Inown as ¨Tiansii-Oiicnicu Dcvclo¡mcni"
¸TOD), which oiicnis ncw ucvclo¡mcni
aiounu a convcnicni iiansii nouc. Oihci
communiiics aic woiIing haiu io im¡iovc
lus anu iiain scivicc anu cicaic communiiics
wiih com¡lcic siiccis` ihai aic salc anu
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Co»»ur.ì, T.nr·¡o.ìnì.or A··o·.nì.or:
www.ctaa.org
EeJe.nI H.¿Lwn, AJ».r.·ì.nì.or:
www.Ihwa.dot.gov/csd
EeJe.nI T.nr·.ì AJ».r.·ì.nì.or:
www.Ita.dot.gov
Su.¡n·e T.nr·¡o.ìnì.or PoI.·, P.o¡e·ì:
www.transact.org
Te:n· T.nr·¡o.ìnì.or Ir·ì.ìuìe:
www.tti.tamu.cdu
Cerìe. ¡o. T.nr·.ì O..erìeJ De.eIo¡»erì:
www.rcconncctingamcrica.org/html/
TOD/
Nnì.ornI Co»¡Ieìe Sì.eeì· ConI.ì.or:
www.complctcstrccts.org
D.·ì..·ì o¡ CoIu»b.n`· C.enì Sì.eeì· ¡.o¿.n»:
www.grcatstrcctsdc.com/
comloiiallc loi walIing anu licycling. Scc
Scciion III loi moic inloimaiion aloui
iians¡oiiaiion issucs anu ¡olicics.
Whilc TTI`s 200S siuuy showcu ihai congcsiion
coniinucs io woiscn, ii also highlighicu ihai
ihc luiucn woulu lc lai gicaici wiihoui somc
cxisiing icmcuics. Thc siuuy looIcu ai ihc
cllcci ol ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion, lus anu cai¡ool
lancs, anu cciiain iniclligcni iians¡oiiaiion
soluiions anu concluucu ihai ihcsc icmcuics
icuuccu ihc amouni ol annual congcsiion uclay
ly scvcial houis ¡ci commuici. Accoiuing
io ihc Amciican Pullic Tians¡oiiaiion
Associaiion, ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion iiucishi¡ has
incicascu 22 ¡ciccni in ihc lasi six ycais.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
3O
In many ways, ihc uisinvcsimcni in
ncighloihoous is ihc ui¡ siuc ol ihc
¡iolilciaiion ol suluilan suluivisions.
Thc uc¡aiiuic ol miuulc-class icsiucnis
anu iax uollais lcli schools anu sciviccs
io uciciioiaic, in somc aicas cicaiing a
conccniiaiion ol ¡ovciiy` ihai cxaccilaicu
ciimc anu uiscngagcmcni. Com¡lcx ¡io¡ciiy
laws ¡icvcnicu ciiics liom uoing anyihing
whcn ¡io¡ciiics lccamc vacani, aiiiaciing
uiug uscis anu moic ciimc. Siiici luiluing
coucs, oihci icgulaiions anu ihc com¡lcxiiy
ol icviializing olu siiuciuics Ic¡i mosi
ucvclo¡cis away.
Anu ihcn, somcihing uncx¡ccicu ha¡¡cncu
in ihc laic 1990s: Moic ¡co¡lc siaiicu moving
lacI inio Amciican ciiics. Bccausc incicascu
giowih in oluci aicas can hcl¡ icuucc ucmanu
on ouilying aicas, ihis iicnu coulu hcl¡ slow
ihc ¡acc ol suluilan s¡iawl.
Rcviializing oluci ncighloihoous hcl¡s cuil
giowih in ouilying aicas ly maIing clhcicni
usc ol cxisiing asscis. Thc Uilan Ianu
Insiiiuic`s looI ¨MaIing Smaii Giowih WoiI"
noics ihai icncwcu inicicsi in ihcsc aicas
auus also io ihc qualiiy ol lilc in mciio¡oliian
icgions in scvcial ways:
W Uilan locaiions aic highly acccssillc,
W Rcviializcu icsiucniial anu commcicial
ncighloihoous maIc uisiinciivc ¡laccs,
lllC. Kºrit+litir] Citiºs +r1 9l1ºr St|tr|s
T
hroughout nuch oI the 2Oth century, the Uniteo States experienceo
unpreceoenteo nigration ano growth away Iron cities ano into suburbs.
Nillions oI Ianilies traoeo real ano perceiveo increases in crine,
pollution, ano congestion oI the cities Ior the allure oI larger lots, cheaper
houses ano less-troubleo schools oI the suburbs. With each passing year, the
oevelopnent went Iarther ano Iarther Iron the urban core, eating up Iarns ano
Iorests while nore ano nore builoings in ano arouno oowntown centers were
boaroeo up or barely useo.
W Thc usc ol cxisiing inliasiiuciuic ca¡aciiy
mcans lcss consiiuciion ol ncw laciliiics,
W Thc icviializaiion ol cxisiing ouiuooi
asscis ¸waicilionis, ¡aiIs, hisioiic uisiiicis,
sccnic siiccis) ¡ioviucs iccicaiional
o¡¡oiiuniiics,
W Im¡oiiani culiuial laciliiics anu civic
insiiiuiions, such as conccii halls,
muscums anu ihcaicis, gain su¡¡oii liom
a ucnsci ¡o¡ulaiion.
REAITORS
®
acioss ihc couniiy noic a iicnu
ol ¡co¡lc sccIing ihc convcnicncc ol closc-
in living anu lusincsscs icuiscovciing long-
loigoiicn iciail o¡¡oiiuniiics.
¨You can iaIc aicas ihai ¡iouucc a hall-
million uollais a ycai in ¡io¡ciiy iax anu
iuin ihcm inio ¡laccs ihai ¡iouucc S20
million a ycai in ¡io¡ciiy iaxcs," says
commcicial REAITOR
®
anu ucvclo¡ci
Rolcii Clcmcni III, who invcsis in
anu icviializcs uisiicsscu ¡io¡ciiics in
Chailcsion, S.C. Hc says his com¡any,
Clcmcni, Ciawloiu 8 Thoinhill, has lccn
nicInamcu ¨s¡iawl lusicis" ly oihcis in
ihc communiiy. ¨Ioi cvciy onc acic ol
icucvclo¡mcni, you mighi savc scvcn acics
ol giccnhclu." Clcmcni has hcl¡cu convcii a
shuiicicu hos¡iial inio a lio-icch inculaioi
anu is in ihc ¡ioccss ol convciiing aloui
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 3l
600 acics ol loimci inuusiiial iivcilioni
¡io¡ciiy inio a Ncw-Uilanisi mixcu-usc
ucvclo¡mcni siiauuling Chailcsion anu
Noiih Chailcsion.
Rcviializaiion anu inhll aic noi limiicu |usi
io housing. Alici ly¡assing uilan aicas
anu hisi-iing suluils loi ycais, iciailcis aic
icuiscovciing ihcsc aicas. Dozcns ol sho¡s
anu icsiauianis havc cio¡¡cu u¡ ihioughoui
Ailingion, Viiginia, cs¡ccially in aicas
convcnicnily locaicu along Washingion,
D.C.`s sulway linc. Thc Su¡ci Sio¡ 8 Sho¡
in Bosion`s Souih Bay Ccnici ianIs as ihc
com¡any`s io¡-giossing sioic, whilc ihc Wholc
Ioous chain ol giocciy sioics has o¡cncu
scvcial succcsslul locaiions in unuciuiilizcu
siics wiihin icucvclo¡ing ncighloihoous. Ncw
¨iown ccnicis" aic cmciging in loimci siii¡
¡lazas liom Silvci S¡iing, Maiylanu io Wcsi
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Be·ì P.n·ì.·e· ¡o. Ir¡II De.eIo¡»erì:
www.rcaltor.org/brownhcldrcdcvcl
U.bnr 1nrJ Ir·ì.ìuìe:
www.uli.org
AnII· ìo An.r Sì.eeì·`: http://cnuinIo.
storcs.yahoo.nct/mainma.html
Vn·nrì P.o¡e.ì.e· Cn»¡n.¿r:
www.vacantpropcrtics.org
"You can take areas that proouce a halI-nillion oollars a year in property tax
ano turn then into places that proouce $2O nillion a year in property taxes.¨
Kc|ºrt Clºmºrt lll, Ccmmºrti+l K|kLI9K
®
+r1 1ºrºlcpºr
Dallas, Tcxas. Ciiics aic lcaining icchniqucs
io maIc ii casici io icucvclo¡ anu icnovaic,
ly cicaiing s¡ccial luiluing coucs, icvam¡ing
vacani ¡io¡ciiy laws, anu maIing ¡cimiiiing
casy loi ucvclo¡cis.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
32
Ovci ihc lasi lcw uccaucs wc havc giauually
losi ihc iiauiiional ncighloihoou school, ihc
lcauiilul iwo-sioiy luiluing ihai hi inio iis
suiiounuings, wiih a ¡laygiounu liggci ihan
ihc ¡aiIing loi, ihai mosi Iius coulu salcly walI
io. Tiauiiional ncighloihoou schools havc
lccn alanuoncu oi ihicaicncu ly onc-sizc-
his-all sianuaiuizaiion ihai lavois luiluing ncw
ovci mainiaining oluci schools. Many siaics
lollow a ¨iwo-ihiius" iulc: whcn ihc cosi io
icluilish an olu school is ai lcasi iwo ihiius ol
ihc cosi io luilu a ncw laciliiy, uisiiicis icccivc
siaic lunuing only il ihcy luilu ncw. Poicniial
icnovaiion is luiihci icsiiicicu ly inucxillc
luiluing coucs, olicn im¡ossillc loi oluci
schools io mcci anu u¡uaicu so licqucnily
ihai cvcn ncw luiluings can quicIly lccomc
non-com¡liani. High acicagc icquiicmcnis,
auvocaicu uniil icccnily ly ihc Council ol
Euucaiional Iaciliiy Planncis Inicinaiional
¸CEIPI), havc loiccu communiiics io movc
schools oui ol ncighloihoous io ihc cugc
ol iown, swallowing laims anu o¡cn lanu io
accommouaic cxccssivc siic sizc icquiicmcnis.
¸AcInowlcuging ihai many ol iis iccommcnucu
sizc icquiicmcnis wcic ailiiiaiily laigc, CEIPI
icccnily amcnucu iis guiuclincs.)
Iaigc, ncw schools luili in a ¡icviously
unucvclo¡cu aica olicn aci as a magnci loi
ncw icsiucniial ucvclo¡mcni, uiawing ¡co¡lc
anu icsouiccs away liom cxisiing schools
anu ncighloihoous. Bccausc school uisiiicis
anu local govcinmcnis uo ihcii ¡lanning in
isolaiion liom onc anoihci, ihc ncw giowih
olicn iaIcs local olhcials ly sui¡iisc, causing
lll|. Stlccls +r1 Nºi]l|crlcc1 |l+rrir]
E
very REALTCR
®
knows the inportance oI schools to quality oI liIe ano
property values. Nost citizens know this, too. Yet very Iew jurisoictions in
the country cooroinate planning Ior growth ano oevelopnent with the
local school systen, ano very Iew oistricts Iully consioer the inpact oI the
oesign, location ano operation oI schools on neighborhooos ano towns.
ihcm io sciamllc io luilu ihc ioaus, waici
mains, scwci lincs anu oihci sciviccs io su¡¡oii
ii. This uncooiuinaicu ¡lanning is onc icason
many suluilan schools o¡cn wiih classioom
iiailcis ¡aiIcu ouisiuc, ihc ciiiics say. Iaigc,
uiivc-io schools ihai can`i hi comloiially in
ncighloihoous lail io scivc as ihc ncighloihoou
icsouicc anu local ¡oini ihai ihcy mighi. Raihci
ihan a ncighloihoou assci, iouay`s auio-oiicnicu
schools aic sccn as such iialhc gcnciaiois ihai
icsiucnis aciually hghi io Icc¡ ihcm oui.
Whcn schools aic luili on ihc cugc ol iown,
moic iax moncy musi lc s¡cni io cxicnu
inliasiiuciuic anu ioaus anu lus moic Iius
longci uisianccs liom homc io school. Ioi
cxam¡lc, ihough Mainc losi 27,000 siuucnis
lciwccn 1970 anu 199ò, school lusing cosis
in ihc siaic iosc liom SS.7 million io ovci Sò4
million. Ioi ihc ncighloihoou ihai has losi iis
school, ¡io¡ciiy valucs icnu io uio¡ sulsianiially
as icsiucnis ¡ciccivc uisinvcsimcni in ihcii
communiiy. A 1999 siuuy ¡iouuccu ly Casc
Wcsicin Rcscivc Univcisiiy anu Piiccwaicihousc
showcu ihai uisiu¡iing ncighloihoou schools
icuuccs ¡io¡ciiy valucs ly 9.9 ¡ciccni.
A lacI ol caiclul, cooiuinaicu ¡lanning
lciwccn school uisiiicis anu local
|uiisuiciions cxaccilaics ¡iollcms. School
uisiiicis aic olicn cxcm¡i liom local
¡lanning uccisions, lcauing io isolaicu
school luiluing anu siic sclcciion choiccs,
mauc wiihoui in¡ui liom ihc communiiics
schools aic su¡¡oscu io scivc. Zoning anu
ucvclo¡mcni coucs ihai scqucsici sho¡s,
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 33
|ols, anu housing liom schools cicaic gulls
lciwccn uaily ucsiinaiions. Thcsc schools aic
olicn in aicas wiih wiuc, mulii-lanc ioaus ihai
cncouiagc high s¡ccu iialhc anu hazaiuous
iniciscciions, cul-uc-sacs anu winuing
suluivision ioaus wiih lcw cniianccs anu
cxiis, anu missing anu incom¡lcic siucwalIs.
This maIcs walIing oi liIing uangcious anu
conlusing, il noi im¡ossillc, so Iius uc¡cnu
on auulis loi iians¡oiiaiion.
In laci, many |uiisuiciions aciivcly uiscouiagc
Iius liom walIing io moucin schools. In
suluilan DcKall Couniy, Gcoigia, ò7 ¡ciccni
ol school ¡iinci¡als iaic ihc aica aiounu ihcii
schools mouciaicly io cxiicmcly uangcious loi
Iius on looi oi licyclc, accoiuing io a suivcy
ly ihc couniy hcalih uc¡aiimcni. Ncighloiing
Gwinncii Couniy aciually has siicu schools on
highways in commcicial anu lighi inuusiiial
zoncs in oiuci io lcich a highci icsalc ¡iicc
shoulu ihc school lall inio uisusc. Inuccu, ihc
¡hcnomcnon ol luiluing s¡icau-oui schools
in unwalIallc cnviionmcnis is so common ii
now has a namc: ¨school s¡iawl".
As a icsuli, lcwci chiluicn walI oi licyclc io
school. As icccnily as 1969 ioughly hall ol all
siuucnis walIcu oi liIcu io school. In 2001
ihc numlci was closci io onc in 10. A siuuy
in Souih Caiolina uiscovcicu ihai chiluicn
aic loui iimcs as liIcly io walI io schools luili
lcloic 19SS ihan io ihosc luili alici ihai ycai.
Thc ic¡oii aiiiiluicu ihc changc laigcly io
ihc incicasingly icmoic anu ¡cucsiiian-hosiilc
sciiings ol ncwci schools. Pullic hcalih olhcials
now iccognizc ihc cosis, in ihc chiluhoou
olcsiiy c¡iucmic. Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc iisc in
iush-houi iialhc associaicu wiih school iii¡s
has lccn iucniihcu ly ihc U.S. Enviionmcnial
Pioicciion Agcncy as a Icy coniiiluioi io aii
qualiiy ¡iollcms in a numlci ol ciiics.
Now, smaii giowih auvocaics, ¡ullic hcalih
olhcials, hisioiic ¡icscivaiionisis, anu
auvocaics loi small anu communiiy schools aic
all woiIing iogcihci io changc ihc way schools
aic luili anu icnovaicu.
Smallci schools havc lowci uio¡oui iaics
anu lcss violcncc, scvcial siuuics inuicaic.
Siuucnis ai small schools aiicnu moic icgulaily,
havc highci giaucs, anu aic moic liIcly io
¡aiiici¡aic in alici-school cniichmcni aciiviiics.
Moic auulis volunicci ai schools in ihc ccnici
ol ihcii ncighloihoous ihan ai ihosc on ihc
cugc ol iown. In laci, ¡aiiici¡aiion in civic
aciiviiics ucclincs ly 10 ¡ciccni wiih cvciy
10 minuics s¡cni in iialhc, accoiuing io
icscaichci Rolcii Puinam, auihoi ol ¨Bowling
Alonc". Euucaiois naiionwiuc conhim ihai
smallci, ccniial schools aci as anchois anu
magncis loi communiiics. Schools uisiiicis anu
siaics aic iaIing a scconu looI ai icviializing
hisioiic olu school luiluings, anu many
communiiics aic iaIing auvaniagc ol a ncw
lcucial ¨Salc Rouics io School" ¡iogiam ihai
invcsi iians¡oiiaiion uollais in maIing ii salc
loi Iius io walI anu licyclc io school. Ioi moic
inloimaiion, scc NAR`s Pullic Schools ToolIii
loi REAITORS
®
.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF`· PubI.· S·LooI· TooII.ì ¡o. FEA1TOFS
©
SS :
www.rcaltor.org/pubschoolstoolkit
Sn¡e Fouìe· ìo S·LooI P.o¿.n»:
www.saIcroutcstoschools.org
VL, JoLrr, Cnr`ì VnII ìo S·LooI`:
www.nationaltrust.org/issucs/
schoolsRpt.pdI
Cour·.I o¡ EJu·nì.ornI En·.I.ì,
PInrre.· Irìe.rnì.ornI: www.ccIpi.org
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
34
Housing is bccoming morc costly and lcss
availablc to incrcasing numbcrs oI pcoplc.
W Ioi ihc lasi scvcial ycais, icnis havc
lccn iising lasici ihan wagcs. Ai ihc
samc iimc, woiIcis caining ihc mcuian
wagc ol S14 can`i alloiu io icni a iwo-
lcuioom a¡aiimcni in mosi maiIcis,
anu 11 ol ihc 20 lasicsi-giowing |ols
¡ay lcss ihan S20,000.
W Thc su¡¡ly ol low- anu mouciaicly-
¡iiccu icnials has lccn shiinIing sincc
ihc miu-19S0s, anu ncw a¡aiimcnis aic
incicasingly cx¡cnsivc.
W Mcanwhilc, alloiualiliiy ¡iollcms aic
cicc¡ing u¡ ihc wagc scalc, accoiuing
io ihc ]oini Ccnici loi Housing Siuuics
ai Haivaiu Univcisiiy. Thc numlci
ol houscholus caining lciwccn SS2-
ò0,000 ¡ci ycai who musi s¡cnu S0
¡ciccni oi moic ol ihcii incomcs on
housing incicascu 40 ¡ciccni lciwccn
1997 anu 2001.
lll|. Bctsir] k||cr1+|ilit¡
C
ne oI the central goals oI snart growth principles is to expano
the range oI choice in housing, both in style ano location. The
ioea is that hones Ior the people who live, work ano play in our
netropolitan regions shoulo be both aIIoroable ano accessible
to jobs ano essential services. Across the region, each jurisoiction shoulo
acconnooate owner-occupieo, rental ano low-incone housing in a nix that
ooesn´t oisaovantage any connunity.
Mosi REAITORS
®
aic lamiliai wiih ihc ¡hiasc,
¨Diivc uniil you qualily." Whai ihcy mcan, ol
couisc, is ihai lamilics in scaich ol ihcii ¡iccc
ol ihc Amciican Dicam incicasingly musi uiivc
laiihci anu laiihci inio ihc hinicilanu io hnu
homcs wiih moiigagcs ihcy can alloiu. This
sim¡lc cquaiion is lascu on ihc laci ihai laigc-
scalc housing ucvclo¡mcnis aic olicn ucsigncu
loi a singlc incomc liacIci. Whilc many ol
ihc suluivisions ollci vciy similai uciachcu
homcs, ihc ¡iicc uillcicncc is lascu mainly on
ihcii uisiancc liom convcnicni ciiy anu iown
ccnicis. Such homogcnous ucvclo¡mcni has
limiicu ihc choiccs o¡cn io lamilics.
MaiIci suivcys anu ical-lilc cx¡ciicncc shows
ihai many ¡co¡lc woulu glauly luy oi icni
in closci-in aicas, anu woulu lc ha¡¡y wiih a
iownhousc, a¡aiimcni oi a housc on a smallci
loi in a wcll-ucsigncu ncighloihoou - il ihcy
coulu alloiu ii. Yci uniil icccnily ihc maiIci has
noi ollcicu many ol ihcsc o¡iions, anu closc-in
housing has lccomc ¡iohiliiivcly cx¡cnsivc.
Pooily ¡lanncu giowih anu unlaii zoning
¡iaciiccs anu coucs havc mcani icuuccu vaiiciy,
iising cosis, anu limiicu choiccs in ihc housing
maiIci. Thc icgulaioiy ¡iaciiccs olicn iclciicu
io as ¨cxclusionaiy zoning" manuaic laigc
loi anu housc sizcs oi loiliu smallci, icnial,
oi mulii-unii luiluings, csscniially icsiiiciing
ucvclo¡mcni io onc-sizc-his-all, high-cosi
housing. Exisiing ncighloihoous convcnicni
io amcniiics aic lcing convciicu io wcll-io-uo
cnclavcs, anu ihc high-uollai housing luili
on ihc suluilan liingc ncai ncw olhcc anu
commcicial cam¡uscs ollcis ioo lcw alloiuallc
o¡iions. Thc incicasc in avciagc homc sizc has
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 35
also mauc alloiualiliiy moic uilhculi io achicvc,
ihc avciagc homc sizc wcni liom 1,ò00 squaic
lcci in 1970 io moic ihan 2,400 squaic lcci in
200ò. This gcniiihcaiion anu ihc isolaiion ol |ol
ccnicis lai liom ihc homcs acccssillc io many
lamilics llocIs woiIcis liom o¡¡oiiuniiics
¡iomiscu ly ucvclo¡mcni. Oihci icgulaiions
anu iax coucs ihai ucici mainicnancc ol icnial
uniis, llocI ihc icucvclo¡mcni ol vacani
¡io¡ciiy, anu cncouiagc ncw consiiuciion
ovci ¡icscivaiion all lai ihc u¡Icc¡ anu
ic¡laccmcni ol icnial housing.
Thc ¡iollcm is mosi acuic loi ihosc on ihc
lowcsi cnu ol ihc wagc scalc. Alloiualiliiy
issucs aic cs¡ccially iough loi ihc couniiy`s
lasicsi-giowing minoiiiy, His¡anics, whosc
owncishi¡ iaics coniinuc io lag lchinu ihosc
ol ihc gcncial ¡o¡ulaiion, as uo ihosc ol
Aliican-Amciicans. In 200ò, ihc Naiional Iow
Incomc Housing Coaliiion ic¡oiicu ihai ihcic
was noi a localc in ihc Uniicu Siaics whcic a
lull-iimc, minimum-wagc cainci coulu alloiu
laii-maiIci icni loi a iwo-lcuioom a¡aiimcni.
Anu ihc U.S. Dc¡aiimcni ol Housing anu
Uilan Dcvclo¡mcni ¸HUD) ic¡oiis ihai
a¡¡ioximaicly ò.4 million houscholus in ihc
Uniicu Siaics - an all-iimc high - lacc woisi-casc
housing nccus, uchncu as living in scvcicly
inaucquaic housing oi ¡aying moic ihan hall
ol ihcii incomc loi housing.
In |ol ccnicis, housing o¡iions aic noi lcing
luili ai ¡iicc iangcs commcnsuiaic wiih ihc
salaiics ol ihosc who woiI ncaily, luiucning
loih cm¡loyccs anu lusincsscs. Busincsscs
in icgions lacIing woiIloicc housing closc
io icliallc iiansii havc iioullc aiiiaciing
cm¡loyccs, cs¡ccially low-wagc anu cniiy-lcvcl
woiIcis liIc icccni collcgc giauuaics anu
scivicc siall:
W Thc cm¡loyci-lcu Silicon Vallcy
Icaucishi¡ Giou¡ ¸SVIG) ic¡oiis ihai
cvcn high-wagc Bay Aica icch hims
ianI ihc cosi ol housing hisi anu iialhc
congcsiion ihiiu as io¡ conccins in
¨iciaining a highly sIillcu woiIloicc."
W Thc Ailania Ncighloihoou Dcvclo¡mcni
Paiincishi¡ lounu ihai in ihc 1990s, much
ol ihc ncw housing luili in ihc 10-couniy
icgion was high-cnu, ucs¡iic ihc laci
ihai iwo-ihiius ol |ols ¡ay no moic ihan
S40,000. As a icsuli, Ailania`s Icy |ols
ccnicis havc a shoiilall ol 1Sò,000 homcs
loi ihosc caining lcss ihan SSò,000.
W Mciio¡olis 2020 olscivcs ihai in Chicago`s
Na¡civillc suluil, ¨a high ¡io¡oiiion ol
ncw singlc lamily homcs aic alloiuallc
only io woiIcis wiih a houscholu incomc
ovci SS0,000, whilc a high ¡io¡oiiion
ol |ols cicaicu ]ihcic| in ihc 1990s ¡aiu
SS0,000 oi lcss."
Many communiiics aic lcginning io iccognizc
ihc sciiousncss ol ihis ¡iollcm anu ihc nccu
io housc hichghicis anu ¡olicc olhccis,
icachcis anu liliaiians, anu nuiscs, anu homc
hcalih aiucs. Rcccni giauuaics, young cou¡lcs,
anu gianu¡aicnis all nccu alloiuallc housing.
Thcy aic siaiiing io cncouiagc uivcisc housing
o¡iions such as gianny uais,` mixcu-incomc
ucvclo¡mcnis, anu ¡io|ccis io icucvclo¡
unuscu luiluings. Thcy aic also icquiiing
anu icwaiuing ucvclo¡cis ihai incoi¡oiaic
alloiuallc uniis inio ihcii ¡io|ccis.
Ciiics, iowns, anu suluils can cm¡loy smaii
giowih ¡iinci¡lcs io luilu homcs ihai scivc all
mcmlcis ol ihc communiiy, accommouaiing
ncw ¡o¡ulaiions anu hcl¡ing cuiicni icsiucnis
hnu whai ihcy wani. Sounu giowih managcmcni
¡olicics ¡ioviuc moic alloiuallc housing ihan
iiauiiional lanu usc ¡olicics, accoiuing io a
ic¡oii ly ihc BiooIings Insiiiuiion.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF`· Hou·.r¿ O¡¡o.ìur.ì, P.o¿.n»:
www.rcaltor.org/housingopportunity
Jo.rì Cerìe. ¡o. Hou·.r¿ SìuJ.e·, Hn..n.J
Ur..e.·.ì,: www.jchs.harvard.cdu
AnI.r¿ ìLe Cn·e ¡o. A.:eJ Ir·o»e,
A.:eJ U·e Co»»ur.ì.e·`: www.
smartgrowthamcrica.org/AtlantaAIIord
abilityRcport.pdI
Aeeì.r¿ Ou. Nnì.or`· Hou·.r¿ CLnIIer¿e·`:
www.mhc.gov/MHCRcport.pdI
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
36
Physical lnactivity. Only aloui onc-quaiici
ol Amciicans gci ihc iccommcnucu amouni
ol cxcicisc, whilc a¡¡ioximaicly 40 ¡ciccni ol
Amciicans aic cniiicly scucniaiy. Tiauiiional
s¡iawling ucvclo¡mcni ¡aiicins uiscouiagc,
iaihci ihan cncouiagc, cvciyuay ¡hysical aciiviiy.
Pco¡lc who livc in s¡icau oui, s¡iawling aicas
aic lcss liIcly io havc casy o¡¡oiiuniiics io gci
¡hysical aciiviiy in ihc couisc ol a uay. Thcy may
livc in housing suluivisions ihai aic isolaicu
liom sioics, schools, oi oihci ucsiinaiions ihai
ihcy oi ihcii chiluicn may wani io icach on looi.
Ncighloihoou siiccis may conncci only
io lusy high-s¡ccu aiiciial ioaus ihai aic
un¡lcasani oi cvcn unsalc loi walIing oi
liIing. Tiansii scivicc may lc inlicqucni
oi ioo lai away. Anu ihc many ¡laccs ihcy
nccu io visii in a uay may lc many milcs
a¡aii, lui wiih convcnicni ¡aiIing |usi sic¡s
liom ihc lioni uooi. Thai mcans ihc mosi
olvious anu ¡iaciical way io gci cvciyihing
uonc is via auiomolilc. In laci, as a icsuli
ol ihcsc changcs io oui lanusca¡c, ihc
numlci ol iii¡s ihai U.S. auulis mauc on
looi ¡lummcicu 42 ¡ciccni lciwccn 197ò
anu 199ò, whilc ihc annual numlci ol milcs
uiivcn ¡ci ¡cison incicascu loui iimcs lasici
ihan ihc ¡o¡ulaiion. This lacI ol aciiviiy has
coniiiluicu io ihc olcsiiy c¡iucmic anu is a
lacioi in moic ihan 200,000 ucaihs a ycai.
Ioiiunaicly, smaii giowih ucvclo¡mcni hcl¡s
icvcisc ihc iicnu. Accoiuing io ¡ullic hcalih
lll|. |t|lit Bº+ltl
S
preao-out oevelopnent was in part born out oI a public health
novenent to separate where people liveo Iron the Iactories then
connon in cities. "Caroen cities¨ oI suburban housing oevelopnents
were also seen as an antioote to overcrowoeo cities where oisease
spreao too easily. Now, both oI these threats have virtually oisappeareo, ano
we are coping with a new set oI health problens that are aggravateo by
spreao-out, auto-orienteo oevelopnent.
icscaich, ¡co¡lc who livc in ncighloihoous
wiih a mix ol sho¡s anu lusincsscs wiihin casy
walIing uisiancc havc a Sò ¡ciccni lowci iisI ol
olcsiiy, anu ¡co¡lc in walIallc ncighloihoous
- anu ihosc who iaIc iiansii icgulaily - aic
moic liIcly io mcci minimum ¡hysical aciiviiy
sianuaius. Thc Ccnicis loi Discasc Coniiol
anu Picvcniion anu ihc Naiional Insiiiuics
ol Mcuicinc aic loih now iccommcnuing
cncouiaging such aciivc living` ihiough
changcs io ihc luili cnviionmcni.
Air ano Water Pollution. Rcccni siuuics havc
ucmonsiiaicu ihai ¡co¡lc in moic s¡iawling
¡laccs licaihc moic ¡olluicu aii, anu ihai
ihc ucgicc ol ihc s¡iawl uiiccily coiiclaics
io ihc scvciiiy ol ihc ¡olluiion. Thc icason
is ihai s¡iawling ucvclo¡mcni icquiics moic
uiiving, which cicaics moic cmissions. In
laci, ihc uillcicncc in ozonc lcvcls lciwccn
ihc mosi s¡iawling anu lcasi s¡iawling mciio
aicas is 41 ¡aiis ¡ci lillion: cnough io shili
a mciio aica liom ¨couc giccn" aii qualiiy
io an unhcalihy ¨couc icu." ]ihis is liom ihc
hisi Mcasuiing S¡iawl" ic¡oii conuucicu ly
Rciu Ewing loi SGA|.
Rcscaich shows ihai ihc moic wc uiivc, ihc
moic smog anu ozonc wc cicaic, anu ihc
moic ihcsc ly¡iouucis ol uiiving coniiiluic
io iising iaics ol asihma in Amciican chiluicn
anu in auulis. In laci, uuiing a ¡ciiou ol
ia¡iu suluilanizaiion lciwccn 19S0 anu
199ò, chiluicn`s asihma iaics uoullcu, anu
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 37
onc in icn Amciicans now sullcis liom ihc
conuiiion. Oihci ¡olluianis cmiiicu ly cais,
such as lcnzcnc anu ¡aiiiculaic maiici, lciici
Inown as sooi, aic associaicu wiih incicascu
iisI ol lung anu oihci canccis, ¡aiiiculaily loi
ihosc who livc ncai ma|oi ioauways. Ninciy
¡ciccni ol ioial cancci iisI in ihc Ios Angclcs
Basin is aiiiiluiallc io ioxic aii ¡olluianis
cmiiicu ly molilc souiccs. Scc: Souih Coasi
Aii Managcmcni Disiiici Mulii¡lc Aii Toxics
Ex¡osuic Siuuy ¸MATES-II) ai www.aqmu.gov
S¡iawling ucvclo¡mcni also ucgiaucs waici
qualiiy, mainly ly cicaiing moic ¨im¡civious
suilacc" so iainwaici laucn wiih auiomolilc
oil, iiash anu oihci ¡olluianis iushcs inio
ncaily siicams.
Smaii giowih soluiions can hcl¡ auuicss loih
aii anu waici qualiiy, anu somc |uiisuiciions
aic cncouiaging smaii giowih ucvclo¡mcnis
as a way io mcci aii qualiiy sianuaius.
TraIfc SaIety. Tialhc ciashcs aic a lcauing
causc ol ucaih anu in|uiy in ihc Uniicu Siaics,
Iilling aloui 42,000 ¡co¡lc cvciy ycai, anu
¡co¡lc living in s¡iawling aicas aic moic liIcly
io uic ciihci as moioiisis oi as ¡cucsiiians.
S¡iawling ucvclo¡mcnis iy¡ically incluuc
high-s¡ccu ioaus ihai aic moic hazaiuous loi
¡co¡lc on looi anu licyclc, whilc smaii giowih
ncighloihoous cncouiagc slowci iialhc anu
incluuc siucwalIs anu oihci csscniial laciliiics
loi salc walIing anu licycling.
Siuuics hnu ihai ihc mosi s¡iawling
mciio¡oliian aicas, luili wiih ihc longcsi
uisianccs lciwccn ucsiinaiions, anu ihc mosi
cai-ccniiic ioau ucsigns, havc ihc highcsi
iialhc in|uiy anu laialiiy iaics anu aic ihc
mosi uangcious loi walIcis, cyclisis, and
uiivcis. Ioi cxam¡lc, in ihc naiion`s mosi
s¡iawling icgion, Rivcisiuc, Caliloinia, 1S ol
cvciy 100,000 icsiucnis uic cach ycai in iialhc
ciashcs. Thc cighi lcasi s¡iawling mciio aicas
all havc iialhc laialiiy iaics ol lcwci ihan S
ucaihs ¡ci 100,000.
Smaii giowih hcl¡s auuicss iialhc salciy
ly cicaiing ¨com¡lcic siiccis" ihai woiI
loi cvciyonc who is using ihcm, anu ly
iciiohiiing siiccis wiih ¨iialhc calming"
mcasuics ihai slow iialhc. Pciha¡s moic
im¡oiianily ihcy allow moic ¡co¡lc io gci oui
ol ihcii cais - anu siuuics show ihai ihc moic
¡co¡lc oui walIing anu licycling, ihc salci
ihc siiccis.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
A·ì..e 1...r¿ b, De·.¿r:
www.activclivingbydcsign.org
Aen·u..r¿ ìLe HenIìL E¡¡e·ì· o¡ S¡.nwI:
www.smartgrowthamcrica.org/
hcalthrcport.html
Aenr Sì.eeì· 2uu¬: T.n¡¡· nrJ
PeJe·ì..nr Sn¡eì,: www.transact.org/
rcport.asp?id=235
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
38
lllû. |tcrcmit |rc]rºss +r1 |ist+l |rt1ºrtº
A
nericans are paying $84 nillion a oay ($3l billion annually) to live
in connunities that are laio-out ineIfciently, accoroing to the 2OO5
book, Sprawl Costs: Econonic lnpacts oI Uncheckeo Developnent,
the culnination oI a lO-year research eIIort at Rutgers University ano
the Brookings lnstitution. "We are all paying a staggering price Ior sprawling
oevelopnent in this country, ano that price will only go up as gas prices
increase,¨ writes coauthor Robert Burchell. "Sprawling connunities neeo
longer public roaos, increase the cost oI new water ano sewer hookups by
2O percent to 4O percent, inpose higher costs on police ano fre oepartnents
ano schools, ano nore. These costs are passeo on to businesses ano resioents
through higher taxes ano Iees ano sonetines through Iewer public services.
Ano in nost cases, sprawling oevelopnents oo not generate enough property
taxes to cover these aooeo costs.¨
Shiliing |usi 2ò ¡ciccni ol low-ucnsiiy
ucvclo¡mcni io moic com¡aci giowih woulu
savc Amciican iax¡aycis lillions ol uollais,
accoiuing io S¡.nwI Co·ì·. Ioi cxam¡lc, wc
woulu savc:
W S2.6 lillion ovci 2ò ycais ¸liom 2000 -
202ò) lccausc 4.6 million lcwci waici anu
scwci hooIu¡s woulu lc nccucu loi singlc-
lamily, uciachcu homcs,
W S110 lillion ovci 2ò ycais in ioau
consiiuciion cosis lccausc ihc nccu loi
local ioaus woulu lc icuuccu ly 1SS,000
lanc milcs,
W S24 million/uay in cosis associaicu wiih ihc
auiomolilc lccausc Amciicans woulu uiivc
ò6 million lcwci milcs cach uay ¸calculaicu
whcn gasolinc was lcss ihan S2 a gallon.)
In Novcmlci, 2002, Icucial Rcscivc govcinoi
Euwaiu Giamlich ciicu anoihci siuuy ly ihc
Rcscaich Insiiiuic loi Housing Amciica in
iclling a Icu-s¡onsoicu conlcicncc ihai smaii
giowih siiaicgics coulu savc S2ò0 lillion in
inliasiiuciuic cosis ovci ihc ncxi 2ò ycais.
"Fix it frst.¨ Evcn as wc`ic ovci-invcsiing
in sulsiuizing ncw s¡iawl ucvclo¡mcni,
wc`ic uiamaiically unuci-invcsiing in
mainicnancc, ic¡aii anu u¡giauing ol
inliasiiuciuic in cxisiing aicas. This is
cconomically unsusiainallc in ihc long haul,
noics Piolcssoi Buichcll. As iising gas ¡iiccs
squcczc iax¡aycis anu luugcis iighicn loi
siaic anu local govcinmcnis, moic anu moic
olhcials - in siaics liom Massachusciis io
Pcnnsylvania io Tcnncsscc - aic alanuoning
iiauiiional sulsiuics loi s¡iawl ucvclo¡mcni
anu auo¡iing a ¨Iix ii Iiisi" ¡olicy. Whcic
ihcy aic unuciiaIing ncw ca¡iial ¡io|ccis,
ihcy aic insisiing ihai haiu-won inliasiiuciuic
invcsimcnis go as lai as ¡ossillc. Thcy`ic
invcsiing in scnsillc cconomic ucvclo¡mcni,
¡ic¡aiing loi luiuic giowih, anu ¡io¡cily
accouniing loi anu uc¡loying ihc scaicc
icsouiccs ihcy ¡osscss.
Preserving ano expanoing the tax base.
Whcn cconomic viialiiy uc¡aiis cxisiing aicas
loi s¡iawling ncw localcs, icmaining iax¡aycis
sullci a uoullc whammy ol ucclining sciviccs
anu iising iax iaics, cvcn as icsiucnis ol
ihc iccciving aicas scc ihcii iaxcs iisc io
accommouaic ncw giowih. By cm¡hasizing
siiaicgics such as ihc icviializaiion ol
uc¡icsscu aicas, ihc icusc ol aging luiluings,
icucvclo¡mcni ol uying siii¡ ccnicis anu
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 3º
ucvclo¡mcni ol vacani anu alanuoncu
¡io¡ciiics, communiiics can luilu ihc iax
lasc loi ihc lcnchi ol loih ciiy anu suluil
uwcllcis. A ¡iimc cxam¡lc is ihc clcanu¡ anu
usc ol ¨liownhclu" inuusiiial siics. Accoiuing
io onc csiimaic, cvciy acic ol liownhclu ihai
is icucvclo¡cu savcs 4.ò acics ol o¡cn s¡acc
]Picsiucni Bush uuiing signing ccicmony loi
Biownhclus Aci, 2002|.
Strengthening regional econonies. Smaii
giowih is ciiiical io ihc long-icim cconomic
susiainaliliiy ol mciio¡oliian icgions. Whcn
cm¡loycis can`i icciuii a icliallc woiIloicc
lccausc ol giucling commuics, whcn woiIing
¡aicnis can`i hnu housing ihai ¡uis ihcm
wiihin icach ol loih |ols anu ihcii chiluicn,
whcn Icy inuusiiics aic scaiicicu ianuomly
so ihai ihcy havc all ihc uisauvaniagcs anu
nonc ol ihc im¡oiiani lcnchis ol aggicgaiion,
whcn qualiiy ol lilc lcgins io ciouc - ¡co¡lc
anu lusincsscs lcavc anu cconomics ucclinc.
Bcyonu ihai, howcvci, ihcic is giowing
icscaich ucmonsiiaiing ihai ¡iouuciiviiy
anu ovciall cconomic ¡ciloimancc aic
im¡iovcu whcn smaii giowih clcvaics icgions`
cm¡loymcni ucnsiiy, im¡iovcs iians¡oiiaiion
clhcicncy, anu icuuccs ciiy-suluil ga¡s in
cconomic hcalih.
Connunity character, quality oI liIe ano
the "creative class¨. Richaiu Iloiiua, auihoi
ol ¨Thc Risc ol ihc Cicaiivc Class," ollcis yci
anoihci aigumcni in lavoi ol ihc Iinus ol
communiiics smaii giowih aims io ¡iouucc.
Accoiuing io Iloiiua, mciio¡oliian icgions
ihai aic mosily ¡lacclcss s¡iawl lacIing in
viliani ccnicis ol uilaniiy aic com¡ciing
¡ooily in ihc changing cconomy. In a 200S
aiiiclc loi Washingion Monihly, hc wioic:
A, .e·en.·L ¡rJ· »ob.Ie, Je»nrJ.r¿ ·.enì..e
wo.Ie.· ».¿.nì.r¿ ìo ·e.ìn.r I.rJ· o¡ ¡In·e· ìLe,
¡n.o.: ¡In·e· wLe.e ìLe, ·nr ¡rJ roì ¡u·ì n ¡ob`
buì Ioì· o¡ o¡¡o.ìur.ì.e·, nrJ wLe.e ìLe, ·nr ¡rJ
¡n.ì.·.¡nìo., n»er.ì.e· - n·ì..e ouìJoo. ·¡o.ì·,
roì ¡u·ì ·ìnJ.u»·; ·n¡e-nrJ-¿nIIe., ·ì.eeì-Ie.eI`
·uIìu.e, roì ìLe ·,»¡Lor,. TLe, nI·o ·eeI ¡In·e· o¡
Je»o¿.n¡L.· J..e.·.ì,, o¡erre·· ìo rew·o»e.·, nrJ
·ì.»uInì.r¿ ·uIìu.nI .rìe.¡In,. ArJ ìLe ·nì·L .·,
·u·L .e¿.ornI qunI.ì.e· ìerJ ìo be ·eI¡-.e.r¡o.·.r¿. A
.e¿.or w.ìL »nr, ·.enì..e .rJu·ì..e· nrJ ·.enì..e-
·In·· wo.Ie.· w.II ìLu· nìì.n·ì »o.e o¡ boìL, wL.Ie
ìLe Io·.r¿ .e¿.or· - weII, ìLe, Io·e ìLe».`
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
S»n.ì C.owìL .· S»n.ì Bu·.re··: http://
sgusa.convio.nct/sitc/PagcScrvcr?pagc
namc=smart_busincss
Vo.I¡o.·e De.eIo¡»erì nrJ S»n.ì C.owìL:
http://www.Iundcrsnctwork.org/inIo-
url_nocat2778/inIo-url_nocat_show.
htm?doc_id=51633
Ir.e·ì.r¿ .r n Beììe. Euìu.e: http://
www.brookings.cdu/urban/
publications/200403_smartgrowth.htm
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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4O
Amciica is a naiion wiih an unqucnchallc
ihiisi loi ucvclo¡ing lanu. Anu ihc ma|oiiiy ol
ihai giowih is in ihc cvci-cx¡anuing suluils.
Planncis, icscaichcis, ucvclo¡cis anu cvcn ihc
siaunchcsi conscivaiionisis conccuc ihai ihcic
is no way io sicm ihc ucmanu loi suluilan
anu cxuilan giowih. So ihc loiiom linc is - il
ii is a loicgonc conclusion ihai giowih in ihc
U.S. will coniinuc io occui laiihci anu laiihci
liom ccniial ciiics - whai can lc uonc io maIc
suic ihai giowih is smaii, noi s¡iawl.
Thc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic ¸UII) has ¡ullishcu
Tcn Piinci¡lcs loi Smaii Giowih on ihc
Suluilan Iiingc io ouilinc clcai, aiiainallc
mcihous loi solving ihc s¡iawl iiuulc whilc
luiluing ihc lcsi uilanism ¡ossillc.
Michacl PawluIicwicz, UII`s Diiccioi ol
Enviionmcni 8 Policy Euucaiion, uiiccicu ihc
icam ihai com¡ilcu ihc ic¡oii ihai o¡cns wiih
ihc siaggciing laci ihai ¨acioss ihc couniiy,
lanu is lcing ucvclo¡cu lasici ihan cvci
lcloic: moic ihan iwo million acics ol o¡cn
s¡acc is convciicu cach ycai."
¨Wc Inow ihcic will lc a loi ol giowih in ihc
U.S. Accoiuing io ihc Ccnsus Buicau, wc`ll
giow ly ò0 million ¡co¡lc in ihc ncxi 20 ycais,"
PawluIicwicz saiu. ¨Evcn ihough wc woulu liIc
ihosc ¡co¡lc io livc in ciiics oi closc-in suluils,
ihc laci is mosi ol ihc ¡o¡ulaiion giowih will
coniinuc in ihc laiihci suluils.
PawluIicwicz also noicu ihai cvcn ihough
¡co¡lc will coniinuc moving io ihc liingc,
ihis naiion can luilu wiih lciici ucvclo¡mcni
¡aiicins io avoiu ihc ¡iollcms ihai s¡iawl
ucvclo¡mcni ol ihc ¡asi ò0 ycais has givcn us.
S¡iawl has cicaicu iialhc |ams, ucgiaucu ihc
cnviionmcni anu misuscu lanu.
¨Wc havc io movc iowaiu com¡aci noucs
ol ucvclo¡mcni," hc saiu. ¨As wc iucniily
a¡¡io¡iiaic siics loi ihcsc ucvclo¡mcni noucs
wc musi also maIc suic wc iucniily anu ¡ioicci
lanu loi iccicaiion, agiiculiuic anu haliiai
conscivaiion. Wc havc io maIc suic ihai
ucvclo¡mcni anu ihc ¡ioicciion ol naiuial
aicas anu icsouicc aicas go hanu in hanu."
PawluIicwicz saiu iiansii-oiicnicu
ucvclo¡mcni can lc a ¡owcilul iool loi smaii
giowih - lui communiiics musi lc suic io
cooiuinaic iians¡oiiaiion invcsimcnis wiih
¡lanning loi smaiici lanu usc. Hc also siicsscu
ihc im¡oiiancc ol ¡iomoiing com¡aci,
walIallc anu mixcu-usc communiiics whcic
cvciyonc has iians¡oiiaiion choiccs incluuing
walIing, ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion anu uiiving.
Rolcii Iang, uiiccioi ol ihc Mciio¡oliian
Insiiiuic ai Viiginia Tcch anu ¡aii ol ihc
icscaich icam loi ihc Tcn Piinci¡lcs ¡ullicaiion,
saiu suluilia nccus io locus on smaii giowih
¡iinci¡lcs such as luiluing com¡aci muliilamily
suluivisions ihai conscivc lanu.
¨Whcn ¡icsciving giccn s¡acc, ii musi lc
inicgiaicu inio an ovciall ¡lan. Much ol
suluilia`s giccn aicas aic cho¡¡cu u¡ in ¡icccs
anu uon`i ically auu u¡ io a haliiai," hc saiu.
¨Ty¡ical cxuilia is com¡iiscu ol muliilamily
homcs au|accni io iciail anu sc¡aiaicu ly a
¡cucsiiian-unliicnuly lcncc oi laigc loi singlc
lamily homcs luili chocI-a-llocI."
lllB. Sm+rt ûrcwtl ir + Ktr+l Sºttir]
A
oapteo Iron the Urban Lano lnstitute, as publisheo in "Solving the
Problen oI Sprawl: lO Principles Ior Snart Crowth on the Suburban
Fringe¨ in Cn Connon Crouno Nagazine, Winter 2OO6.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 4l
Iang saiu a convcniional suluivision luili
wiihoui using smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs iy¡ically
has vciy limiicu conncciiviiy ihai aluis iciail
anu is olicn sc¡aiaicu ly a wall. Hc noicu ihc
iiony ihai a icsiucni in a suluivision housc
closcsi io iciail aciually has ihc laiihcsi iii¡
lccausc hc musi winu ihiough ihc suluivision
io icach way oui anu ovci io ii.
¨Wiihoui smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs, ihc cyclc is
chca¡ - ucvclo¡cis comc in anu luilu chocI-
a-llocI anu conscivaiion ¡iinci¡lcs aic noi
uscu. Ii`s noi an cnuuiing loim," hc saiu.
PawluIicwicz saiu local lanu-usc ¡olicy
musi havc a vision loi an a¡¡io¡iiaic anu
susiainallc luiuic anu ihcn oiganizc ¡olicics,
coucs anu icgulaiions io maIc ii casy anu
¡iohiallc loi ihc ¡iivaic sccioi io im¡lcmcni
ihai vision.
¨Evciylouy llamcs ucvclo¡cis loi s¡iawl anu
whilc ihcy aic noi wiihoui lauli, mosi ol whai
ihcy ucvclo¡ is in Icc¡ing wiih ¡ullic zoning
coucs anu lanu-usc icgulaiions," PawluIicwicz
saiu. ¨In mosi suluils, s¡iawl is casy anu
¡iohiallc io luilu. Iocal govcinmcnis aic
mosily ics¡onsillc loi icgulaiing lanu usc.
Thcii ¡olicics maIc ii uilhculi io luilu
mixcu-usc communiiics oi usc lciici uilan-
ucsign ¡iaciiccs liIc ¡uiiing luiluings closc
io ihc siicci oi io naiiow ihc siiccis io maIc
ihcm salci loi ¡cucsiiians. Thc coucs anu
icgulaiions musi lc changcu so ihai ii is casy
anu ¡iohiallc io uo ihc iighi ihing, ihc smaii
ihing. Thc s¡iawl ihai wc scc in ihc U.S. is, in
laci, ihc im¡lcmcniaiion ol ¡ullic ¡olicy."
lO Principles Ior Snart Crowth
on the Suburban Fringe
@ Crcatc a Sharcd Vision Ior thc
Futurc.and Stick to It
A succcsslul visioning ¡ioccss is iooicu in a
communiiy`s lanuowncis, ucvclo¡cis, clccicu
olhcials, cnviionmcnial giou¡s, ciiizcn aciivisi
giou¡s anu local lusincss. Tcm¡iaiions will
cmcigc ihai iun counici io ihc vision in
ihc loim ol a¡¡caling shoii-icim cconomic
ucvclo¡mcni o¡¡oiiuniiics. Il a way cannoi
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
42
lc lounu io maIc ihc ¡io¡osal cnhancc ihc
vision, ii shoulu lc ic|ccicu.
@ IdcntiIy and Sustain Grccn InIrastructurc
Giccn inliasiiuciuic is a nciwoiI ol haliiai,
¡aiIs, giccnways, conscivaiion cascmcnis
anu woiIing lanus susiaining naiivc s¡ccics,
naiuial ccological ¡ioccsscs, ¡lus aii anu
waici icsouiccs. Bciwccn 19S2 anu 1997,
ihc amouni ol uilanizcu lanu in ihc U.S.
incicascu ly 47 ¡ciccni whilc ihc naiion`s
¡o¡ulaiion gicw ly only 17 ¡ciccni.
Consiuciing ihosc numlcis, ii lccomcs
olvious ihai giccn inliasiiuciuic is a
communiiy`s naiuial lilc-su¡¡oii sysicm anu
musi lc siiaicgically ¡lanncu anu managcu as
caiclully as luili inliasiiuciuic.
@ Rcmcmbcr that thc Right Dcsign in thc
Wrong Placc Is Not Smart Growth
Tiauiiional ucsign - wiih iis lacI allcys,
lioni ¡oichcs anu s¡accs whcic Iius ¡lay
anu ncighlois congicgaic - is ciiiical, lui
noi ihc only com¡oncni ol smaii giowih.
Dcsign musi lc inicgiaicu wiih local climaic,
lanu conuiiions, iians¡oiiaiion laciliiics
anu cconomically viallc ucvclo¡mcni ihai
¡icscivcs o¡cn s¡acc anu naiuial icsouiccs,
inliasiiuciuic ihai scivcs cxisiing anu ncw
icsiucnis, com¡aci ucvclo¡mcni such as ncw
iown ccnicis, anu oihci laciois ihai iaIc a
holisiic a¡¡ioach io siam¡ing oui s¡iawl.
@ Protcct Environmcntal Systcms and
Conscrvc Rcsourccs. TaIc auvaniagc ol
luiluing oiicniaiion, ¡icvailing winus anu iicc
covci loi cooling. Managc ihc cllcci ol ihc
sun`s iays loi cnhancing oi limiiing hcaiing.
Conscivc waici ly using conscivaiion-ucsigncu
a¡¡lianccs anu ¡lumling hxiuics, haivcsicu
giaywaici, iccyclcu waici anu naiuial ¸non-
¡i¡cu) uiainagc sysicms anu ¡civious ¡aving
io icchaigc aquilcis.
@Providc Divcrsc Housing Typcs and
Opportunitics. Diicci giowih io walIallc
mixcu-usc suluivisions ihai ollci moic
uivcisc housing iy¡cs such as: icnial anu
owncishi¡ ol singlc-lamily houscs wiih yaius,
iownhouscs anu mulii-lamily a¡aiimcni
luiluings io mcci ihc vaiicu lilcsiylcs ol
¡co¡lc living in ihc suluils.
@Build Ccntcrs oI Conccntratcd Mixcd Uscs.
Susiainallc uilanizcu liingc ucvclo¡mcni
has a convcnicni mix ihai mccis ¡co¡lc`s
uaily nccus: homcs, schools, sioics, sciviccs
anu amcniiics. A conccniiaiion ol mixcu uscs
on ihc liingc ¡ioviucs a ciiiical mass anu a
scnsc ol ¡lacc ihai givcs communiiics a siiong
iucniiiy anu a hcaii. Mixcu-usc ¡io|ccis cicaic
a ucsiinaiion wiih housing, cm¡loymcni, iciail
anu ¡ullic sciviccs. Succcsslul communiiics
incluuc a lull iangc ol uscs anu aciiviiics:
olhcc, iciail, cniciiainmcni, hoicls, housing
anu civic insiiiuiions.
@ Usc Multiplc Conncctions to Enhancc
Mobility and Circulation. Tialhc congcsiion
is a lig ¡iollcm in convcniional suluils
lccausc clusicis ol icsiucniial suluivisions
wiih only onc cniiy anu onc cxii conccniiaic
ihc iialhc onio anu oll aiiciial ioaus, which
quicIly lccomc cloggcu lccausc ol ihc lacI
ol conncciiviiy anu alicinaiivc iouics. To
avoiu lccoming a ¡lacclcss collcciion ol
uisaggicgaicu suluivisions, a nciwoiI mauc
u¡ ol vchiculai, ¡cucsiiian, cycling, ¡aiI anu
o¡cn-s¡acc conncciions musi lc ¡lanncu.
Communiiics shoulu cicaic a icm¡laic loi
a siicci giiu wiih a hiciaichy ol connccicu
siiccis io guiuc ucvclo¡mcni anu ¡iomoic
conncciiviiy.
@ Dclivcr Sustainablc Transportation Choiccs.
Smaii Giowih communiiics ¡ioviuc a iangc ol
iians¡oiiaiion choiccs, lui io lc susiainallc,
ihcsc alicinaiivcs musi lc luili in iaihci ihan
auucu laici io a cai-lascu culiuic. Siagcu
ucvclo¡mcni ol ical csiaic anu iians¡oiiaiion
laciliiics cnsuics ihai a iangc ol o¡iions will lc
availallc io iiavclcis - walIing, cycling, iiansii,
cai¡ooling, iclccommuiing anu uiiving - anu
ihai cach will lc aucquaicly su¡¡oiicu.
@ Prcscrvc thc Community's Charactcr.
Amciica`s commcicial lanusca¡c, laigcly
uuc io ihc ¡iolilciaiion ol chain sioics anu
lianchiscs, has uciciioiaicu liom ihc uniquc
io uniloim, liom siylizcu io sianuaiuizcu.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 43
Naiional lianchiscs anu chain sioics can
changc ihcii sianuaiu luiluing ucsigns
io hi local chaiacici, lui only uo so in
communiiics savvy cnough io ic|cci oll ihc
shcll aichiicciuic anu ucmanu cusiomizcu,
siic-s¡ccihc ucsign ihai auuicsscs local hisioiic
¡icscivaiion, siic ¡lanning anu vcinaculai
aichiicciuial conccins.
@Makc It Easy to Do thc Right Thing.
Onc ma|oi laiiici io lciici ucvclo¡mcni
on ihc liingc is local icgulaiion. Mosi local
zoning anu suluivision icgulaiions maIc ii
casici anu lasici io luilu convcniional low-
ucnsiiy, auio-uc¡cnucni ucvclo¡mcnis ihan
unuciiaIc Smaii Giowih on ihc suluilan
liingc. Dcvclo¡cis luilu s¡iawling ¡io|ccis
lccausc ihcy aic casici anu chca¡ci io
consiiuci. Iocal olhcials shoulu maIc local
icgulaiions moic ucxillc io cncouiagc mixcu
uscs, naiiowci siiccis, com¡aci ucvclo¡mcni
anu oihci smaii ¡iaciiccs.
Snart Crowth
in Practice
1
1
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]rº+t pl+tºs +r1 +llcwir] tcmmtritiºs tc sl+pº wl+t ]ºts |tilt sc
tl+t it wcr|s wºll |cr |ctl ttrrºrt +r1 |tttrº ]ºrºr+ticrs.
1
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S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 45
l\k. |l+rrir] +r1 Kº]tl+ticr
Ccmmtrit¡·B+sº1 |l+rrir]: Clccsir] + |tttrº
Iiom ihc Bosion Tca Paiiy io moucin uay
¡ullic hcaiings, ihc Uniicu Siaics has a gicai
iiauiiion ol ¡ullic involvcmcni. Thc naiion`s
ucmociaiic iucals wcic loin oui ol liusiiaiion
ly ciiizcns who lcli ihcii voiccs wcic noi
lcing hcaiu, anu moic ihan 22ò ycais laici,
¡ullic ¡aiiici¡aiion icmains ihc hallmaiI ol
Amciica`s ucmociacy.
In many ways, smaii giowih gicw oui ol a
scnsc among many ciiizcns ihai ihcy wcic
noi lcing hcaiu on qucsiions ol giowih
anu ucvclo¡mcni. By ihc laic 1970s, a no-
giowih scniimcni was ¡o¡ulai in many aicas
whcic ciiizcns hau lcaincu io hghi highway
consiiuciion, uilan icncwal, s¡iawling
ucvclo¡mcni anu oihci giowih-ai-any-
cosi changcs io ihcii communiiics. Onc
im¡cius lchinu smaii giowih is io cnallc
ciiizcns anu ihcii clccicu ic¡icscniaiivcs io
¡lan ahcau loi giowih anu changc anu io
choosc a luiuic ol ihcii own maIing, iaihci
ihan hghi llinuly oi icsign ihcmsclvcs io a
ucclining qualiiy ol lilc.
¨Paii ol ihc smaii giowih movcmcni is a
icaciion io a lacI ol coniiol," says Daviu
WluIa, a loimci lanu-usc ¡lannci anu now
ihc ¡iinci¡al ol WluIa Rcal Esiaic ouisiuc
ol Bosion. Raihci ihan o¡¡osc any anu all
ucvclo¡mcni, ciiizcns who shaic a vision anu a
¡lan can locus on ihc ¨gicaici goou" loi ihcii
communiiy, hc auus.
This scciion
locuscs on ihc
giowing iangc ol
innovaiivc ways io
cngagc mcmlcis
ol a communiiy
in choosing
ihcii luiuic.
Wc`ll cxaminc
icchniqucs loi
hcl¡ing ¡co¡lc
ucvclo¡ lig-
¡iciuic visions
loi iowns, ciiics
anu mciio aicas,
as wcll as ways io
iuin ihosc visions
inio concicic
¡lans using ucsign
woiIsho¡s, callcu
·Ln..eììe·, ihai
incoi¡oiaic ihc
conccins anu iucas
ol ciiizcns in ical-
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
46
ül+t is |t|lit |+rtitip+ticr!
Evciy communiiy has uillcicni nccus anu
¡iioiiiics, liom im¡ioving iians¡oiiaiion
anu housing choiccs io cicaiing cconomic
icucvclo¡mcni oi a lciici scnsc ol communiiy.
Thc ¡co¡lc lcsi allc io uchnc ihosc nccus anu
¡iioiiiics aic ihosc who livc in a communiiy oi
who holu a siaIc in ii, such as lusincss owncis
anu lanu owncis.
Boih ciiizcns anu ¡lanncis cx¡cci a iciuin
on ihcii invcsimcni in a ¡ullic ¡ioccss. Ioi
ciiizcns, ihc ¡iimaiy invcsimcni is iimc, anu
ihcy wani io s¡cnu ii wiscly. Il ihcy gci involvcu
in ihc ¡lanning ¡ioccss, ihcy wani ihcii
involvcmcni io lc mcaninglul anu io havc
somc im¡aci on ihc hnal icsuli. Planncis, who
commii iimc anu moncy, nccu ihc ¡lanning
¡ioccss io lc lunciional whilc insiilling iiusi in
ihc ¡ullic ihai ihc ¡ioccss woiIs.
Thc Inicinaiional Associaiion loi Pullic
Paiiici¡aiion has csiallishcu scvcn coic valucs
ihai shoulu lc cmliaccu whcn sccIing ¡ullic
involvcmcni:
@ Thc ¡ullic shoulu havc a say in uccisions
aloui aciions ihai allcci ihcii livcs.
@ Pullic ¡aiiici¡aiion incluucs ihc ¡iomisc ihai
ihc ¡ullic`s coniiiluiion will inuucncc ihc
uccision.
@ All ¡aiiici¡anis shoulu lc allc io
communicaic ihcii inicicsis in ihc ¡ioccss.
@ Oiganizcis musi sccI oui anu laciliiaic ihc
involvcmcni ol ihosc ¡oicniially allccicu.
@ Paiiici¡anis shoulu lc involvcu in uchning
how ihcy ¡aiiici¡aic.
@ Paiiici¡anis musi icccivc ihc inloimaiion
ihcy nccu io ¡aiiici¡aic in a mcaninglul way.
@ Thc ¡ullic ¡aiiici¡aiion ¡ioccss
communicaics io ¡aiiici¡anis how ihcii
in¡ui allccicu ihc uccision.
Usºs c| "risicrir]¨
In a ucscii¡iion ol vaiious ¡ullic involvcmcni
icchniqucs loi iians¡oiiaiion uccision-maIing,
ihc Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion ¸IHWA)
noics ihai visioning is mosi cllcciivc in ihc
caily siagcs ol csiallishing oi icvising ¡olicics
lccausc ii ucmonsiiaics o¡cnncss io ncw iucas
anu concc¡is suggcsicu ly ihc ¡ullic. Anu,
loi maximum im¡aci, ii shoulu havc ihc aciivc
su¡¡oii ol clccicu olhcials, agcncy hcaus, anu
communiiy giou¡s. In summaiy, IHWA says
visioning is usclul:
W io sci ihc siagc loi shoii-iangc ¡lanning
aciiviiics
W io sci ncw uiicciions in ¡olicy
W io icvicw cxisiing ¡olicy
W whcn inicgiaiion lciwccn issucs is icquiicu
W whcn a wiuc vaiiciy ol iucas shoulu lc hcaiu
W whcn a iangc ol ¡oicniial soluiions is nccucu
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 47
|rrisicr Ut+l
Sincc ihc laic 1990s a highly unusual ¡lanning clloii callcu Envision Uiah has involvcu
ihousanus ol ciiizcns in maIing uccisions aloui how anu whcic ihcii siaic will locus
iis giowih. A ¡iinci¡al movci lchinu ihis unuciiaIing has lccn Rolcii Giow, a now-
iciiicu lusincssman who sccs ciiizcn-ccnicicu ¡lanning as viial noi only io ihc siaic`s
cconomic luiuic, lui also io ¡icsciving o¡iions loi his chiluicn anu gianuchiluicn.
In 1997, Giow, loimci ¡icsiucni ol Gcncva Siccl, agiccu io lc ihc hisi Chaii loi
Envision Uiah, a ¡ullic-¡iivaic ¡aiincishi¡ cicaicu io ucvclo¡ a giowih siiaicgy loi
Uiah. As a mcmlci ol ihc auvisoiy loaiu loi Uiah`s Dc¡aiimcni ol Communiiy 8
Economic Dcvclo¡mcni, hc hau sccn all ihc ¡io|cciions aloui ihc siaic`s giowih, anu
hc Incw Uiah was noi ¡ic¡aicu io sha¡c ii in a way ihai woulu ¡icscivc ihc siaic`s
siunning lcauiy anu high qualiiy ol lilc.
Whilc his homc siaic is laigcly iuial, ihc vasi ma|oiiiy ol iis ¡o¡ulaiion - anu mosi ol
ihc ¡io|ccicu luiuic giowih - is conccniiaicu in an cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc coiiiuoi
along ihc Wasaich Mouniains, siiciching 100 milcs io ihc noiih anu souih ol Sali
IaIc Ciiy. Thc ¡o¡ulaiion ol ihis slivci ol Uiah is cx¡ccicu io swcll liom 1.6 million
in 2000 io ò million ly 20ò0.
Thc mouniains, laIcs anu ucsciis ol Uiah, S0 ¡ciccni ol which is lcucial ¡io¡ciiy, limii
ihc amouni ol lanu availallc loi communiiics io cx¡anu. Planncis csiimaic ihai aloui
1,000 squaic milcs ol ucvclo¡allc lanu icmains in ihc Gicaici Wasaich Aica. Giow anu
oihci Uiah lcaucis woiiicu ihai, wiihoui somc immcuiaic aciion, ihc aica woulu soon
lc ovciwhclmcu ly iialhc ¡iollcms anu giowing ¡cisonal anu social cosis.
iimc icvisions ol ¡lans anu uiawings. Wc`ll
also cx¡loic somc ol ihc icchnological anu
analyiical iools lcing ucvclo¡cu io maIc
ihcsc clloiis casici anu moic acccssillc.
Stºr+ric |l+rrir]:
Crº+tir] + Sl+rº1 \isicr |cr tlº |tttrº
In icccni ycais a numlci ol ¡laccs havc
ucvclo¡cu long-iangc lluc¡iinis loi luiuic
giowih anu changc, olicn wiih a hoiizon
siiciching 20 ycais, lascu on locuscu, ¡ullic
convcisaiions aloui ihc iiauc-olls anu icnsions
involvcu in communiiy changc. This ¡ioccss
ol cialiing a vision can lc uonc ai ihc ciiy,
icgional, oi siaic lcvcl.
Thcsc clloiis aic usually lcu ly a govcinmcni
agcncy, lui noi always. As ihc lollowing
cxam¡lcs liom Uiah anu Washingion, D.C.
show, non-govcinmcnial coaliiions can also
lcau ihc way. Iniiial in¡ui liom ihc gcncial
¡ullic anu s¡ccihcally iucniihcu siaIcholucis
- such as lusincss owncis, laimcis, conscivaiion
giou¡s, cic. - is soliciicu ihiough ¡ullic o¡inion
suivcys anu qucsiionnaiics, lui much ol ihc ical
woiI ha¡¡cns in hanus-on woiIsho¡s. Usually,
ihc ¡ioccss gcnciaics iwo oi moic sccnaiios,
showing a iangc ol o¡iions loi ucnsiiy in vaiious
¡laccs, iians¡oiiaiion invcsimcnis anu ihc liIc.
Thc ¡ullic is givcn an o¡¡oiiuniiy io cx¡icss a
¡iclcicncc loi onc ol ihc sccnaiios, which may
lc auo¡icu as ihc shaicu vision io guiuc luiuic
¡lanning anu ucvclo¡mcni.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
48
Icu ly a coaliiion ol lusincss, civic anu govcinmcni lcaucis, Envision Uiah lcgan ly
lisicning io ¡co¡lc, ihousanus ol ihcm. Ciiizcns wcic inviicu io a sciics ol moic ihan
1ò0 ¡ullic woiIsho¡s whcic, ihiough innovaiivc ¡lanning iools, ihcy wcic allc io show
how ihcy wanicu io sha¡c luiuic lanu usc, iians¡oiiaiion anu o¡cn s¡acc ¡icscivaiion.
Thcn, Envision Uiah inviicu cvciy houscholu in ihc icgion io com¡lcic a suivcy on ihc
icgion`s luiuic. Uliimaicly, ncaily 17,ò00 Gicaici Wasaich Aica icsiucnis hllcu oui anu
iciuincu ihc Envision Uiah giowih suivcy. Ncaily 2,000 icsiucnis aiicnucu onc ol ò0
iown mcciings.
In ihc cnu, ciiizcns saiu ihcy wanicu moic invcsimcni in ¡ullic iiansii anu alloiuallc
housing, moic icliancc on cycling anu walIing, moic ¡icscivaiion ol o¡cn s¡accs
anu moic iown-liIc ucvclo¡mcni along Icy iians¡oiiaiion s¡incs. Thc choscn Qualiiy
Giowih Siiaicgy uc¡aiis uiamaiically liom cuiicni iicnus, consciving 171 squaic milcs
ol lanu ihai oihciwisc woulu lc ucvclo¡cu, ollciing cx¡anucu choiccs in housing anu
ncighloihoou iy¡cs, icuucing vchiclc cmissions anu iialhc congcsiion, anu saving S4.ò
lillion on iians¡oiiaiion, waici, scwci anu uiiliiy inliasiiuciuic.
Envision Uiah`s clloiis havc gaincu su¡¡oii liom ihc siaic, local govcinmcnis,
ucvclo¡cis, conscivaiionisis, anu ihc gcncial ¡ullic. Sincc ]anuaiy 1997, Envision
Uiah has sccn uiamaiic shilis in ¡ullic o¡inion icgaiuing ¡lanning loi qualiiy giowih.
Thc siaic lcgislaiuic ¡asscu ihc Qualiiy Giowih Aci csiallishing a Qualiiy Giowih
Commission, a icgion-wiuc iail iiansii sysicm is u¡ anu iunning, wiih ¡lans loi luiuic
cx¡ansion, anu ucvclo¡cis aic luiluing ncw anu innovaiivc ¡io|ccis incoi¡oiaiing
Envision Uiah`s Qualiiy Giowih Siiaicgics.
9NLlN| K|S9UKC|S
Er..·.or UìnL nì www.cnvisionutah.org ì
Au·L o¡ ìLe nrnI,·.· ¡o. Er..·.or UìnL wn· ¡e.¡o.»eJ b, ìLe ¡Inrr.r¿ ¡.» o¡ E.e¿ore·e-CnIìLo.¡e,
wL.·L Ln· ·.r·e ¡e.¡o.»eJ ·.».In. .oIe· ¡o. SouìLe.r CnI.¡o.r.n, ·ouìLe.r 1ou.·.nrn ¡o·ì-Knì..rn,
nrJ oìLe. n.en·. Eo. n IooI nì ìLo·e nrJ oìLe. ¡.o¡e·ì·, ·ee www.Ircgo.com/projccts.html
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 4º
Mºtrc ü+slir]tcr, |.C. ]ºts + Kº+lit¡ Clºt|
In Icliuaiy, 200ò, aloui S00 uccision-
maIcis liom 21 |uiisuiciions in ihc
Washingion, D.C. icgion ¡laycu Rcaliiy
ChccI,` a onc-uay cxcicisc s¡onsoicu
ly ihc Uilan Ianu Insiiiuic`s ¸UII)
Washingion uisiiici council.
Dcsigncu io losici collcciivc ihinIing
aloui ihc icgion`s giowih, ihc cvcni
lioughi iogcihci a uivcisc giou¡ ol
siaIcholucis, incluuing ¡oliiicians,
ucvclo¡cis, cnviionmcnialisis, anu
lusincss anu civic lcaucis. Using giani
ma¡s anu Icgo
®
llocIs io ic¡icscni
ucnsiiics ol |ols anu housing, ¡aiiici¡anis
woiIcu iogcihci io cicaic scvcial
sccnaiios loi accommouaiing ihc 2 million
auuiiional icsiucnis anu 1.6 million ncw
|ols cx¡ccicu ly 202ò. Thc local lcaucis
lioughi iogcihci loi Rcaliiy ChccI`
wcic asIcu io cicaic a sci ol ¡iinci¡lcs
govcining giowih in ihc icgion anu io
ucvclo¡ sccnaiios loi whcic ihai giowih
shoulu go. Paiiici¡anis icauily achicvcu
conscnsus on Icy ¡iinci¡lcs:
W Picscivc anu ¡ioicci naiuial aicas anu
giccn s¡acc,
W Cicaic ncw ucvclo¡mcni ncai iiansii,
W Mainiain a lalancc ol |ols anu housing,
anu
W Iocus ncw ucvclo¡mcni lacI inio ihc
uilan coic.
Dcvclo¡ing sccnaiios ihai coulu lc
im¡lcmcnicu wiihoui ovciwhclming
¡oliiical icsisiancc ¡iovcu lai moic
uilhculi. Mosi agiccu ihai cciiain aicas
ncai iiansii siaiions, in cxisiing iown
ccnicis anu suluilan cugc ciiics, shoulu
lc iaigcis loi giowih, lui many local
olhcials ihoughi ii woulu lc haiu io
win accc¡iancc ol ihc ncccssaiy lcvcls.
¨Ii`s casy io ¡ui a Icgo on a ma¡," saiu
Gciiy Connolly, who chaiis ihc Iaiilax
Couniy, Viiginia, Boaiu ol Su¡civisois,
¨lui ihc ¡olicy im¡licaiions ol ¡uiiing
ihai Icgo ihcic as o¡¡oscu io somcwhcic
clsc aic vciy ¡iolounu. As a icgion anu
as inuiviuual |uiisuiciions, wc`vc goi oui
woiI cui oui loi us."
Alici ihc cxcicisc, ihc UII anu ihc
D.C. icgion`s Smaii Giowih Alliancc
¡ullcu iogcihci ihc icsulis inio a ic¡oii
anu scvcn-minuic DVD ihai aic lcing
uscu io hcl¡ locus ¡ullic uiscussions
aloui ihc icgional im¡licaiions ol local
¡lanning anu ucvclo¡mcni uccisions.
A similai cxcicisc was ¡lanncu loi ihc
siaic ol Maiylanu.
Eo. »o.e or ìLe Vn·L.r¿ìor »eì.o FenI.ì,
CLe·I, ·ee www.rcalitychcckwashington.org/
Eo. ìLe .e·uIì· o¡ n ·.».In. e:e.·.·e .r 1o·
Ar¿eIe·, ..·.ì www.uli-la.org/rcalitychcck
|lctcs tctrtºs¡ c| Ur|+r L+r1 lrstitttº
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
5O
Nºw Iccls |cr lrtºr+ttirº |l+rrir]
Planning by charrette:
An intensive ond coIIoborotive
pIonning worhshop
Incicasingly ¡o¡ulai loi high-im¡aci ¡io|ccis,
chaiiciics aic accclciaicu ucsign woiIsho¡s
ihai liing all ¡aiiics iogcihci in onc ¡lacc loi
loui oi moic consccuiivc uays io collaloiaic
on ucvclo¡mcni ¡lans. Thc loium allows
cvciyonc liom aichiicci io ical csiaic maiIcici
io ncighloi io auuicss ihcii nccus anu
conccins in ihc ucsign ¡ioccss.
Uniil a lcw ycais ago, ihc woiu chaiiciic was
an olscuic icim ol aii wiihin ihc aichiicciuic
¡iolcssion. Alihough ii siill is noi a houscholu
woiu, ihc chaiiciic - an inicnsivc, mulii-¡aiiy
¡lanning anu ucsign woiIsho¡ - sccms io ¡o¡
u¡ whcicvci ihcic aic iough calls io lc mauc
aloui ucvclo¡mcni oi icucvclo¡mcni. In ihc
wccIs alici Huiiicanc Kaiiina, ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism oiganizcu a hugc chaiiciic in
Biloxi, Mississi¡¡i io hcl¡ 11 iowns ¡lan loi ihcii
icluiluing, wiih numcious lollow-on chaiiciics
wiihin ihc iowns ihcmsclvcs. IiIcwisc, many
communiiics ihioughoui Iouisiana havc iclicu
on chaiiciics io IicI-siaii ihcii ¡lanning.
A chaiiciic is a ¡lanning woiIsho¡ ihai allows
a muliiuisci¡linaiy icam - incluuing ¡lanning
anu ucsign ¡iaciiiioncis, ical csiaic anu
iciail cx¡ciis, ucvclo¡cis, local govcinmcni
olhcials - io consuli wiih icsiucnis anu oihci
siaIcholucis as ihcy ucvclo¡ ¡lans anu ucsigns
loi a ¡aiiiculai aica. Chaiiciic-lascu ¡lanning
occuis wiihin a com¡icsscu iimc liamc,
iy¡ically scvcial uays. By involving a lull iangc
ol cx¡ciis anu siaIcholucis ai ihc ouisci,
chaiiciics can hcl¡ ¡lanncis aniici¡aic anu
aua¡i io a iangc ol ¡oicniial ¡iilalls, whcihci
icchnical oi ¡oliiical. In auuiiion, a chaiiciic
¡iomoics |oini owncishi¡ ol ihc soluiion anu
aiicm¡is io uillusc iiauiiional conlioniaiion
lciwccn icsiucnis anu ucvclo¡cis.
Chaiiciics aic as much an cuucaiional cvcni as
a ¡lanning cxcicisc. Thc icsuli is ihai cvciyonc
- liom Icy uccision-maIci io ciiizcn - lccomcs
awaic ol ihc com¡lcxiiics ol ucvclo¡mcni anu
ucsign issucs, anu cvciyonc woiIs iogcihci io
iiy io accommouaic ihcm. Bui ciiizcns anu
siaIcholucis uon`i havc io iaIc a wccI oll liom
woiI io ¡aiiici¡aic. Thc ucsign icam woiIs
coniinuously uuiing ihc ·Ln..eììe, lui all oihcis ee
comc iogcihci ai s¡ccihc iimcs loi giou¡
scssion oi in small woiIing giou¡s. Ai ihc samc
iimc, anyonc is licc io chccI on ihc ¡iogicss ol
ihc uiawings, uiscussions, anu cnvisioning ¡lans
ihioughoui ihc chaiiciic. In ihis way, icsiucnis
anu local olhcials can ¡aiiici¡aic mcaninglully,
lui wiihoui giving u¡ ihcii nighis oi Saiuiuays
loi wccIs on cnu.
Dcsigncu io incoi¡oiaic ¡co¡lc`s uniquc
ialcnis, chaiiciics luilu somcihing ihai no
onc ¡cison coulu achicvc alonc. Thcy aic
lcsi uscu in siiuaiions wiih ical ¡io|ccis
whcn ucvclo¡mcni is immincni. Chaiiciics
can lc ¡aiiiculaily usclul in conicniious
siiuaiions ihai icquiic conuici icsoluiion
lccausc ihcy liing iogcihci uccision maIcis
loi a conccniiaicu ¡ciiou ol iimc io cicaic
a uciailcu, lcasillc agiccmcni ihai can
oihciwisc iaIc monihs io achicvc.
UnliIc many ¡ullic mcciings, a chaiiciic is
cx¡ciily laciliiaicu so cvciyonc is hcaiu anu
no onc uominaics. Com¡icsscu woiI scssions
aic also uscu io ¡iomoic cicaiivc ¡iollcm
solving ly accclciaiing uccision-maIing anu
icuucing unconsiiuciivc ncgoiiaiion iaciics.
Anoihci uniquc iiaii ol chaiiciics is a sciics
ol lcculacI loo¡s ihai cnallc ucsign iucas io
lc cicaicu liom a ¡ullic vision anu ¡icscnicu
wiihin houis loi luiihci icvicw, ciiiiquc, anu
ichncmcni. Ioi ¡aiiici¡anis, lcculacI losicis
a holisiic unucisianuing ol com¡lcx ¡iollcms
anu illusiiaics ihc im¡aci ol ihcii involvcmcni.
Ioi ¡lanncis, ihcsc loo¡s loim a lounuaiional
¡lan ihai icuccis all viial vicw¡oinis. This icsulis
in iiuc luy-in liom cvciyonc involvcu, which
incicascs su¡¡oii anu uccicascs ihc liIclihoou
ol challcngcs ¡iioi io im¡lcmcniaiion.
A[ter the charrcttc: ImpIementotion
Pullic involvcmcni anu ucsign aic noi ovci
whcn ihc chaiiciic is com¡lcic. Ncxi, ihc
im¡lcmcniaiion ¡hasc lcgins, ihc ucsign icam
maIcs any hnal ichncmcnis, anu ihc ¡lans aic
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 5l
AIter three proposals to oevelop the parking lots arouno rail transit station
crasheo ano burneo, local oIfcials turneo to the collaborative charrette
process to create a plan that everyone coulo enbrace.
Bcloic ihc luiluing ol inicisiaic
highway I-6S0, Walnui CiccI, Caliloinia,
was ¡icuominanily lungalow anu
ianch homcs ncsilcu among walnui
oichaius. Thc aiiival ol a ma|oi highway
inicichangc, au|accni io ihc Plcasani
Hill siaiion ol ihc Bay Aica Ra¡iu Tiansii
¸BART), lcgan io changc whai was oncc
a quici agiiculiuial vallcy inio a icgional
iians¡oiiaiion hul.
In ihc caily 19S0s, Coniia Cosia Couniy
auo¡icu a s¡ccihc ¡lan loi ihc 140-acic
aica aiounu ihc siaiion ihai callcu loi a
high-ucnsiiy mix ol housing, olhccs anu
sho¡s. In ihc 19S0s anu caily 1990s ihc
aica cx¡ciicnccu sulsianiial giowih,
wiih ihc auuiiion ol 2,400 housing uniis,
hoicls anu olhccs. Whcn ihc iiansii agcncy
anu local olhcials ucciucu io aci on a
longsianuing ¡lan io ucvclo¡ ihc 1S acics
ol ¡aiIing lois immcuiaicly au|accni io ihc
siaiion, ciiizcns lalIcu. Thicc sulscqucni
ucvclo¡mcni ¡io¡osals laicu no lciici.
Ciiizcns lclicvcu ihc ¡lans woulu cicaic a
iialhc nighimaic, anu ihai ihcy wcic givcn
limiicu o¡¡oiiuniiics io ¡ioviuc in¡ui on
ihc ucvclo¡mcni ¡io¡osals anu whcn ihcy
wcic cngagcu ihcic wcic ioo lcw o¡iions
on ihc iallc. Thcy uug in anu loughi ihc
ucvclo¡mcni io a sianusiill.
In 1999, alici a lailcu aiicm¡i io ¡lan a
icgional cniciiainmcni com¡lcx on ihc
¡io¡ciiy, Couniy Su¡civisoi Donna Gcilci
k11rºssir] Ir+|ht lsstºs witl + Cl+rrºttº
A version oI this piece, by Bill Lennertz oI the National Charrette lnstitute, frst appeareo
in "Choosing Cur Connunity´s Future¨ available at www.snartgrowthanerica.org
¡io¡oscu a ¡ullic ucsign woiIsho¡ - a
chaiiciic - io ¡lan a ¡io|cci loi ihc siic.
A consuliani icam ol ¡lanncis, aichiiccis,
iians¡oiiaiion cnginccis, anu cconomisis
hclu an iniiial ¡ullic mcciing six wccIs
lcloic ihc siaii ol ihc chaiiciic io inloim
ihc ¡ullic aloui ihc chaiiciic ¡ioccss anu
io solicii ihcii iucas loi ihc ncighloihoou.
Duiing ihc mcciing, ciiizcns woiIcu in
small giou¡s io uiscuss how ihc ¡io|cci
iclaicu io ihc aica anu whai a vision loi
ihc ucvclo¡cu siic mighi looI liIc. Thc
consulianis ihcn iooI ihis in¡ui anu
comlincu ii wiih oihci ciiiical inloimaiion
such as maiIci ucmanu, hnancing
icquiicmcnis anu siic consiiainis io
ucvclo¡ ¡icliminaiy concc¡is loi ihc siic.
A monih laici, ihc consuliani icam
lcgan a six-uay chaiiciic ihai was o¡cn
io inicicsicu ciiizcns anu incluucu
siaIcholuci mcciings wiih ncighlois, a
icchnical auvisoiy commiiicc, licyclc anu
¡cucsiiian giou¡s, BART ic¡icscniaiivcs
anu oihcis.
Thc ¡iimaiy ¡oini ol conicniion loi
ihc ncighloihoou was iialhc. Ovci ihc
ycais, ¡co¡lc waichcu as iialhc on Ticai
Boulcvaiu lccamc woisc anu woisc.
Thc mosi vocal ncighlois uisiiusicu ihc
cxisiing iialhc siuuics lccausc ihcy wcic
lascu on ihc couniy`s iwo-ycai-olu iialhc
counis, which ihcy vicwcu as ouiuaicu.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
52
¡icscnicu io ihc ¡ullic ai a chaiiciic lollow-
u¡ mcciing - a ciiiical com¡oncni ol ihc
ovciall ¡ioccss.
As somconc who has lccn involvcu in many
chaiiciics, REAITOR
®
WluIa says, ¨Thcy`ic
wonucilul iools, cs¡ccially whilc ihcy lasi,
lui ihc aliciglow can lauc quicIly. Thc
chaiiciic ¡ioccss has io havc a lollow-u¡
icauy io go immcuiaicly."
Public Cpinion Surveys
Pullic o¡inion suivcys, oi ¡olls, aic a usclul
icchniquc whcn uccision maIcis nccu io
lcain moic aloui ¡ullic scniimcnis - whcic
ihc ¡ullic sianus on Icy issucs anu whai ihcii
¡iioiiiics aic going loiwaiu. Thcy can also lc
uscu io asscss changing vicws ovci iimc.
Suivcys can lc loimal oi inloimal anu
can lc conuucicu ai any iimc, ihiough
qucsiionnaiics, iclc¡honc inicivicws, oi in
¡cison. Ioimal suivcys aic ucvclo¡cu anu
auminisicicu in a scicniihc way, using a
limiicu ianuom sam¡lc choscn io siaiisiically
ic¡icscni a laigci giou¡. Dcsigncu io ¡ioviuc
a com¡osiic vicw ol a laigci ¡o¡ulaiion,
k11rºssir] Ir+|ht lsstºs witl + Cl+rrºttº tcrtirtº1
On ihc scconu uay ol ihc chaiiciic, ihc
ncighloihoou lcaucishi¡ cm¡hasizcu
ihc ¡iollcm wiih ihc valiuiiy ol ihc
iialhc counis. Thc chaiiciic managci
anu couniy ¡lanncis ihcn ucciucu ai
ihai momcni io oiuci ncw counis io
lcgin ihc ncxi uay. This quicI aciion was
an im¡oiiani licaIihiough lccausc ii
valiuaicu ciiizcn conccins ihai ¡icviously
hau lccn liushcu asiuc.
Siill, ¡aiiici¡anis hau ucc¡ uoulis. ¨No
maiici how wcll you ucsign ii," ihcy
insisicu, ¨ihc iialhc will only gci woisc."
Thc ucsign icam iccognizcu ihai ihc
¡io|cci coulu noi movc loiwaiu wiihoui
a concicic answci io ihis ol|cciion so
ihcy schcuulcu an au hoc iians¡oiiaiion
mcciing loi ihc ncxi cvcning ol ihc
chaiiciic. Wiih 60 ¡co¡lc in aiicnuancc,
ihc consulianis icvicwcu ihc giowih
iicnus in ihc couniy anu ucmonsiiaicu
ihai ihc ucvclo¡mcni ¡io¡oscu loi ihc
siic liIcly woulu lc luili somcwhcic clsc
wiihin ihc couniy il noi ai ihis s¡ccihc
locaiion. Thcy also showcu ihai luiluing
in ihc convcniional s¡icau-oui lashion
woulu maIc ihc ovciall iialhc ¡iollcm
in ihc couniy lai woisc. Bccausc ol iis
¡ioximiiy io ihc ma|oi iians¡oiiaiion
acccss ¡oinis, ihc siaiion aica was ihc lcsi
¡lacc loi ihis ucvclo¡mcni, ihcy saiu. In
auuiiion, ihc ncw iialhc analysis lounu
ihai ihc alicinaiivcs unuci consiuciaiion
in ihc chaiiciic woulu auu only ò% moic
iialhc io Ticai Boulcvaiu. Oncc ihc
iialhc issuc was auuicsscu io cvciyonc`s
saiislaciion, ihc chaiiciic was allc io
¡iocccu io ihc cicaiion ol a ucsign
soluiion loi ihc ¡io¡ciiy.
Thc ucsign icam woiIcu wiih all ol ihc
in¡ui liom ihcsc mcciings anu ucvclo¡cu
alicinaiivc concc¡is, which wcic ichncu
liom luiihci in¡ui, ¡icscnicu again, anu
ichncu siill luiihci in scvcial cyclcs. In ihc
couisc ol ihc six-uay ¡ioccss a ¡lan cmcigcu
ihai woulu guiuc ihc looI anu lccl ol ihc
¡io|cci, insiallaiion ol walIways anu ¡aiIs,
siicci anu iiansii ciiculaiion, anu moic. Thc
icsuliing conscnsus vision cnucu ihc six-ycai
ucaulocI. In 2002, ihc loaiu ol Couniy
Su¡civisois unanimously a¡¡iovcu ihc ¡lan
wiih no onc s¡caIing in o¡¡osiiion.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
TLe Nnì.ornI CLn..eììe Ir·ì.ìuìe:
www.charrcttcinstitutc.org
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 53
Visual PreIerence Survey
In a Visual Piclcicncc Suivcy, ¡aiiici¡anis aic asIcu io vicw a sciics ol imagcs anu
ianI ihcm on a scalc liom -10 io +10, +10 lcing ¨highly accc¡iallc on ihc onc hanu
io -10 lcing highly unaccc¡iallc on ihc oihci in ics¡onsc io ihc qucsiion: ¨How
shoulu wc luilu ncw ucvclo¡mcnis in ihc luiuic." In ihc cxam¡lc lclow, ihc imagc
on ihc lcli icccivcu an avciagc scoic ol -4 anu ihc imagc on ihc iighi icccivcu an
avciagc scoic ol +ò. (See ¡n¿e :¬.)
loimal suivcys aic lcsi uscu whcn an cniiiy
sccIs io mcasuic ihc lcvcl ol su¡¡oii loi a
¡aiiiculai iniiiaiivc, ¡lan, oi ¡io|cci. Inloimal
suivcys - such as onlinc ¡olls - olicn involvc
laigci numlcis ol ¡co¡lc, lui ihc ics¡onscs
aic scll-sclccicu anu cannoi lc cxiia¡olaicu
io a laigci ¡o¡ulaiion. Thcy aic lcsi uscu io
su¡¡lcmcni ¡ullic mcciings, such as ·Ln..eììe·
anu visioning scssions.
NAR poIIing ossistonce [or stote
ond IocoI ossociotions
REAITOR
®
RR Pai Ka¡lan, loimci chaii ol NAR`s
Smaii Giowih Auvisoiy Giou¡, says shc hnus
suivcys anu ¡olls ¨hcl¡lul anu vciy cllcciivc."
Shc also noics ihai NAR uocs icgulai suivcys
anu ¡olls aloui smaii giowih anu says, ¨NAR
can assisi siaic oi local REAITOR
®
RR associaiions
wiih unuciiaIing similai ¡olls, which can lc
incicuilly cllcciivc." Icain moic aloui NAR`s
¡olling assisiancc ¡iogiam ai: www.icalioi.
oig/¡olling
Evaluating projects ano plans: Using
scorecaros, auoits ano jurieo awaros
Ovci ihc lasi scvcial ycais a numlci ol
siaics, munici¡aliiics anu non-govcinmcnial
oiganizaiions havc ucvclo¡cu a iangc ol
iools io iaic ihc ucgicc io which ¡olicics,
coucs anu ¡io|cci ucsigns auvancc ihc goals
ol smaiici giowih. Many ol ihcsc iaIc ihc
loim ol scoiccaius, which awaiu lciici giaucs
oi ¡oinis loi cach clcmcni ol ihc locally
auo¡icu ¡iinci¡lcs.
Oihcis aic iools loi auuiiing ihc coucs anu
¡olicics ihai local govcinmcnis havc in ¡lacc,
in oiuci io iucniily ihosc ihai ¡iomoic oi
im¡cuc ¡iogicss iowaiu goals ouilincu in
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lans anu ¡olicy ucclaiaiions.
Thc qucsiions anu answcis in a scoiccaiu
oi auuii can hcl¡ sha¡c ihc uiscussion ol a
communiiy`s ucvclo¡mcni goals, anu ihcy
scivc as loih an cuucaiional iool anu an
asscssmcni iool. (Corì.rueJ ¡n¿e :0)
Cctrtºs¡ k. Nºlºssºr ksscti+tºs, lrt.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
54
Slcw Mº + |itttrº:
\ist+l +i1s |cr 1ºtisicr·m+|ir]
Visual PreIerence Surveys
A visual preIerence survey allows
responoents to view photographs oI
oiIIerent neighborhooo Ieatures ano
rate then. The survey is oIten
aoninistereo in public Ioruns as a set
oI slioes, but it also can be presenteo
on a written ballot or in a web-baseo
Iornat. Participants oIten view ano
conpare two photographs oI oiIIerent
houses, streetscapes, or other scenes.
Visual preIerence surveys can clearly
illustrate preIerreo architectural styles,
builoing setbacks, the site layout oI a
new oevelopnent, size ano scope oI
proposeo transportation Iacilities, new
lanoscaping possibilities, the potential
appearance oI a revitalizeo oowntown
corrioor, ano other oesign elenents.
The inIornation can help oecision-
nakers get a clear sense oI how
policies ano regulations help or hurt in
creating the kino oI places their
constituents respono to nost positively.
(See box on page 53.)
Conputer-aioeo lnaging
Constantly evolving conputer-aioeo
inaging allows Ior the creation oI
two-oinensional views ano three-
oinensional nooels to showcase
a potential project beIore it is built,
aooing or renoving certain Ieatures.
When planners ano architectural frns
use conputer generateo-inages or
nooels in a public Iorun, it allows the
public to see a realistic view oI what a
new oevelopnent night look like, oIten
enabling nore constructive public input.
The inages at the right were oevelopeo
by Urban Aovantage to help connunity
nenbers see how their connunity
can change.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 55
Sincc iis iniiouuciion a lcw ycais ago, ihc
IEED iaiing sysicm ucvclo¡cu ly ihc U.S.
Giccn Builuing Council ¸USGBC) has
gaincu wiuc accc¡iancc as a way loih io
icach lcsi ¡iaciiccs in icsouicc-clhcicni
luiluing ucsign, anu io iccognizc ihc
luilucis anu luiluings ihai usc ihcm.
Unuci IEED, ¡io|ccis can cain Cciiihcu,
Silvci, Golu, oi Plaiinum siaius ly mcciing
iigoious ciiiciia in scvcial caicgoiics:
susiainallc siics, waici clhcicncy, cncigy
anu aimos¡hcic, inuooi cnviionmcnial
qualiiy, maiciials anu icsouiccs, anu
innovaiion in ucsign.
Ciiiics ol ihc IEED sysicm havc aigucu ihai
ii givcs ioo liiilc wcighi io ihc luiluing`s
conicxi. Ioi cxam¡lc, a lianu-ncw
olhcc luiluing in a coinhclu icachallc
only ly cai coulu iaic highci loi cncigy
savings ihan a icnovaicu in-iown luiluing
acccssillc ly sulway, looi, liIc, anu cai.
Ai ihc samc iimc, acInowlcugcs uilan
ucsignci Doug Iaii, ihc USGBC coulu
ciiiicizc Ncw Uilanisi anu smaii giowih
auvocaics loi ncighloihoou ucsigns ihai
lall shoii on minimizing sioim-waici iunoll,
nighi-sIy lighiing, oi ihc hcai-islanu cllcci.
¨Wc wanicu io scc il wc coulu woiI
iogcihci io comc u¡ wiih a iaiing sysicm
loi giccn, smaii-giowih ncighloihoous,"
saiu Iaii, a Chicago Ncw Uilanisi anu
giccn aichiicci ics¡onsillc loi scvcial
IEED-iaicu luiluings himscll. Iaii has
lccn ic¡icscniing ihc Congicss loi ihc
Ncw Uilanism ¸CNU) in a ihicc-way
¡lanning clloii among CNU, ihc USGBC,
anu ihc Naiuial Rcsouiccs Dclcnsc
I+|ir] tlº L||| ir ûrººrir] tlº Nºi]l|crlcc1
Council ¸NRDC), which has cx¡ciiisc in
loih smaii giowih anu cnviionmcnial
ucsign. Thc collaloiaiion ¡iouuccu
a 1ò-mcmlci ¡ancl ol cx¡ciis ihai is
csiallishing iaiing ciiiciia loi whai is
lcing callcu IEED-ND, loi ncighloihoou
ucvclo¡mcni. Thc ¡iogiam will lc ¡iloicu
in ihc lall ol 2006, commcnis anu icvisions
will lc mauc in 2007, anu ihc lull ¡iogiam
is cx¡ccicu io lc launchcu in 200S.
Iaii sccs ihc ND ucsignaiion as auuing ai
lcasi iwo ncw iaiing caicgoiics: locaiion
anu linIagc. ¨Ioi locaiion you woulu
asI: Is ii lca¡liog ucvclo¡mcni oi in a
¡iclciicu giowih aica. Is ihcic a ¡lan
loi iiansii oi oihci inliasiiuciuic. Thc
oihci ]linIagc| auuicsscs ncighloihoou
¡aiicins - ¡cucsiiian linIagcs, having
somcihing io walI io."
Thc uiali iaiing sysicm awaius ¡oini
noi only loi ¡hysical ucsign, lui also
loi cconomic anu social goals, such as
incluuing alloiuallc housing ncai |ols.
Thosc goals havc an cnviionmcnial
com¡oncni, in ihai housing closc io |ols
anu ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion can icuucc
ihc aii anu cncigy im¡acis ol long cai
commuics. Bui ihc conicxi - Is ihcic ioo
much oi ioo liiilc low-incomc housing
ncaily. Whai aic local nccus. - is liIcly io
vaiy so wiucly ihai sianuaiu-sciiing coulu
lc vciy uilhculi, Bcnhclu saiu.
9NLlN| K|S9UKC|S
TLe U.S. C.eer Bu.IJ.r¿: www.usgbc.org/
DisplayPagc.aspx?CMSPagcID=148
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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56
On ihc lollowing ¡agc wc ollci an allicviaicu
vcision ol onc sam¡lc scoiccaiu loi illusiiaiivc
¡ui¡oscs.
Cnly weeks beIore Katrina laio waste
to key sections oI his historic town,
CulIport Nayor Brent Warr hao cone
into oIfce with a pronise to overhaul
the city´s zoning ano oevelopnent
practices. Even he oion´t realize what
a oranatic revision that woulo be.
AIter the storn, Warr recognizeo
quickly that the conventional zoning
ano other cooes - which calleo
Ior strict separation oI uses, oeep
setbacks ano auto-orienteo streets -
were unlikely to recreate the hunan-
scale Ieel oI the city´s walkable, one-
oI-a-kino historic Iabric.
Two nonths aIter the storn, when the
Nississippi Renewal Forun brought
llO New Urbanist oesigners ano
planners to the coast Ior eight oays,
Warr was there oay ano night, sharing
his ioeas ano vision ano absorbing
all that he coulo Iron the visiting
experts. At the eno, he hao a large
part oI his answer, a new approach
to guioing oevelopnent known as
Iorn-baseo cooes.
"lt´s the best way we know to get
sonething like the traoitional look
ano Ieel,¨ says Warr.
Ano conventional zoning, as critics
woulo have it, is the best way to
continue stanping out the typical,
asphalt-heavy oevelopnent patterns
the CulI Coast was seeing beIore the
storn. While the city is likely to nake
the cooe an optional overlay, he is
confoent it will be useo. "l´o lay 7O
to 8O percent ooos that Iorn-baseo
cooes will shape a lot oI what gets
built or rebuilt in CulIport.¨
lrrcr+ticrs ir lcrir] +r1
|ºrºlcpmºrt Cc1ºs
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» Ceìì.r¿ ìLe CoJe· F.¿Lì: Eo.»-bn·eJ
·oJe· »n, be ìLe Ie, ìo ¡uìu.e ·o»»ur.ì, ¡Inr·`
b, Dn..J CoIJbe.¿, .r On Common Giounu r
Magazinc, S¡..r¿ 2uu0.
The critique oI conventional zoning
Convcniional zoning - iclciicu io as
¨Eucliucan" alici ihc Su¡icmc Couii casc
ihai lcgalizcu ii, TLe V.IIn¿e o¡ Eu·I.J .. A»bIe.
FenIì, - uiviucs ihc noimal lunciions ol ihc
ciiy inio uisiiicis icsiiicicu ly usc. In ihc
lcginning, zoning was iaiionalizcu as a way io
sc¡aiaic homcs liom smoIcsiacIs, siocIyaius
anu oihci noxious uscs. Touay, ciiiics say,
ii olicn is uscu io sc¡aiaic com¡aiillc uscs
liom onc anoihci. Noi only aic houscs
loiliuucn io locaic ncai sho¡s, lui cvcn
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
U.S. EPA`· S»n.ì C.owìL S·o.e·n.J web ·.ìe:
www.cpa.gov/smartgrowth/scorccards/
indcx.htm
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 57
Thc lollowing scoiccaiu shows how a
communiiy can cvaluaic whcihci ncw
ucvclo¡mcni will lc an ovciall lcnchi. Ii
was aua¡icu liom a iool uscu ly ihc siaic
ol Maiylanu io |uugc whcihci ¡lans anu
¡io¡osals mcci sianuaius unuci ihc siaic`s
Smaii Giowih ¡iogiam.
Thc ciiiciia icucci ihc ihicc goals
ol sicciing ucvclo¡mcni ìown.J lanu
ucsignaicu locally as a¡¡io¡iiaic loi
ucvclo¡mcni anu nwn, ¡.o» ucsignaicu
agiiculiuial, o¡cn s¡acc, culiuial anu
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc aicas, anu
cnsuiing ihai ucvclo¡mcni maIcs e¡¡·.erì
u·e ol lanu. Each ciiiciion can lc iaicu as
¨¡ooi", ¨goou", ¨vciy goou" oi ¨cxccllcni".
Location
Thc ¡io|cci locaiion icinloiccs anu
logically cxicnus cxisiing anu ¡lanncu
ucvclo¡mcni.
Thc ¡io|cci icucvclo¡s a liownhclu
siic oi a siic/locaiion iccciving
siaic oi local assisiancc io su¡¡oii
icucvclo¡mcni.
Public Services ano lnIrastructure
Thc ¡io¡osal uscs cxisiing oi ¡lanncu
waici anu scwci lincs.
Thc ¡io¡osal aligns wiih cxisiing anu
¡lanncu school ca¡aciiy.
Thc ¡io¡osal uscs cxisiing oi ¡lanncu
ioau ca¡aciiy, wiihoui ovciiaxing ii.
Thc ¡io¡osal maIcs usc ol cxisiing oi
¡lanncu ¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion scivicc.
Conpactness ano EIfciency
Thc ucnsiiy is a¡¡io¡iiaic io ihc
locaiion ¸loi cxam¡lc, 10 uniis/acic
k SkM|L| SC9K|CkK|
Bcw 1c ¡ct |rcw wlºr its "sm+rt¨ ]rcwtl!
loi lus scivicc, 20 oi moic loi aicas
au|accni io iail siaiions)
Siic aica ucvoicu io ¡aiIing is
minimizcu, anu any suilacc ¡aiIing is
lchinu oi lcsiuc luiluings.
Dcvclo¡mcni is clusicicu io ¡ioviuc
ihc samc oi highci ucnsiiy wiih laigc
aicas ol o¡cn s¡acc.
Diversity oI Use
Thc ¡io|cci ¡ioviucs a mix ol lanu uscs
oi loi singlc usc ¡io|ccis, auus io ihc
uivcisiiy ol uscs wiihin 1/2 milc.
Dillcicni uscs oi iy¡cs aic ¡hysically
mixcu in ihc ¡io|cci oi wiihin
ihc au|accni ¸1/4 milc iauius)
ncighloihoou.
Housing Diversity
Thc ¡io|cci ¡ioviucs uillcicni housing
iy¡cs anu/oi incicascs ihc uivcisiiy ol
housing o¡iions in ihc immcuiaic ¸1/4
milc) ncighloihoou.
Thc ¡io|cci ¡ioviucs a vaiiciy ol
housing ¡iiccs alloiuallc io uillcicni
incomc lcvcls anu/oi incicascs ihc
uivcisiiy ol housing ¡iiccs in ihc
immcuiaic ¸1/4 milc) ncighloihoou.
Housing iy¡cs anu/oi ¡iicc lcvcls
aic ¡hysically mixcu in ihc ¡io|cci
oi wiihin ihc immcuiaic au|accni
ncighloihoou.
Ai lcasi 10% ol ihc icsiucniial uniis
¡ioviucu aic alloiuallc io ihosc
maIing lcss ihcn mcuian incomc, oi
aic ai a ¡iicc lcvcl oi iy¡c ihai mccis
an cx¡liciily siaicu housing goal ol ihc
local govcinmcni.
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58
Transportation & Accessibility
Iicqucnily visiicu uscs aic wiihin a hall-
milc ol ihc ¡io¡oscu ¡io|cci, anu aic
casily acccssillc io ¡cucsiiians. Uscs
incluuc giocciy, oihci iciail, icsiauianis,
school oi uay caic, ¡aiI, ¡ullic s¡acc oi
iccicaiion/cniciiainmcni, |ols ccnici,
oihci sciviccs, such ¡osi olhcc.
Thc ¡io|cci ¡ioviucs iwo oi moic
iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions ¸c.g. walI, liIc,
lus, iail) in auuiiion io ihc cai ihai
aic icauily availallc io ihc ma|oiiiy ol
¡co¡lc using ihc ¡io|cci.
Thc ¡io|cci ioau sysicm connccis io
anu logically cxicnus cxicinal siicci
anu iians¡oiiaiion sysicms ai mulii¡lc
locaiions.
Thc ¡io|cci is locaicu on an cxisiing
iniciconnccicu siicci sysicm, oi
¡ioviucs an inicinal siicci sysicm ihai
is iniciconnccicu.
Thc ¡io¡oscu oi cxisiing siiccisca¡c
anu ¡aiIing ucsigns aic salc anu
¡cucsiiian liicnuly.
Connunity Character ano Design
Builuings aic oiicnicu io mainiain
oi csiallish a consisicni cugc liom
ihc siicci.
Builuing cxiciioi ucsigns aic visually
inicicsiing, ¡cucsiiian liicnuly anu
csiallish oi auu io aica ucsign chaiacici.
Pullic s¡accs ¸communiiy ccnicis,
iccicaiional laciliiics, ¡aiIs, ¡lazas,
o¡cn s¡acc) aic ¡ioviucu anu
acccssillc.
Pio|cci mainiains oi ichaliliiaics
cxisiing siiuciuics loi coniinuing usc.
Environnental Protection
Thc ¡io|cci ucsign anu locaiion is
liIcly io lcnchi icgional aii qualiiy
¸icuuccs ihc numlci anu/oi lcngih ol
vchiclc iii¡s ovci convcniional, auio-
oiicnicu ucvclo¡mcni).
Thc ¡io|cci uscs ¨giccn luiluing"
ucsign icchniqucs loi siic sclcciion,
consiiuciion anu o¡ciaiion ¡iaciiccs,
cncigy anu waici usc clhcicncy, anu
¡ioviucs hcalihy luiluing s¡accs.
Thc ¡io|cci avoius ucvclo¡mcni on
wcilanus, siicams, shoiclincs anu
iclaicu lullci aicas.
Thc ¡io|cci avoius ucvclo¡mcni on
slo¡cs sicc¡ci ihan 1ò% oi on unsiallc
soils liIcly io ciouc, on uoou¡lains,
oi on haliiai loi ihicaicncu oi
cnuangcicu s¡ccics.
Thc ¡io|cci uscs ucsign icchniqucs
such as clusiciing anu vciiical
ucvclo¡mcni io avoiu scnsiiivc
cnviionmcnial lcaiuics, minimizc
ucvclo¡mcni aica anu/oi maximizc
aicas ol coniiguous o¡cn s¡acc on siic.
Thc ¡io|cci iclicvcs ucvclo¡mcni
¡icssuic on naiuial icsouiccs on
oi oll siic ihiough usc ol iianslci
ol ucvclo¡mcni iighis, long-icim
¡ioicciion siiaicgics oi oihci mcans.
Stakeholoer Participation ano
Connunity Developnent
Inclusivc ciiizcn anu siaIcholuci
¡aiiici¡aiion lcgins caily anu is
conuucicu ihioughoui ihc ¡io|cci
a¡¡ioval ¡ioccss.
Thc ¡io¡oscu ¡io|cci mccis iucniihcu
communiiy anu aica nccus anu ¡lans.
Thc ¡io¡oscu ¡io|cci ¡osiiivcly
im¡acis cm¡loymcni o¡¡oiiuniiics in
ihc communiiy.
Thc ¡io|cci hcl¡s io cicaic oi mainiain
a lalancc ol housing anu |ols wiihin a
ò-milc iauius.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 5º
uillcicni housing iy¡cs aic scgicgaicu liom
cach oihci, so ihai laigc houscs aic sc¡aiaic
liom small houscs, sianu-alonc houscs aic
scgicgaicu liom a¡aiimcnis anu iownhouscs,
anu so on. Thc iauical sc¡aiaiion ol uscs
icquiics a cai iii¡ loi cvciy aciiviiy, anu so
zoning anu ucvclo¡mcni coucs ucmanu wiuc
ioaus anu on-siic ¡aiIing loi cvciy luiluing.
Convcniional zoning coulu lc icgaiucu as
ihc DNA ol s¡iawl.
Planncis anu aichiiccis havc lcgun io auuicss
ihc shoiicomings ol Eucliuian zoning wiih a
vaiiciy ol innovaiivc sysicms, incluuing loim-
lascu coucs, ovcilay uisiiicis, anu s¡ccial
ichaliliiaiion coucs.
Cooing Ior character:
Forn-baseo cooes
As an alicinaiivc, ¡lanncis anu ucsigncis
looIing io mcci ihc giowing ucmanu loi
moic walIallc, iiauiiional iown ccnicis anu
ncighloihoous havc lccn ucvclo¡ing loim-
lascu coucs. Convcniional zoning locuscs on
isolaiing uscs anu coniiolling ucnsiiy, whilc
saying vciy liiilc aloui how a communiiy
shoulu looI anu lccl. Ioim-lascu coucs
icgaiu usc as only onc lacioi in maIing an
a¡¡caling communiiy. Ioim-lascu coucs
icgulaic usc io an cxicni, lui ¡iimaiily s¡ccily
ihc loim ol luiluings ihai aic a¡¡io¡iiaic
io a givcn siicci oi ncighloihoou. This can
allow a ¡lacc io cvolvc ovci iimc, lui wiihoui
iauically aliciing ihc chaiacici. ¨ThinI ol ihc
waichousc uisiiicis ihai havc moi¡hcu inio
iicnuy aiis uisiiicis wiih siicci-lcvcl sho¡s
anu gallciics anu lolis alovc," says Pcici Kaiz,
¡icsiucni ol ihc Ioim-Bascu Coucs Insiiiuic
¸www.loimlascucoucs.oig). ¨Thc loim ol
ihc luiluings hasn`i changcu much, lui
ihc inicinal uscs havc all changcu. Unuci
usc-lascu zoning, such a changc woulu lc
consiucicu uiasiic, lccausc ihc lanu-usc
caicgoiy has gonc liom inuusiiial, ai onc cnu
ol ihc s¡cciium, io icsiucniial, ai ihc oihci,
alihough io ihc avciagc onlooIci, ihc ¡lacc
looIs ¡iciiy much ihc samc." A loim-lascu
couc coulu hcl¡ io cncouiagc such aua¡iaiion
ly icmoving many ol ihc icgulaioiy huiulcs io
lc clcaicu.
Whilc convcniional zoning iclics on hugc
looIs ol icxi, loim-lascu coucs maIc usc
ol gia¡hics anu illusiiaiions along wiih icxi
io inuicaic whai Iinu ol ¡lacc is cnvisioncu
- whcihci a iown ccnici, a ncighloihoou wiih
a walI io sho¡¡ing uisiiici, a slcc¡y villagc oi
a lusiling ccniial lusincss uisiiici. Anu whilc
zoning coucs olicn cxisi inuc¡cnucni ol, anu
somciimcs in o¡¡osiiion io, a communiiy`s
¡lans anu vision, loim-lascu coucs aic
ucsigncu io lc a lluc¡iini loi maIing a shaicu
vision loi a ¡lacc a icaliiy.
Inuccu, lccausc such coucs, anu ihc ¡ioccss
ihai ¡iouuccs ihcm, havc ihc ¡oicniial io
icuucc ihc icgulaioiy hcau-langing anu au
hoc uccision maIing, ihcy aic giowing in
¡o¡ulaiiiy, says Paul Ciawloiu, a Caliloinia
¡lannci who now has hcl¡cu io wiiic 22
ol ihcm. A vcician ol a couniy ¡lanning
uc¡aiimcni anu auihoi ol S0 convcniional
zoning ¡lans lcloic iuining io loim-lascu
coucs, Ciawloiu ucvclo¡cu Caliloinia s hisi
couc loi Sonoma in 1999. ¨Whcn a communiiy
is clcai aloui whai Iinu ol ucvclo¡mcni
his anu whai uocsn`i, ii maIcs ihc uccision-
maIing moic ¡icuiciallc loi cvciyonc
involvcu," says Ciawloiu.
¨A loi ol communiiics aic icwiiiing ihcii
gcncial ¡lans wiih high-minucu goals ol
susiainaliliiy, walIaliliiy, ci ccicia, lui ihcy`ic
noi icwiiiing ihcii zoning oiuinanccs," says
Pcici Kaiz, loimci uiiccioi ol ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism. ¨Il you Inow whai ii is you
wani io scc luili, anu you Inow whai ii looIs
liIc, loim-lascu coucs maIc ii casy."
Though loim-lascu coucs gcncially aic a
icccni ¡hcnomcnon, ihc moucin iaIc on ihcm
cmcigcu 2ò ycais ago, whcn Anuiós Duany
anu Elizalcih Plaici-ZylciI ucsigncu Scasiuc,
Iloiiua. Thc huslanu-wilc icam wanicu ihc ncw
iown io havc ihc loim anu comloiiallc lunciion
ol a iiauiiional Souihcin iown, lui ihcy uiu noi
wani ii io havc ihc ovcily masici ¡lanncu looI
ol a ¡lacc ucsigncu ly a singlc aichiicci. Duany
himscll says hc goi ihc iuca liom ¡iaciiccs ihai
wcic common in ihc siiccicai suluils anu ncw
iowns luili inio ihc 1920s.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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6O
PIonning bosed on the °tronsect`
In oiuci io a¡¡ly a loim-lascu couc, a
communiiy hisi has io ucciuc ihiough a
¡lanning cxcicisc whai Iinu ol ¡lacc ihcy`ic
couing loi. Thai is, ¡lanncis ucciuc whcic on
ihc scalc liom mosi iuial io mosi inicnsivcly
uilan cach aica lalls. In uoing so, mosi icly on
somc vcision ol ihc iuial -io- uilan ì.nr·e·ì, a ìì
concc¡i loiiowcu liom ccological siuuics ihai
caicgoiizc wilulilc haliiai.
Thc iianscci ucsciilcs a iangc ol human
haliiai, liom iuial hamlci, io ihc laigci
villagc, io ihc moic com¡lcx iown anu
hnally ihc ucnscsi uilan ccnici. By hisioiic
convcniion anu lunciion, cach cnviionmcni
has iis own sianuaius loi ihc clcmcnis ol
human sciilcmcni: luiluing, siicci, loi, lanu
usc, amouni anu chaiacici ol ¡ullic anu o¡cn
s¡acc, cic. Townhouscs, loi cxam¡lc, mighi
lc oui ol ¡lacc in a iuial hamlci, lui ihcy aic
a¡¡io¡iiaic, anu cvcn ncccssaiy, in a iown
ccnici. In lcciuics on ihc io¡ic, Duany liIcns
ii io looiwcai: Thc shocs you woulu wcai io
mucI siallcs woulu noi lc a¡¡io¡iiaic io wcai
io a llacI-iic lall.
Thcsc cnviionmcnial lcaiuics can, anu uo,
vaiy liom icgion io icgion anu ciiy io ciiy.
Ioi ihai icason, ¡lanncis ¨caliliaic" ihc couc
lascu on ihc chaiaciciisiics ol ihc ¡lacc whcic
ihcy`ic woiIing, ly going inio ihc hclu anu
mcasuiing, say, ihc usual scilacIs ol houscs
oi siicci wiuihs anu oihci lcaiuics ol ihc
local ¡laccs ihai ihc communiiy woulu liIc io
cmulaic. Thcsc aic ihcn incoi¡oiaicu inio ihc
sianuaius loi cach iianscci zonc, oi T-zonc.
Iucally, ihc ioaus ihai cui acioss many iianscci
zoncs woulu changc ucsigns io icucci cach
cnviionmcni, says Sanuy Soilicn, who wiiics
loim-lascu coucs loi Duany-Plaici ZylciI.
¨In iuial zoncs a ioau mighi lc a high-s¡ccu
highway, lccausc ihcic aicn`i ¡co¡lc walIing,
sho¡¡ing oi chiluicn ¡laying. As ii gcis io
iown ihc ucsign nccus io icucci ihc s¡ccu
you wani ¡co¡lc io uiivc. Thai may mcan
naiiowing ihc lancs, on-siicci ¡aiIing anu
iounualouis. Ruial aicas uon`i havc cuils anu
siucwalIs, lui siiccis in iown uo."
Venturo, CoIi[ornio
Vcniuia, Caliloinia is hnalizing a couc loi
a uowniown uisiiici ihai is cx¡ccicu io lc
onc ol loui aicas wiih loim-lascu ovcilays,
says William Iulion, a Vcniuia council
mcmlci anu a lcauing cx¡cii on ¡lanning
in Caliloinia. ¨In a mixcu-usc uisiiici, ihis
gcis us oui ol micio-managing whai gocs on
insiuc luiluings," hc says. Tiauiiionally a slow-
¡accu oil- anu agiiculiuic- oiicnicu iown,
sci lciwccn ihc occan anu ihc mouniains,
Vcniuia has lccomc a lavoicu lanuing ¡lacc
loi Sania Bailaia commuicis, wiih giowih
icnsions mouniing as a icsuli. Thc ciiy has
ucciucu io managc giowih ly sicciing ii io
Cou.ìe·, o¡ Dunr, PInììe.-Z,be.I nrJ Co»¡nr,
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 6l
ihc loui ucsignaicu highci-ucnsiiy zoncs
anu ¡aying caiclul aiicniion io uilan ucsign
ihiough loim-lascu coucs, Iulion saiu.
In aua¡iing ihcii a¡¡ioach, Vcniuia can
looI io ihc cx¡ciicncc ol Pcialuma, Calil.,
ihc hisi io auo¡i ihc SmaiiCouc ly Duany
Plaici-ZylciI 8 Co. Thai Bay Aica iown
auo¡icu ihc couc in |usi ninc monihs, alici
a scvcn-ycai clloii io com¡lcic anu auo¡i
a moic convcniional, usc-lascu ¡lan anu
zoning oiuinancc loi icucvclo¡ing 400 acics
ol iis uowniown. Ioi ihc ciiizcns who hau
lccn ¡ushing mighiily loi a way io couc ihcii
vision loi ihc aica, ihc couc was a gouscnu,
saiu MiIc Mooic, ihc ciiy`s communiiy
ucvclo¡mcni uiiccioi. Bui im¡lcmcniaiion
has lccn a liiilc siicIy, hc saiu, in ¡aii
lccausc ol ihc hasic wiih which ii was
auo¡icu.
Vorhing out the bugs
Icsson numlci onc is ihai ii is haiu io
maIc a loim-lascu couc woiI as an ovcilay
on iiauiiional zoning il you uon`i amcnu
ihc ciiywiuc zoning oiuinancc io au|usi ihc
¡ioccss io accommouaic ii, loih Mooic anu
Ciawloiu, who woiIcu on ihc coucs, agiccu.
¨Onc ol ihc ihings wc wcic iiying io uo wiih
ihis couc is avoiu maIing ¡co¡lc go ihiough
mulii¡lc ¡ioccsscs, vaiianccs, ci ccicia, io
luilu somcihing ihai oihciwisc mccis ihc ¡lan
anu ihc couc," Mooic says.
Whilc ii is iclaiivcly casy io wiiic a loim-lascu
couc loi an unucvclo¡cu giccnhclu siic oi io
hll ihc ga¡s in csiallishcu ¡aiicin, ii is much
moic uilhculi io wiiic as a guiuc io iiansiiion
liom, say, a low-ucnsiiy siii¡ iciail oi lighi
inuusiiial uisiiici io a walIallc ncighloihoou.
Thai can icquiic an almosi ¡aiccl-ly-¡aiccl
asscssmcni, Ciawloiu says, which can iaIc iimc
anu moncy, lui ihc icsuli also can lc woiih
ihc invcsimcni.
CoIi[ornio in the vonguord o[ on °expIosion`
Momcnium loi zoning icloim is luiluing, says
Iulion. ¨Wc`ic on ihc vcigc ol an cx¡losion,"
Iulion ¡icuicis. ¨In ihc ncxi cou¡lc ol ycais
wc`ll scc uozcns ol loim-lascu coucs auo¡icu.
Ii may sccm iionic ihai Caliloinia, in many
ways ihc moihcilanu ol auiomolilc-oiicnicu
ucsign, is llazing ihc iiail in couing loi mixcu-
usc uisiiicis.
¨Ii is lccausc ol ihc icliancc on ihc
auiomolilc ihai Caliloinia is hguiing oui
moic quicIly ihan oihci ¡laccs ihai ihis isn`i
woiIing anymoic," says Ciawloiu. ¨Bccausc
ol ihc siaic`s issucs wiih iians¡oiiaiion, aii
qualiiy anu housing alloiualiliiy, ¡lanncis
siaicwiuc aic looIing loi ways io accommouaic
incicascu ucnsiiy anu moic com¡aci uilan
loim in ways ihai aic accc¡iallc, il noi
¡iclciicu, ly ciiizcns. Thc loim-lascu
coucs aic liIcly io lc moic succcsslul ai
im¡lcmcniing ihai vision ihan convcniional
zoning coucs."
Thai communiiics liom ihc Dcc¡ Souih io
ihc oncc-wilu Wcsi aic looIing io loim-lascu
coucs shows ihai somcihing lig is alooi, says
Soilicn. ¨This is a sca changc in lanu usc,
alici ò0 oi 60 ycais ol noi luiluing ihis way.
Thcic will lc a lcaining cuivc ai all lcvcls so
wc will all siiugglc iogcihci io hguic ii oui
anu maIc ii lciici. Thai`s whai maIcs ihis lun
anu cxciiing."
Cther innovations in
oevelopnent cooes
Ioim-lascu coucs aic |usi onc ol scvcial
icchniqucs ucsigncu io ovcicoming ihc
shoiicomings ol iiauiiional zoning. Many
communiiics aic aua¡iing ihcii convcniional
zoning iulcs, as wcll as suluivision anu
oihci ucvclo¡mcni coucs io cncouiagc
ucvclo¡mcni ol walIallc, mixcu-usc
ncighloihoous anu oihci smaii giowih
goals. Hcic`s a sam¡lc ol somc ol ihc oihci
innovaiivc a¡¡ioachcs:
AIIowing new Ii[e [or oId buiIdings
Rchabilitation Subcodc - Ncw ]crscy
Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sulcouc is a
com¡ichcnsivc sci ol couc icquiicmcnis
loi cxisiing luiluings. Ii is a sianu-alonc
sulcha¡ici coniaining all ihc icchnical
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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62
icquiicmcnis ihai a¡¡ly io a ichaliliiaiion
¡io|cci. Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sulcouc is
¡aii ol Ncw ]ciscy`s Uniloim Consiiuciion
Couc. Rcau moic aloui Ncw ]ciscy`s
com¡ichcnsivc smaii giowih ¡iogiam laici
in ihis scciion.
See: www.·ìnìe.r¡.u·/J·n/·oJe·/.eLnb/.rJe:.·Lì»I
Mixed-use overIoy districts
South Salt Lakc City Municipal Codc -
Salt Lakc City, Utah
Thc ¡ui¡osc ol ihc Tiansii Oiicnicu
Dcvclo¡mcni ¸TOD) Ovcilay Disiiici is
io cncouiagc ¡io¡ciiy owncis io ucvclo¡
ihcii ¡io¡ciiy using iiansii oiicnicu ucsign
¡iinci¡lcs ihiough ihc usc ol inccniivcs whilc
¡icsciving iighis unuci ihc cxisiing uisiiici
ucsignaiion. Alihough ihc unucilying zoning
icmains in ¡lacc, ihc TOD Disiiici ucsignaiion
cncouiagcs mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni closc io
TRAX ¸lighi iail) anu iiansii sysicms whilc
cnhancing anu com¡lcmcniing cxisiing anu
au|accni ucvclo¡mcni.
See: www.er..·.oruìnL.o.¿/I.b.n.,/»eJ.n/¡n¡e.·/
Jo·/SouìL SnIì 1nIe .or.r¿ o.J.rnr·e.Jo·
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF`· Zor.r¿ Fe¡o.» Hn· Be¿ur:
Eo.»-Bn·eJ CoJe·`: www.rcaltor.org/
Iormbascdcodcs
TLe S»n.ì C.owìL Neìwo.I`· ·o»¡erJ.u»
o¡ .rro.nì..e .or.r¿ nrJ oìLe. Je.eIo¡»erì
·oJe·: www.smartgrowth.org/library/ :
byldrtypc.asp?typ=5&rcs=1152
TLe 1o·nI Co.e.r»erì Co»».··.or`· S»n.ì
C.owìL Zor.r¿ CoJe·: A Fe·ou.·e Cu.Je`:
http://www2.lgc.org/bookstorc/dctail.
cIm?itcmId=34
o. n b..e¡ ¡n·ì ·Leeì: www.lgc.org/Irccpub/
land_usc/Iactshccts/Iorm_bascd_
codcs.html
A ·u»»n., .e.·.or o¡ ìLe S»n.ìCoJe,
n ¡o.»-bn·eJ ·oJe Je.eIo¡eJ b, ìLe New
U.bnr.·ì ¡.» DPZ: www.tndtownpapcr.
com/Volumc5/smartcodc.htm
TLe Eo.»-bn·eJ CoJe· Ir·ì.ìuìe: www.
Iormbascdcodcs.org
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 63
l\B. Sm+rt ûrcwtl |clitiºs
lrtrc1ttticr
Whilc ihc ¡iivaic sccioi uocs mosi ol ihc
luiluing in ihc Uniicu Siaics, govcinmcni
¡olicics ¡lay a ¡owcilul iolc in sha¡ing ihc
loim ii iaIcs. Policy is ihc ciiiical linI lciwccn
¡lanning anu ihc ¡hysical icaliiy ol a luili
communiiy. Many a visionaiy ¡lan oi ¡io¡oscu
ucvclo¡mcni ¡io|cci has languishcu, lailcu oi
iuincu oui woisc ihan in ii oihciwisc mighi
havc lccausc ¡olicics ai ihc lcucial, siaic oi
local lcvcl wcic noi in sync. IiIcwisc, smaii,
ucxillc anu innovaiivc ¡olicy a¡¡ioachcs
unucilic many ol ihc succcss sioiics lounu
clscwhcic in ihis iool Iii.
Wiihoui aiicm¡iing io lc com¡ichcnsivc, ihc
lollowing ¡agcs ollci a sam¡ling ol somc ol ihc
mosi ¡iomising ¡olicy icloims anu innovaiion.
Whilc ihcic is somc uiscussion ol lcucial
¡olicy, ihc cm¡hasis is on ihc local anu siaic
¡olicics ovci which cngagcu anu ¡assionaic
REAITORS
®
aic mosi liIcly io havc inuucncc.
Thcy aic oiganizcu accoiuing io ihcii ccniial
goal - such as ¡icsciving o¡cn s¡acc oi
cncouiaging alloiuallc housing - lui mosi aic
aimcu ai woiIing in conccii wiih oihci ¡olicics
io achicvc mulii¡lc lcnchis. Thai is ihc naiuic
ol ihc smaii-giowih a¡¡ioach.
|rºsºrrir] lmpcrt+rt L+r1st+pºs
Public Purchase oI Lano
Thc mosi uiicci way loi a communiiy io
¡icscivc o¡cn s¡acc is loi ihc govcinmcni io
¡uichasc lanu ouiiighi. This icchniquc has
lccn ¡oliiically ¡o¡ulai ai ihc siaic anu local
lcvcl wiih voicis a¡¡ioving lillions ol uollais
ihiough hunuicus ol lalloi mcasuics in loih
uilan anu iuial communiiics. Accoiuing io
ihc Tiusi loi Pullic Ianu`s IanuVoic uaialasc,
moic ihan 7S ¡ciccni ol ihc conscivaiion
hnancc lalloi mcasuics ¡ui io voicis lciwccn
1999 anu 200S wcic a¡¡iovcu, gcnciaiing
moic ihan S26 lillion.
Thc siaic ol Iloiiua has ihc woilu`s laigcsi
conscivaiion lanu acquisiiion ¡iogiam ]¡Ien·e ·ee
·.Jebn.|. Sincc 1999, ihc Iloiiua Ioicvci ¡iogiam .
has acquiicu moic ihan hvc million acics ol
lanu. In 199S, 7S ¡ciccni ol Iloiiua voicis
a¡¡iovcu a changc io ihc siaic consiiiuiion ihai
gavc ihc siaic Icgislaiuic auihoiiiy io cnaci
Iloiiua Ioicvci, which is lunucu ly lonus
lacIcu ly ihc siaic`s ical csiaic iianslci iax.
Oihci siaics, incluuing Maiylanu, Dclawaic,
Ncw ]ciscy, anu Rhouc Islanu also ¡uichasc lanu
ihiough siaicwiuc ¡iogiams. Souih Caiolina has
k p+ir c| lºlp|tl m+rt+ls
Thc U.S. EPA has s¡onsoicu
¡ullicaiion ol iwo ¡o¡ulai ¡olicy
manuals, cach ol which ollcis 100
¡olicics loi im¡lcmcniing ihc 10
¡iinci¡lcs cnuoiscu ly ihc Smaii
Giowih NciwoiI. Boih csscniial looIs
aic licc:
Cetting to Smort Crowth:
100 PoIicies [or ImpIementotion
Downloau a PDI vcision ai: www.
smartgrowth.org/pdI/gcttosg.pdI
Cetting to Smort Crowth II:
100 More PoIicies [or ImpIementotion
Downloau a PDI vcision ai: www.
smartgrowth.org/pdI/gcttosg2.pdI
Rcqucsi a haiu co¡y ly c-mailing
smaiigiowihCc¡a.gov oi call EPA`s
Dcvclo¡mcni, Communiiy, anu
Enviionmcni Division ai 202-ò66-2S7S.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
64
csiallishcu a Conscivaiion Ianu BanI. Ai ihc
local lcvcl, scvcn Massachusciis communiiics
auo¡icu ihc Communiiy Picscivaiion Aci in
2002. Ii allows communiiics io iaisc ¡io¡ciiy
iaxcs u¡ io S ¡ciccni io ¡uichasc o¡cn s¡acc,
¡icscivc hisioiic luiluings, anu ucvclo¡
alloiuallc housing. Thc samc ycai, voicis in
DaIoia Couniy, Minncsoia, su¡¡oiicu a S20
million lonu iclcicnuum io ¡icscivc o¡cn
s¡acc anu laimlanu.
Clustering Ior Cpen Space
Clusici ucvclo¡mcni siiuaics houscs closci
iogcihci io incicasc ucnsiiy on somc ¡oiiion
ol a ucvclo¡mcni siic, whilc lcaving oihci
¡oiiions licc ol luiluings. Usually icquiiing
a changc in zoning, ii iiaucs iiauiiional
laigc inuiviuual loi sizcs loi o¡cn iiacis ol
lanu ucsigncu loi common usc. Ii can savc
inliasiiuciuic cosis ly icuucing ihc lcngih ol
ioaus anu uiiliiy lincs in ncw ucvclo¡mcnis.
Oihci lcnchis incluuc ihc ¡icscivaiion
ol ciiiical lanu lcaiuics anu ihc cicaiion
ol communiiy gaihciing aicas wiihin a
ucvclo¡mcni. Somc suluilan icsiucnis
o¡¡osc clusici zoning lccausc ihcy uon`i
liIc ihc ¡cicc¡iion ol highci ucnsiiy oi ihc
closc ¡ioximiiy io ncighlois, alihough ihc
ovciall numlci ol uniis has noi incicascu.
Thc communal o¡cn s¡accs also icquiic
mainicnancc, olicn ihiough a uucs-lunucu
homcowncis associaiion.
Clusiciing has lccn uscu in many ¡laccs,
incluuing ihc iowns ol Plainvillc anu Icxingion
in suluilan Bosion, in Ohio couniics such
as IaIc, Mauison, Summii, anu Waync, in
vaiious locaiions in Iloiiua anu scvcial oihci
casicin siaics. Zoning law changcs io allow
clusiciing aic unuci consiuciaiion oi on ihc
looIs in many oihci siaics. In ihc ¡asi, ihc usc
ol clusiciing olicn icsulicu in only icmnanis
ol lanu lcing savcu, lcaving ¨lcliovci" s¡accs
ihai wcic nciihci usclul noi aiiiaciivc. A ncwci
incainaiion ol clusiciing, callcu ¨conscivaiion
suluivision" ¡icscivcs laigci iiacis ol lanu
ihai can lciici mainiain agiiculiuial usc
oi achicvc naiuial lanusca¡c ¡icscivaiion.
Onc cavcai aloui conscivaiion suluivisions:
Whilc ihcy aic a¡¡io¡iiaic in ¡laccs whcic
oihci aciions aic lcing iaIcn io iciain a
scmi-iuial lccl, wiucs¡icau ucvclo¡mcni ol
singlc-usc conscivaiion suluivisions wiih only
onc housing iy¡c can coniiiluic as much
io auiomolilc uc¡cnucncc anu iialhc as
convcniional suluivisions.
Conservation Easenents
Unuci conscivaiion cascmcnis, a lanuownci
may iciain owncishi¡ ol a ¡io¡ciiy whilc
loigoing ucvclo¡mcni oi uisiuilancc ol ihc
aicas inicnucu io icmain as naiuial aicas
oi laimlanu. Conscivaiion cascmcnis olicn
aic gianicu io a non-¡iohi ihiiu ¡aiiy, anu
ihc lanuownci icccivcs a iax lcnchi oi
oihci monciaiy com¡cnsaiion. In cllcci, ihc
conscivaiion cascmcni icmovcs ihc iighi io
ucvclo¡ ihc ¡io¡ciiy, anu may cvcn ¡iccluuc
ihc haivcsiing ol naiuial icsouiccs such
as iimlci. Conscivaiion cascmcnis iun in
¡ci¡ciuiiy, cnsuiing ihai o¡cn s¡acc icmains
o¡cn. Conscivaiion cascmcnis aic olicn uonc
in ianucm wiih clusici ucvclo¡mcni zoning
anu/oi ihc ¡uichasc oi iianslci ol ucvclo¡mcni
iighis unuci govcinmcni-ucsignaicu ¡iogiams,
which aic ucsciilcu lclow.
TransIer oI Developnent Rights (TDRs)
An alicinaiivc io zoning icchniqucs liIc
clusiciing, TDR ¡iogiams allow ¡lanncis io
icuiicci giowih liom onc ¡aii ol a communiiy
io anoihci. Thc a¡¡ioach climinaics oi
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 65
icuuccs ihc iighi io ucvclo¡ onc aica, usually
io ¡icscivc low ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcni oi o¡cn
s¡acc, anu iianslcis ihc iighis io a uillcicni
siic whcic highci ucnsiiy is cncouiagcu anu
su¡¡oiicu. Using TDRs icquiics communiiics
io csiallish ¨scnuing" anu ¨iccciving" zoncs.
Thc ucvclo¡mcni iighis aic ¨scni" liom ihc
ucsignaicu low-ucnsiiy lanu ¸ihc scnuing
uisiiici) io ihc aica slaicu loi highci ucnsiiy
anu incicascu ucvclo¡mcni ¸ihc iccciving
uisiiici). Thc ucvclo¡mcni iighi lccomcs
a sc¡aiaic aiiiclc ol ¡iivaic ¡io¡ciiy wiih
cconomic valuc. Ioi a TDR ¡iogiam io lc
laii, a iiuc maiIci valuc musi lc cicaicu. Thc
valuc assigncu io ihc TDR shoulu icucci ihc
amouni ncccssaiy io com¡cnsaic a ¡io¡ciiy
ownci loi ihc losi valuc icsuliing liom ucnsiiy
icuuciion oi oihci icsiiiciions im¡oscu on ihc
Florioa Forever
Thc Iloiiua Division ol Siaic Ianus
auminisicis whai ihcy lill as ihc woilu`s
laigcsi conscivaiion lanu luying
¡iogiam, Iloiiua Ioicvci. Thc ¡iogiam
lcgan in 1999 anu cxicnus Iloiiua`s
long hisioiy ol ¡icsciving cnuangcicu
lanus. Ii auihoiizcu ihc salc ol lonus
woiih SS lillion ovci ihc lollowing icn
ycais io acquiic anu ¡ioicci lanus, as
wcll as icsioiing uamagcu ccosysicms
anu ucvclo¡ing waici icsouiccs. Thc
lonus aic ¡aiu lacI ihiough an cxcisc
iax on iccoiuing somc uocumcnis ai
ihc couiihousc, incluuing uocumcnis
associaicu wiih ical csiaic iiansaciions.
Thc ¡iogiam has acquiicu moic ihan onc
million acics ol lanu sincc 1999, ¡ioicciing
190 iaic anu cnuangcicu s¡ccics anu moic
ihan 7,000 aichacological anu hisioiic siics.
Thc ¡iogiam ¡ioiccis naiuial uoou¡lains,
liagilc coasilinc, wcilanus, giounuwaici
icchaigc aicas, loicsi lanus, signihcani
waici louics, anu haliiai conscivaiion
aicas. Thc acquisiiion lisi is a¡¡iovcu
annually ly ihc govcinoi anu his calinci,
u¡on iccommcnuaiion ly ihc Acquisiiion
anu Rcsioiaiion Council.
In auuiiion io uiiccily acquiiing lanu,
ihc ¡iogiam ¡uichascs conscivaiion
cascmcnis. A icccni conscivaiion
cascmcni ¡ioiccicu SS0 acics ol sanuy
highlanu lciwccn Oilanuo anu IaIc
OIcccholcc, incluuing an Aii Ioicc
insiallaiion, ihc Avon PaiI gunnciy anu
lomling iangc. Thc cascmcni will also
¡icvcni s¡iawling ucvclo¡mcni liom
cncioaching on ihc Aii Ioicc lasc.
See: www.Je¡.·ìnìe.¡.u·/InrJ·/n·qu.·.ì.or/
EIo..JnEo.e.e./
South Carolina Conservation
Lano Bank
Souih Caiolina csiallishcu a siaicwiuc
Conscivaiion Ianu BanI in 2002. Thc
lanu lanI is ucsigncu io ¡icscivc o¡cn
s¡acc in a siaic wiih a ¡o¡ulaiion ihai is
¡io|ccicu io giow ly 2ò ¡ciccni lciwccn
2000 anu 201ò. Thc ¡iogiam luys
¡io¡ciiy oi conscivaiion cascmcnis liom
willing lanuowncis in oiuci io ¡ioicci
wcilanus, naiuial icsouicc lanus, hisioiical
¡io¡ciiics, anu aichcological siics.
In iwo ycais ihc lanI has ¡icscivcu almosi
SS,000 acics anu has ¡aiincicu in ihc
¡uichasc ol an auuiiional 40,000 acics.
Thc lanI is lunucu ly ¡lacing 2ò ccnis ol
cach Documcniaiy Dccu Siam¡ iccoiuing
lcc inio a iiusi. Moic ihan SS0 million has
lccn invcsicu in ¡ioicciing o¡cn s¡acc,
Civil Wai siics, anu hisioiic homcs. Thc
¡iogiam was siiongly su¡¡oiicu ly ihc
Souih Caiolina Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
anu a lioau coaliiion ol cnviionmcnialisis,
civic, anu lusincss giou¡s.
See: Lìì¡://···bnrI.··.¿o.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
66
scnuing zonc. TDRs havc lccn cllcciivcly uscu
in ia¡iuly giowing aicas, olicn io ¡icscivc
ihc oncc-iuial naiuic ol a ¡lacc, such as ihc
Pinclanus aica ol Ncw ]ciscy, aiounu IaIc
Tahoc, anu in scvcial Coloiauo anu Caliloinia
communiiics. In Monigomciy Couniy
Maiylanu, TDRs aic solu on ihc o¡cn maiIci
anu lisicu in ihc Mulii¡lc Iisiing Scivicc.
Purchase oI Developnent Rights (PDRs)
PDRs allow govcinmcnial agcncics io ¡uichasc
ucvclo¡mcni iighis ouiiighi as a mcans loi
¡icsciving naiuial icsouiccs oi agiiculiuial
aicas. Aloui 20 siaics havc im¡lcmcnicu PDR
¡iogiams, incluuing Pcnnsylvania, Ncw ]ciscy,
Ncw YoiI, Maiylanu, Viiginia, Coloiauo, anu
Moniana. In auuiiion, moic ihan ò0 local
anu icgional |uiisuiciions havc ihcii own
PDR ¡iogiams. Accoiuing io ihc Amciican
Iaimlanu Tiusi, ¨PDR is a ¡o¡ulai lanu
¡ioicciion icchniquc lccausc ii ¡ays willing
lanuowncis io ¡cimancnily icsiiici ihc usc ol
ihcii lanu io laiming, ianching, oi loicsiiy."
PDRs havc ¡iovcn an cllcciivc mcchanism
loi ¡icsciving uwinuling woiIing lanusca¡cs,
howcvci, lccausc lanuowncis volunicci io
|oin a ¡iogiam, PDRs uo noi always ¡icscivc
icsouicc aicas io ihc cxicni ucsiicu.
Ir+rspcrt+ticr |clit¡ 9pticrs
EoIIow.r¿ .· n b..e¡ o.e...ew o¡ ìLe .oIe
ì.nr·¡o.ìnì.or ¡oI.·, ·nr ¡In, .r ·»n.ì ¿.owìL. Eo.
n ¡uIIe. J.··u··.or o¡ ì.nr·¡o.ìnì.or ¡oI.·,, ¡urJ.r¿
nrJ FEA1TOF
©
FF .r.oI.e»erì, ¡Ien·e
©
·ee T.nr·¡o.ìnì.or: A TooII.ì ¡o.
FEA1TOFS
©
SS `, n.n.InbIe ¡.o» NAF
nì www..enIìo..o.¿/ì.nr·¡o.ììooII.ì
Ensuiing ihai iians¡oiiaiion
invcsimcnis anu ucvclo¡mcni
uccisions woiI iogcihci is ciiiical
io cicaiing communiiics ol
lasiing chaiacici anu cconomic
viialiiy. Ovci ihc lasi lcw uccaucs,
howcvci, iians¡oiiaiion anu
lanu usc lunciions iy¡ically havc
lccn unuciiaIcn wiihin sc¡aiaic
govcinmcni ¨silos". In icccni
ycais, communiiics aiounu ihc
couniiy havc lccn hnuing ways io maIc
suic ihai iians¡oiiaiion inliasiiuciuic anu
ihc ucvclo¡mcni ihai ii su¡¡oiis o¡ciaic in
ianucm io hcl¡ ¡co¡lc gci whcic ihcy aic
going moic clhcicnily, wiihoui s¡cnuing as
much iimc uiiving. Hcic is a iounuu¡ ol somc
ol ihc mosi innovaiivc iucas.
Shorten Distances
Puiiing ihc ucsiinaiions ol uaily lilc
closci iogcihci auuicsscs a wiuc iangc ol
iians¡oiiaiion challcngcs, ly hcl¡ing io icuucc
ihc nccu io maIc iii¡s anu icuucing ihc lcngih
ol ihc iii¡s ihai aic ncccssaiy. Thc lcnchis
aic cs¡ccially noiallc whcn ihis is uonc in
con|unciion wiih high-qualiiy iiansii scivicc.
Transit-Oricntcd Dcvclopmcnt (TOD)
As uiscusscu in Scciion III, S: Builuing
Su¡¡oii, ol ihis ioolIii, ihc aim ol iiansii-
oiicnicu ucvclo¡mcni is io clusici housing,
sioics, anu |ols closc io iiansii lincs. Il
uonc iighi, TOD ¡uis loih ¡co¡lc anu Icy
ucsiinaiions closc io iiansii sio¡s, anu ollcis
¡co¡lc who livc oi woiI ncai ihosc siaiions a
vaiiciy ol uining, sho¡¡ing anu oihci o¡iions
wiihin walIing uisiancc. Many siaic anu local
govcinmcnis aic cncouiaging ucvclo¡mcni
ncai iiansii. Ioi cxam¡lc, Pcnnsylvania
icccnily cicaicu ihc Tiansii Rcviializaiion
Invcsimcni Disiiici ¡iogiam io hcl¡ lunu
ucvclo¡mcni ol vacani oi unuciuscu ¡io¡ciiy
wiihin a hall-milc ol a iiansii sio¡ oi siaiion.
Scc ihc siaic ¡iohlcs ol Ncw ]ciscy anu
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 67
Mciio¡oliian Tians¡oiiaiion Commission
¡ioviucs moncy io local govcinmcnis
accoiuing io how many maiIci iaic anu
alloiuallc lcuiooms aic in ncw ucvclo¡mcnis
in aicas ncai iiansii. Thc HIP moncy gocs
io im¡iovc acccss via looi, licyclc oi iiansii,
such as ¡cucsiiian anu licyclc laciliiics ihai
conncci ihc ncw housing io ihc iiansii siaiion
oi ciosswalIs oi siucwalIs linIing ihc ncw
ucvclo¡mcni io ncaily ucsiinaiions.
See www.»ì·.·n.¿o./¡Inrr.r¿/·»n.ì_¿.owìL/L.¡.Lì»
lmprcrir] Ir+rspcrt+ticr 9pticrs
As ihc iimc losi io iialhc congcsiion giows,
many ¡co¡lc aic looIing loi lciici o¡iions. In
many cascs much ol ihc soluiion lics in hxing
ioau ucsign uaws oi maIing ncw conncciions.
Evcn alici ihosc cx¡cnuiiuics, many ¡co¡lc
lccl siucI, lccausc alicinaiivcs such as iiansii,
licycling oi walIing aic noi availallc, noi
convcnicni, oi un¡lcasani. In ihc lasi lcw
ycais ihai has lccn changing, as communiiics
invcsi in ncw o¡iions. REAITORS
®
can hcl¡
ihcii clicnis ly lcing awaic ol ihc laicsi
iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions ihai im¡iovc qualiiy ol
lilc in a ncighloihoou.
New Types oI Transit
Thc numlci ol lighi iail iiansii lincs in
US ciiics has cx¡loucu in ihc lasi uccauc.
Thcsc iiains aic lcss cx¡cnsivc io luilu
ihan iiauiiional sulways anu moic ucxillc.
Thcy can iun in ihcii own iighi ol way, oi
in ihc siicci, anu aic wcll suiicu io Tiansii
Oiicnicu Dcvclo¡mcni. Iiom Minnca¡olis
io Housion, Saciamcnio io NcwaiI, Ncw
]ciscy, communiiics havc invcsicu in lighi
iail lincs, usually ly comlining lcucial lunus
liom ihc ¨Ncw Siaiis" iiansii ¡iogiam wiih
local, voici-a¡¡iovcu iiansii lonus. Iiom 200S
ihiough 200ò, moic ihan 70 ¡ciccni ol ¡ullic
iians¡oii lonu mcasuics loi lighi iail anu
oihci ¡io|ccis wcic a¡¡iovcu ly voicis.
See www.·¡ìe.o.¿
In Dcnvci, whcic ihc hisi lighi iail lincs
cxcccucu cx¡cciaiions, voicis havc a¡¡iovcu
ihc amliiious ¨IasiTiacIs" ¡iogiam, which will
Mºtrc ktl+rt+´s Lir+|lº
Cºrtºrs lriti+tirº
Gicaici Ailania, ihc liggcsi mciio¡olis
in ihc Souihcasi, is now iiying io
comlinc icgional anu local aciion
io ¡lan iians¡oiiaiion anu lanu usc
iogcihci. In 1999, ihc 10-couniy
Ailania Rcgional Commission
launchcu ihc Iivallc Ccnicis
Iniiiaiivc, ¡ioviuing Sò million ovci
hvc ycais loi communiiics io ¡lan
ways io icucvclo¡ cxisiing iown
ccnicis, cicaic ncw walIallc Main
Siiccis, oi iciiohi ¨cugc ciiics" io lc
¡cucsiiian-liicnuly, all io maIc moic
ucsiinaiions casily acccssillc ly iiansii,
uiiving, liIing oi walIing. Rcsuliing
communiiy ¡lans wcic cligillc loi
a shaic ol SSò0 million in lcucially
lunucu iians¡oiiaiion im¡iovcmcnis.
Onc such ¡lan calls loi iuining
Pciimcici Ccnici - a suluilan mall
anu olhcc ccnici wiih ihicc MARTA
iail siaiions - inio a iiansii villagc.
Anoihci calls loi luiluing mixcu-
incomc housing on whai hau lccn
¡aiIing, ncai an unuciuscu MARTA
siaiion in Dccaiui. In Miuiown Ailania
ncai ihc Gcoigia Tcch cam¡us,
cxicnsivc ucvclo¡mcni inicgiaiing
olhccs anu housing is iaIing ¡lacc.
Thc ¡iogiam has lccn icncwcu loi
scvcial moic ycais anu has cx¡anucu
io covci aging commcicial siii¡s as
wcll as iown ccnicis.
Massachusciis anu ihc siuclai on Caliloinia`s
su¡¡oii loi TOD laici in ihis scciion.
See www.1uuuu¡..erJ·.o.¿/¿.owìL/ì.nr·¡o.ìnì.or
Housing Incentive Progrom )HIP;
Scvcial Caliloinia communiiics aic icwaiuing
communiiics ly ¡ioviuing cxiia iians¡oiiaiion
lunus io ¡laccs ihai luilu com¡aci housing
ncai iiansii. In ihc Caliloinia Bay Aica, ihc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
68
luilu an auuiiional 119 milcs ol lighi iail anu
commuici iail, 1S milcs ol lus ia¡iu iiansii,
anu cx¡anucu lus scivicc acioss ihc icgion.
Eo. »o.e or Der.e. nrJ En·ì.n·I·, ·ee www..ìJ-
Jer.e..·o»
Oihci communiiics havc iaIcn ihc mysiciy
ihiough uowniown.
Walkability
Whcn ucsiinaiions aic closc cnough iogcihci,
licycling anu walIing can lc ihc lasicsi anu
mosi cconomical way io gci aiounu. Thcy
¡ioviuc ihc auucu lcnchi ol icgulai ¡hysical
aciiviiy, wiihoui a iimc-consuming iii¡ io ihc
gym. Bui ¡co¡lc will noi walI oi licyclc unlcss
ihcy can uo so salcly anu comloiially.
Many communiiics aic ¡iomoiing ihc cicaiion
ol moic walIallc cnviionmcnis ly ¡aying
aiicniion io ihc uciails. Ioi cxam¡lc, ihcy may
invcsi in ¡iogiams io com¡lcic ga¡s in ihc
siucwalI sysicm, oi insiall ciosswalIs signals
ihai couniuown ihc iimc io cioss anu/oi
¡ioviuc auuillc signals loi llinu ¡cucsiiians.
See www.wnII.r¿.r¡o.o.¿
Better Buses
Bus Ra¡iu Tiansii ¸BRT) scivicc
can o¡ciaic on cxisiing siiccis oi
on a ucuicaicu iighi-ol-way anu
lunciions moic liIc iail, wiih limiicu
sio¡s anu siaiions whcic iiucis ¡ay
¡iioi io loaiuing ihc vchiclc. Somc
communiiics havc also invcsicu in olu-
lashioncu siiccicais ihai icnu io iiavcl
moic slowly anu olicn scivc iouiisi
ucsiinaiions.
Somc communiiics aic using
icchnologics io s¡ccu u¡ luscs
on ciiy siiccis. In Ios Angclcs, ihc
Mciio Ra¡iu lus lincs usc ¨signal
¡iioiiiizaiion" icchnology ihai holu
giccn lighis loi luscs. Sio¡s also
havc clcciionic signs ihai icll waiiing
iiucis whcn ihc ncxi lus will aiiivc.
Thc Mciio Ra¡iu luscs iiavcl 2ò
¡ciccni lasici ihan icgulai luscs, anu
iiucishi¡ has shoi u¡.
See www.»ìn.reì/¡.o¡e·ì·_¡.o¿.n»·/.n¡.J/
o.e...ew.Lì»
oui ol using ihc lus ly siaiiing s¡ccial,
signaiuic lus lincs. Thc liighily ¡ainicu luscs
iun licqucnily so no schcuulc is nccucu,
anu ihcii sim¡lc ciiculai iouics aic casy io
unucisianu. Many ol ihcm also chaigc low
laics. Bcgun in Bouluci, Coloiauo wiih lincs
namcu ihc Ho¡, SIi¡, anu ]um¡, oihci ciiics
havc lollowcu suii. In Washingion DC, scvcial
uowniown Busincss Im¡iovcmcni Disiiicis
anu local iians¡oiiaiion agcncics lunucu
iwo ¨Ciiculaioi" shuiilc lincs ihai ciiculaic
TraIfc Calning
Cicaiing a salci cnviionmcni loi
licycling anu walIing can mcan
inicniionally slowing uown cais,
oi calming` iialhc. Engincciing
icchniqucs such as s¡ccu hum¡s,
iounualouis, anu siucwalI lull-ouis
ai coincis ihai shoiicn ¡cucsiiian
ciossing uisianccs all slow uown
cais anu icclaim siiccis, anu can
uiamaiically icuucc ciashcs. In ncw
ncighloihoous, ihcsc icchniqucs can
lc uscu in licu ol cul-uc-sacs in oiuci
io allow siiccis io conncci wiihoui lcai
ol s¡ccuing ¨cui-ihiough" iialhc.
See www.ì.n¡¡··nI».r¿.o.¿
SaIe Routes to School
School ¡iogiam, is uiicciing moic ihan S600
million inio ncighloihoous acioss ihc couniiy
io maIc ii salci loi chiluicn io walI anu
licyclc io school. Gianis aic auminisicicu ly
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 6º
ihc Siaic Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion anu
lunnclcu io communiiics io hx hazaius anu
slow iialhc on ioaus ihai scivc schools, as wcll
as io luilu ¡aihways, liIc lancs anu siucwalIs
ncai schools. Tcn io S0 ¡ciccni ol ihc
lunuing in cach siaic musi lc uscu loi non-
inliasiiuciuic aciiviiics such as cnloiccmcni,
cncouiagcmcni anu cuucaiion ¡iogiams.
See www.n»e..·nb.Ie·.o.¿/SFTS.n·¡
Kºtc]ritir] tlº \+ltº c|
Ir+rspcrt+ticr kltºrr+tirºs
Thc cconomic lcnchis ol iians¡oiiaiion
alicinaiivcs aic olicn uniccognizcu anu
ovciwhclmcu ly hiuucn sulsiuics io
auiomolilc iiavcl. A numlci ol ¡olicics iiy io
lcvcl ihc ¡laying hclu.
Nortgage options
Siuuics havc uocumcnicu ihai ¡co¡lc who
livc in aicas wiih lciici iians¡oiiaiion
o¡iions s¡cnu a smallci ¡oiiion ol ihcii
incomc on iians¡oiiaiion. Scvcial ¡laccs aic
cx¡ciimcniing wiih moiigagc o¡iions ihai
iccognizc ihc hnancial lcnchis ol luying
a homc wiih goou iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions.
Thc Iocaiion-Elhcicni Moiigagc calculaics
¡oicniial savings lascu on whcihci ihc homc
Nºw ]ti1+rtº |cr
rc+1 1ºsi]rºrs
In ihc s¡iing ol 2006, ihc Insiiiuic loi
Tians¡oiiaiion Enginccis unvcilcu a
siicci ucsign manual ihai uigcs ioau
cnginccis io ucsign ihcii ¡io|ccis io hi
in wiih anu cnhancc ihc ncighloihoous
ihiough which ihcy ¡ass. ¨Conicxi
Scnsiiivc Soluiions in Dcsigning Ma|oi
Uilan Thoioughlaics loi WalIallc
Communiiics" is a |oini clloii lciwccn
ihc Insiiiuic ol Tians¡oiiaiion
Enginccis anu ihc Congicss loi ihc
Ncw Uilanism, s¡onsoicu ly ihc
Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion anu
ihc Enviionmcnial Pioicciion Agcncy.
Thc manual ucsciilcs scvcial ¨conicxi
zoncs", caicgoiizing uilan aicas inio
uiscicic iangcs ol ucnsiiy anu inicnsiiy
ol ucvclo¡mcni, anu scis loiih an aiiay
ol ihoioughlaic iy¡cs consisicni wiih
cach zonc`s chaiaciciisiics.
Eo. »o.e, o. ìo JowrIonJ n ·o¡,, ·ee: www.
.ìe.o.¿/···/
Bicycle-Frienoly Connunities
Communiiics invcsiing in lciici
licyclc inliasiiuciuic uon`i sio¡
ai luiluing sc¡aiaicu liIc ¡aihs.
Thcy aic cicaiing inicgiaicu licyclc
nciwoiIs wiih liIc lancs, wiuc cuil
lancs anu shoulucis, convcnicni
licyclc ¡aiIing, anu licyclc iacIs on
luscs. Davis, Caliloinia is an unusual
cxam¡lc lccausc ihc ciiy was allc io
cicaic an cniiic uilan iiail nciwoiI.
In mosi ciiics, iiails ihai linI io on-
siicci liIc lancs aic a moic ¡iaciical
o¡iion. Ciiics such as Chicago, Scaiilc,
anu Gaincsvillc, Iloiiua, havc all
cicaicu ouisianuing licyclc ¡iogiams.
See www.b.·,·Ie¡..erJI,·o»»ur.ì,.o.¿ o.
www.b.·,·I.r¿.r¡o.o.¿
Car Sharing
Cai shaiing ¡iogiams maIc ii casici loi
¡co¡lc io avoiu cai owncishi¡ ly giving
ihcm convcnicni acccss io a cai whcn ihcy
occasionally nccu onc. Cai-shaiing vchiclcs aic
¡aiIcu in ncighloihoous, anu mcmlcis icscivc
ihcm loi a lcw houis ai a iimc using wcl anu
iclc¡honc-lascu icscivaiion sysicms. In somc
ciiics ¡iivaic cai-shaiing hims oi non-¡iohis
¡aiinci wiih ihc ciiy anu ihc iiansii agcncy
io icscivc ¡aiIing s¡accs on ciiy siiccis oi ai
iiansii siaiions. Ciiics such as San Iiancisco
anu Poiilanu cncouiagc ncw icsiucniial
ucvclo¡mcnis in ciiy ncighloihoous io incluuc
a cai shaiing s¡acc in ihcii icnani gaiagcs.
See www.·n.·Ln..r¿.reì
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
7O
vaiiciy ol valuc-¡iicing ¡iloi ¡io|ccis.
See: www.¡Lwn.Joì.¿o./¡oI.·,/oì¡·/.nIue¡..·.r¿
Doing Transportation DiIIerently
Somc iians¡oiiaiion agcncics aic uoing moic
ihan auuing a lcw o¡iions loi oihci moucs
- ihcy aic changing ihc way ihcy unuciiaIc
uaily o¡ciaiions.
Contcxt Scnsitivc Solutions ¡iogiams
aim io liing moic siaIcholucis inio ihc
iians¡oiiaiion ¡lanning ¡ioccss anu cnsuic
ihai ioaus hi inio local communiiics. In Ncw
]ciscy, ihc Siaic Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion
has auo¡icu a Iuiuic in Tians¡oiiaiion
siiaicgy ¸N] IIT) ihai inicgiaics lanu usc inio
iians¡oiiaiion uccision-maIing anu involvcs
many siaIcholucis. In onc insiancc, ihc ncw
¡olicy has icsulicu in a uccision io iallc a ncw
highway ly¡ass in lavoi ol im¡ioving local
ioau conncciions.
See: www.·orìe:ì·er·.ì..e·oIuì.or·.o.¿ o. www.
·ìnìe.r¡.u·/ì.nr·¡o.ìnì.or/wo.I·/r¡¡ì/nbouì/
·n»¡n.¿r.·Lì»
Conplete Streets
Siaic, icgional, anu local govcinmcnis aic
auo¡iing com¡lcic siiccis ¡olicics` io cnsuic
ihai ihcii iians¡oiiaiion agcncy ucsigns anu
mainiains cvciy ioau ¡io|cci io mcci ihc
nccus ol all iy¡cs ol ioau uscis - uiivcis,
iiansii iiucis, licyclisis, anu ¡cucsiiians ol all
agcs anu aliliiics. ]Plcasc scc lox on ¡agc 72,
¨Souih Caiolina`s Com¡lcic Siiccis Policy"|.
See: www.·o»¡Ieìe·ì.eeì·.o.¿
Parking
PaiIing icgulaiions olicn cicaic vasi
communiiy-ucaucning ¡aiIing lois, anu licc
¡aiIing cncouiagcs auiomolilc usc. A numlci
ol ¡aiIing siiaicgics can ¡ioviuc icasonallc
amouni ol ¡aiIing anu shili ihc cosi ol ¡aiIing
io ihc usci ol ihc ¡aiIing s¡acc. Ciiics such
as Scaiilc havc icuuccu oi waivcu iiauiiional
minimum ¡aiIing icquiicmcnis, allowing
ucvclo¡cis io ¡ui in lcwci s¡accs whcn ihc
usc is cx¡ccicu io gcnciaic lcwci cais, whcn
cai-shaiing is ¡ioviucu, oi in uowniown
is closc io iiansii anu oihci laciois, anu ollcis
a low uown ¡aymcni, com¡ciiiivc inicicsi
iaics, anu ucxillc guiuclincs io allow moic
¡co¡lc io luy homcs., Ii is availallc in Chicago
anu a lcw oihci ciiics.
See www.Io·nì.ore¡¡·.er·,.·o»
Iannic Mac ollcis a low-uown-¡aymcni Smaii
Commuic ¡iloi moiigagc in Washingion DC
anu a lcw oihci ciiics ihai loosis a¡¡licanis`
qualilying incomc, incicasing ihcii luying
¡owci ly aloui S10,000.
See www.¡nrr.e»ne.·o»/Lou·.r¿·o»»Je./
·oIuì.or·/er...or»erì.¡Lì»I
Baliimoic, Maiylanu has ¡aiincicu wiih
cm¡loycis io ollci sim¡lc ¨Iivc Ncai Youi
WoiI" gianis ihai awaiu hisi-iimc homcluycis
as much as S2,000 loi closing cosis whcn ihcy
luy ncai ihcii ¡lacc ol cm¡loymcni.
See www.I..ebnIì.»o.e.·o»/Lb/.r·/Ir,w
Connuter choice prograns
Diiving io woiI is olicn sulsiuizcu ly licc
¡aiIing ollcicu as a iax-licc cm¡loycc lcnchi,
whilc ihosc who walI, licyclc, cai¡ool, oi
iaIc iiansii gci noihing. Icucial iax law was
changcu icccnily io allow cm¡loycis io ollci
iax-licc iiansii ¡asscs oi van¡ool su¡¡oii, anu
io allow cm¡loyccs io iaIc ihcsc in licu ihcii
licc ¡aiIing lcnchi.
See: www.·o»»uìe.·Lo.·e.·o»
Tians¡oiiaiion Dcmanu Managcmcni
¡iogiams comlinc many clcmcnis io hcl¡
icuucc ihc ucmanu loi uiiving ly hcl¡ing
¡co¡lc hnu alicinaiivc commuics.
See: www..ì¡..o.¿/ìJ»
Congestion Pricing
A lcw ¡laccs aic cx¡ciimcniing wiih maIing
uiivcis ¡ay io uiivc on ioaus ai iimcs ol high
ucmanu. Oiangc Couniy Caliloinia o¡ciaics
cx¡icss lancs wiih a ioll ihai vaiics lascu on
ihc ucgicc ol congcsiion. Thc Ncw ]ciscy
Tuin¡iIc has also insiiiuicu vaiiallc iolls. Thc
Icucial Highway Auminisiiaiion is hnancing a
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 7l
Buses ano Bus Rapio Transit: In mosi
ciiics, luscs aic ihc ¡iimaiy loim ol ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion, accouniing loi òS ¡ciccni
ol mass iiansii naiionwiuc. Incicasingly
communiiics aic looIing io im¡iovc lus
clhcicncy wiih cx¡icss scivicc, limiicu-sio¡
scivicc, oi lus ia¡iu iiansii ¸BRT), which
comlincs somc qualiiics ol iail iiansii - such
as highci licqucncy, lcwci sio¡s, anu ¡ic-
¡aiu iicIciing - wiih ihc ucxililiiy ol luscs.
Ii`s also ¡ossillc io sim¡ly iun luscs moic
licqucnily io loosi iiucishi¡.
Light rail: Aloui 20 Amciican ciiics, liom
Bosion anu Baliimoic io Sali IaIc Ciiy anu
San Dicgo, havc auo¡icu lighi iail sysicms.
Thcy o¡ciaic in a iighi-ol-way noi gcncially
sc¡aiaicu liom oihci iialhc wiih iwo-cai
iiains ¡owcicu ly an ovcihcau clcciiic linc.
Heavy rail: Aloui a uozcn ma|oi
mciio¡oliian aicas acioss ihc Uniicu
k |t|lit Ir+rsit ûlcss+r¡
Siaics havc ucvclo¡cu clcciiihcu hcavy
iail sysicms, incluuing Washingion,
D.C. ¸Mciio), Ailania ¸MARTA),
Chicago ¸CTA), anu OaIlanu ¸BART).
Olicn callcu sulway, ia¡iu iiansii oi
ia¡iu iail, ihc sc¡aiaic iighis ol way
ollci high s¡ccu anu ¡lailoim loauing
ol mulii¡lc cais.

Connuter rail: Moic ihan S0 U.S.
ciiics havc ¡lans io cicaic commuici
iail sysicms, in auuiiion io 20 uilan
aicas ihai alicauy ¡ioviuc ihc iailioau
¡asscngci scivicc lciwccn a ciiy
ccnici anu au|accni suluils. Also
Inown as icgional iail oi suluilan
iail, ihc scivicc cxisis in ciiics such as
Dallas, Anchoiagc, Philaucl¡hia, anu
SiocIion, Caliloinia, anu sysicms aic
unuci consiuciaiion in ¡laccs
liIc Ias Vcgas, Coloiauo, Cincinnaii,
anu Nashvillc.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
72
Scttl C+rclir+ Ccmplºtº Strººts |clit¡
In oiuci io maIc ihc mosi ol iis
iians¡oiiaiion consiiuciion invcsimcnis,
Souih Caiolina is woiIing io iuin iis siaic-
lunucu ioaus inio mulii-moual coiiiuois
Inown as ¨com¡lcic siiccis." Thc siaic
Tians¡oiiaiion Commission has auo¡icu
a ¡olicy ihai accommouaiions loi walIing
anu licycling shoulu lc an inicgial ¡aii
ol ihc Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion`s
¡lanning, ucsign, consiiuciion anu
o¡ciaiing aciiviiics. Thc ¡olicy also icquiics
couniics anu ciiics ihai icccivc siaic oi
lcucial highway lunuing io lully inicgiaic
licycling anu walIing inio ¡io|ccis anu
aciiviiics iccciving ihcsc lunus.
Thc ¡olicy is Inown as a com¡lcic siiccis
¡olicy lccausc ii gocs lcyonu ihc moic
iy¡ical a¡¡ioach ol using s¡ccial licyclc
anu ¡cucsiiian ¡lans io ucsignaic only
somc ioaus loi im¡iovcmcni. Moic
com¡ichcnsivc com¡lcic siiccis ¡olicics
incluuc accommouaiion loi uisallcu
iiavclcis anu loi iiansii.
In Souih Caiolina, ihc iniiial ¡olicy has
lccn lollowcu wiih cxicnsivc iiaining
woiIsho¡s anu scminais loi ¡lanncis
anu cnginccis, anu wiih cngincciing
uiicciivcs ihai ¡ioviuc ncw guiuclincs
loi incoi¡oiaiing laciliiics such as liIc
lancs io siaic highways. A numlci ol local
|uiisuiciions, incluuing S¡aiianluig anu
Columlia, havc ¡asscu ihcii own com¡lcic
siiccis icsoluiions.
See www.··Joì.o.¿/¿eìì.r¿/b.Ie¡eJ/BP_
».Ie·ìore·.·Lì»I o. www.·o»¡Ieìe·ì.eeì·.o.¿
C+li|crri+´s Stppcrt c| Ir+rsit
9riºrtº1 |ºrºlcpmºrt
Caliloinia`s Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion
¸Caliians) has lccn woiIing io su¡¡oii
iiansii-oiicnicu ucvclo¡mcni ¸TOD),
giauually im¡lcmcniing iccommcnuaiions
k Clcsºr Lcc| +t lrrcr+ticrs ir Iwc St+tºs
liom a 2000 siuuy iniiiaicu ly Caliians. Thc
ic¡oii noics ihai locusing ucvclo¡mcni
aiounu iiansii siaiions ¡ioviucs moliliiy
choiccs, incicascs iiansii iiucishi¡ anu lcaus
many icsiucnis io icuucc uiiving, which in
iuin can incicasc a houscholu`s uis¡osallc
incomc whilc icuucing cncigy consum¡iion
anu aii ¡olluiion. Thc siuuy also says TOD
has hcl¡cu io icuucc inliasiiuciuic cosis,
loosi cconomic aciiviiy, anu coniiiluic io
alloiuallc housing.
Thc agcncy is ¡ioviuing icchnical assisiancc
io local agcncics ihiough a ¨Tiansii-
Oiicnicu Dcvclo¡mcni Com¡cnuium,"
a com¡ichcnsivc ioollox loi ucvclo¡cis
anu ¡ullic agcncics. Ii also mainiains a
uciailcu, scaichallc uaialasc ol TOD
¡io|ccis in ihc siaic, anu has issucu a ic¡oii
on how io managc ¡aiIing ai TODs.
Thc lcgislaiuic has ¡asscu a mcasuic
icquiiing ihc siaic io ollci sui¡lus lanus ai
ihc a¡¡iaiscu valuc io local govcinmcnis
loi TOD ucvclo¡mcni, anu has cxcm¡icu
small TOD housing ¡io|ccis liom
cnviionmcnial sianuaius. Thc siaic is also
siuuying im¡iovcu cooiuinaiion ol icgional
lanu usc anu iians¡oiiaiion ¡lanning in a
¡iloi ¡io|cci in Mciccu Couniy. Mainsiicam
iians¡oiiaiion lunus usually icscivcu loi
highway consiiuciion aic lcing uscu io
luilu ¡aiIing gaiagcs ai TOD siaiions, in
oiuci io licc u¡ suilacc ¡aiI-anu-iiuc lois
loi mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni ¡io|ccis. Oihci
iccommcnuaiions in ihc 2000 siuuy, such
as ¡ioviuing siaic lunuing loi TOD anu
cicaiing iax-incicmcni hnancing uisiiicis,
havc noi yci lccn im¡lcmcnicu.
Oihci siaics su¡¡oiiing TOD incluuc
Maiylanu, Ncw ]ciscy, Pcnnsylvania,
Iloiiua, anu Massachusciis. A lcucial siuuy
ol siaic su¡¡oii ol TOD can lc lounu
ai www.conicxiscnsiiivcsoluiions.oig/
conicni/icauing/nchi¡_2ò-2ò-20
See: www.Joì.·n.¿o./Lq/An··T.nr·/ìoJ.Lì»
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 73
aicas whcic many oihci iiavcl o¡iions aic
availallc. In mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcnis, ¡aiIing
can lc shaicu, uoing uoullc oi iii¡lc uuiy
whcn uillcicni iy¡cs ol ucsiinaiions ¸such as
olhccs, icsiauianis, oi cincmas) uiaw ¡co¡lc
ai uillcicni iimcs oi uays ol ihc wccI. Ioi
cxam¡lc, in Inuiana¡olis, a laigc ncw iciail
anu cniciiainmcni ccnici ihai woulu havc
nccucu 6,000 ¡aiIing s¡accs unuci iiauiiional
minimum ¡aiIing icquiicmcnis was allc io
luilu |usi 2,S1ò wiih shaicu ¡aiIing.
Chaiging loi ¡aiIing, ¡aiiiculaily ai ihc cuil,
can icuucc ucmanu anu cncouiagc iuinovci,
whilc ¡ioviuing lunuing loi ncighloihoou
im¡iovcmcni ¡io|ccis.
See: www.e¡n.¿o./J·eJ/¡n.I.r¿.Lì»
Kºrit+litir] Ccmmtritiºs
Thc icucvclo¡mcni ol cxisiing uilan,
suluilan anu iuial ¡io¡ciiics alicauy
scivcu ly inliasiiuciuic, incluuing inuusiiial
¨liownhclus" ihai nccu io lc ucconiaminaicu,
siimulaics giowih anu im¡iovcs a communiiy`s
cconomic viialiiy. Dcvclo¡mcni in cxisiing
ncighloihoous is an a¡¡ioach io giowih
ihai can lc cosi-cllcciivc whilc ¡ioviuing
icsiucnis wiih a closci ¡ioximiiy io |ols, ¡ullic
sciviccs anu amcniiics. Many communiiics aic
locusing on a vaiiciy ol icchniqucs io maIc
icucvclo¡mcni casici.
k1+ptir] +r1 rº1ºrºlcpir]
tlcsº1 milit+r¡ |+sºs
Having a miliiaiy lasc closc oi icuucc
o¡ciaiions can lc iiaumaiic loi
communiiics. Thc challcngcs may
sccm uauniing, lui many communiiics
havc iiansloimcu loimci lascs inio
valuallc asscis. Inuccu, many ol
ihcsc icucvclo¡mcnis havc lccomc
show¡laccs loi ihc cniiic communiiy
- loosiing ihc cconomy, cicaiing |ols,
¡ioviuing homcs, anu ¡ioicciing ihc
cnviionmcni. Two cxccllcni icsouiccs
aic availallc io hcl¡:
Beyond the Fence: A REALTORS
©

Cuide to MiIitory Bose CIosure,
ReoIignment ond Encroochment
Thc ¡ullicaiion is ucsigncu so
ihai REAITORS
®
can Inow how io
gci involvcu io hcl¡ communiiics
co¡c wiih ihc sulsianiial cconomic
challcngcs ihai aiisc whcn lascs aic
¡io¡oscu loi closuic oi cx¡ansion.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/be,orJìLe¡er·e
Turning Boses Into Creot PIoces: New
Li[e [or CIosed MiIitory FociIities
This guiuclooI uiscusscs how io cicaic
a vision loi loimci insiallaiions ihai
¡ioviucs housing anu iians¡oiiaiion
choiccs, cicaics a mix ol |ols anu
housing, anu maIcs ihc mosi ol naiuial
asscis. See: www.e¡n.¿o./J·eJ/».I.ìn.,.Lì»
In Poiilanu, Oicgon, a ¡oiiion ol Bclmoni
Daiiy was incoi¡oiaicu inio icsiucniial lolis,
alloiuallc a¡aiimcnis, anu moic ihan 2ò,000
squaic-lcci ol iciail s¡acc. Dcnvci`s loimci
Iowiy Aii Ioicc Basc has lccn convciicu inio
a walIallc communiiy wiih a mix ol olhccs,
sho¡¡ing, houscs, a¡aiimcnis anu civic
luiluings. Thc loimci òò-acic Scais, RoclucI
anu Co. hcauquaiicis on Chicago`s wcsi siuc
is now ihc mixcu-incomc Homan Squaic
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
74
communiiy wiih 600 houscs, iownhouscs,
anu a¡aiimcnis, ¡lus ncaily a million squaic
lcci ol iciail s¡acc anu a 70,000-squaic-looi
communiiy ccnici.
REAITOR
®
RR Associaiions in Baliimoic, anu
YoiI, Pcnnsylvania havc iaIcn a lcau in
hcl¡ing icviializc uilan aicas, icau ihcii
¡iohlcs in Scciion V.
Thc lollowing ihicc icsouiccs, as wcll as
scvcial oihcis, aic availallc on ihc NAR wcl
siic ai: www.icalioi.oig/liownhcluicucvcl
Bcst Practiccs to Encouragc Inhll
Dcvclopmcnt: This ic¡oii, ¡ic¡aicu ly
Rolinson 8 Colc loi NAR, auuicsscs whai
aciions govcinmcnis can iaIc io auuicss
ihc uniquc challcngcs ¡oscu ly inhll
ucvclo¡mcni, incluuing ¡io¡ciiy acquisiiion,
asscmlly, anu hnancing, iax licns anu iiilcs,
anu cnviionmcnial coniaminaiion.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/.r¡IIJe.eIo¡»erì
Economic Dcvclopmcnt Casc Studics: This
NAR sciics ol casc siuuics cxamincs scvcn
icucvclo¡mcni ¡io|ccis acioss ihc couniiy
ihai havc scivcu as caialyiic ¡io|ccis loi uilan
icviializaiion in ihcii communiiics.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/e·orJe.
A Guidc to Tax Incrcmcnt Financing (TIF):
This NAR ic¡oii ¡ioviucs insighi inio how
TII ¡iogiams woiI io liing iax icvcnucs io
communiiics, somc ol ihc ways communiiics
havc uscu TII ¡iogiams, anu cxam¡lcs ol TII
siaiuics anu casc law.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/ì.¡.e¡o.ì
Tax-incrcmcnt hnancing and othcr tax
inccntivcs. Many ciiics usc iax-incicmcni
hnancing io ¡iomoic icucvclo¡mcni in
ucsignaicu aicas, ucvoiing ihc associaicu
im¡iovcu iax icvcnucs io ¡aying loi lonus
ihai aic uscu io insiall inliasiiuciuic nccucu io
|um¡-siaii icviializaiion. Somc, such as Ailania,
aic incluuing alloiualiliiy icquiicmcnis as
conuiiions loi usc ol TII lunus.
Aooressing vacant ano
abanooneo properties
Ra¡iu giowih on ihc liingcs ol many
mciio¡oliian icgions has ¡ullcu invcsimcni
liom uilan coics anu innci-iing suluils,
lcaving alanuoncu luiluings anu vacani
¡io¡ciiics. Alanuonmcni iaIcs many loims
- houscs lcli lchinu lccausc ol suluilan
migiaiion, inuusiiial uownsizing, anu
¡icuaioiy lcnuing ¡iaciiccs, oncc viliani
uowniowns iuincu inio ghosi iowns, oi
local iciail sioics alanuoncu whcn laigc,
icgional ccnicis movcu in. No maiici how ihc
¡hcnomcnon manilcsis iiscll, ihc incicasingly
¡iolounu cllccis ol vacani ¡io¡ciiics aic ihc
samc: lowci iax icvcnucs, highci munici¡al
cosis, anu sciious cnviionmcnial anu ¡ullic
hcalih conscqucnccs. Bcloic communiiics can
¡loi ihcii comclacI, ihcy musi auuicss ihc
scouigc ol vacani ¡io¡ciiics.
Thc Naiional Vacani Pio¡ciiics Cam¡aign,
a consoiiium ol naiional, siaic anu local
oiganizaiions shaiing lcsi ¡iaciiccs anu
icchniqucs loi comlaiing alanuonmcni,
¡ioviucs a wcalih ol icsouiccs on iis wcl siic:
www.vacani¡io¡ciiics.oig
State polices
Iollowing aic cxam¡lcs ol ¡olicics ihai
ihicc siaics havc uscu io ¡iomoic cconomic
icviializaiion anu icucvclo¡mcni.
RecycIing Lond in PennsyIvonio
Coniaminaicu inuusiiial siics can lc a ical
laiiici io icviializaiion. Pcnnsylvania has
woiIcu haiu noi |usi io icmovc laiiicis io
ihc clcanu¡ ol coniaminaicu liownhclu siics,
lui io maIc clcanu¡ casy anu ¡icuiciallc
- anu cvcn ¡iohiallc. Thc siaic`s Ianu
Rccycling Acis ol 199ò sci uniloim casy-io-
lollow clcanu¡ sianuaius, ic|cciing cailici
moucls ihai iclicu on iimc-consuming anu
un¡icuiciallc siic-s¡ccihc ncgoiiaiions.
Ianuowncis aic inviicu io choosc onc ol
ihicc scis ol sianuaius, lascu on ihc nccus
ol ihcii siic. Sianuaiuizcu icvicw ¡ioccuuics
cnsuic no sui¡iiscs, anu oncc ihcy mcci ihc
sianuaiu, ihcy icccivc lialiliiy ¡ioicciion.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 75
A numlci ol ¡iogiams in ihc siaic ollci
millions ol uollais in hnancial assisiancc
loi liownhclu clcanu¡ anu ucvclo¡mcni.
Thc siaic ¡ays communiiics io conuuci
invcnioiics ol ihcii liownhclu siics. Inuiviuual
lanuowncis anu local govcinmcnis aic
cligillc io icccivc a vaiiciy ol gianis anu
loans io iniiiaic clcan u¡s. Oihci ¡iogiams
¡ioviuc lunuing io hcl¡ communiiics invcsi
in ucvclo¡ing ihc siics oncc ihcy aic icauy
loi ic-usc. A Biownhclu Aciion Tcam ¸BAT)
¡iogiam assigns a singlc Dc¡aiimcni ol
Enviionmcnial Pioicciion managci io hanulc
all ihc luicauciaiic as¡ccis ol a clcanu¡ siic,
incluuing assisiancc in a¡¡lying loi lunuing
anu ¡cimiis wiih oihci agcncics. Thc siics
sclccicu loi BAT musi lc in ¡laccs alicauy
ucsignaicu loi icviializaiion.
Thc ¡iogiam has clcancu u¡ wcll ovci 2,000
ol Pcnnsylvania`s csiimaicu 10,000 io 12,000
liownhclu siics, iclcasing ihousanus ol acics ol
¡iimc ical csiaic loi icucvclo¡mcni.
See: www.Je¡web.·ìnìe.¡n.u·/InrJ.e·wn·ìe/·w¡/..ew.
n·¡:n=12¬·.Q=¬02u¬:.InrJ.e·wn·ìeNn.=!.
Michigon Fost Troch Lond Bonh Authority
Thc siaic ol Michigan is a lcauci in hcl¡ing
communiiics liing alanuoncu anu vacani
¡io¡ciiics lacI inio ¡iouuciivc icusc. Acioss
ihc Uniicu Siaics, aniiquaicu ¡io¡ciiy laws
havc ¡icvcnicu local govcinmcnis liom gaining
clcai iiilc io alanuoncu ¡io¡ciiics, oi liom
¡ic¡aiing ii loi cllcciivc icucvclo¡mcni.
Pio¡ciiy olicn siis ncglccicu whilc uclinqucni
¡io¡ciiy owncis, s¡cculaiois who havc loughi
iax licns, anu ihc local govcinmcni aiguc in
couii. Olicn ihc only mcihou io uis¡osc ol
¡io¡ciiy is ihiough auciions io ihc highcsi
liuuci, ¡icvcniing ihc local govcinmcnis liom
consoliuaiing ¡io¡ciiics oi sccIing ncw owncis
wiih ¡lans loi a¡¡io¡iiaic icucvclo¡mcni.
Thc iy¡ical ncglcci anu uclay in ucaling wiih
alanuoncu ¡io¡ciiics has lccn climinaicu
in Michigan. Iiisi, a siaic law ¡asscu in 1999
siicamlincu ihc ¡ioccuuics loi loicclosing on
iax uclinqucni ¡io¡ciiics. Thcn in 200S ihc
siaic ¡asscu a ¡acIagc ol ncw laws aimcu ai
hcl¡ing local govcinmcnis hnancc ihc u¡Icc¡
ol vacani ¡io¡ciiics anu iaIc whaicvci sic¡s
aic ncccssaiy io maIc ihcm ¡iouuciivc again.
Thc lcgislaiion cicaicu a Iasi TiacI Ianu BanI
Auihoiiiy ihai auihoiizcs local govcinmcnis
io cicaic lanu lanIs ihai can icnovaic oi
icucvclo¡ ¡io¡ciiics in ihcii invcnioiy, anu io
scll ihc ¡io¡ciiy as ihcy scc hi oi cvcn io icni
ii oui. Thc law givcs ihc lanu lanIs ihc ¡owci
io hnancc lanu clcan-u¡ anu icsioiaiion in
a vaiiciy ol ways, incluuing ly issuing lonus.
Thc lanIs aic also allc io Icc¡ ihc ¡iocccus
liom salcs oi icnials, anu loi hvc ycais hall ol
ihc ¡io¡ciiy iaxcs liom ¡io¡ciiics solu oui ol
ihcii invcnioiics go lacI io ihc lanu lanI.
All ihc ¡io¡ciiics hclu ly a lanu lanI aic now
also classihcu as liownhclus, oi coniaminaicu
siics. This mcans local govcinmcnis can usc
siaic anu lcucial liownhclu giani, loan,
anu iax ¡iogiams io hcl¡ clcan ihcm u¡
anu icucvclo¡ ihcm. Thc Gcncscc Couniy
lanu lanI has iaIcn lull auvaniagc ol ihis
ucsignaiion, anu has icccivcu EPA gianis anu
loans as wcll as sciiing u¡ a iax incicmcni
hnancing ¸TII) ¡iogiam loi ihc ¡io¡ciiics.
See: www.».·L.¿nr.¿o./·.·/u,10u7,7-1:¬-·¬170-
uu.Lì»I
Missouri Historic Preservotion Tox Credits
Rcviializing cxisiing communiiics can comc io a
ucau sio¡ whcn ¡io¡ciiy owncis aic conlionicu
wiih luiluings in nccu ol cxicnsivc ic¡aii anu
ichaliliiaiion. Bui ihis iolusi siaicwiuc ¡iogiam
is cncouiaging ihc ichaliliiaiion ol hunuicus
ol hisioiic homcs anu commcicial ¡io¡ciiics
acioss Missouii. Thc ¡iogiam has ianIcu hisi in
ihc naiion in ihc numlci ol ¡io|ccis com¡lcicu
anu a¡¡iovcu.
Unuci ihc Missouii ¡iogiam, owncis ol
commcicial ¡io¡ciiy anu icnial ical csiaic
can a¡¡ly loi a iax cicuii cqual io iwcniy-hvc
¡ciccni ol ichaliliiaiion cosis loi hisioiic
¡io¡ciiics, oi ¡io¡ciiics ihai coniiiluic io
a hisioiic aica. UnliIc lcucial ¡icscivaiion
iax cicuiis, homcowncis can also iaIc
auvaniagc ol ihc Missouii ¡iogiam loi ma|oi
ichaliliiaiion ¡io|ccis. Thc Missouii cicuii
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
76
can lc comlincu wiih ihc 20 ¡ciccni lcucial
hisioiic ¡icscivaiion iax cicuii.
A siuuy ly Ruigcis Univcisiiy lounu ihai ihc
¡iogiam has hcl¡cu uiivc hciiiagc iouiism in
ihc siaic anu has lioughi ncw icvcnuc io ciiics
anu couniics.
See: www.Jr..»o.¿o./·L¡o/Tn:C.Jì·.Lì». See nI·o,
FLoJe I·InrJ nì www...L¡L·.·ìnìe....u·/·.eJ.ì·
Cccr1ir+tº1 |l+rrir]
Onc ol ihc hisi sic¡s iowaiu giowing smaiici
is io ihinI ahcau aloui how io accommouaic
giowih, invcsi ¡ullic uollais anu maIc suic
¡olicics linc u¡ wiih communiiics` goals loi ihc
luiuic. Thc visioning innovaiions ucsciilcu in
ihc cailici scciion on ¡lanning anu icgulaiion
auuicss ihis nccu. Thc ncxi sic¡ is io cooiuinaic
ihai ¡lanning among ihc vaiious lcvcls ol
govcinmcni, among ihc agcncics ai cach lcvcl
ol govcinmcni anu among ihc |uiisuiciions
wiihin mciio aicas. Thc noiion is ihai no agcncy
oi lcvcl ol govcinmcni can mcci iis goals il onc
cniiiy is woiIing ai cioss ¡ui¡oscs wiih anoihci.
REAITOR
®
RR Associaiions in Washingion anu
Ncw Mcxico havc iaIcn an aciivc iolc in
siaicwiuc ¡lanning iniiiaiivcs, scc ihcii ¡iohlcs
in Scciion V. REAITOR
®
RR Kcn ]acIson shaics
his cx¡ciicnccs in sciving on a local ¡lanning
commission in Scciion V.
This is olicn casici saiu ihan uonc, ol couisc.
Iollowing is a looI ai ihicc siaics ihai havc
iaIcn on ihc |ol ol cooiuinaiing ¡lanning, as
wcll as somc challcngcs ihcy havc laccu.
Voshington Crowth Monogement Act
Washingion`s Giowih Managcmcni Aci has
lccn in ¡lacc sincc 1990, lui ii has lccn
amcnucu a numlci ol iimcs anu has s¡aiIcu
coniiovcisy as ii has lioughi a siiingcni ncw
sci ol ¡lanning anu giowih icquiicmcnis io
giowing couniics anu ciiics acioss ihc siaic. Thc
Aci a¡¡lics io laigc couniics ihai havc giown
ai lcasi 17 ¡ciccni ovci ihc ¡asi icn ycais, anu
small couniics whcic ¡o¡ulaiion has giown
ly 20 ¡ciccni oi moic, as wcll as ihc ciiics
wiihin ihcm. Thcsc local govcinmcnis musi
iucniily anu ¡ioicci ciiiical aicas whilc locusing
giowih in ucsignaicu giowih aicas. Thc local
govcinmcnis musi ¡ic¡aic com¡ichcnsivc
¡lans anu cnaci ucvclo¡mcni icgulaiions
ihai aic in linc wiih ihc com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan.
Thicc Giowih Managcmcni Hcaiing Boaius
icsolvc uis¡uics ovci com¡liancc wiih ihc
aci, incluuing a¡¡cals on ncw icgulaiions oi
lounuaiics ol uilan giowih aicas.
Thc law scis oui 1S goals loi ihc
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan, incluuing icuucing
s¡iawl, using cxisiing inliasiiuciuic, anu
cncouiaging mulii-moual iians¡oiiaiion. Thc
goals also s¡ccily ihc im¡oiiancc ol naiuial
icsouicc-lascu inuusiiics, such as hshing anu
logging, anu call loi ihc ¡ioicciion ol ¡io¡ciiy
iighis anu a s¡ccuy ¡cimiiiing ¡ioccss.
Thc Washingion REAITORS
®
has lccn
succcsslul in ollciing amcnumcnis io ihc GMA
ihai incluuc ¡ioviuing loi anu claiilying iuial
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 77
ucvclo¡mcni ¡ioccuuics, cicaiing inuusiiial
lanu lanIs, a luiluallc lanus invcnioiy
¡ioccss, anu ihc aliliiy io challcngc local lanu
usc uccisions ihiough ihc couiis, iaihci ihan
oi in auuiiion io ihc GMA Rcgional Hcaiings
Boaius. ¸Scc Scciion V.)
See: www.·»n.ì¿.owìL.wn.¿o.
Visconsin Smort Crowth LegisIotion
Wisconsin has choscn io ¡uisuc smaii giowih
ly maIing suic ihai communiiics ¡lan ahcau
- wiih ¡lcniy ol ciiizcn involvcmcni. Thc siaic`s
Com¡ichcnsivc Planning Iaw will cnsuic ihai
ly 2010, almosi cvciy ciiy anu couniy in ihc
siaic will havc a com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan io guiuc
luiuic ucvclo¡mcni. Thc law ¡ioviucs gianis io
local communiiics io ¡ay loi aloui hall ol ihc
cosi ol ucvclo¡ing ihc ¡lans. By May ol 2006,
S19 ciiics, villagcs, iowns, ¡lanning commissions
anu iiilcs - aloui 60 ¡ciccni ol Wisconsin
|uiisuiciions - hau icccivcu ¡lanning gianis.
Thc law uchncs ninc clcmcnis, oi cha¡icis,
io cvciy com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan. Thcy
icquiic communiiics io iucniily issucs anu
o¡¡oiiuniiics, ¡lan loi housing, iians¡oiiaiion,
uiiliiics, anu lanu usc, ¡icscivc agiiculiuial,
naiuial, anu culiuial icsouiccs, anu ¡iomoic
cconomic ucvclo¡mcni anu inicigovcinmcnial
coo¡ciaiion. Thc hnal cha¡ici is aloui
im¡lcmcniaiion - ihc law icquiics ihai ciiics
anu villagcs ol 12,ò00 ciiizcns oi moic auo¡i a
moucl iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclo¡mcni
oiuinancc anu a conscivaiion suluivision
oiuinancc io hcl¡ sha¡c ucvclo¡mcni ¡aiicins.
Thc law also csiallishcs14 ¡lanning goals,
incluuing ¡iomoiing icucvclo¡mcni, ¡ioviuing
iians¡oiiaiion choiccs anu alloiuallc housing,
anu luiluing communiiy iucniiiy ly icviializing
Main Siiccis. Communiiics a¡¡lying loi siaic
¡lanning gianis musi also agicc io csiallish
¨smaii giowih aicas," whcic siaic anu local
inliasiiuciuic icsouiccs will lc conccniiaicu.
Thc ¡ullic gcis many anu vaiicu o¡¡oiiuniiics
io havc ihcii say aloui ihc ¡lan. In laci, a
sc¡aiaic ¡ullic ¡aiiici¡aiion ¡lan is onc ol ihc
hisi sic¡s in any ¡lanning ¡ioccss.
See: www.1I¡..erJ·.o.¿/Co»»ur.ì,_PInrr.r¿/VI_
Co»¡.eLer·..e_PInrr.r¿/VI_PInrr.r¿.Lì»
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
78
PennsyIvonio`s IntergovernmentoI
Cooperotion Low
An im¡oiiani as¡cci ol goou ¡lanning is
ialIing io youi ncighlois. Pcnnsylvania
has givcn clcai lcgislaiivc auihoiiiy io
local govcinmcnis so ihcy can ¡lan anu
aci coo¡ciaiivcly. Thc law iccognizcs ihai
in moucin mciio¡oliian aicas, inuiviuual
munici¡aliiics aic woiIing in a lai laigci
cconomic maiIci ihai s¡ans ihc icgion,
whcic giowih is noi in ihc coniiol ol any
onc |uiisuiciion. In many ¡laccs a lailuic ol
coo¡ciaiion has cnucu u¡ s¡uiiing s¡iawl,
as ucvclo¡cis usc inconsisicni oiuinanccs
io choosc ucvclo¡mcni on ihc cugc, whcic
icgulaiions anu cosis aic lowci loi ihcm, lui
highci loi ihc icgion as a wholc.
Thc law cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions io cnici inio
coo¡ciaiivc agiccmcnis loi maIing suic ihcii
zoning anu lanu-ucvclo¡mcni oiuinanccs aic
consisicni wiih onc anoihci. Ii cncouiagcs
communiiics io |oinily ucvclo¡ com¡ichcnsivc
¡lans ihai s¡an ihcii lounuaiics. Thc ¡lans
can ucsignaic aicas loi luiuic giowih anu
loi ¡icscivaiion on a icgion-wiuc lasis.
Communiiics wiih such icgional ¡lans aic
su¡¡oiicu ly ihc Commonwcalih wiih
¡lanning lunus, auihoiiiy io shaic iax icvcnuc,
anu oihci lcnchis.
See: www.rew¡n.·o»/Je¡nuIì.n·¡::.J=2u
Ccmmtrit¡ |ºsi]r
Many communiiics havc lounu ihai ii is noi
cnough mcicly io maIc a ¡lan il ihcic is
no clcai vision loi how io im¡lcmcni ii in a
way ihai ¡iouuccs ihc chaiacici, loim anu
lunciion ihai ciiizcns ucsiic. IiIcwisc, ii`s
noi cnough mcicly io say whai communiiics
uon`i wani io scc in icims ol ucvclo¡mcni,
io gci a saiislacioiy icsuli, ihcy havc io
ucsciilc whai ii is ihcy uo wani in icims ol
communiiy ucsign.
In Vcimoni, as ihc cxam¡lc lclow cx¡lains,
ciiizcns havc cx¡icsscu a ¡iclcicncc loi
giowih ihai iaIcs ihc loim ol ihc Ncw
Englanu iowns ihai havc long chaiaciciizcu
ihc icgion. In Caliloinia, ihc siaic has givcn
communiiics ncw laiiiuuc in using loim-lascu
coucs io guiuc communiiy ucsign. In nciihci
casc uocs siaic govcinmcni ¡olicy uiciaic whai
musi lc luili whcic. Raihci, ii ollcis guiuancc
as io whai ihc communiiy will su¡¡oii wiih iax
uollais anu govcinmcni sciviccs.
Vernont Crowth Centers
Vcimoni has a long-csiallishcu ucvclo¡mcni
¡aiicin ol com¡aci iowns anu villagcs,
olicn wiih a ¨villagc giccn," suiiounucu
ly laims anu loicsis. Thc siaic is invoIing
ihai iiauiiion in iis ncw ¸2006) ucsignaiion
ol ¨giowih ccnicis," ¡laccs ihai will gci
¡iioiiiy in a vaiiciy ol siaic ¡iogiams. Thc
ncw ucsignaiion allows local govcinmcnis
io a¡¡ly voluniaiily loi giowih-ccnici siaius
loi cxisiing ciiics anu iowns, as wcll as loi
wcll-uchncu ¡aiccls au|accni io cxisiing
ucvclo¡cu aicas. Thc ccnicis musi havc
¡ullic s¡accs anu a local ¡oini, a mix ol uscs,
anu musi mainiain ihc hisioiic ucvclo¡mcni
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 7º
Bctsir] k||cr1+|ilit¡
In mosi mciio aicas iouay, no singlc cniiiy
is ics¡onsillc oi accouniallc loi cnsuiing
ihai lamilics ol all incomcs can hnu a
ucccni homc wiihin icasonallc ¡ioximiiy
io |ols anu csscniial sciviccs. Mcanwhilc,
viiiually cvciy local |uiisuiciion has ihc iighi
io im¡osc zoning ¡iovisions ihai cxcluuc
lamilics ol moucsi mcans, anu vciy many uo.
Manuaics loi laigc lois anu laigci houscs
wiih cx¡cnsivc hnishcs uiivc u¡ ¡iiccs
whilc lans on aiiachcu, mixcu-incomc anu
oihci loims ol lowci-cosi consiiuciion uiivc
uown ihc alloiuallc su¡¡ly. Mcanwhilc,
shcci ucmanu loi uilan living anu shoiici
commuics is uiiving ¡iiccs in many closc-
in ncighloihoous lcyonu ihc icach ol
icachcis, hichghicis anu oihcis ol moucsi
incomc. Now, iising gas ¡iiccs aic auuing io
ihc ¨iians¡oiiaiion cosi" ol homcs ihai aic
uisiani liom |ols anu aciiviiics.
Iaccu wiih ihcsc ciicumsianccs, communiiics
acioss ihc couniiy aic iiying a iangc ol
innovaiivc ¡oliccs anu ¡ullic-¡iivaic
a¡¡ioachcs io incicasc ihc availaliliiy ol
alloiuallc homcs in ¡ioximiiy io |ols anu
uilan amcniiics. Iollowing is a liicl ovcivicw
ol scvcial ¡olicics availallc io ¡iomoic
alloiuallc housing in ihc locaiions whcic
ucmanu is high.
Thc REAITORS
®
Associaiion in Vcniuia
Couniy Caliloinia has hcl¡cu ¡iomoic
alloiuallc housing ihiough iis HOME
¡iogiam. Scc Scciion V loi a casc siuuy.
Inclusionary zoning. In hoi housing maiIcis,
somc ciiics aic icquiiing ihai ucvclo¡mcnis
ol a cciiain sizc coniain a shaic ol houscs ihai
mcci local alloiualiliiy goals. Thcsc usually
involvc gianiing a ucnsiiy lonus in cxchangc
loi alloiuallc uniis. Washingion, D.C., Bosion,
Ailania anu San Iiancisco aic among ihc
|uiisuiciions auo¡iing ihcsc ¡olicics.
See NAF`· E.eIJ Cu.Je ìo Ir·Iu·.orn.,
Zor.r¿` nrJ oìLe. .e·ou.·e· nì www..enIìo..o.¿/
.r·Iu·.orn.,.or.r¿
¡aiicin ol com¡aci villagcs anu uilan ccnicis
sc¡aiaicu ly a iuial couniiysiuc.
In auuiiion io giving ¨giowih ccnicis" lunuing
¡iioiiiy, ihc siaic is allowing ihcm io lccomc
iax-incicmcni hnancing ¸TII) uisiiicis. Insiuc
TII uisiiicis, local govcinmcnis aic allowcu io
usc a ¡oiiion ol ¡io¡ciiy iax icvcnucs liom
ncw ucvclo¡mcnis io ¡ay loi ihc inliasiiuciuic
im¡iovcmcnis ihai mauc ihc ncw aciiviiy
¡ossillc in ihc hisi ¡lacc.
Thc ncw lcgislaiion was su¡¡oiicu ly ihc
Vcimoni Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
¸VAR).
To lioaucn ihc accc¡iancc ol ihc ncw
lcgislaiion, VAR soughi su¡¡oii liom NAR io
ucvclo¡ a couisc on ihc ¡iinci¡lcs ol smaii
giowih in ¡aiincishi¡ wiih ihc Vcimoni
Ioium on S¡iawl. To lcain moic, coniaci Bol
Hill ai iuhCviicalioi.com.
See: www..ì·¡.nwI.o.¿/Fe·ou.·e·/Ie¿.·Inì.or/
Ie¿.·Inì.or-2uu0.Lì»
CaliIornia Forn-Baseo Cooes
Whilc zoning coucs aic siiicily a local maiici,
ihc Siaic ol Caliloinia is maIing clcai io
munici¡aliiics ihai ncw zoning loims aic lcgal
- anu aic cvcn cncouiagcu.
Convcniional zoning is usually lascu on
luiluing usc, anu siiicily sc¡aiaics homcs liom
sho¡s anu lusincsscs. Such zoning has lccn
llamcu loi cicaiing s¡iawl - anu namcu as a
laiiici io mixing iogcihci housing, iciail, anu
lusincss. Caliloinia`s olu law icgulaiing gcncial
¡lans sccmcu io im¡ly ihai sc¡aiaiing uscs was
ncccssaiy, so in 2004 ihc siaic ¡asscu a law ihai
cncouiagcs whai aic Inown as ¨loim-lascu
coucs." As uiscusscu cailici in ihc scciion on
innovaiions in zoning anu ucvclo¡mcni coucs,
ihcsc zoning coucs locus on ihc icgulaiion ol
luiluing loim, such as how lai a luiluing is sci
lacI liom ihc siicci, anu iis hcighi. Thcy allow
communiiics io achicvc ucsiicu ucsigns whilc
mixing iogcihci uillcicni iy¡cs ol uscs, anu aic
a common way ol achicving smaii giowih.
See: www.I¿·.o.¿/¡.ee¡ub/PDE/1nrJ_U·e/¡n·ì_
·Leeì·/¡o.»_bn·eJ_·oJe·.¡J¡
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
8O
Rcgional, Iair-sharc housing plans. To hcl¡
cnsuic ihai no |uiisuiciion cnus u¡ wiih ioo
much ol onc Iinu ol housing, whcihci ai
ihc low oi high cnu, somc mciio icgions aic
cicaiing mulii-|uiisuiciional ¡lans ihai hcl¡ io
allocaic sulsiuizcu housing in a laii way, whilc
cnsuiing ihai oihci loims ol alloiuallc homcs
maich ihc |ols availallc.
Mixcd-incomc projccts can hcl¡ ucliay
inliasiiuciuic cosis loi lowci-¡iiccu uniis ly
incluuing ihcm wiih moic cx¡cnsivc uniis.
Mixcu-incomc ¡io|ccis havc ¡iovcn highly
succcsslul in ihc lasi lcw ycais. Many havc
lccn cicaicu ihiough ihc lcucial HOPE VI
¡iogiam, which ic¡laccu uila¡iuaicu high-
iisc ¡ullic housing wiih ncw ¡io|ccis ihai mix
sulsiuizcu anu maiIci-iaic homcs.
Incrcascd travcl options can allow lamilics
io uiivc lcss, cvcn owning lcwci cais, ihcicly
saving moncy ihai can go iowaiu im¡iovcu
housing o¡iions. This is ihc ¡iinci¡lc lchinu
locaiion-clhcicni moiigagcs, which allow
luycis in walIallc ncighloihoous wiih goou
iiansii acccss io qualily loi laigci sums ihan
ihcy oihciwisc woulu, lccausc ol ihc moncy
savcu on vchiclcs.
Pcrmissivc policics on granny ßats and othcr
acccssory units. Allowing homc owncis
io cicaic an acccssoiy a¡aiimcni on ihcii
\ºrmcrt Bctsir] +r1
Ccrsºrr+ticr Irtst |tr1
Vcimoni has lccn mcciing ihc nccu
io lunu loih o¡cn s¡acc ¡icscivaiion
anu alloiuallc housing sincc 19S7
whcn ii cicaicu ihc Vcimoni Housing
anu Conscivaiion Tiusi Iunu. Whilc
many siaics havc Housing Tiusi
Iunus ¸olicn lunucu ly ical csiaic
convcyancc iaxcs oi iccoiuing lccs),
Vcimoni was ihc hisi io linI alloiuallc
housing io ¡icscivaiion. Thc lunu
has awaiucu moic ihan S142 million
uollais loi alloiuallc housing anu
¡icscivaiion, lcvciaging Sò00 million
moic liom ¡iivaic souiccs.
IinIing housing anu ¡icscivaiion has
hcl¡cu ¡iomoic smaii giowih. Ioi
cxam¡lc, aloui onc-quaiici ol ihc
alloiuallc housing uniis su¡¡oiicu
ly ihc lunu aic in luiluings cligillc
loi ihc Naiional Rcgisici ol Hisioiic
Placcs. Such ¨uual goal" ¡io|ccis
hcl¡ communiiics inicgiaic iwo
sccmingly uivcigcni nccus. In somc
cascs laims ¡icscivcu ly ihc lunu havc
incoi¡oiaicu ncw alloiuallc housing
uniis, in oihcis housing giou¡s
su¡¡oiicu ly ihc lunu havc agiccu
io ¡ioicci siicams anu o¡cn s¡acc
ai ihc siic ol ncw anu ichaliliiaicu
alloiuallc housing.
Hawaii anu Conncciicui havc icccnily
cicaicu similai ¡iogiams, anu Rhouc
Islanu is woiIing io icvivc a ¡iogiam
mouclcu on Vcimoni`s ihai has ncvci
icccivcu lunuing.
See: www..L·b.o.¿/·onI.ì.or·.Lì»I
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 8l
¡io¡ciiy, ciihci loi ¡cisonal usc oi icni,
can hcl¡ cx¡anu ihc housing su¡¡ly whilc
su¡¡lcmcniing homc owncis` incomc.
°Smart¨ rchabilitation codcs ihai maIc ii lcss
cosily io ¡ui oluci luiluings io usc. Ncw ]ciscy
has lccn a ¡ioncci in ihis aica.
Rc-usc oI vacant propcrtics. Many ciiics anu
oluci suluils aic uiscovciing ways io woiI
wiih ihc ¡iivaic sccioi io woiI quicIly io ¡ui
iax-uclinqucni anu alanuoncu ¡io¡ciiics
lacI inio scivicc as alloiuallc homcs.
Stlccls
EoIIow.r¿ .· n b..e¡ o.e...ew o¡ ìLe .oIe ··LooI
¡n·.I.ì.e· ¡oI.·.e· ·nr ¡In, .r ·»n.ì ¿.owìL. Eo.
n ¡uIIe. J.··u··.or, ¡Ien·e ·ee Pullic Schools:
A ToolIii loi REAITORS
®
www..enIìo..o.¿/
¡ub··LooI·ìooII.ì
As cvciy REAITOR
®
RR Inows, ihc conncciion
lciwccn schools anu ical csiaic is ¡iolounu.
Thc ¡ciccivcu qualiiy ol schools allcci homc
valucs, |usi as ihc ucclinc ol housing siocI
anu local iax lasc can allcci school qualiiy. A
ncighloihoou wiih a iiauiiional school ncsilcu
wiihin walIing uisiancc ol mosi siuucnis has
onc Iinu ol chaiacici, whilc a ncighloihoou
whosc chiluicn musi lc uiivcn io a laigc
school on lusy aiiciial ioaus havc anoihci.
In icccni ycais, smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs havc
convcigcu wiih a movcmcni among cuucaiois
anu ncighloihoou auvocaics loi smallci schools
ihai aic inicgial io ihc communiiy. Rcscaich
shows ihai chiluicn aiicnuing smallci schools
gci lciici giaucs anu ¡aiiici¡aic moic in school
aciiviiics, anu aic moic liIcly io go io collcgc.
Ncighloihoou schools also can scivc mulii¡lc
lunciions loi ihc suiiounuing communiiy
ouisiuc ol school houis. Anu in ihis cia ol high
olcsiiy iaics, walIing oi liIing io school givcs
Iius ihai cxiia lii ol ¡hysical aciiviiy ihai can
hcl¡ maIc a uillcicncc - ¡ioviucu ihc school is
in a walIallc ncighloihoou wiih salc iouics io
anu liom ihc school giounus.
In an aiiiclc loi ihc Amciican School Boaiu
]ouinal, consulianis Consiancc Bcaumoni anu
Bailaia McCann ¡io¡oscu chaiaciciisiics loi
¨smaii giowih" schools. Thcy aic:
W Small anu hi comloiially inio ihc
ncighloihoous ihcy scivc,
W Encouiagc communiiy involvcmcni in
¡lanning loi ihc laciliiy,
W Pioviuc high qualiiy cuucaiion,
W Iocaicu wiihin a ncighloihoou whcic
mosi Iius can walI oi liIc salcly,
W Aci as a ncighloihoou local ¡oini, wiih
alici-houis communiiy aciiviiics, anu
9tlºr tsº|tl rºsctrtºs
Ioi a moic com¡lcic uiscussion ol
ihcsc issucs, scc ihcsc icsouiccs:
Knowlcdgcplcx.org, a ¡io|cci ol ihc
Iannic Mac Iounuaiion anu a numlci
ol ¡aiincis, ollcis a vasi aiiay ol
alloiualiliiy ncws, iools anu loiums ai
www.IrowIeJ¿e¡Ie:.o.¿
°AIIordablc Housing and Smart
Growth: Making thc conncction¨ ollcis
lullci cx¡lanaiions ol ¡olicics as wcll
as cxcm¡laiy ¡io|ccis, ai www.e¡n.¿o./
J·eJ/¡J¡/e¡n_nL_·¿.¡J¡
Thc AIIordablc Housing Dcsign
Advisor ollcis a laigc gallciy ol ¡ullic,
¡iivaic anu non-¡iohi ¡io|ccis ihai
iooI auvaniagc ol ¡olicics lisicu hcic,
as wcll as oihcis, io cicaic succcsslul,
¡o¡ulai ¡io|ccis, ¡lcasc scc: www.
Je·.¿rnJ..·o..o.¿
°Conscrvation Bascd AIIordablc
Housing: Improving thc Naturc oI
AIIordablc Housing¨, liom Thc
Conscivaiion Iunu, ollcis 16 cxam¡lcs
ol communiiics luiluing alloiuallc
housing whilc consciving lanu ai ihc
samc iimc. www.·or·e..nì.or¡urJ.o.¿/
:n.ì.·Ie=·1¹2.bn·I=ì.ue
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
82
W MaIc goou usc ol cxisiing icsouiccs,
incluuing hisioiic luiluings, whcncvci
¡ossillc.
Ioi many ycais sincc ihc 1960s, wiucly
auo¡icu sianuaius liom ihc Council ol
Euucaiional Iaciliiy Planncis Inicinaiional
unucimincu ihcsc goals ly ¡iomoiing
laigc, uiivc-io school on siics ol many acics.
Rcccnily, howcvci, ihc sianuaiu-sciiing
oiganizaiion has icihoughi iis guiuclincs io
cncouiagc icnovaiing cxisiing ncighloihoou
schools anu using smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs in
siiing uccisions. Thc ncw guiuancc can lc
lounu in ihc ic¡oii, ¨Schools loi Succcsslul
Communiiics: An Elcmcni ol Smaii Giowih",
on CEIPI`s wclsiic: www.e¡n.¿o./·»n.ì¿.owìL/
¡J¡/S»n.ìC.owìL_··LooI·_Pub.¡J¡
EJu·nì.or Vo.IJ iccommcnus ihcsc ¡olicics as
lcnchcial io loih schools anu ihc communiiics
ihcy scivc, as wcll as ihc cnviionmcni:
W Eliminaic ailiiiaiy acicagc sianuaius
ihai unuciminc ihc aliliiy ol csiallishcu
communiiics io iciain oluci schools
W Givc gicaici cm¡hasis io icnovaiion, vcisus
ncw consiiuciion
W School uisiiicis anu local govcinmcnis
shoulu collaloiaic on local ¡lanning
W Ensuic ihai a minimum ol ò0 ¡ciccni ol
siuucnis can walI io school
Eo. »o.e or ìLe·e nrJ oìLe. ¡oI.·.e·, ·ee ìLe U.S.
EPA`· S»n.ì C.owìL nrJ S·LooI· ·.ìe:
www.e¡n.¿o./·»n.ì¿.owìL/··LooI·.Lì»
MoryIond SchooI Construction Progrom
Maiylanu allocaics siaic lunus io hcl¡ local
govcinmcnis wiih school consiiuciion, anu
¡iioiiiizcs ¡io|ccis ihai icviializc cxisiing
laciliiics anu ihosc in ucvclo¡cu aicas
alicauy scivcu ly ¡ullic inliasiiuciuic.
Thcsc ¡olicics havc lcu Maiylanu io awaiu
S0 ¡ciccni ol iis school consiiuciion uollais
io cxisiing laciliiics insicau ol ncw cam¡uscs
on ihc cugc ol iown. Maiylanu also maIcs
no acicagc sianuaiu iccommcnuaiions,
cx¡ansivc school acicagc icquiicmcnis loi
¡layhclus anu ¡aiIing lois aic onc icason
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 83
communiiics cnu u¡ ¡uiiing schools in o¡cn
hclus lai liom ncighloihoous.
Oihci siaics, such as Mainc anu Caliloinia,
aic ¡iomoiing lciici coo¡ciaiion lciwccn
communiiy ¡lanning agcncics anu school
loaius.
See: www.¡··¡.·ìnìe.»J.u·
Ioi moic on ihc ¡iinci¡lcs lchinu cnuing
school s¡iawl, scc Scciion II: To¡ics in Smaii
Giowih`.
To lcain aloui a REAITOR
®
RR woiIing on
school s¡iawl issucs, scc ihc ¡iohlc ol Iinua
Goiuon-Nichols in Scciion V.
S»n.ì C.owìL S»n.ì S·LooI· Ir.ì.nì..e: www.·»n.ì-
··LooI·.o.¿
|ist+l |rt1ºrtº
Evciy |uiisuiciion ho¡cs io invcsi ¡ullic
uollais in a way ihai susiains ihc cconomy
whilc im¡ioving ihc qualiiy ol lilc ol
icsiucnis. Olicn, ihough, ¡olicics on
¡io¡ciiy iaxaiion, iians¡oiiaiion lunuing,
waici anu scwci cxicnsions, school lunuing
anu ihc liIc woiI ai cioss ¡ui¡oscs anu
somciimcs cvcn woiI againsi ihc long-icim
susiainaliliiy ol communiiics.
Thc Naiional Govcinois Associaiion has
¡iomoicu a ¨Iix ii Iiisi" a¡¡ioach wiih
ihcsc goals:
Spcnd Iunds morc cIhcicntly by:
W Taigciing siaic invcsimcni io aicas wiih cx-
isiing inliasiiuciuic anu laciliiaic ucvclo¡-
mcni in aicas mosi suiiallc loi giowih.
W Cooiuinaiing siaic agcncy ¡lanning aiounu
common ucvclo¡mcni goals.
Incrcasc cconomic compctitivcncss by:
W Im¡ioving cxisiing communiiy
inliasiiuciuic io cicaic ¡laccs ihai aic
a¡¡caling loi lusincss anu icsiucniial
invcsimcni.
W Cicaiing inccniivcs io icviializc anu icsioic
ihc cconomics ol iaigcicu aicas.
Enhancc quality oI liIc by:
W Cicaiing inccniivcs loi communiiics io
¡uisuc cooiuinaicu ucvclo¡mcni goals.
W Rcmoving laiiicis io ihc consiiuciion anu
ichaliliiaiion ol schools in csiallishcu aicas.
Ioi local govcinmcnis, ihcic aic vaiious
icchniqucs availallc loi mcciing ihcsc goals.
Two ol ihcm aic hscal im¡aci analysis anu
im¡aci lccs ihai aic iailoicu io icucci ihc iiuc
cosis associaicu wiih locaiion.
Fiscal lnpact Analysis
Iiscal im¡aci analysis ol ¡io¡oscu
ucvclo¡mcnis hcl¡s io uciciminc ihc cosi io
local govcinmcnis anu iax¡aycis ol ¡ioviuing
inliasiiuciuic io scivc ncw ucvclo¡mcnis. Ioi
moic on ihc analysis anu whai ii mcans loi
¡olicy, ¡lcasc scc ¨Dcvclo¡mcnis anu Dollais:
An Iniiouuciion io Iiscal Im¡aci Analysis in
Ianu Usc Planning" ai www.r.J·.o.¿/·.ì.e·/
·»n.ì¿.owìL/JJ/JJ.r:.n·¡
lnpact Iees
Im¡aci lccs aic inicnucu io maIc ncw
ucvclo¡mcni ¡ay iis own way loi loih
inliasiiuciuic anu sciviccs. Olicn, howcvci, ihcic
is no uisiinciion mauc lciwccn ucvclo¡mcni
ihai occuis in ¨giccnhclu" aicas ihai musi lc
scivcu wiih ncw inliasiiuciuic anu cx¡anucu
¡olicc, hic anu oihci sciviccs, anu ucvclo¡mcni
ihai occuis in aicas ihai alicauy aic scivcu
anu hcl¡ io maximizc ¡icvious invcsimcnis.
]uiisuiciions ihai choosc io im¡osc im¡aci lccs
olicn aic lciici scivcu ly a sysicm ol giauuaicu
lccs ihai icuccis ihc lcnchis ol ucvclo¡mcni
ihai maIcs clhcicni usc ol ¡ullic invcsimcnis.
A lioauci uiscussion ol how io ca¡iuic
ihc hscal anu o¡¡oiiuniiy gains associaicu
wiih lciici ¡lanning can lc lounu in ihc
looI ¨S¡iawl Cosis: Economic Im¡acis ol
UnchccIcu Dcvclo¡mcni," availallc liom
Islanu Picss: www..·InrJ¡.e··.·o»/booI·/Jeìn.I.
Lì»I/SKU/1-::¹0·-:·u-¬
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lllinois Business Location
EIfciency Act
Dcvclo¡cis icnu io liIc olhcc s¡iawl lccausc
ii is sim¡lc - in mosi ¡laccs, ¡uiiing u¡ a
ncw olhcc oi inuusiiial luiluing in a icmoic
locaiion is quicI anu incx¡cnsivc, cvcn il ihc
ncw cm¡loyccs cnu u¡ wiih a long uiivc io
woiI. Bui Illinois is giving lusincsscs an cugc
il ihcy choosc locaiions ihai aic scivcu ly
iiansii anu closc io alloiuallc housing loi ihcii
cm¡loyccs. Thc Busincss Iocaiion Elhcicncy Aci
ol 2006 incicascs coi¡oiaic incomc iax cicuiis
ollcicu unuci ihc Economic Dcvclo¡mcni loi
a Giowing Economy ¸EDGE) ¡iogiam ly icn
¡ciccni loi such clhcicni locaiions. Com¡anics
in aicas ihai uon`i qualily can u¡ ihcii EDGE
cicuiis ly cicaiing a icmcuiaiion ¡lan ihai may
ollci cm¡loyci-assisicu housing, shuiilc sciviccs,
¡ic-iax iiansii caius, oi cai¡ooling assisiancc.
See: www..II.ro.·.¿o./P.e··FeIen·e·/
SLowP.e··FeIen·e.·¡»:Sub¡e·ìID=2.Fe·Nu»=:u·¬
Livable Delaware
Dclawaic is iaIing a com¡ichcnsivc a¡¡ioach
io icining in s¡iawl anu managing giowih
wiih iis Iivallc Dclawaic Iniiiaiivc. A ciiiical
oiganizing ¡iinci¡lc ol ihc iniiiaiivc is ihc
siaic`s commiimcni io a¡¡io¡iiaicly uiicci
siaic invcsimcnis.
Thc lounuaiion ol ihc ¡iogiam is an u¡uaicu sci
ol ¨Siiaicgics loi Siaic Policics anu S¡cnuing"
ihai uiicci how ihc siaic can mosi clhcicnily
invcsi in iians¡oiiaiion, social sciviccs, schools,
anu oihci inliasiiuciuic anu sciviccs. Dclawaic
is unusual in ihai ii ¡ioviucs mosi ol ihcsc
sciviccs anu inliasiiuciuic ihioughoui ihc siaic,
anu sianus io savc signihcani icsouiccs wiih
moic caiclully consiucicu invcsimcnis.
Dclawaic has ucsignaicu loui iy¡cs ol
invcsimcni aicas ¸wiih a uciailcu ma¡): Icvcl
1 aicas aic gcncially csiallishcu ciiics anu
iowns anu Icvcl 4 aicas gcncially ic¡icscni
agiiculiuial aicas. Thc ¡lan ¡ioviucs uciailcu
invcsimcni ¡iioiiiics loi iians¡oiiaiion, waici,
housing, siaic laciliiics, ¡aiIs, sciviccs anu
oihci clcmcnis loi cach lcvcl. Ioi cxam¡lc, in
Invcsimcni Icvcl 1 aicas, ¨Siaic invcsimcnis
anu ¡olicics shoulu su¡¡oii anu cncouiagc a
wiuc iangc ol uscs anu ucnsiiics, ¡iomoic oihci
iians¡oiiaiion o¡iions, losici clhcicni usc ol
cxisiing ¡ullic anu ¡iivaic invcsimcnis, anu
cnhancc communiiy iucniiiy anu inicgiiiy."
Icvcl S aicas gci ihc lowcsi ¡iioiiiy ol ihc
ihicc giowih` oiicnicu aicas, as ucvclo¡mcni
is noi nccucu in ihcsc aicas io accommouaic
giowih. Siaic invcsimcni in Icvcl 4 aicas
aic noi uiiccicu iowaiu giowih, lui iowaiu
¡icscivaiion - incluuing ¡ioicciing o¡cn s¡acc.
Thc siaic has also insiiiuicu a sysicm ol
giauuaicu im¡aci lccs loi ucvclo¡mcni ihai
lcvy no lccs in ¡iioiiiy giowih zoncs, anu
giauuaicu lccs whcn ucvclo¡mcni is ¡io¡oscu
in aicas slaicu loi lowci giowih oi ¡icscivaiion.
See: www.·ìnìe.Je.u·/¡Inrr.r¿/·ì.nìe¿.e·/·ì.nìe¿.e·.
·Lì»I
ûrººr Btil1ir]
Sincc ihc 19S0s ihc icim ¨giccn luiluing"
has lccn ¡o¡ulaiizcu io mcan using ihc mosi
cnviionmcnially scnsiiivc anu susiainallc
maiciials io ¡iouucc luiluings ihai aic cncigy
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 85
anu icsouicc-clhcicni. In ihc lasi lcw ycais,
ihcic has lccn a gicaici iccogniiion wiihin
ihc giccn luiluing hclu ihai susiainaliliiy is
noi |usi aloui luiluings, lui incluucs a locus
on whcic anu how wc siic oui luiluings, how
ihc luiluings aic scivcu ly iians¡oiiaiion,
anu ihc ovciall hcalih ol ihc communiiics
ihai ihcsc luiluings sha¡c. IiIcwisc, ihc
smaii giowih movcmcni is ¡aying moic
aiicniion io conscivaiion ol cncigy anu oihci
icsouiccs, aii anu waici qualiiy, anu ihc
cllcci ol luiluings on oui wcll-lcing. As ihc
smaii giowih movcmcni has iccognizcu ihc
im¡oiiancc ol giccn luiluing anu auo¡icu ii,
giccn luiluing ¡iaciiiioncis havc iccognizcu
ihc im¡oiiancc ol smaii giowih in achicving
giccn luiluing`s laigci goals.
Siill, ¨giccn luiluing" icmains a nichc
¡iaciicc. Insiiiuiional laiiicis icmain lccausc
ol lingciing qucsiions aloui ihc cconomic
vialiliiy, alloiualiliiy, insuialiliiy, anu uuialiliiy
ol giccn luiluings. Thc maiIci will auuicss
ihcsc issucs as moic luiluings aic consiiucicu
anu moic lcssons aic lcaincu. Iuiihcimoic,
ihc maiIci will unuouliculy ics¡onu il moic
consumcis ucciuc ihai ihcy caic aloui cncigy
savings anu clcanci inuooi aii as much as ihcy
caic aloui sizc anu moucin amcniiics.
Howcvci, govcinmcni ¡olicics can ¡lay a iolc
in siimulaiing ihc incicascu usc ol giccn
luiluing ¡iaciiccs. Bclow aic iwo cxam¡lcs ol
siaic ¡iogiams ihai uo |usi ihai.
See: www.u·¿b·.o.¿/D.·¡In,Pn¿e.
n·¡::CASPn¿eID=7¹.
Arizona LEED
Aiizona`s Govcinoi ]anci Na¡oliiano signcu
an Exccuiivc Oiuci in Icliuaiy 200ò
icquiiing all siaic-lunucu luiluings io mcci
giccn luiluing sianuaius.
Thc luiluings musi qualily loi a Silvci
IEED-cciiihcaiion unuci a ¡iogiam iun
ly ihc Giccn Builuing Council. Thc IEED
cciiihcaiion sysicm ¸which sianus loi
Icaucishi¡ in Encigy anu Enviionmcnial
Dcsign) awaius ¡oinis io ncw consiiuciion loi
susiainallc siiing, waici anu cncigy clhcicncy,
gcnciaiing lcss wasic anu using susiainallc
maiciials, anu cicaiing goou inuooi aii qualiiy.
Builuings also icccivc ¡oinis loi innovaiivc
ucsign. Thc IEED givcs loui ucsignaiions:
Cciiihcu, Silvci, Golu, anu Plaiinum.
Thc Aiizona Exccuiivc Oiuci also icquiics
ihai luiluings musi uciivc icn ¡ciccni ol
ihcii cncigy nccus liom icncwallc icsouiccs
such as winu oi solai ¡owci, oi ihiough
luying icncwallc cncigy cicuiis. Thc
Govcinoi uiiccicu ihc Aiizona Dc¡aiimcni
ol Auminisiiaiion, Tians¡oiiaiion anu
Schools io ic¡oii ihcii
¡lans io com¡ly wiih ihc
ncw oiuci.
Many oihci siaics
anu communiiics aic
siaiiing io icquiic IEED
sianuaius. Visii ihc
Giccn Builuing Council`s
wcl¡agc, hii¡://www.
usglc.oig/ io hnu a lisi,
anu io lcain aloui a ncw
IEED-cciiihcaiion sysicm
loi homcs, IEED-H, now
unuci ucvclo¡mcni.
See: www.u·¿b·.o.¿/
CLn¡ìe.·/A...orn
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86
North Carolina HealthyBuilt Hones
In Noiih Caiolina, ihc siaic Encigy Olhcc anu
Dc¡aiimcni ol Auminisiiaiion havc |oincu
loiccs wiih ihc Noiih Caiolina Solai Ccnici
anu local luiluing oiganizaiions io ollci ihc
Noiih Caiolina Hcalihy Buili Homcs ¡iogiam.
Thc ¡iogiam ¡ioviucs homc luilucis wiih ihc
icsouiccs io hcl¡ ihcm luilu houscs ihai aic
hcalihy anu alloiuallc anu icuucc cncigy anu
waici usagc whilc ¡ioicciing ihc cnviionmcni.
Thc ¡iogiam is aimcu ai small anu mcuium-
sizcu homc luilucis io hcl¡ ihcm com¡cic in
ihc ncw giccn housing maiIci. Thc ¡iogiam
locuscs on lowciing o¡ciaiing cosis loi
hcaiing anu cooling, im¡ioving inuooi aii
qualiiy, anu lowciing ovciall cnviionmcnial
im¡aci. Homcs luili unuci ihc HcalihyBuili
¡iogiam aic ins¡ccicu accoiuing io a s¡ccially
ucvclo¡cu chccIlisi anu can lc maiIcicu as
HcalihyBuili homcs.
Bcgun in 2004, ihc ¡iogiam has locuscu in ¡aii
on cnsuiing ihai somc ol ihc cciiihcu homcs
aic alloiuallc. Dcvclo¡mcnis in Ashcvillc anu
Duiham havc achicvcu cciiihcaiion loi aloui
20 homcs ucsigncu loi low-incomc lamilics.
HcalihyBuili homcs also havc ihc auucu lcnchi
ol uiamaiically lowci monihly hcaiing anu
cooling cosis, incicasing ihcii alloiualiliiy.
Thc wclsiic loi ihc ¡iogiam incluucs a linI
whcic ical csiaic ¡iolcssionals can sign u¡ io
lc lisicu in a Diiccioiy ol Encigy Rcncwallc
Piolcssionals, mainiaincu ly ihc Solai Ccnici.
See: www.LenIìL,bu.IìLo»e·.o.¿
|rchlºs: |ctr St+tºs I+|ir] +
Ccmprºlºrsirº Sm+rt ûrcwtl kpprc+tl
Narylano
Thc Siaic ol Maiylanu lcgan io cncouiagc smaii
giowih in 1997. Ai ihc ccnici ol Maiylanu`s
clloiis aic iwo iniiiaiivcs: ucsignaiing Piioiiiy
Iunuing Aicas loi giowih, anu csiallishing a
Ruial Icgacy ¡iogiam loi aicas ihai shoulu lc
¡ioiccicu liom ucvclo¡mcni.
Piioiiiy Iunuing Aicas ¸PIAs) aic ¡laccs
whcic ihc siaic conccniiaics iis invcsimcnis
in oiuci io cncouiagc giowih in cxisiing
communiiics. PIAs incluuc all lanu insiuc ciiy
lounuaiics as ol 1997, inuusiiial aicas anu
cnici¡iisc zoncs, anu oihci aicas ucsignaicu
ly couniics, as long as ihcy mcci waici anu
scwci nccus anu ucnsiiy sianuaius. Thc PIAs
gci lunuing ¡iioiiiy loi inliasiiuciuic such as
highways anu waici anu scwci consiiuciion,
anu loi cconomic ucvclo¡mcni assisiancc.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 87
Ioi cxam¡lc, ncw homcs hnanccu unuci low-
inicicsi homc loan ¡iogiams loi low-incomc
anu uisallcu ciiizcns musi lc wiihin PIAs. In
auuiiion, cm¡loycis gci a liggci iax savings
unuci ihc ]ol Cicaiion Tax Cicuii ¡iogiam il
ihcii lusincss is in a PIA.
Thc ¡aiinci io ihc Piioiiiy Iunuing Aicas is
ihc Ruial Icgacy Piogiam, which is aimcu
ai ¡ioicciing laigc, coniiguous iiacis ol
agiiculiuial, loicsi anu naiuial aicas liom
ucvclo¡mcni. Thc Ruial Icgacy ¡iogiam
¡uichascs conscivaiion cascmcnis anu
cncouiagcs ¡lanning io ¡ioicci ihcsc aicas
liom ucvclo¡mcni ¡icssuic.
Maiylanu has csiallishcu scvcial oihci
¡iogiams io cncouiagc com¡aci ucvclo¡mcni
in cxisiing communiiics. Thc siaic
Dc¡aiimcni ol Planning has lcgun io
maiIci vacani siaic-owncu ¡io¡ciiics loi
icucvclo¡mcni ihiough ihc Maiylanu Smaii
Siics wclsiic ¸www.smaiisiics.oig). Thc
cxisiing Biownhclu Rcviializaiion Inccniivc
Piogiam was icloimcu in 2004 io siicamlinc
ihc a¡¡licaiion ¡ioccss anu incicasc ihc iy¡cs
ol cligillc siics. A com¡ciiiivc ¡iogiam lcgun
in 2004 callcu Piioiiiy Placcs, has awaiucu
s¡ccial assisiancc io a hall-uozcn ciiics,
suluils anu small iowns ihai aic luiluing
¡io|ccis in alicauy ucvclo¡cu aicas. Thc
¡io|ccis aic su¡¡oiicu ly ihc ¨Smaii Giowih
Sul-Calinci," mauc u¡ ol all siaic agcncics
ihai aic involvcu in lanu usc anu giowih.
Thc siaic is also ¡ioviuing icchnical assisiancc
loi communiiics looIing loi ncw ways io giow.
Thc siaic has ucvclo¡cu a Dcvclo¡mcni Ca¡aciiy
Analysis io hcl¡ communiiics csiimaic ihcii
"luilu-oui" ca¡aciiy, anu cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions
io consiuci auo¡iing Aucquaic Pullic Iaciliiy
Oiuinanccs ihai cnsuic ihai ioaus, scwcis anu
oihci inliasiiuciuic aic aucquaic io scivc ncw
ucvclo¡mcni. Thc Dc¡aiimcni ol Planning
has issucu moucl smaii coucs` ihai ciiics anu
couniics can auo¡i ihai aic moic a¡¡io¡iiaic
loi ichaliliiaiion anu inhll ucvclo¡mcni ihan
iiauiiional luiluing coucs.
See: www.»J¡.·ìnìe.»J.u·/·»n.ì.rì.o.Lì»
New Jersey
Thc Siaic ol Ncw ]ciscy has ¡lcniy ol
cx¡ciicncc wiih loih siucs ol s¡iawling
ucvclo¡mcni - ihc ucsiiuciion ol naiuial aicas
loi ncw ucvclo¡mcni, anu ihc uisinvcsimcni
anu ucclinc in cxisiing uilan aicas. Thc siaic
has iaIcn many sic¡s io iiy io icvcisc ihc
iicnu, incluuing a iolusi ¡iogiam io icucvclo¡
inuusiiial liownhclus, cxicnsivc o¡cn s¡acc
anu laimlanu ¡icscivaiion ¡iogiams, anu
¨smaii luiuic" ¡lanning gianis. Thc siaic
Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion has auo¡icu
¡olicics ihai call loi ¨hxing ii hisi" anu ihai
su¡¡oii ihc cicaiion ol ¨iiansii villagcs" ihai
gci cxiia ¡lanning anu lunuing aiicniion.
In ihis ¡iohlc, wc locus on Ncw ]ciscy`s
innovaiivc siaic ¡lanning sysicm, iis ncw coucs
loi ichaliliiaiing cxisiing luiluings, anu iis
¨giowih shaic" alloiuallc housing iniiiaiivc.
Thc Siaic Plan csiallishcu cighi ¡lanning
goals ¸scc siuclai), anu hvc iy¡cs ol ¡lanning
Nºw !ºrsº¡´s |i]lt
|l+rrir] ûc+ls
@ Rcviializc ihc Siaic`s Uilan Ccnicis
anu Aicas
@ Conscivc ihc Siaic`s Naiuial
Rcsouiccs
@ Piomoic Bcnchcial Economic
Giowih, Dcvclo¡mcni anu Rcncwal
@ Pioicci ihc Enviionmcni
@ Pioviuc Aucquaic Pullic Sciviccs Ai
a Rcasonallc Cosi
@ Pioviuc Aucquaic Housing Ai a
Rcasonallc Cosi
@ Picscivc anu Enhancc Hisioiic,
Culiuial, O¡cn S¡acc anu
Rccicaiional Ianus anu Siiuciuics
@ Ensuic Sounu anu Inicgiaicu
Planning Siaicwiuc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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88
aicas, wiih an accom¡anying ¡lanning ma¡.
Thc ¡lan cncouiagcs local ¡aiiici¡aiion
ly cicaiing a voluniaiy icvicw sysicm ihai
cnuoiscs ciiy, couniy, anu icgional ¡lans il ihc
¡lans aic consisicni wiih ihc siaic ¡lans anu
goals anu ihosc ol suiiounuing |uiisuiciions.
]uiisuiciions wiih cnuoiscu ¡lans gci lunuing
¡iioiiiy, a siicamlincu ¡cimiiiing ¡ioccss, anu
cooiuinaicu agcncy sciviccs.
Rehob codes Wiih moic ihan iis shaic
ol alanuoncu anu ncglccicu luiluings
- hall ol ihc siaic`s homcs wcic luili ¡iioi
io 19ò9 - Ncw ]ciscy has lcu ihc way in
cncouiaging icucvclo¡mcni ly cicaiing
ichaliliiaiion coucs ihai s¡ui icnovaiion
wiihoui ¡iohiliiivc cosis oi icquiicmcnis.
Thc couc climinaics ihc uncciiainiy anu
somciimcs insuimouniallc icquiicmcnis
ol luiluing coucs ihai loicc ucvclo¡cis io
mcci ncw-consiiuciion sianuaius on olu
luiluings. Thc Rchaliliiaiion Sul-couc
icgulaics ihicc iy¡cs ol ¡io|ccis: changcs ol
usc, auuiiions, anu ichaliliiaiions. Rchals
aic luiihci uiviucu accoiuing io how much
woiI has io lc uonc, which allows small
¡io|ccis io go loiwaiu wiihoui mcciing
luiucnsomc couc icquiicmcnis. Thc couc
has lcu io a uiamaiic incicasc in uollais
s¡cni on ichaliliiaiion. Thc hisi ycai ihc
couc was in cllcci, 199S, ichaliliiaiion woiI
in Ncw ]ciscy`s hvc laigcsi ciiics incicascu
ly 60 ¡ciccni. Thc siaic has also csiallishcu
ihc Ncw ]ciscy Rcucvclo¡mcni Auihoiiiy,
a hnancing auihoiiiy ihai uscs many
mcchanisms io su¡¡oii icucvclo¡mcni ol
uilan ncighloihoous.
Crowth shore housing A ciiiical clcmcni in
smaii giowih is alloiuallc housing ihai allows
¡co¡lc io livc closc io ihcii |ols. Ncw ]ciscy
has csiallishcu ¨giowih shaic" alloiuallc
housing sianuaius ihai cnsuic ihai whcncvci
ncw housing oi |ols comc inio a communiiy,
alloiuallc uniis will lc ¡aii ol ihc mix.
Iocal |uiisuiciions aic icquiicu io cnsuic
ihai loi cvciy cighi maiIci-iaic homcs oi
a¡aiimcnis ihai aic luili, onc alloiuallc
unii musi lc ucvclo¡cu. Anu loi cvciy 2ò
ncw |ols iniiouuccu inio a communiiy, onc
unii ol housing ihai is wiihin icach ol low-
oi mouciaic incomc houscholus musi lc
ucvclo¡cu. Thc siaic Council on Alloiuallc
Housing uscs Siaic Planning Commission
giowih ¡io|cciions as ii icvicws ihc giowih
¡lans ol local |uiisuiciions, a lull cvaluaiion ol
a |uiisuiciion`s succcss in mcciing alloiuallc
housing goals is uuc cvciy ihicc ycais.
See: www.r¡.¿o./J·n/o·¿
Nassachusetts
Whilc mosi siaics aic cx¡ciimcniing
wiih inuiviuual smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs,
Massachusciis has lccn aiicm¡iing a moic
com¡ichcnsivc a¡¡ioach. Govcinoi Miii
Romncy`s auminisiiaiion has csiallishcu icn
smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs anu is im¡lcmcniing a
cooiuinaicu sci ol ncw ¡olicics anu ¡iogiams.
Hc cvcn ic-oiganizcu siaic govcinmcni io
achicvc ihis vision.
Thc icn Susiainallc Dcvclo¡mcni Piinci¡lcs
ol Massachusciis hi on a singlc ¡agc anu
M+ss+tltsºtts Stst+ir+|lº
|ºrºlcpmºrt |rirtiplºs:
@ Rcucvclo¡ Iiisi
@ Conccniiaic Dcvclo¡mcni
@ Bc Iaii ¸cquiiallc shaiing ol
ihc lcnchis anu luiucns ol
ucvclo¡mcni)
@ Rcsioic anu Enhancc ihc
Enviionmcni
@ Conscivc Naiuial Rcsouiccs
@ Ex¡anu Housing O¡¡oiiuniiics
@ Pioviuc Tians¡oiiaiion Choicc
@ Incicasc ]ol O¡¡oiiuniiics
@ Iosici Susiainallc Busincsscs
@ Plan Rcgionally
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I 8º
inloim ihc woiI ol ihc ncwly-cicaicu Olhcc
ol Commonwcalih Dcvclo¡mcni, a su¡ci-
agcncy ihai cooiuinaics ihc woiI ol ihc
housing, iians¡oiiaiion, cnviionmcnial, anu
cncigy agcncics ol ihc siaic govcinmcni
io lciici managc giowih. Massachusciis is
a siiong homc iulc siaic, anu many ol ihc
¡olicics anu ¡iogiams auminisicicu ly ihc
olhcc aic lascu on ¡ioviuing inccniivcs anu
icchnical assisiancc io local communiiics
inicicsicu in smaii giowih.
Thc inccniivcs can comc in ihc loim ol
haiu cash. Unuci Cha¡ici 40R ol ihc siaic
couc, communiiics ihai cicaic s¡ccial zoning
uisiiicis ihai allow anu ¡lan loi ¨ly iighi"
ucvclo¡mcni ol high-ucnsiiy, mixcu usc
housing wiih signihcani alloiuallc uniis aic
icwaiucu hnancially - a S600,000 lum¡-sum
¡aymcni, anu SS,000 ¡ci housing unii luili. A
li¡aiiisan giou¡, ihc Commonwcalih Housing
TasI Ioicc, ¡io¡oscu 40R, anu ii is siiongly
su¡¡oiicu ly ihc Massachusciis Associaiion
ol REAITORS
®
. An auucu ¡iovision ¸40S)
cncouiagcs |uiisuiciions io invcsi in housing
suiiallc loi lamilics ly IicIing in siaic
cuucaiion lunuing io ¡ioviuc loi chiluicn
auucu io a communiiy as a icsuli ol ihc 40R-
ins¡iicu ncw ucvclo¡mcni.
Thc siaic is also ollciing a ncw Tiansii
Oiicnicu Dcvclo¡mcni ¸TOD) lonu
¡iogiam ihai will lunu licyclc anu ¡cucsiiian
im¡iovcmcnis, housing ¡io|ccis, anu ¡aiIing
laciliiics loi ucvclo¡mcnis - as long as ihcy aic
wiihin a quaiici milc ol a iiansii siaiion.
Thc Commonwcalih Ca¡iial Scoiccaiu is issucu
loi aloui S00 iowns in ihc siaic. Thc scoiccaiu
mcasuics how wcll local ucvclo¡mcni ¡iaciiccs
mcci ihc Susiainallc Dcvclo¡mcni Piinci¡lcs.
Scoiing wcll can incicasc how much siaic
lunuing a communiiy icccivcs.
A[[ordobIe housing In auuiiion io ihc g
40R alloiuallc housing icquiicmcni,
Massachusciis has a long-sianuing ¨Cha¡ici
40B" alloiuallc housing ¡olicy. In
communiiics whcic lcss ihan icn ¡ciccni ol
housing is alloiuallc io low incomc lamilics
oi scniois, ucvclo¡cis who ¡io¡osc ¡io|ccis
wiih 20 io 2ò ¡ciccni alloiuallc uniis can
ovciiiuc local zoning guiuclincs, anu also
lcnchi liom a siicamlincu a¡¡ioval ¡ioccss. Il
ihc communiiy zoning loaiu icquiics changcs
ihai maIc ihc ¡io|cci ¨uncconomical," ihc
ucvclo¡ci can a¡¡cal io ihc siaic. Thc law
was icccnily icviscu io suggcsi auhcicncc io
ihc icn Smaii Giowih Piinci¡lcs. Thc law has
hcl¡cu luilu moic ihan 4S,000 alloiuallc
uniis sincc ihc caily 1970s.
Massachusciis has oiganizcu a icchnical
assisiancc ¡iogiam aiounu iwclvc icchniqucs
coniaincu in a Smaii Giowih ToolIii ¸loi a
¡osici ol all iwclvc, scc www.mass.gov/cnvii/
smaii_giowih_ioolIii/uocs/smaii_giowih_
ioolIii_¡osici.¡ul). Thc icchniqucs incluuc
cvciyihing liom Tianslci ol Dcvclo¡mcni
Righis io Tax-Incicmcni Iinancing anu
Inclusionaiy Zoning.
Thc Massachusciis Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
has lccn aciivc in ¡ushing loi ucvclo¡mcni
ol ihcsc iools anu moic, incluuing cicaiing
ucnsiiy lonuscs anu ¨ly-iighi" clusici
ucvclo¡mcni. Thc Associaiion has also
s¡onsoicu icgional mcciings io uiscuss
alloiuallc housing ¡iinci¡lcs. Ioi moic
inloimaiion, visii www.maicalioi.com
See: www.»n··.¿o./:¡n¿eID=
o·JLo»e¡n¿e.1=1.·.J=Eo·J.1u=Ho»e
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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ºO
Cregon
Oicgon`s mcihou ol uiicciing giowih io
cxisiing aicas whilc ¡icsciving laimlanu
anu o¡cn s¡acc is ¡ciha¡s ihc lcsi Inown in
ihc couniiy, anu cciiainly ihc olucsi. Mosi
ol Oicgon`s lanu usc laws wcic ¡asscu in a
icmaiIallc scssion ol ihc siaic lcgislaiuic in
197S, ihcn honcu inio ¡olicics anu ¡iogiams
wiih cxicnsivc ¡ullic in¡ui.
Oicgon`s sysicm icquiicu all couniics anu
ciiics io cicaic com¡ichcnsivc ¡lans in linc
wiih ninciccn ovciaiching ¡lanning goals
ucvclo¡cu alici ¡ullic hcaiings ihioughoui
ihc siaic. Oncc all ihc local ¡lans wcic
in ¡lacc, ihcy - noi ihc siaic - govcincu
giowih uccisions. Com¡lcicu ¡lans cicaicu
uilan giowih lounuaiics ¸UGBs), maiIing
ihc cugc ol ihc lanu nccucu io mcci ihc
icgion`s housing, lusincss, anu iccicaiional
nccus loi ihc ncxi iwcniy ycais. Thc uilan
giowih lounuaiics aic icconsiucicu cvciy
hvc io scvcn ycais. Bcyonu ihc UGBs,
laim, iangc, anu loicsi lanus aic ¡ioiccicu
liom ucvclo¡mcni wiih s¡ccial zoning
ucsignaiions, such as Exclusivc Iaim Usc
¸EIU). A Ianu Usc Boaiu ol A¡¡cals icsolvcs
lanu usc uis¡uics.
Oicgon`s law also icquiics zoning loi
alloiuallc housing, anu challcngcs ihc
siaic`s laigcsi ciiics io icuucc icliancc on ihc
auiomolilc ly ¡lanning loi iians¡oiiaiion
o¡iions. Thc siaic`s Tians¡oiiaiion Planning
Rulc icquiics ihai ncw iciail, olhcc, anu
insiiiuiional luiluings givc ¡iclcicniial
acccss io iiansii, anu ihc siaic`s ¨BiIc Bill"
icquiics ihai all ioaus ¡ioviuc ¡cucsiiian
anu licyclc acccss, as wcll as allocaiing onc
¡ciccni ol siaic iians¡oiiaiion uollais io ihcsc
iians¡oiiaiion moucs.
Oicgon`s succcss in icuucing s¡iawl anu
Icc¡ing iialhc congcsiion ai lay is wcll
Inown in ¡aii lccausc ihc Poiilanu icgion
cmliaccu anu cxicnucu ihc caily siaic
¡olicics. Poiilanu voicis cicaicu ihc naiion`s
only uiiccily-clccicu icgional govcinmcni
in 1979 io ovciscc iians¡oiiaiion anu
ucvclo¡mcni acioss ihc icgion. Poiilanu has
succccucu in uiicciing giowih inio a viliani
uowniown whilc ¡icsciving a giccnlcli
ol aciivc laims closc io ihc ciiy. Tialhc
congcsiion has icmaincu managcallc as
commuicis havc comc io icly on lighi-iail
iiains as wcll as ihcii lcci anu licyclcs.
Oicgon`s sysicm is unucigoing ¡iolounu
changc lccausc ol Mcasuic S7, a iclcicnuum
¡asscu in 2004 ihai icquiics ciiics anu
couniics io com¡cnsaic lanuowncis il lanu usc
icsiiiciions icuucc ¡io¡ciiy valucs. Thc law
¡ioviucs no lunuing loi such com¡cnsaiion,
so is icsuliing in many waivcis anu changcs
in lanu-usc icgulaiions. Ii is lascu on an
auminisiiaiivc claims ¡ioccuuic ihai uocs
noi incluuc ¡iovisions loi involvcmcni ly ihc
¡ullic oi noiihcaiion ol ncighloiing lanu
owncis. Smaii giowih ¡io¡oncnis lcai ii will
gui Oicgon`s lanu usc laws.
See: www.·o·.·ìnìe.o..u·/bbooI/ìo¡.·/InrJu·e/
InrJu:.Lì» o. www.¡..erJ·.o.¿/.e·ou.·e·/
o.e...ew.Lì»I
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I ºl
l\C. Btil1ir] Sm+rt
k strrº¡ c| irrcr+tirº prcjºtts
Thcsc ¡laccs wcic luili hisi anu loicmosi io
scivc ihc ¡co¡lc who woulu livc, sho¡ anu
woiI in anu aiounu ihcm. Along ihc way ihcy
accom¡lishcu oihci goals, such as icusing
cxisiing ucvclo¡cu lanu, maIing ihc mosi ol ¡asi
invcsimcnis in inliasiiuciuic, consciving o¡cn
s¡acc anu ccologically scnsiiivc lanu, icviializing
a llighicu oi uagging aica. Mosi ol ihcm wcic
ucsigncu in con|unciion wiih icsiucnis anu
oihci siaIcholucis in ihcii hosi communiiics.
Ir+1iticr+l Nºi]l|crlcc1 |ºrºlcpmºrt
Sincc lounuing ihcii ncw school ol uilan
ucsign anu aichiicciuic in ihc caily
1990s, ¡iaciiiioncis ol ihc Ncw Uilanism
havc ollcicu iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclo¡mcni as an alicinaiivc io ihc
convcniional suluivision anu siii¡-mall
¡aiicin ol suluilan ucvclo¡mcni. A
iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclo¡mcni usually
is oiicnicu aiounu a ccnici ihai incluucs a
¡ullic s¡acc anu commcicial cnici¡iisc, an
iucniihallc cugc, iucally a hvc minuic walI
liom ihc ccnici, a mix ol aciiviiics anu vaiiciy
ol housing iy¡cs, an iniciconnccicu nciwoiI
ol siiccis usually in a giiu ¡aiicin, anu ¡ullic
anu o¡cn s¡accs, incluuing ¡aiIs, ¡lazas anu
squaics. Uscs aic mixcu wiihin ihc ¡io|cci,
anu olicn wiihin luiluings, as wcll, incluuing
lolis ovci sioics oi livc-woiI uniis as ¡aii ol a
mix ol iy¡cs anu ¡iiccs.
Clenwooo Park, Atlanta, Ceorgia
An cxccllcni cxam¡lc is Ailania`s Glcnwoou
PaiI, ihc hisi loiay inio ucvclo¡mcni loi
Chailcs Bicwci, onc ol ihc cailicsi anu mosi
T
he Iollowing section Iocuses on sone exanples oI places that have
been built accoroing to those concepts. This is an evolving felo, so each
new project builos on the successes ano shortconings oI those that
cane beIore. While these projects are incluoeo because they succeeoeo
in nany ways, they are not intenoeo as tenplates Ior all Iuture such projects.
Each connunity, each setting, each narket, each oevelopnent tean is oiIIerent,
allowing Ior enoless innovations ano aoaptations to create special character
ano lasting value.
ülºrº tc lcc| |cr mcrº º\+mplºs
S»n.ì C.owìL IIIu·ì.nìeJ, com¡ilcu ly J
ihc U.S. EPA`s Olhcc ol Economic anu
Communiiy Dcvclo¡mcni, ollcis linIs
io ¡io|ccis ihai illusiiaic cach ol ihc
10 ¡iinci¡lcs cmliaccu ly ihc Smaii
Giowih NciwoiI.
See: www.e¡n.¿o./·»n.ì¿.owìL/·n·e.Lì»
TLe A¡¡o.JnbIe Hou·.r¿ De·.¿r AJ..·o. siic
coniains a gallciy ol S0 ¡io|ccis showing
how alloiuallc housing was inicgiaicu
succcsslully wiih oihci housing in
a vaiiciy ol sciiings. Ii also incluucs
coniaci inloimaiion loi ihc ucvclo¡cis,
ucsigncis anu oihcis.
See: www.Je·.¿rnJ..·o..o.¿
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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º2
succcsslul Inicinci scivicc ¡ioviucis. Alici
lounuing ihc Minus¡iing Inicinci scivicc
which cvcniually mcigcu wiih EaiihlinI,
Bicwci iuincu his cniic¡icncuiial lcni iowaiu
maIing ihc Iinus ol ciiy ncighloihoous hc
hau always lovcu.
Iivc ycais laici, a ncaily-com¡lcic Glcnwoou
PaiI s¡oiis a mix ol singlc-lamily homcs wiih
Souihcin vcinaculai aichiicciuic, all ol which
mcci sianuaius loi ¨giccn" luiluing, along wiih
conuominiums ovcilooIing a ccniial squaic,
somc ol Ailania`s hisi gcnuinc iow houscs anu
a laigc ¡aiI wiih ¡onu ihai uoullcs as an cco-
liicnuly sioim-waici sysicm. Bccausc ol high
siic ucvclo¡mcni cosis, Bicwci anu com¡any
uiu noi mcci ihcii ol|cciivc ol auuing lowci-
incomc housing io ihc mix, lui wiih many ol
ihc ò0 conuos siaiiing ai S170,000, Glcnwoou
PaiI can accommouaic a wiuci iangc ol
incomcs anu houscholu iy¡cs ihan ncaily any
oihci singlc ucvclo¡mcni luili in ihc aica in
icccni ycais. Thicc sho¡s hau o¡cncu as ol
May, 2006 - a collcc sho¡, a Iaiin icsiauiani,
anu a winc anu looI sho¡ - wiih ucvclo¡cis
¡ushing haiu io mcci ihc siiong ucsiic ol
suiiounuing ncighlois loi a small giocciy.
Thc onc ¡ic-cxisiing luiluing on ihc siic
was convciicu ii inio an olhcc conuominium
luiluing anu is lcing lcascu.
Origins
Having mauc ihc uccision io iiy his hanu ai
Ncw Uilanisi ucvclo¡mcni alici uivcsiing
liom EaiihlinI, Bicwci loimcu Giccn Siicci
Pio¡ciiics wiih liIc-minucu collcagucs
Kaihaiinc Kcllcy, loimcily ol Posi Pio¡ciiics,
anu Walici Biown, an aciivc auvocaic ol giccn
luiluing ai Ailania`s Souihlacc Encigy Insiiiuic.
Thc ihicc agiccu on a ¡hiloso¡hy ihai woulu
uiivc ihcii a¡¡ioach io ncighloihoou-
luiluing, now summaiizcu on ihcii wcl siic:
¨Wc aic siiiving io cicaic a lovcallc, walIallc
ncighloihoou liIc ihc oncs iiavclcis iavc aloui
alici visiiing ihc gicai ciiics ol ihc woilu. Wiih
a mix ol ¡lcasani iicc-lincu siiccis, ciiy houscs,
iownhouscs, a¡aiimcnis, sioics, anu ¡aiIs, wc
aic cicaiing a livcly ncw ciiy ncighloihoou."
Whcn Bicwci lounu ihc 2S-acic siic ol
his luiuic ¨iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclo¡mcni," ii was a uclunci concicic
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I º3
iccycling ¡lani, hca¡cu wiih slag anu loaucu
wiih ¡oicniial cnviionmcnial issucs. Bui ii
hau many viiiucs: Ii was |usi oll I-20, only
a cou¡lc ol milcs liom uowniown Ailania,
wiih ihc sIylinc visillc acioss ihc highway. Ii
was |usi laigc cnough io coniain mosi ol ihc
clcmcnis ol a com¡lcic ncighloihoou - a
mix ol housing iy¡cs, ncighloihoou iciail
anu somc olhccs - anu was suiiounucu ly
oluci ncighloihoous ihai lacIcu ncaily
sioics anu icsiauianis. Alihough ii is a milc
liom ihc ncaicsi iail sio¡, ihc aica has goou
lus acccss anu is an casy liIc iiuc liom much
ol whai ihai Ailania has io ollci.
Thc ouilincs ol ihc ¡lan loi Glcnwoou
PaiI wcic sha¡cu in a ucsign woiIsho¡, oi
chaiiciic, in caily Dcccmlci 2001, lcu ly
Vicioi Dovci ol Miami wiih local assisiancc
liom Tunncl-S¡anglci-Walsh 8 Paiincis ol
Ailania. Numcious changing ciicumsianccs
woulu icquiic luiihci ichncmcnis, such as
whcn a ¡lanncu ¡iivaic school ¡iovcu unallc
io locaic on a siic icscivcu loi ii.
ChoIIenges
Thc hisi challcngc involvcu a siiugglc wiih
ihc ciiy`s iialhc cnginccis io win ¡cimission
loi ihc naiiowci siiccis anu iighici iuining
iauii ihai wcic im¡oiiani io ihc iniimaic,
¡cucsiiian-liicnuly ucsign. Uliimaicly, ihc
ciiy`s clccicu olhcials ¡asscu a ncw oiuinancc
allowing s¡ccial ioau uimcnsions loi ucsignaicu
iiauiiional ncighloihoou ucvclo¡mcnis.
Ncxi, ihc ucvclo¡cis hau io hghi io gci
¡cimission io alici a sluugc-hllcu uiainagc
uiich io cicaic ihc cnviionmcnially
liicnuly icicniion ¡onu ihai also was a
Icy amcniiy in ihc ncighloihoou ¡aiI.
Whilc siaic anu local olhcials agiccu ihc
¡io¡osal was ¡iclciallc io ihc cxisiing
conuiiion, com¡lcx waici qualiiy iulcs anu
|uiisuiciional squalllcs icquiicu monihs io
unianglc. Touay, ihc ucvclo¡mcni is winning
awaius loi iis giccn inliasiiuciuic.
Iinally, Giccn Siicci hau io ¡cisuauc ihc
Gcoigia Dc¡aiimcni ol Tians¡oiiaiion
io iclinquish coniiol ol ihc Glcnwoou
Connccioi, ihc main au|accni ioau, which
lcaus io I-20. Giccn Siicci cnvisioncu ihc
ioau as a iicc-lincu loulcvaiu wiih on-siicci
¡aiIing, lui DOT cnginccis icsisicu uc¡aiiing
liom ihcii high-s¡ccu loimula. In ihc cnu, ihc
ioau was iianslciicu io ihc ciiy anu icnamcu
loi Bill Kcnncuy, a icccnily ucccascu loimci
ciiy olhcial who hau su¡¡oiicu ¡io|ccis liIc
Glcnwoou, anu ihc siicci was icucsigncu.
Advontoges
Alihough Bicwci was a novicc ai ucvclo¡mcni,
Giccn Siicci`s hisi loiay has lccn icgaiucu
as a icsounuing succcss. Much ol ihai can lc
aiiiiluicu io ihc unihcu vision anu siiong
¡iinci¡lcs ol Bicwci anu his collcagucs, who
wcic wcll Inown io ciiy olhcials as ¡cisons ol
high inicgiiiy. Thc ucvclo¡mcni ¡io¡osal camc
along ai a iimc whcn hcighicncu uiscussion ol
ihc nccu io cuil s¡iawl anu icucvclo¡ Ailania
hau lcu ihc ciiy io icvisii oui-ol-uaic ¡lanning
anu zoning iulcs ihai woulu havc ¡iccluucu a
iclaiivcly ucnsc, mixcu usc ucvclo¡mcni such
as Glcnwoou PaiI. ¸Thc samc iulcs woulu
havc ¡iccluucu icluiluing ihc ciiy`s hncsi, olu
ncighloihoous, as wcll.)
Bccausc all ol ihc hnancing loi ihc lanu
ucvclo¡mcni ai Glcnwoou PaiI has lccn
¡ioviucu ly Bicwci anu a small giou¡ ol
¨insiucis", Giccn Siicci has avoiucu ihc
¡icssuic io conloim io convcniion ihai
mighi havc accom¡anicu ucli hnancing. Anu
Giccn Siicci`s iiming was goou, ¡ioviuing a
¡iouuci in vciy high ucmanu as iniown living
icgaincu ¡o¡ulaiiiy.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
C.eer Sì.eeì P.o¡e.ì.e·:
www.glcnwoodpark.com
Oihci noicwoiihy cxam¡lcs ol
iiauiiional ncighloihoou:
H.¿LInrJ·` Cn.Jer V.IIn¿e: www.cpa.gov/
picdpagc/awards/2005_ovcrall_dura.htm
KerìInrJ· (Cn.ìLe.·bu.¿, An.,InrJ):
www.kcntlandsusa.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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º4
Kºtl+imir] St|tr|+r "ûrº¡hºl1s¨
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» VLnì Or·e wn· OIJ .· Now New:
T.nr·¡o.».r¿ ¿.e,¡eIJ ·.ìe· .rìo rew ·o»»ur.ì.e·`
b, Jn·or A.IIe., .r On Common Giounu r
»n¿n..re, Su»»e. 2uu:
Incicasingly, unuci¡ciloiming oi olsolcic
malls anu sho¡¡ing ccnicis - also Inown
as ¨gicyhclu" siics - aic lcing ic¡laccu ly
mixcu-usc ncighloihoous. Such gicyhclus
aic lccoming an incicasingly common sighi
on ihc Amciican lanusca¡c. In a 2001 siuuy
ly PiiccwaicihouscCoo¡cis, ihc Congicss loi
ihc Ncw Uilanism ¸CNU) ic¡oiicu ihai 19
¡ciccni ol ihc naiion`s 2,000 icgional malls
wcic uclunci anu in nccu ol icucvclo¡mcni,
oi vulnciallc io lccoming so, lccausc ihcy
hau salcs ¡ci squaic looi ol S1ò0 oi lcss ¸onc-
ihiiu ihc iaic ol salcs ai a succcsslul mall).
Oihci siuuics havc csiimaicu lciwccn 4,000
anu ò,ò00 smallci gicyhclu malls naiionally.
Rcucvclo¡mcni ol ihcsc siics has lccomc
incicasingly uigcni loi ihc aging suluils
whcic ihcy aic conccniiaicu, wiih ihc icsuli
ihai scvcial uozcn havc lccn oi aic lcing
icconhguicu as uilan villagcs oi mixcu-usc
ccnicis. Bclmai, ihc icucvclo¡mcni ol a
uclunci mall in IaIcwoou, Coloiauo, is onc
¡iimc cxam¡lc.
Belnar (Lakewooo, Coloraoo)
Onc ol ihc moic swcc¡ing gicyhclu
iiansloimaiions in ihc naiion, Bclmai is a
mixcu-usc icnovaiion anu icucvclo¡mcni
ol ihc lailing Villa Iialia mall in IaIcwoou,
Coloiauo`s louiih-laigcsi ciiy. Com¡oscu
ol 2S ciiy llocIs ¸104 acics), Bclmai has
lccomc a lusiling, viliani uowniown uisiiici
loi IaIcwoou, which hau no such uisiiici
lcloic ihc icnovaiion clloii lcgan. Thc aica
is cx¡ccicu io gci anoihci loosi whcn a ncw
lighi-iail linc, ¡aii ol Dcnvci`s IASTRACKS
iniiiaiivc, icachcs ihc aica laici in ihc uccauc.
Bclmai ic¡icscnis ihc cumulaiivc will ol
ihc ciiy ol IaIcwoou anu iis icsiucnis, who
clamoicu loi a uowniown anu an iucniiiy loi
ihc ciiy, says Will Ilcissig, uiiccioi loi ¡lanning
anu ucsign wiih Coniinuum Paiincis IIC, ihc
¡io|cci`s ucvclo¡ci.
¨Thc communiiy hau a vciy clcai vision aloui
whai ii wanicu," says Ilcissig. ¨Wc iooI a 1.4-
million-squaic-looi mall anu woiIcu wiih
ihc ciiy io uownsizc ihc iciail anu maIc ihc
siic ucnsci wiihoui cicaiing a luiucn on ihc
cxisiing siicci - ihc iiansii lincs allowcu ihis."
In oiuci io gci oui ol ihc giounu, howcvci,
Bclmai nccucu moic ihan ¡oliiical anu
communiiy will. ¨To cicaic a uowniown,
you nccu io cicaic somc Iinu ol siiuciuicu
¡aiIing, anu ihai can lc uilhculi io alloiu,"
says Ilcissig. ¨Thc ciiy woiIcu wiih us on
invcsimcni ihai allowcu loi ihc ncw salcs iax
|rirtiplºs |cr
Kºtl+imir] ûrº¡hºl1s
Thc Congicss loi ihc Ncw Uilanism has
locuscu loi scvcial ycais on icclaiming
¨gicyhclus" - ucau oi uying sho¡¡ing
ccnicis - anu ucvclo¡cu ihcsc ¡iinci¡lcs:
W Evolvc ihc siic liom a singlc siiuciuic
inio a uisiiici wiih suluisiiicis
W Esiallish a siicci ¡aiicin
W Rcoiicni aciiviiy io lacc ihc siicci
W Conncci wiih ihc suiiounuing
communiiy
W Inicgiaic mulii¡lc uscs
W Dcsign loi human scalc
W Incluuc housing
W Cusiomizc io hi local nccus
Rcau moic in ¨Malls inio Main Siiccis:
A Manual loi Convciiing Dying Malls
inio Viliani Communiiics" anu
¨Gicyhclus inio Golu Iiclus", onlinc ai
www.cnu.oig
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I º5
icvcnucs liom ihc ¡io|cci io lc gaincicu loi
ihc ioaus, ihc iiccs, ihc ¡aiIing."
Thc mall`s icucvclo¡mcni has hau s¡in-oll
cllccis, says Ilcissig. ¨Wc`ic sccing quiic a lii
ol icinvcsimcni aiounu ihc siic - a icsuigcncc
in ucvclo¡mcni in ihc viciniiy. Thcic`s ai lcasi
a hall uozcn ol ihcsc iy¡cs ol ucvclo¡mcni
ncaily, iiying io lcvciagc oui succcss."
Buycis ol ihc lolis, incluucu in mixcu-
usc luiluings, ¨icnu io lc young, singlc,
¡iolcssional ¡co¡lc who can`i alloiu io livc
in uowniown Dcnvci, lui wani ihc lccl ol an
uilan loli," says Sicvc ]oncs, a REAITOR
®
RR wiih
Dcnvci-lascu Kcniwoou Ciiy Pio¡ciiics. Thc
Bclmai loli conuos wcic sclling loi S2S9,000
io S2òò,000. All aic 1,020 squaic lcci anu
ollci onc lcuioom wiih a siuuy oi a ucn, ¡lus
a laihioom, ¡iivaic ouiuooi s¡accs, gaiagc
¡aiIing anu auuiiional sioiagc.
¨Thc ¡co¡lc who visii on ihc wccIcnus aic
ovciwhclmcu ai how many ¡co¡lc aic oui anu
aloui, cn|oying ihc s¡acc," says ]oncs. ¨In my
o¡inion, hvc ycais uown ihc ioau, Bclmai is
going io lc uscu as a moucl acioss ihc couniiy
loi how io uo a hugc inhll ¡io|cci oui ol a
mall. Ii lccls liIc a ical uowniown."
¨Il you can incicasc a siic`s ucnsiiy ly iwo oi
ihicc iimcs whilc noi incicasing ihc luiucn
on ihc au|oining ioaus," says Ilcissig, ¨wcll,
ihai`s whai wc nccu io lc uoing in Amciica
- cs¡ccially in ihc innci-iing suluils."
Bclmai was ihc winnci ol a 200ò Smaii Giowih
Awaiu liom ihc U.S. EPA. Rcau moic onlinc
ai www.c¡a.gov/¡icu¡agc/awaius/200ò_luili_
laIcwoou.him
Ccmmºrti+l Ccmº|+t|s: Brir]ir] Mc1ºrr
Kºt+il tc Citiºs +r1 9l1ºr St|tr|s
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» Co»»e.·.nI Co»ebn·I: Feìn.Ie.· .eìu.r
ìo or·e-·LurreJ ·.ì.e· nrJ .rre. ·ubu.b·` b, Dn..J
CoIJbe.¿ .r On Common Giounu, Su»»e. 2uu:.
Ioi ycais, ihc lcss-ihan-¡iclciicu
ucmogia¡hics anu ¡hysical consiiainis ol
innci-ciiy ncighloihoous Ic¡i iciailcis ai
lay. Rcsiucnis ol oluci suluils, mcanwhilc,
saw ihcii o¡iions shiinI as ihc siii¡ ccnicis
ol ihc ò0s, 60s anu 70s lcll oui ol lavoi anu
ihc chains chascu aluucncc oui io ihc ncxi
coinhclu. As closc-in aicas uiaw ncw icsiucnis,
howcvci, a ncw gcnciaiion ol mixcu-usc,
highci-qualiiy sho¡¡ing cnviionmcnis is
siaiiing io cmcigc.
Ii`s noi ha¡¡cning ly acciucni. Savvy local
govcinmcnis aic going alici ii, icalizing ihai
loi uilan anu innci suluilan ncighloihoous,
aiiiaciing iciail anu achicving ihc iighi mix
ol sho¡¡ing anu icsiucniial holu ihc Icy io
icviializaiion, sialiliiy, walIaliliiy anu livaliliiy.
Bui loi ihc hisi iimc, ihcy`ic hnuing iciailcis
io lc iccc¡iivc.
Iiom Ailania, whcic onc ol ihc laigcsi
icucvclo¡mcni ¡io|ccis in ihc ciiy`s hisioiy
lioughi IKEA anu a hosi ol oihci iciailcis
io ihc hcaii ol ihc ciiy, io Chicago, wiih ihc
hisi mulii-sioiy Homc Dc¡oi, io Washingion,
D.C. anu iis iciail icnaissancc, ma|oi iciailcis
havc uiscovcicu uilan ncighloihoous in a
ma|oi way.
¨Thc suluils aic saiuiaicu anu ucvclo¡cis
anu iciailcis aic looIing loi ncw maiIcis,
anu ihosc ically aic olu maiIcis ihai may lc
unucigoing a icliiih," saiu Cinuy Sicwaii,
uiiccioi ol local govcinmcni iclaiions loi
ihc Inicinaiional Council ol Sho¡¡ing
Ccnicis. Accoiuing io Sicwaii, ihc lasicsi-
giowing sccioi ol hci iciail associaiion`s
mcmlcishi¡ is in ihc ¡ullic anu non¡iohi
scciois - local govcinmcnis anu communiiy
oiganizaiions woiIing on commcicial
icsioiaiion. In auuiiion io laigci ciiics, many
ol ihcm aic oluci suluils iiying io icucvclo¡
siii¡ coiiiuois noi |usi as a ¡lacc io sho¡,
lui as a ¡lacc io lc: mixcu-usc, walIallc
ncighloihoous wiih a Main Siicci lccl.
Thc lollowing cxam¡lc ol Washingion, D.C.
shows an innovaiivc a¡¡ioach io liinging
a¡¡io¡iiaic iciail io ¡laccs whcic ¡co¡lc
alicauy livc, lui aic unuci-scivcu. This is a Icy
smaii giowih siiaicgy lccausc ii is csscniial
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
º6
io maIing ihcsc ¡laccs viallc anu livallc.
Washingion, D.C. ¡aiincicu wiih lusincss io
cicaic a maiIciing ccnici ihai is uiawing iciail
lacI io icviializc ncighloihoous ihai havc
lccn woclully unuci scivcu.
Washington, D.C.: Retail
revitalization in the inner city
In many ways, Washingion, D.C.`s
icviializaiion is a clcai succcss sioiy. Thc
ca¡iial ciiy has sio¡¡cu iis ¡o¡ulaiion loss,
wiih 41,000 housing uniis luili oi auucu io
ihc consiiuciion ¡i¡clinc sincc 2001 anu
many loimcily-uisiicsscu ncighloihoous on
ihc u¡swing. Siill, ciiy olhcials lounu ihai ihc
¡o¡ulaiion icmaincu somcwhai iiansicni,
in laigc ¡aii lccausc lasic goous anu
sciviccs coniinucu io lag lchinu. Aiiiaciing
iciail, ihcn, has lccomc a ciiiical mcans ol
sialilizing ihosc ncighloihoous anu maIing
ihcm livcly anu livallc.
Thai lcu Mayoi Anihony Williams anu a
¡aiincishi¡ ol D.C. lusincss ¡laycis io cicaic
ihc Washingion, D.C. MaiIciing Ccnici, whosc
|ol has lccn io luic lacI sIc¡iical iciailcis,
saiu Michacl Sicvcns, ihc ccnici`s CEO.
Alici mcciing wiih inuusiiy ic¡icscniaiivcs,
ihc ¡ullic-¡iivaic non¡iohi luili a hugc
uaialasc, hc auucu. ¨Wc com¡ilcu all ihc
iciail o¡¡oiiuniiics inio a singlc icsouicc, anu
¡osicu ihcm on oui Wcl siic. Wc havc ¡iohlc
shccis, onc ¡agc lioni anu lacI, wiih coniaci
¡co¡lc, ma¡s anu ¡hoios loi S9 ncighloihoou
clusicis anu 12S ncighloihoous. Wc Inow ihc
ucmogia¡hics anu iialhc counis."
Evcn ihai wasn`i cnough whcn ii camc io
maiIciing a ncighloihoou such as Columlia
Hcighis. Thc ccnsus anu oihci convcniional
maiIci analyscs siill showcu ii io lc a lau lci
loi lusincss. Thai`s whcn Sicvcns lioughi in
Social Com¡aci, a non¡iohi ihai ¡ciloims
¨uiill uown" analysis io gaugc ihc iiuc luying
¡owci ol uilan ncighloihoous.
¨Thc ncighloihoou, lccausc ol ihc ¡o¡ulaiion
ucnsiiy, hau a iicmcnuous amouni io ollci
in luying ¡owci lccausc ii wasn`i aucquaicly
Kºt+il ir tlº Cit¡:
Scmº tips |cr ]ºttir] it
As hcau ol ihc Washingion, D.C.
MaiIciing Ccnici, Michacl Sicvcns
has lccn insiiumcnial in luiing
iciail lacI io ihc ciiy`s unuciscivcu
ncighloihoous. Hcic aic his ii¡s loi
oihci communiiics:
W Iiisi, local cxccuiivcs anu council
havc io luy in. Ii iaIcs moncy, oihci
icsouiccs anu human ca¡iial.
W You nccu an oiganizaiion ihai will lc
ihc inloimaiion clcaiinghousc anu
hisi ¡oini ol coniaci loi iciailcis.
Cauiion: Cicaiing ii isn`i casy.
W Dcvclo¡ a iciail aiiiaciion ¡lan:
Do you nccu giocciy-anchoicu oi
uc¡aiimcni-sioic-anchoicu ccnicis,
oi ncighloihoou coiiiuois.
W Rciailcis aic looIing loi a ucal.
Inccniivcs: Ianu, icnani hnish-
oui lunus ¸wc usc TII lunus), iax
alaicmcnis, anu/oi |ol iiaining
lunus loi local icsiucnis.
W Iucniily anu maiIci youi
o¡¡oiiuniiics: Suluilan maiIcis
havc a hniic numlci ol siics now
anu ihcic is a lacIlash againsi ¨lig
lox." Ciiics nccu io lc icauy io icll
iciailcis ihc iiuc houscholu incomc
in ncighloihoous, whai`s ically
lcing s¡cni in ihc cash cconomy,
accuiaic ¡o¡ulaiion counis anu
aggicgaic luying ¡owci.
scivcu," saiu Kaiin Oiicscn, ¡icsiucni ol
Social Com¡aci. Thc analysis lounu ihai ihc
ncighloihoou hau ihousanus moic houscholus
ihan ihc ccnsus counicu, anu way moic
uis¡osallc incomc ihan anyonc imagincu. Icss
ihan a ihiiu ol ihc aggicgaic luying ¡owci ol
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I º7
Though changc has lccn luiluing
loi scvcial ycais, onc ol ihc siiongcsi
signals yci ol a lunuamcnial shili in
iciail uociiinc camc in a scssion ol ihc
Inicinaiional Council ol Sho¡¡ing
Ccnicis in Dcccmlci 2004. Ii was ihcic
ihai Rolcii SioIci, scnioi ical csiaic
managci loi Wal-Maii, ucclaicu ihai,
¨Wc`vc icachcu a siagc whcic wc can lc
ucxillc. Wc no longci havc io luilu a
giay-lluc laiilcshi¡ lox."
Wal-Maii is noi alonc, ol couisc, ciihci in
iis ncw willingncss io aua¡i io moic uilan
cnviionmcnis oi in iis long icsisiancc io
vcciing liom a loimula ihai has hclu sincc
ihc 1960s: A singlc-sioiy luiluing on a
ma|oi aiiciial ioau suiiounucu ly as¡hali.
¨In 1960, il you hau 200,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, ii woulu havc a looi¡iini ol aloui
onc acic in a mulii-sioiy luiluing," saiu
Eu McMahon, a scnioi lcllow ai ihc Uilan
Ianu Insiiiuic who has wiiiicn scvcial
aiiiclcs on commcicial ucsign iicnus.
¨Uniil vciy icccnily, ihai samc 200,000 lcci
woulu lc in onc sioiy anu covci ihicc io
loui acics, lionicu ly 20 acics ol ¡aiIing."
Wiih many suluils saiuiaicu wiih ¨lig
lox" anu oihci iciail, wc`ic now sccing
iwo uivcigcni iicnus, cx¡ciis saiu. In ihc
low-ucnsiiy cxuils, ihc ncw sioics anu ihcii
¡aiIing lois aic laigci ihan cvci so as io
uiaw moioiisis liom many milcs aiounu.
Ai ihc samc iimc, iciailcis now scc ihc
viiiuc ol high-ucnsiiy maiIcis wiih ¡lcniy
ol cusiomcis closc ai hanu. Bui ca¡iuiing
ii icquiics icsuiicciing anu u¡uaiing ihc
ucsigns liom ihc cailicsi uays ol uc¡aiimcni
sioics - mulii-sioiy sioics in luiluings wiih
locally-com¡aiillc aichiicciuic.
Taigci sioics wcic among ihc cailicsi io
aua¡i. Thc com¡any`s uagshi¡ sioic in
Minnca¡olis is loui sioiics, anu ihc chain
has iwo-sioiy sioics wiih siiuciuicu ¡aiIing
in Ailania, Gaiihcisluig, Maiylanu anu
scvcial oihci ¡laccs. Homc Dc¡oi icccnily
o¡cncu a ihicc-sioiy sioic in uowniown
Chicago. Wal-Maii iiscll has a iwo-sioiy
sioic in a mixcu-usc sciiing in Iong Bcach,
Caliloinia, anu will occu¡y iwo uoois ol a
mixcu-usc high-iisc in Rcgo, Ncw YoiI.
Mixcu-usc, uilan ¡io|ccis aic ¡o¡¡ing u¡
all ovci ihcsc uays, saiu Cinuy Sicwaii, ol
ihc ICSC. ¨You siill scc lilcsiylc anu ¡owci
ccnicis, lui iciailcis going alici ihai
uilan maiIci aic going inio ¡io|ccis ihai
also havc housing, lccausc ihcic`s such a
siiong nccu loi loih."
Bcing ¡aii ol a ncighloihoou iaiscs
iiiggcis, a iangc ol ucsign consiuciaiions
liom aichiicciuic io ¡laccmcni ol loauing
uocIs io masIing ihc ¡aiIing uccIs. Bui
ii can lc woiih ii: Iooi loi looi, uilan
sioics olicn oui ¡ciloim ihcii suluilan
counici¡aiis, Sicwaii anu oihcis saiu.
Incicasingly, iciailcis aic iccognizing whai
McMahon calls ihc ¡lacc-maIing uiviucnu:
¨Pco¡lc will siay longci anu s¡cnu moic
moncy in ¡laccs ihai aciually cain ihcii
allcciion," hc saiu. ¨Siii¡ sho¡¡ing ccnicis
aic iciail loi ihc lasi ccniuiy," McMahon
auucu, ¨anu mixcu usc is ihc iciail
cnviionmcni loi ihis ccniuiy."
Ilº Cl+r]ir] N+ttrº c| Ur|+r Kºt+il
ihc 7S,000 icsiucnis was lcing s¡cni locally,
mcaning ihai S424 million cach ycai was lcing
s¡cni ouisiuc ihc Columlia Hcighis maiIci.
Thai inloimaiion hcl¡cu ihc ciiy ¡ui
iogcihci a ucal io luilu Tivoli Squaic ai
ihc coinci ol 14ih Siicci anu PaiI Roau.
Thc ¡io|cci incluucs a Giani Ioous giocciy
sioic - an uilan iaiiiy ai òS,000 squaic lcci
- anu ihc icsioiaiion ol ihc classic anu long-
uoimani Tivoli Thcaici. An auuiiional 2ò,000
squaic lcci ol ncw sho¡s linc 14ih Si., anu
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
º8
2S,000 squaic lcci ol olhcc s¡acc occu¡ics
uoois alovc.
Tivoli Squaic so changcu ihc icnoi ol ihc
iciail cnviionmcni ihai ihc aica has aiiiacicu
ihc laigcsi iciail ¡io|cci in D.C., which will
mix icgional anu naiional iciailcis, such as
Taigci anu Bcu Baih anu Bcyonu. Now unuci
consiiuciion, ihc 46ò,000 squaic-looi ¡io|cci
will incluuc icsiauianis anu a hcalih clul.
See: www.J·»n.Ieì.r¿·erìe..·o»
Ir+rsit·9riºrtº1 |ºrºlcpmºrt
Onc ol ihc viiiucs ol high-ca¡aciiy ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion sysicms, such as sulways, iiams
anu lighi iail, is ihai ihcy can accommouaic
moic inicnsivc ucvclo¡mcni ihan aicas ihai
aic com¡lcicly uc¡cnucni on ihc auiomolilc.
Bui ihcic is a iiicI io cicaiing a mix anu
conhguiaiion ol clcmcnis ihai iiuly iaIcs
auvaniagc ol ihc iiansii scivicc. Ioi cxam¡lc,
mcicly luiluing a convcniional, auiomolilc-
oiicnicu sho¡¡ing ccnici ncxi io a siaiion
woulu noi hi ihc lill. Thc Amciican Pullic
Tians¡oiiaiion Associaiion says ¨iiansii-
oiicnicu ucvclo¡mcni ¸TOD) is com¡aci,
mixcu usc ucvclo¡mcni ncai ncw oi cxisiing
¡ullic iians¡oiiaiion inliasiiuciuic ihai scivcs
housing, iians¡oiiaiion
anu ncighloihoou goals.
Iis ¡cucsiiian-oiicnicu
ucsign cncouiagcs
icsiucnis anu woiIcis io
uiivc ihcii cais lcss anu
iiuc ¡ullic iiansii moic."
TOD can allow
a |uiisuiciion io
accommouaic a gicaici
shaic ol iis giowih in
a smallci looi¡iini,
hcl¡ing io ¡icscivc o¡cn
s¡acc anu lowci-ucnsiiy
ncighloihoous, savc on
inliasiiuciuic cosis anu
luilu a iax lasc. Thc ncw
iiucis ¡ioviuc auuiiional
laic lox icvcnuc io ihc
local iians¡oiiaiion agcncy, anu ihc incicascu
viliancy ollcis moic o¡iions io local icsiucnis
anu visiiois. Ovci ihc lasi S0 ycais, Ailingion,
Viiginia has cicaicu all ihosc lcnchis anu
moic as ii has ¡lanncu anu ucvclo¡cu along
ihc Mciio iail linc ihai connccis ihc aica io
Washingion, D.C.
Rosslyn-Ballston Corrioor,
Arlington County, Virginia
AJn¡ìeJ, .r ¡n.ì, ¡.o» ìLe Cerìe. ¡o.
T.nr·.ì-O..erìeJ De.eIo¡»erì; See: www.
.e·orre·ì.r¿n»e..·n.o.¿/TOD/·n·e_·ìuJ.e·.Lì»
Thc govcinmcni ol Ailingion Couniy, Viiginia,
lccamc an caily ¡io¡oncni ol iiansii-oiicnicu
ucvclo¡mcni ¸TOD) in ihc 1970s as a siiaicgy
ihai coulu lc uscu io iciiohi ihc S-milc long
Rosslyn-Ballsion Coiiiuoi in oiuci io icvcisc
signihcani ucclincs in loih ¡o¡ulaiion
anu commcicial aciiviiy. In ¡lanning loi
ihc coiiiuoi, couniy olhcials wcni io gicai
¡ains io incoi¡oiaic ihc wishcs ol icsiucnis,
lusincss owncis anu oihcis in Ailingion. Oncc
conscnsus was csiallishcu, ihc couniy ucvclo¡cu
anu ichncu a consisicni anu su¡¡oiiivc ¡olicy
liamcwoiI ovci ihc ncxi S0 ycais ihai has
cicaicu sialiliiy anu ¡icuicialiliiy loi icsiucnis
anu ucvclo¡cis aliIc. As a icsuli ihcic has lccn
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I ºº
limiicu coniiovcisy ovci ¡io¡oscu ¡io|ccis,
anu ihc coiiiuoi has icmaincu a magnci loi
ucvclo¡mcni, ucs¡iic ihc laci ihai ucvclo¡cis
aic icquiicu io ¡ay loi signihcani im¡iovcmcnis
io ¡ullic inliasiiuciuic as a conuiiion ol siic
¡lan a¡¡ioval.
Thc laigc amouni ol mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni
aiounu ihc hvc Mciio siaiions has mauc ihc
coiiiuoi onc ol ihc mosi ucnscly ¡o¡ulaicu in
ihc U.S. Thc icucvclo¡mcni ol whai hau lccn
iun-uown, caily-suluilan commcicial siii¡s
lcli ncaily singlc-lamily ncighloihoous laigcly
unchangcu. Wiih Sò,000 icsiucnis living in
1S,000 houscs anu a¡aiimcnis, ihc coiiiuoi
also has lccomc a ma|oi cm¡loymcni ccnici,
conccniiaiing moic ihan 7S,000 |ols wiihin
a ihiiu ol a milc ol ihc siaiions. Bciwccn
1972 anu 2002 ihcic was a nci incicasc ol
moic ihan 11,000 housing uniis, 16 million
squaic lcci ol olhcc, 9ò0,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, 1,900 hoicl iooms, anu an S1 ¡ciccni
incicasc in ihc asscsscu valuc ol lanu anu
im¡iovcmcnis. Vacancy iaics aic gcncially
lowci ihan anywhcic clsc in ihc icgion cxcc¡i
in ihc Disiiici ol Columlia, anu icnis aic
highci. Il all ihc ucvclo¡mcni in ihc iwo-
squaic-milc coiiiuoi wcic consiiucicu insicau
on vacani suluilan lanu ai sianuaiu ucnsiiics,
ii woulu covci moic ihan 14 squaic milcs.
Pciha¡s mosi icmaiIallc, all ihis
ucvclo¡mcni has gcnciaicu only moucsi
lcvcls ol auuiiional iialhc on local siiccis.
Tiansii iiucishi¡ in ihc coiiiuoi is highci
ihan anywhcic clsc in ihc icgion oihci
ihan ihc Disiiici ol Columlia: 47 ¡ciccni ol
icsiucnis usc moucs ol iiavcl oihci ihan ihc
auiomolilc io gci io woiI, anu 7S ¡ciccni
aiiivc ai iail siaiions on looi, ¡ioviuing a
cosi savings lccausc nciihci ihc couniy noi
WMATA, ihc iiansii agcncy, havc io ¡ioviuc
commuici ¡aiIing. Paiccls ucvoicu io
¡aiIing caily on havc all lccn convciicu io
high-ucnsiiy mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni. Tcn
¡ciccni ol homc-owncis anu 20 ¡ciccni ol
icnicis uo noi own cais - ihc highcsi iaic in
ihc icgion ouisiuc ihc Disiiici ol Columlia.
In 2002, ol ihc ioial ¡io|ccicu ical csiaic
iax lcvy ol S277 million in ihc couniy, S90.9
million, oi S2.S ¡ciccni, camc liom ihc
Rosslyn-Ballsion Coiiiuoi. Thc coiiiuoi
also ¡iouuccs hoicl iaxcs, mcal iaxcs, anu
lusincss anu houscholu ¡cisonal ¡io¡ciiy
iaxcs ¸iaxcs on ¡cisonal ¡io¡ciiy such as
cais, noi ical csiaic). Thc conccniiaiion ol
icvcnuc-¡iouucing aciiviiics in ihc coiiiuoi
allows iaxcs io lc lowci clscwhcic. As a icsuli,
Ailingion Couniy has onc ol ihc lowcsi
¡io¡ciiy iax iaics in Noiihcin Viiginia.
Thc couniy has hau io aua¡i anu lcain as
ciicumsianccs cvolvcu. Eaily on, a lailuic io
cnsuic ihai luiluings o¡cn onio siucwalIs
ihicaicncu io maIc ihc aica lcss walIallc.
Thc couniy also lcaincu ii hau io insisi on a
hcalihy mix ol sho¡¡ing, olhccs, housing anu
cniciiainmcni in oiuci io cui cai iii¡s. Touay,
olhcials aic iaIing sic¡s io auu moic alloiuallc
housing in ihc ¡o¡ulai coiiiuoi, anu ihcy
aic sic¡¡ing u¡ sianuaius loi ihc ucsign anu
a¡¡caiancc ol ihc luiluings anu siiccisca¡cs.
Pearl District, Portlano, Cregon
AJn¡ìeJ, w.ìL ¡e.».··.or, ¡.o» n ·n·e ·ìuJ, b,
CIo..n OLInrJ o¡ ìLe Cerìe. ¡o. T.nr·.ì-O..erìeJ
De.eIo¡»erì
Perhaps nost renarkable, all this oevelopnent has generateo only nooest
levels oI aooitional traIfc on local streets: 47 percent oI resioents use
nooes oI travel other than the autonobile to get to work, ano 73 percent
arrive at rail stations on Ioot.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
lOO
Sincc 2001, whcn Poiilanu o¡cncu ihc
hisi ncw siiccicai linc in ihc U.S. in ovci
a hall ccniuiy, aloui 4,600 housing uniis
anu 2.2 million squaic lcci ol commcicial
ucvclo¡mcni - an csiimaicu S2 lillion
invcsimcni - havc lccn luili in ihc Pcail
Disiiici wiihin iwo llocIs on ciihci siuc ol
ihc linc. In ihc scvcn ycais sincc ihc ¡io|cci
lcgan, ihc ciiy alicauy has mci iis 20-ycai
housing goal, on |usi onc-icnih ihc ¡io|ccicu
amouni ol lanu. Anoihci ò,000 housing uniis
will lc luili along ihc siiccicai linc souih ol
uowniown ovci ihc ncxi ò io 10 ycais.
To conncci iwo laigc, vacani ¡aiccls ol lanu
noiih anu souih ol uowniown ihc ciiy siiucI a
¡aci wiih ucvclo¡ci Homci Williams: Thc ciiy
woulu luilu ihc siiccicai il Williams woulu agicc
io u¡-zonc his 40-acic ¡io¡ciiy liom 1ò uwclling
uniis ¡ci acic io 12ò uniis ¡ci acic. Williams
agiccu, anu ihc icsuli was a ciiiical mass ol
ucvclo¡mcni showcasing an uilanc ncw lilcsiylc
io Poiilanu icsiucnis, which ¡iovcu so ¡o¡ulai
ihai oihci ucvclo¡cis lcgan consiiuciing
high-ucnsiiy housing on au|accni ¡io¡ciiy.
Poiilanu has sci a iccoiu loi ihc numlci ol
luiluing ¡cimiis issucu loi scvcn ycais in a iow.
A ncw siuuy shows ihai ¡io¡ciiics closcsi io ihc
siiccicai linc havc cx¡ciicnccu ihc laigcsi shaic
ol ucvclo¡mcni - ai uooi aica iaiios ihai moic
closcly a¡¡ioach ihc ¡io¡ciiics` zoncu ucnsiiy
¡oicniial - ihan ¡io¡ciiics siiuaicu luiihci liom
ihc siiccicai. Wiihin onc llocI ol ihc siiccicai
linc ncw ucvclo¡mcni achicvcu an avciagc ol
90 ¡ciccni ol IAR/squaic looiagc ¡oicniial, a
¡ciccniagc ihai sicauily uio¡s io 4S ¡ciccni ai
ihicc oi moic llocIs oui.
Thc siiccicai was noi ihc only lacioi ciiiical
io succcss, ol couisc. Thc Ccniial Ciiy masici
¡lan hau luili a conscnsus loi ihis Iinu ol
ucvclo¡mcni anu ihc zoning io im¡lcmcni
ii. Bui lccausc ol ihc siiccicai anu nciwoiI
ol licyclc ¡aihs anu a iolusi cai-shaiing
¡iogiam, as wcll as a goou mix ol uscs anu
conncciiviiy io |ols in uowniown anu ihc
icgional iail sysicm, icsiucnis icly lcss on cais
ihan in oihci aicas. Thc icuuccu ucmanu
loi ¡aiIing lois anu siiuciuics anu cuil cuis
loi uiivcways loih im¡iovcs ihc ¡cucsiiian
cnviionmcni anu ¡cimiis an inicnsiiy ol
uscs ihai has cicaicu an animaicu, iniimaic
ncighloihoou. Bccausc ucvclo¡cis uon`i
havc io luilu as much siiuciuicu ¡aiIing - ai
S20,000 a s¡acc - ihcy aic allc io invcsi in
highci-qualiiy consiiuciion anu amcniiics.
Consiiuciion anu o¡ciaiion ol ihc siiccicai
has lccn ¡aiily ¡aiu loi ly ihicc local
im¡iovcmcni uisiiicis as wcll as highci ¡aiIing
lccs. Thc ciiy is cuiicnily cniciing inio anoihci
agiccmcni wiih Williams in ihc 140-acic Noiih
Macauam Disiiici io ihc souih, which cxicnus
a milc along ihc Willamciic Rivci anu will lc
connccicu io ihc Oicgon hcalih anu Scicncc
Univcisiiy on Maiquam Hill - now a 20-minuic
uiivc away - ly a 4-minuic aciial iiam iiuc.
Thc ncighloihoou Williams is luiluing ai
ihc lasc ol ihc iiam will conncci OHSU anu
Poiilanu Siaic Univcisiiy, cnsuic ihai OHSU
can cx¡anu in ihc ciiy insicau ol moving io ihc
suluils, linI ihcsc iwo ccnicis ol icscaich anu
cuucaiion wiih uowniown, anu ¡ioviuc S,000
housing uniis anu 6,000 |ols.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
Po.ìInrJ Sì.eeì·n.:
www.portlandstrcctcar.org
9IB|K I9| SI9Kl |S 9N IB| ü|B:
A.rren¡oI.·: Ir ·Lo.ì o.Je., ìLe H.nwnìLn
A.erue I.¿Lì .n.I I.re Ln· J.nwr ·.¿r.¡·nrì
rew Je.eIo¡»erì. www.mctrocouncil.
org/dircctions/transit/transit2006/
hiawatha_TODMar06.htm
Eo. »o.e or ìLe ·ìnìe o¡ TOD ¡.n·ì.·e,
·ee TLe Cerìe. ¡o. T.nr·.ì-O..erìeJ
De.eIo¡»erì: www.rcconncctingamcrica.
org/html/TOD/indcx.htm
A ·u»»n., .e.·.or o¡ ìLe S»n.ìCoJe,
n ¡o.»-bn·eJ ·oJe Je.eIo¡eJ b, ìLe New
U.bnr.·ì ¡.» DPZ: www.tndtownpapcr.
com/Volumc5/smartcodc.htm
TLe Eo.»-bn·eJ CoJe· Ir·ì.ìuìe:
www.Iormbascdcodcs.org
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lOl
Kºtl+imir] lr1tstri+l Brcwrhºl1s
Atlantic Station: Fron contaninateo site to
new city, with neighbors´ support
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» CLoo·.r¿ Ou. Co»»ur.ì,`· Euìu.e`,
b, Dn..J CoIJbe.¿
Thc icucvclo¡mcni ol ihc siic ol a loimci
siccl mill in ihc hcaii ol Ailania, |usi
acioss ihc 14-lanc inicisiaic highway liom
looming Miuiown, inio a ncw mini-ciiy
has lccn a succcss on many lionis. Ii has
clcancu anu icclaimcu 1SS acics ol a loimci
inuusiiial lanu ihai oihciwisc woulu lc lcli
coniaminaicu anu iusiing.
Billcu as a ¨livc, woiI, ¡lay" communiiy ly
ucvclo¡ci ]im ]acoly, ihis ciiy-wiihin-a-ciiy
will havc homcs loi 10,000 ¡co¡lc, olhccs
loi S0,000 woiIcis, anu sho¡s, icsiauianis,
anu sciviccs. Conccniiaiing ihis giowih in
ihc hcaii ol ihc ciiy, whcic ii can conncci
io cxisiing inliasiiuciuic anu a iail iiansii
sysicm, s¡aics ihc scvcial ihousanu acics
ihai similai ucvclo¡mcni woulu occu¡y in
Ailania`s s¡iawling suluils. Bui in oiuci
io succccu, ihc ucvclo¡cis hau io cm¡loy
¡hcnomcnal cicaiiviiy io ovcicomc olsiaclcs
liom local zoning io cnviionmcnial iulcs anu
ncighloihoou sIc¡iicism.
Many icsiucnis ol ihc au|accni Homc PaiI anu
Ioiing Hcighis ncighloihoous iniiially wcic
lcciy ol ihc massivc ucvclo¡mcni anu ihc ¡lans
io conncci ihc ncw communiiy wiih ihcii own
siiccis ol mosily singlc-lamily houscs.
¨Pco¡lc aic aliaiu ol ihc unInown," says Tim
Siaic, hcau ol ihc Homc PaiI Communiiy
Im¡iovcmcni Associaiion ¸HPCIA). ¨A
liownhclu ncxi io you is moic comloiiallc
ihan noi Inowing whai is going in ncxi io you."
Bui insicau ol sim¡ly icsisiing ihc ucvclo¡mcni,
hc anu oihci communiiy lcaucis iooI
auvaniagc ol scvcial loiums ihai gavc ihcm a
say in managing ihc changc ihai woulu comc.
Thc ¡io|cci`s su¡¡oiicis unucisioou ihai
ncighloiing icsiucnis woulu lc woiiicu.
Among ihcm was a siaicwiuc conscivaiion
giou¡, Thc Gcoigia Conscivancy, which
saw Ailaniic Siaiion as a win loih loi ihc
cnviionmcni anu ihc ciiy, il ii wcic uonc
iighi. As ihc ¡io|cci was woiIing iis way
ihiough a com¡licaicu cnviionmcnial anu
ucsign ¡ioccsscs, ihc Conscivancy hosicu
a 1S-wccI ¡lanning woiIsho¡ loi Homc
PaiI icsiucnis ucsigncu io claiily ihcii own
¡iioiiiics loi ihc siic anu ihc ncighloihoou.
Homc PaiI ncighlois also ¡aiiici¡aicu in
ihc ciiy`s iczoning ¡ioccss anu managcu
io havc many ol ihcii conccins auuicsscu
in ihc 2S conuiiions ihai wcic sci on ihc
zoning changc.
Ncxi camc a ¨siaIcholuci involvcmcni
¡ioccss" manuaicu ly ihc ucvclo¡mcni`s
¡aiiici¡aiion in a s¡ccial EPA ucvclo¡mcni
¡iogiam. Anuics Duany, ihc wcll-Inown
ucsignci ol Scasiuc, Iloiiua, anu oihci Ncw
Uilanisi ucvclo¡mcnis, was lioughi io
Ailania io conuuci a wccIcnu chaiiciic on
im¡ioving walIaliliiy ai ihc ucvclo¡mcni.
Dcvclo¡ci ]acoly sci u¡ a Dcsign Coniiol
Commiiicc, giving ncighloihoou
ic¡icscniaiivcs ¡owci io voic on ihc ucsign
ol luiluings anu a ncw liiugc ovci ihc
uowniown inicisiaic, which was a Icy acccss
¡oini io ihc siic anu ihc ncighloihoous.
¨Thcic aic ¡aiis ol ihc ¡lans ]loi Ailaniic
Siaiion| you can ¡oini io anu say, ihai changc
is a uiicci icsuli ol onc ncighloi`s suggcsiion
ai onc ¡aiiiculai Saiuiuay scssion`," says Siaic,
who lclicvcs ihc ucvclo¡ci iiuly valucu ihc
communiiics` in¡ui.
The EnvironmentoI Benefts
o[ AtIontic Stotion
Thc ¡io|cci ¡ioviucu loih icgion-wiuc
anu vciy local cnviionmcnial lcnchis. On
ihc local lcvcl, ihc ¡io|cci clcancu u¡ ihc
1ò0 ions ol coniaminaicu soil along wiih
a ¡ooily o¡ciaiing scwci. Thc ucvclo¡ci
also uonaicu iwo iiccs io cvciy ncighloiing
homcownci. On ihc icgional lcvcl, ihc EPA
has lounu ihai Ailaniic Siaiion will gcnciaic
ò0 ¡ciccni lcss uiiving anu uiamaiically
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
lO2
lowci lcvcls ol ¡olluianis ihai coniiiluic
io smog ¸lciwccn 7ò anu S00 ¡ciccni
lcss) ihan an cqually sizcu convcniional
ucvclo¡mcni luili in ihc suluils.
Bccausc ol ihcsc aii qualiiy lcnchis, ihc EPA
ucsignaicu ihc ¡io|cci as ¨lcnchcial" io aii
qualiiy. This was ciiiical loi a¡¡ioval ol a
ma|oi ¡iccc ol ¡ullic inliasiiuciuic iicu io ihc
¡io|cci: a ncw liiugc s¡anning ihc I-7ò/Sò
liccway ihai uiviucs Ailania`s uowniown. Thc
liiugc incluucs cxiia-wiuc siucwalIs wiih
a shauc cano¡y, liIc lancs, a shuiilc io ihc
MARTA sulway siaiion acioss ihc liccway anu
s¡acc loi a luiuic iail conncciion.
ThanIs laigcly io a laigc ¡aiI anu ¡onu ai ihc
¡io|cci`s coic, ihc EPA has calculaicu ihai ihc
icucvclo¡mcni ol ihc olu siccl mill will icuucc
ihc amouni ol haiu, ¨im¡civious" suilacc ai
ihc siic ly 2Sò,000 squaic lcci, signihcanily
icuucing ihc volumc ol suilacc waici iunoll.
A com¡aiallc giccnhclu ucvclo¡mcni woulu
uiamaiically incicasc im¡civious suilacc anu
incicasc ihc volumc ol iunoll in ihc waicishcu
ly 14 io 19 million squaic lcci.
¨Ailaniic Siaiion has auucu valuc io oui
ncighloihoou," says Siaic. ¨Ii has auucu
cconomic valuc io oui homcs, anu ¡ioviucu
amcniiics loi ihc communiiy ihai wcic noi
ihcic lcloic: ¡aiI s¡acc anu iciail sciviccs
ihai aic ucs¡ciaicly nccucu."
Milit+r¡ B+sº Kº1ºrºlcpmºrt
Balowin Park, Crlanoo
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» Be,orJ ìLe Eer·e: A FEA1TOFS
©
SS
Cu.Je ìo A.I.ìn., Bn·e CIo·u.e, FenI.¿r»erì nrJ
Er·.on·L»erì` ·ee: www..enIìo..o.¿/be,orJìLe¡er·e
¡o. n JowrIonJnbIe ·o¡,.
Whcn ihc U.S. Navy announccu in 199S ihai
ii woulu closc ihc Oilanuo Naval Tiaining
Ccnici, ihc Ciiy ol Oilanuo saw an o¡¡oiiuniiy
io luilu a viliani, mixcu-usc ncighloihoou
ihai woulu maIc ihc lasc ¡io¡ciiy oncc again
¡aii ol ihc communiiy. Thc ciiy loimcu a Basc
Rcusc Commission ol 1ò0 communiiy lcaucis
anu oiganizcu mcciings io ¡lan ihc ¡io¡ciiy`s
luiuic. In 174 mcciings, ciiizcns hcl¡cu ucvisc
anu ichnc a ¡lan io icucvclo¡ ihc lasc. Ai a
visioning woiIsho¡, ciiizcns ucsciilcu whai
ihcy wanicu: a vaiiciy ol housing iy¡cs, a
viliani main siicci, ¡ullic acccss io laIcs, anu
linIagcs wiih cxisiing ncighloihoous.
Bcloic icluiluing coulu lcgin, 2ò6 luiluings,
200 milcs ol unucigiounu uiiliiics, anu 2ò
milcs ol ioau hau io lc uismanilcu anu
iccyclcu. Aslcsios anu lcau ¡aini in ihc
luiluings anu aiscnic anu ¡ciiolcum in ihc
soil nccucu io lc clcancu u¡. Ioui hunuicu
anu loiiy uays alici ucmoliiion lcgan, onc ol
ihc laigcsi iccycling ¡io|ccis in ihc naiion`s
hisioiy was com¡lcic, anu ihc woiI ol luiluing
a ncw communiiy lcgan.
Sincc ihc hisi moucl o¡cncu in 200S, Baluwin
PaiI has solu lois anu houscs lasici ihan
any com¡aiallc ¡io|cci in ihc aica. Whcn
consiiuciion cnus in 200S, Baluwin PaiI will lc
homc io 10,000 icsiucnis living in 4,100 homcs,
ianging liom icnial a¡aiimcnis io cusiom
houscs, all luili in aichiicciuial siylcs iiauiiional
io ihc aica. In auuiiion, 6,000 ¡co¡lc will woiI
in olhccs ihioughoui ihc ncighloihoou anu
in sho¡s in ihc Villagc Ccnici. Evciyonc will lc
allc io cn|oy ovci 4ò0 acics ol laIcs anu ¡aiIs,
incluuing ovci iwo milcs ol laIclioni ¡io¡ciiy
icscivcu loi ¡ullic usc.
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
AìInrì.· Sìnì.or: TLe E.oIuì.or o¡ n
B.owr¡eIJ`: www.tndtownpapcr.com/
Volumc8/cvolution_oI_brownhcld.htm
TLe U.S. EPA ·.ìe or b.owr¡eIJ
.eJe.eIo¡»erì: www.cpa.gov/swcrosps/
bI/indcx.html
TLe Nnì.ornI B.owr¡eIJ· A··o·.nì.or:
www.brownhcldassociation.org
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lO3
Baluwin PaiI`s icsiucnis, woiIcis, visiiois,
anu ncighlois will also havc many choiccs
in how ihcy gci aiounu. Thcic aic ò0 milcs
ol iiails anu siucwalIs on an iniciconnccicu
siicci giiu loi walIing anu liIing. Tialhc,
oncc llocIcu ly ihc loimci lasc`s sccuiiiy
lcncc, can now uow ihiough S2 ncw
iniciscciions ihai conncci Baluwin PaiI
siiccis io suiiounuing ncighloihoous,
icuucing congcsiion. Thc icucvclo¡mcni
ol ihis loimci naval lasc gavc ihc ciiizcns ol
Oilanuo whai ihcy wanicu anu ¡lanncu loi:
a ihiiving ncw communiiy anu a lcgacy loi
luiuic gcnciaiions io cn|oy.
Bccausc ii is an inhll icucvclo¡mcni ¡io|cci,
Baluwin PaiI can iaIc auvaniagc ol cxisiing
¡owci ¡lanis anu waici anu wasicwaici
iicaimcni laciliiics. Ai ihc samc iimc, ihc ciiy
9NLl N| K|S9UKC|S
NAF`· Be,orJ ìLe Eer·e, A FEA1TOFS
©
SS
Cu.Je ìo A.I.ìn., Bn·e CIo·u.e, FenI.¿r»erì
nrJ Er·.on·L»erì`:
www.rcaltor.org/bcyondthcIcncc
BnIJw.r Pn.I w.r· EPA`· S»n.ì C.owìL
Awn.J: www.cpa.gov/picdpagc/
awards/2005_basc_rcdcv_orlando.htm
Tu.r.r¿ Bn·e· .rìo C.enì PIn·e·: New I.¡e
¡o. ·Io·eJ ».I.ìn., ¡n·.I.ì.e·`:
www.cpa.gov/dccd/military.htm
will gain an auuiiional SS0 million in annual
¡io¡ciiy iax icvcnucs.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
lO4
Nºw Icwrs ir Ktr+l krº+s:
S+rir] Ktr+l Sp+tº witl Sm+rt ûrcwtl
AJn¡ìeJ ¡.o» New Towr· .r Fu.nI A.en·: ·n..r¿
.u.nI ·¡n·e w.ìL S»n.ì C.owìL` b, B.nJ B.obe.¿, .r
On Common Giounu Magazinc, V.rìe. 2uu0.
Whcn giowih comcs io iuial couniics, ii can
s¡laiici ihc lanusca¡c wiih s¡iawl.
Yci ii uocsn`i havc io lc ihai way.
A ¡aii ol ncw communiiics - onc in Missouii
anu ihc oihci in Iloiiua - aic among ihc
laicsi cxam¡lcs ol iuial ucvclo¡mcni ihai
accommouaics giowih wiihoui chcwing u¡
o¡cn s¡acc.
¨I ihinI ¡co¡lc aic icauy loi anoihci choicc
com¡aicu io a iy¡ical iuial suluivision,"
saiu Gicg WhiiiaIci, ¡icsiucni ol WhiiiaIci
Homcs. ¨Thosc ¡co¡lc oui ihcic looIing
loi lig lois, I uon`i ihinI ihcy icalizc, in my
o¡inion, ihc uamagc ihcy`ic uoing io ihc
cnviionmcni."
Ncw Town, a ò,700-unii communiiy WhiiiaIci
Homcs is luiluing on 740 acics ouisiuc Si.
Iouis, Mo., is anyihing lui a iy¡ical iuial
suluivision. Thc samc gocs loi Ncw Rivci, a
4,S00-unii communiiy ouisiuc Tam¡a lcing
ucvclo¡cu on 1,S00 acics ly KB Homc.
Suiiounucu ly laimlanu, loih iicau much
moic lighily on ihc lanu ihan ihc convcniional
a¡¡ioach io iuial ucvclo¡mcni in which
su¡cisizcu lois - anywhcic liom onc io 10
acics ¡ci icsiucncc - uominaic.
Highci ucnsiiy is noi, howcvci, ihc only ihing
ihai scis Ncw Rivci anu Ncw Town a¡aii. Plans
call loi cach io cvolvc ovci ihc ncxi uccauc
inio scll-coniaincu iowns coniaining ¡aiIs,
schools, chuichcs, sioics anu olhccs. ¨Wc`ic
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lO5
noi |usi liinging ihc ioolio¡s, lui cvciyihing
io su¡¡oii ihc ioolio¡s," saiu Maishall Giay,
¡icsiucni ol KB Homc`s Tam¡a uivision.
Ncw Town is ihc hisi ucvclo¡mcni ol iis
Iinu loi WhiiiaIci Homcs, onc ol Missouii`s
lcauing homc luilucis, lui ii won`i lc ihc
lasi. ¨Wc`ic looIing loi moic siics iighi now,"
saiu WhiiiaIci. ¨I iiuly lclicvc ihis is ihc way
¡co¡lc will lc luiluing in ihc luiuic."
Giay agiccs. KB Homc is onc ol ihc naiion`s
liggcsi homc luilucis. Cuiicnily, aloui 2ò
¡ciccni ol ihc com¡any`s ucvclo¡mcnis hi ihc
molu ol Ncw Rivci. Howcvci, ovci ihc ncxi
hvc io 10 ycais, iwo-ihiius ol ihc com¡any`s
ucvclo¡mcnis will lollow ihai lluc¡iini, saiu
Giay. ¨Ii`s ically all aloui Smaii Giowih,"
hc saiu. Ncw Town incoi¡oiaics many ol
ihc ¡iinci¡lcs ol Ncw Uilanism. Conccivcu
in ics¡onsc io s¡iawl, ihc Ncw Uilanism
movcmcni ¡iomoics ucvclo¡mcni ihai
incluucs iiauiiional iown ccnicis, uisiinci yci
com¡aci ncighloihoous, a vaiiciy ol housing
choiccs - cvciyihing liom uciachcu singlc-
lamily homcs io a¡aiimcnis - anu naiiow
siiccis ihai iamc iialhc whilc cncouiaging
walIing anu liIing. ¨Cais comc lasi in oui
ucvclo¡mcni," saiu WhiiiaIci.
Thai`s |usi hnc wiih Ncw Town icsiucnis
Dcc anu ]amcs Dcvcicux. ¨Wc lovc ihc
concc¡i ihai you can walI anywhcic," saiu
Dcc. ¨Whcic wc livcu, you hau io iaIc a cai
whcicvci you wcni."
Thc Dcvcicuxs movcu io a singlc-lamily
homc in Ncw Town liom a laigc housc on a
hall-acic in a ncaily suluivision. ¨Wc`ic loih
in oui 60s anu ihc yaiu was a loi ol woiI,"
saiu Dcc. ¨Wc havc a small yaiu now anu wc
liIc ihc sizc ol ii."
Thcy also a¡¡icciaic ihc iuin-lacI-ihc-clocI
lilcsiylc - cvcning convcisaiions on ihcii
lioni ¡oich wiih ncighlois, licc movics in ihc
ouiuooi am¡hiihcaici anu iii¡s io ihc giocciy
sioic ly liIc. ¨Whai I`m hcaiing liom oihci
¡co¡lc is ihcy lovc ihc concc¡i |usi liIc wc
uo," saiu Dcc.
Oncc consiucicu novcl, Ncw Uilanism
has gaincu gicaici accc¡iancc wiih cach
ncw communiiy as ¡co¡lc scc moic anu
moic cxam¡lcs ol succcsslul ¡io|ccis, saiu
Giay. ¨Pco¡lc shaic lcsi ¡iaciiccs all acioss
ihc couniiy," hc saiu. ¨Whcn you can ialI
io luilucis anu ucvclo¡cis anu inicivicw
homcowncis anu lusincss owncis, ii`s all a
¡osiiivc."
Whilc olicn associaicu wiih uilan inhll,
iiansii-oiicnicu ucvclo¡mcni anu/oi
suluilan icucvclo¡mcni, Ncw Uilanism
also maIcs scnsc in iuial sciiings, whcic ii
allows ¡co¡lc io livc in ihc couniiy wiihoui
climinaiing ihc cnviionmcni ihcy camc loi in
ihc hisi ¡lacc.
Thc ¡ioioiy¡c loi Ncw Uilan ucvclo¡mcni
is Scasiuc, Ila., which ins¡iicu WhiiiaIci io
luilu Ncw Town. ¨I`u lccn going ihcic loi
14 oi 1ò ycais," hc saiu. Thai`s whcic ihc
ihoughi camc liom. You ¡aiI youi cai anu
you uon`i havc io gci lacI inio ii loi a wccI.
Wc ihoughi aloui uoing somcihing similai loi
ycais. Wc wcic |usi waiiing loi ihc iighi iimc
anu ¡lacc io movc loiwaiu."
Dcsigncu ly ihc samc him - Duany Plaici-
ZylciI 8 Co. - ihai ucsigncu Scasiuc, Ncw
Town has ly mosi accounis ¡iogicsscu lasici
ihan any oihci iiauiiional ncighloihoou
ucvclo¡mcni ¸TND) io uaic. Thc hisi
icsiucnis movcu in lasi s¡iing laicly moic
ihan iwo ycais alici iniiial ucsign lcgan
- a icsiamcni io Ncw Town`s ihoughilul
¡lanning. ¨Mosi ¡io|ccis havc issucs in icims
ol ¡co¡lc woiiicu aloui iialhc anu schools,"
saiu WhiiiaIci. ¨Thai uiun`i ha¡¡cn wiih
ihis ¡io|cci."
Paiallcling Ncw Town`s s¡ccuy ¡iogicss
has lccn iis ¡o¡ulaiiiy wiih homcluycis.
¨Thc amouni ol inicicsi in ihis ¡io|cci has
lccn unlclicvallc," saiu WhiiiaIci, noiing
ihai moic ihan 6,000 ¡co¡lc signcu u¡
loi a mailing lisi ihai ¡ioviucs ihc laicsi
inloimaiion on ihc communiiy`s ¡iogicss.
¨Wc`vc ¡ushcu u¡ ihc o¡cning ol laici ¡hascs
lccausc ol ihc ucmanu."
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
lO6
Dcs¡iic ihc ¡o¡ulaiiiy ol ¡laccs liIc Ncw Town,
Ncw Uilan communiiics aic siill ihc cxcc¡iion.
Conscqucnily, auihoiiiics olicn musi lc
convinccu io iclax vaiious lanu-usc icgulaiions
io allow ihc highci ucnsiiics anu mixcu uscs
ihai aic a Ncw Uilan communiiy`s licau anu
luiici. ¨Evciyihing wc`ic uoing in Ncw Town
licaIs all ihc noimal iulcs," saiu WhiiiaIci.
As an cxam¡lc, hc ciicu Ncw Town`s livc/woiI
uniis in which a lusincss is locaicu on ihc hisi
uooi wiih a icsiucncc alovc.
Whilc noi an cxam¡lc ol Ncw Uilanism
¡ci sc - ihc housing siylc is moic icucciivc
ol suluilan suluivisions ihan uilan
ncighloihoous - Ncw Rivci also licaIs somc
molus. ¨Ii`s noi iows ol housing, lui ¡ocIcis
ol housing suiiounucu ly laigc o¡cn s¡acc
aicas," saiu Giay. Ncw Rivci also will lcaiuic
a 200-acic iown ccnici wiih 1S0,000 squaic
lcci ol olhcc s¡acc, ò00,000 squaic lcci ol
commcicial s¡acc, schools, govcinmcni olhccs
anu a 207-acic ¡aiI.
Giay saiu ucvclo¡cis musi lc ¨smaii
ncgoiiaiois" anu ¨cuucaic clccicu olhcials"
in oiuci io icmovc ¡oicniial laiiicis io ihcii
¡io|ccis. Ioi insiancc, a ciiy oi couniy may
iic ihc amouni ol icsiucniial ucvclo¡mcni
ii allows io a cciiain amouni ol commcicial
ucvclo¡mcni ihai musi occui ai ihc samc
iimc. Thc ¡iollcm is ihai il lusincsscs o¡cn
lcloic cnough homcs aic com¡lcicu, ihcy
may noi suivivc, saiu Giay. Ncw Rivci solvcu
ihai uilcmma ly winning a¡¡ioval io luilu
iis commcicial com¡oncnis in siagcs ihai will
guaianicc cnough ¡co¡lc aic living in ihc
communiiy io su¡¡oii ihc lusincsscs lcloic
ihcy aic luili, hc saiu.
Mcanwhilc, ai Ncw Town, iians¡oiiaiion is
a challcngc. WhiiiaIci is woiIing haiu io
liing iiansii - anoihci luiluing llocI ol Ncw
Uilanism - io his communiiy. ¨Wc`ic iiying io
¡ui a iiollcy liom Ncw Town io Main Siicci in
ihc iown ol Si. Chailcs," hc saiu. ¨Thai woulu
lc a uicam."
Bui cvcn wiih a muliiiuuc ol challcngcs in
ihc iwo iowns, ihc ouicomc lai ouiwcighs ihc
iimc-consuming ncgoiiaiing ¡ioccss, uilhculi
zoning icgulaiions anu ucsign olsiaclcs. In
ihc cnu, ii is a valucu communiiy, which ihcsc
cxam¡lcs clcaily show.
REALTCR
®
lnvolvenent
in Snart Crowth
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tc pl+r +lº+1 |cr 1ºrºlcpmºrt
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sºrsº prirtiplºs.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lO7
Ilº |cllcwir] rºsctrtºs +rº irtºr1º1
|cr |ctl ir1iri1t+l K|kLI9KS
®
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K|kLI9K
®
+sscti+ticrs
Transportation Toolkit
This 140-¡agc ¡iimci on ihc io¡ic
ol iians¡oiiaiion ¡lanning ¡ioviucs
REAITORS
®
anu REAITOR
®
associaiions
wiih ihc Inowlcugc io gci involvcu in local
anu icgional iians¡oiiaiion ¡lanning issucs.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/ì.nr·¡o.ììooII.ì
Public Schools Toolkit
This 12S-¡agc ¡iimci on ihc io¡ic ol ¡ullic
school ucvclo¡mcni, incluuing hnancing,
locaiion, anu sizc issucs is ucsigncu io ¡ioviuc
REAITORS
®
anu REAITOR
®
RR associaiions
ihc Inowlcugc io gci involvcu in local anu
icgional ¡ullic school ucvclo¡mcni.
K|kLI9K
®
lrrclrºmºrt ir Sm+rt ûrcwtl
N
AR´s Connunity Cutreach oepartnent ano its Snart Crowth Progran
help nenbers ano boaros get involveo in shaping their connunities
as they grow ano change. Because REALTCRS
®
sell connunities
as well as houses, it is in the REALTCR´s
®
best interest to nake the
whole connunity a great place to live. The resources NAR oIIers ranges Iron
inIornation to snall grants. Sone oI these resources are targeteo to inoivioual
REALTCRS
®
while nost are Ior use by REALTCR
®
associations.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/PubS·LooI·TooII.ì
On Common Cround Magazinc d
NAR`s smaii giowih magazinc is ¡ullishcu
iwicc a ycai on a vaiiciy ol giowih anu
lanu-usc io¡ics. This is ihc ¡cilcci way loi
any REAITOR
®
RR io siay u¡ io uaic on ihcsc
aciiviiics. REAITOR
®
RR associaiions aiounu ihc
couniiy havc lounu Or Co»»or C.ourJ io lc
an cxccllcni ¨lcavc lchinu" whcn ihcy visii
local clccicu olhcials. Thc magazinc icminus
ihcsc olhcials ihai REAITORS
®
aic inicicsicu
in smaii giowih issucs anu aic Inowlcugcallc.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/o·¿
Ilº |cllcwir] rºsctrtºs +rº irtºr1º1 |cr
tsº |¡ K|kLI9K
®
+sscti+ticrs.
Smart Growth Action Grants
Dcsigncu io s¡ui smaii giowih-
oiicnicu aciiviiy ly local
REAITOR
®
RR associaiions, ihc giani
¡iogiam has iwo a¡¡licaiion
cyclcs ¡ci ycai anu awaius u¡
io SS,000 ¡ci a¡¡licani. Mosi
REAITOR
®
RR associaiions usc ihc
lunus io ¡ioviuc an cuucaiional
cvcni loi ihcii mcmlcis as wcll
as local ¡ullic olhcials aloui a
giowih issucs ihai is ¡aiiiculaily
gcimanc io ihcii aica.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/·¿¿.nrì·
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
lO8
Issucs Mobilization
NAR`s Issucs Molilizaiion ¡iogiam was
cicaicu io su¡¡oii siaic anu local REAITOR
®
RR
associaiions ihiough cuucaiion, icchnical
assisiancc anu/oi hnancial su¡¡oii, anu
io cnallc ihcm io oiganizc anu managc
cllcciivc issuc cam¡aigns io ¡iomoic NAR
¡olicy. A ¡iinci¡al ol|cciivc ol ihc ¡iogiam
is io ¡ioviuc siaic anu local REAITOR
®
RR
associaiions wiih hnancial assisiancc iowaiu
cllcciivc issuc cam¡aigns lcnchiing anu
¡iomoiing REAITOR
®
RR ¡ullic ¡olicy. This is a
maiching lunus ¡iogiam.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/.··ue·»ob
Land-Usc Initiativc
NAR`s Ianu Usc Iniiiaiivc assisis siaic
anu local REAITOR
®
RR associaiions in ihcii
¡ullic ¡olicy auvocacy ol lanu usc issucs.
U¡on icqucsi, NAR will ¡ioviuc licc cx¡cii
analysis ol ihc lcgal, ¡lanning, cconomic,
anu cnviionmcnial issucs suiiounuing
lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy lanu usc ¡io¡osals.
Thc ¡iogiam will accc¡i loi analysis lanu
usc mcasuics in uiali loim oi as loimally
iniiouuccu, as wcll as ic¡oiis oi siuuics ihai
luiuic lcgislaiion oi icgulaiion may lc lascu
u¡on. NAR will only accc¡i icqucsis liom siaic
oi local REAITOR
®
RR associaiions.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/Iu.
Customizcd statc lcgislation on
land usc and growth
Thc Cusiomizcu Siaic Smaii Giowih
Icgislaiion Piogiam ¡ioviucs assisiancc io
siaic REAITOR
®
associaiions who wish io
iaIc ihc lcau in wiiiing anu iniiouucing
lcgislaiion io hcl¡ ihc siaic lciici auuicss
ihc challcngcs ol giowih anu im¡iovc local
communiiics. NAR ollcis, ai a icuuccu iaic,
ihc sciviccs ol ics¡ccicu lanu usc law him
Rolinson 8 Colc io uiali siaic lcgislaiion io
cncouiagc smaii giowih. Exam¡lcs mighi
incluuc ncw zoning cnalling lcgislaiion,
icquiicmcnis loi local ¡lanning, changcs in
suluivision law, oi o¡cn s¡acc ¡ioicciion,
io namc a lcw. Thcsc ¡io¡osals musi lc
iclaicu io lanu usc anu smaii giowih, anu
shoulu lc issucs ihai can gain su¡¡oii liom a
consiiiucncy lcyonu REAITORS
®
.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/·u·ìo»Ie¿
Votcr survcys
This ¡iogiam allows siaic anu local
REAITOR
®
associaiions ihc aliliiy io conuuci
¡olling on giowih-iclaicu issucs in ihcii
aicas. Thc ¡iogiam uscs onc ol iwo NAR-
alhliaicu ¡ullic o¡inion hims io suivcy
ihc o¡inions ol local oi siaic icsiucnis
conccining giowih. Thcsc suivcys usually
coniaci aloui 400 icgisicicu voicis living in
ihc uchncu aica anu can lc ¡owcilul iools
io asscss ihc o¡inions ol youi communiiy
loi local anu siaic govcinmcni olhcials. Thc
cosi vaiics accoiuing io ihc uciail ol ihc
¡oll, anu ihc ¡ullic o¡inion him uscu. In
an clloii io ¡iomoic ihc ¡iogiam anu io
maIc ihis ¡olling availallc ai all lcvcls ol ihc
REAITOR
®
oiganizaiion, NAR will ¡ay loi ò0
¡ciccni ol ihc suivcy.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/¡oII.r¿
Sharcd GAD Program
Thiough ihc Shaicu GAD ¸Govcinmcni
Allaiis Diiccioi) Piogiam, NAR assisis local
anu siaic REAITOR
®
RR associaiions ihai aic
looIing loi ncw anu uniquc iucas on how io
shaic govcinmcnial allaiis icsouiccs. NAR
assisis inicicsicu siaic anu local associaiions in
laciliiaiing mcciings anu ncw a¡¡ioachcs loi
ihosc associaiions looIing loi ways io incicasc
ihcii aliliiy io ic¡icscni ihcii REAITOR
®
RR
mcmlcishi¡ cllcciivcly.
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/·Ln.eJ¿nJ
To lcain moic aloui any ol ihc lollowing
icsouiccs, coniaci:
Hugh Morris
Communiiy Ouiicach Rc¡icscniaiivc
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
ò00 Ncw ]ciscy Avcnuc, NW
Washingion, D.C. 20001
202-SSS-127S
hmoiiisCicaliois.oig
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lOº
K|kLI9K
®
ksscti+ticrs ir ktticr
R
EALTCRS
®
sell nore than hones. They sell connunities. Every
oay REALTCRS
®
see frst-hano how our connunities are growing,
changing, ano beconing nore oiverse. Who better to assure that their
connunities grow to be the best they can be than the people who
know their connunities better than anyone else? As proIessionals ano resioents,
REALTCRS
®
have a vesteo interest in naking sure our connunities are as healthy
as they can be. That incluoes strengthening schools, naking our transportation
systen nore eIfcient, ano ensuring that open space is available Ior recreation.
Nany REALTCR
®
associations ano their nenbers have steppeo up to help
aooress the challenges that result Iron growth ano change. The Iollowing case
stuoies provioe exanples oI REALTCR
®
associations that have becone oeeply
involveo in helping to shape their connunities as they grow.
ü+slir]tcr
K|kLI9KS
®
´
9t+lit¡ c| Li|º
C+mp+i]r
Sunnary
In ihc 1990s, Washingion REAITORS
®
¸WR) licqucnily lounu ihcmsclvcs in ihc
¡osiiion ol consianily o¡¡osing clloiis io
sio¡ oi slow giowih. Thcii soluiion was
ihc cicaiion ol an ongoing Qualiiy ol Iilc
Cam¡aign io cngagc in a ¡osiiivc way in
¡iomoiing smaiici giowih. Thc cam¡aign
has hau a siiing ol lcgislaiivc succcsscs,
lui, moic im¡oiianily, ii also has mauc ihc
associaiion a Icy ¡layci in ¡lanning loi ihc
siaic`s luiuic.
Creating the Cuality oI LiIe Canpaign
Whcn laccu wiih a giowih managcmcni
law ihai ihicaicncu io siiuc ucvclo¡mcni,
REAITORS
®
in ihc siaic ol Washingion
molilizcu loi cngagcmcni anu soon lounu
ihcmsclvcs ¡iiicu againsi no-giowih aciivisis.
Rcalizing ihai mosi ciiizcns uiun`i wani io sio¡
giowih, ihc Washingion REAITORS
®
woiIcu
io icliamc ihc uclaic.
Whai siaiicu as an Economic Dcvclo¡mcni
TasI Ioicc in 1999 is now ihc siaic
associaiion`s Qualiiy ol Iilc Cam¡aign, which
siiivcs io susiain anu cnhancc ihc qualiiy ol
lilc loi Washingion icsiucnis ly su¡¡oiiing
qualiiy giowih.
¨Thc Qualiiy ol Iilc Cam¡aign has iiansloimcu
us liom lcing a giou¡ ihai is Inown loi whai
ii o¡¡oscs io onc ihai is Inown loi whai ii
su¡¡oiis," says REAITOR
®
RR MiIc Ilynn, CRS,
2004 ¡icsiucni ol Washingion REAITORS
®
,
who has lccn aciivcly involvcu in ucvclo¡ing
anu ¡iomoiing ihc cam¡aign.
Thc cam¡aign`s hvc coic ¡iinci¡lcs shaic
many clcmcnis ol ihc Naiional Associaiion ol
Rcaliois
®
Smaii Giowih Piinci¡lcs:
@ Ensuic cconomic viialiiy ihai cicaics goou
|ols anu ¡iomoics cconomic uivcisiiy.
@ Pioviuc housing o¡¡oiiuniiics so ihai
cvciyonc can hnu salc anu alloiuallc
homcs ncai whcic ihcy livc anu woiI.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
llO
@ Picscivc oui cnviionmcni ly ¡lanning
loi o¡cn s¡acc anu ucvclo¡ing ¡olicics io
¡ioicci clcan aii anu waici.
@ Builu lciici communiiics ly aucquaicly
invcsiing in inliasiiuciuic ¸iians¡oiiaiion,
waici, anu scwci sysicms), schools, anu
¡ullic sciviccs ihai ¡ioviuc ihc liamcwoiI
loi a high qualiiy ol lilc.
@ Pioicci ¡io¡ciiy owncis` aliliiy io own,
usc, anu iianslci ¡io¡ciiy.
Thcsc ¡iinci¡lcs aic ¨ihc iiicuucillc clcmcnis
ol communiiy," Ilynn says. ¨This ¡iogiam
liings iogcihci whai oui clicnis icll us gocs
inio ihcii uccision-maIing aloui homcs anu
communiiics," hc auus. ¨Bccausc REAITORS
®
scll communiiy, wc havc a ¡cis¡cciivc ihai`s
uniquc. Anu ii has a unilying cncigy. ... Ii
allows us io walI inio ihc lcgislaiivc anu ¡olicy-
maIing ¡ioccss anu ollci in¡ui ihai is lioauci
ihan whai clccicu olhcials usually hcai - anu
ihai maIcs us vciy wclcomc ai ihc iallc."
Washingion`s ¡o¡ulaiion, which incicascu
ly a million ¡co¡lc uuiing ihc 1990s, is
cx¡ccicu io |um¡ ly anoihci 1.7 million
icsiucnis in ihc ncxi 20 ycais. Wiihoui ¡io¡ci
¡lanning, REAITORS
®
lclicvc ihai housing
o¡¡oiiuniiics will lc limiicu anu ihc siaic`s
chciishcu cnviionmcni anu iolusi cconomy
may lc ai iisI. Thai`s why ihc Washingion
REAITORS
®
aic gciiing ihc cais ol clccicu
olhcials ai ihc siaic anu local lcvcl. Thc
Washingion Giowih Managcmcni Aci icquiics
cvciy communiiy acioss ihc siaic io icvicw
anu u¡uaic iis com¡ichcnsivc ¡lans anu io
csiallish ncw icgulaiions io guiuc giowih.
S¡ccihcally, ihc GMA icquiics communiiics io:
W Iucniily anu ¡ioicci ciiiical aicas
W Dcsignaic couniywiuc ¡lanning ¡olicics
anu uilan giowih aicas
W Pic¡aic anu auo¡i com¡ichcnsivc ¡lans
W Im¡lcmcni ihc com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan
W Evaluaic anu u¡uaic ihc com¡ichcnsivc
¡lan anu ucvclo¡ icgulaiions
Thc Qualiiy ol Iilc Cam¡aign sccIs io inuucncc
¡ullic ¡olicy ihai accommouaics qualiiy giowih,
housing, anu cconomic ucvclo¡mcni, uchnc
qualiiy giowih anu iis lcnchis, cnhancc ihc
imagc ol REAITORS
®
anu clcci canuiuaics who
will sign a ¡lcugc io caiiy oui ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc
¡iinci¡lcs il clccicu.
Washingion REAITORS
®
also havc cicaicu
an in-housc icam ol cx¡ciis on lanu-usc law
anu icgulaiion anu hscal ¡olicy io ucvclo¡
¡io¡osals ihai ihc cam¡aign can usc io hcl¡
cx¡anu inliasiiuciuic lunuing, incicasc
ihc housing su¡¡ly anu moic. Thc icam
¡ioviucs guiuancc anu assisiancc io local
associaiions in ihcii clloiis io ¡iomoic anu
auo¡i ihosc ¡olicics.
Washingion REAITORS
®
has siall ucuicaicu
io iaising moncy loi REAITORS
®
Poliiical
Aciion Commiiicc ¸RPAC) io su¡¡oii ¡olicy-
maIcis who will auo¡i anu im¡lcmcni ihosc
¡olicics. Thc cam¡aign cooiuinaics iis ¡ullic
auvocacy mcssagcs wiih ihc RPAC io coniaci
iaigcicu voicis anu show su¡¡oii loi cnuoiscu
canuiuaics. Thc cam¡aign also woiIs io shaic
govcinmcni allaiis ic¡icscniaiion among local
associaiions anu io iiain govcinmcni allaiis
uiicciois io maIc ihc lcsi usc ol ihc Qualiiy ol
Iilc icsouiccs.
Thc siaic associaiion also uisiiiluics an ¨Aciion
Guiuc" ¸scc ihc REAITOR
®
RR Aciion Guiuc ai
ihc cnu ol ihis scciion) io iis 24,000 mcmlcis
io cncouiagc ihcm io iaIc an aciivc iolc in
ihcii communiiics. Ii ouilincs ihc ¡iogiam`s
¡iinci¡lcs anu uciails s¡ccihc ways loi
REAITORS
®
io iaIc ¡aii in ihc local ¡lanning
¡ioccss. Ii shows how io ucvclo¡ ¡aiincishi¡s
wiih oihci oiganizaiions, woiI wiih ihc local
mcuia, csiallish iclaiionshi¡s wiih clccicu
olhcials, anu iucniily ¡oicniial o¡¡oncnis.
A Qualiiy ol Iilc ioolIii is also availallc io
cvciy mcmlci io hcl¡ ihcm lciici unucisianu
issucs anu io cuucaic ¡olicy maIcis. Thc
Qualiiy ol Iilc CD coniains moic ihan Sò0
icscaich liicls, ¡olicy guiucs, mcuia iools
anu ¡icscniaiions io hcl¡ REAITORS
®
allcci
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I lll
local uccisions ihai liamc ihcii communiiy`s
giowih. Evciy ycai moic iools aic auucu as ihc
REAITORS
®
iangc ol inuucncc on issucs in
ihc siaic lioaucns.
All ol ihcsc iniiiaiivcs havc lcu io moic luy-in
liom siaic associaiion mcmlcis, accoiuing io
Biyan Wahl, WR Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi.
¨Moic ihan onc-ihiiu ol oui mcmlcis icccnily
¡ollcu consiuci ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam a
io¡ lcnchi ol ihcii mcmlcishi¡. Wc`vc moic
ihan uoullcu oui RPAC invcsimcnis in ihc
lasi iwo ycais, anu ihcy`vc giown cx¡oncniially
sincc wc siaiicu ihc cam¡aign. Iasi ycai, wc
lioughi in moic ihan S700,000 in RPAC
invcsimcnis. This ycai, oui goal is S1 million."
As ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam gains
momcnium, moic ¡co¡lc aic lamiliai wiih ihc
REAITORS
®
` woiI. A icccni ¡ullic o¡inion
suivcy showcu a high lcvcl ol ¡ullic iccogniiion
loi ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc ¡iogiam siaicwiuc. Onc
quaiici ol all voicis ¸ncaily 2 million ¡co¡lc)
aic awaic ol ihc Qualiiy ol Iilc Piogiam, anu
a who¡¡ing 7ò ¡ciccni su¡¡oii ihc ¡iogiam`s
goals. Sixiy-hvc ¡ciccni lclicvc REAITORS
®
shaic ihcii samc inicicsis loi communiiy
anu lamily, anu 60 io 70 ¡ciccni agicc ihai
REAITORS
®
aic siiong auvocaics who ¡ioicci
¡io¡ciiy iighis, maIc housing alloiuallc,
im¡iovc ihc cconomy anu |ol o¡¡oiiuniiics,
anu im¡iovc qualiiy ol lilc. Thc icsulis show
ihai REAITORS
®
havc gaincu a siiong
cicuililiiy ihai allows ihcm io s¡caI cllcciivcly
on issucs ihai ihc ¡ullic caics aloui.
¨You uon`i nccu io lc o¡ciaiing unuci a
giowih managcmcni aci loi ihis ¡iogiam
io maIc scnsc," assciis Ilynn. Hc says ihc
cam¡aign`s ¡iinci¡lcs can ca¡iuic ihc minus
ol ihc ¡ullic anu ihc clccioiaic icgaiulcss
ol locaiion. In laci, scvcial siaics aic alicauy
aua¡iing ihc ¡iogiam ¸oi ¡oiiions ol ii) loi
usc in ihcii own siaics, incluuing Wisconsin,
Kansas, Coloiauo, Hawaii, Mississi¡¡i, Souih
Caiolina, Ncvaua anu Washingion D.C. In
auuiiion, mosi ol ihc ¡iovinccs in Canaua
havc iniiiaicu succcsslul ¡iogiams.
Alici scvcn ycais, ihc cam¡aign`s icsulis
aic im¡icssivc. ¨Wc`vc hau gicai lcgislaiivc
succcss sincc 2000," says Wahl. ¨Whcn
iy¡ically only 1ò ¡ciccni ol all lills
iniiouuccu aic signcu ly ihc govcinoi
uuiing any givcn scssion, ihc REAITORS
®
aic succcsslul cvciy ycai ai gciiing mosi ol
oui ¡iioiiiy lcgislaiion ¡asscu, incluuing
im¡iovcmcnis io ihc Giowih Managcmcni
Aci, mcasuics io incicasc housing
o¡¡oiiuniiics, uilan anu iuial cconomic
ucvclo¡mcni inccniivcs, conuominium
lialiliiy icloim, ¡cimiiiing clhcicncy,
iians¡oiiaiion anu inliasiiuciuic lunuing
¡acIagcs. Wc wcic also allc io win ihc voics
in ihc siaic lcgislaiuic io luiy a sciious
aiicm¡i io incicasc ical csiaic iaxcs.
¨Wc`vc succcsslully gaincu su¡¡oii io uclcai
lau lcgislaiion anu ¡ass goou lcgislaiion
lccausc wc`vc icachcu acioss ¡aiiy lincs anu
auuicsscu iuial anu uilan issucs anu lilcial
anu conscivaiivc agcnuas," hc says. ¨Thc
succcss wc`vc hau is somcihing wc liIc io
shaic wiih all oihci REAITOR
®
associaiions.
Whcn you looI ai oui agcnua - |ols, homcs,
anu communiiy - ihai`s a lioau a¡¡ioach
ihai all ihc ¡ullic su¡¡oiis. Thcsc ically aic
ihc Iiichcn-iallc io¡ics, ihc issucs ¡co¡lc
caic aloui."
Ilynn concluucs ihai oihci associaiions
ucvclo¡ing similai ¡iogiams can iiansloim
ihcii auvocacy ¡iogiams. ¨Elccicu olhcials hnu
a loi io liIc aloui oui ¡iogiam lccausc ii has
ihc cxiiaoiuinaiy lcnchi ol lcing iniuiiivcly
scnsillc anu laciually accuiaic. Anu ihai`s why
ii woiIs!"
Contact:
Biyan Wahl
Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi
Washingion REAITORS
®
ò04 14
ih
Avcnuc, SE
PO Box 719
Olym¡ia, WA 9Sò07
S00-ò62-6024
liyan.wahlCwaicalioi.oig
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
ll2
|lcri1+ ksscti+ticr
c| K|kLI9KS
®
Sm+rt
ûrcwtl Cctrtil
Sunnary
In 2000, Souih Iloiiua
REAITOR
®
RR Sanuia
Golusicin iooI ihc hclm ol hci local
associaiion anu lcgan a qucsi io invcsiigaic
soluiions io hci aica`s giiulocI anu sccmingly
chaoiic ucvclo¡mcni. Shc quicIly giaviiaicu
iowaiu smaii giowih. Thc cuucaiional cvcnis
ihc associaiion s¡onsoicu ¡iovcu ¡o¡ulai anu
lcu io cicaiion ol a similai, siaicwiuc clloii
unuci ihc Iloiiua associaiion`s Smaii Giowih
Council, which has cvolvcu inio a ¡cimancni
sulcommiiicc ol ihc associaiion ihai s¡onsois,
among oihci smaii giowih clloiis, iwo local
smaii giowih conlcicnccs ¡ci ycai, cach
onc in a ncw locaiion. Thcsc conlcicnccs
aic cos¡onsoicu ly ihc local loaiu ol
REAITORS
®
in ihc |uiisuiciion in which ihc
conlcicncc iaIcs ¡lacc.
Leaoing a oiscussion on growth
ano oevelopnent
Whcn Sanuia Golusicin iaIcs on a lcaucishi¡
¡osiiion, shc wanis io Inow shc`s maIing
a uillcicncc. As shc ¡ic¡aicu io chaii ihc
7,000-mcmlci REAITORS
®
Associaiion ol
Gicaici Miami anu ihc Bcachcs siaiiing in
2000, shc asIcu hciscll, ¨How can I havc ihc
liggcsi im¡aci." Thc answci, shc ucciucu, was
smaii giowih.
¨In Miami, wc`ic in giiulocI all ihc iimc,"
saiu Golusicin, ¡icsiucni ol Sanuia Golusicin
8 Associaics, a commcicial lioIciagc anu
luiluing managcmcni him in Kcy Biscaync.
¨Wc ¡avcu ovci agiiculiuial lanu io luilu
ioaus io ihc suluils, anu now ¡co¡lc aic
lccling uiscnlianchiscu. Iamilics aic sc¡aiaicu
liom ihcii |ols, ihcii homcs, anu ihcii
chiluicn loi mosi ol ihc uay, anu ¡co¡lc s¡cnu
houis in iialhc."
To |um¡ siaii aciivism loi lciici ¡lanning anu
ucvclo¡mcni, shc wcni oui inio hci communiiy
anu mci wiih lcaucis - clccicu olhcials,
¡lanncis, cnviionmcnialisis anu oihcis who
coulu ¡lay a iolc. Shc icalizcu ihai ihcy all hau
conccins aloui ovci-luiucncu ioaus, ihc loss
ol laimlanu anu ihc cconomic hcalih ol ihc
icgion. Bui nonc ol ihcm wcic ialIing io cach
oihci. Thc associaiion oiganizcu a conlcicncc
io hcl¡ cuucaic REAITORS
®
anu oihcis
aloui smaii giowih whilc showing communiiy
lcaucis ihai REAITORS
®
wani io lc involvcu in
communiiy issucs.
In 2002, ihc Iloiiua Associaiion ol
REAITORS
®
cicaicu a Picsiucniial Auvisoiy
Commiiicc on Smaii Giowih. Thc lollowing
ycai, ihc commiiicc lccamc ihc Iloiiua
Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
Smaii Giowih
Council, wiih Golusicin as chaii. Wiih scvcial
uozcn voluniccis, ihc council locuscu on
cuucaiion anu mcnioiing oihcis.
¨Wc camc io ihc icalizaiion ihai wc
nccucu io siaii cuucaiion on a siaic lcvcl...
wiih coniinuing cuucaiion cicuiis," says
Golusicin. WoiIing wiih Iloiiua Ailaniic
Univcisiiy`s Caiancsc Ccnici loi Uilan anu
Enviionmcnial Soluiions, ihcy ucvclo¡cu a
smaii giowih cuiiiculum. In Ociolci 200S,
ihc council hclu a uay-long smaii giowih
cuucaiion scssion loi REAITORS
®
. Thc
mcciing iooI ¡lacc in Alacoa, Ila., homc io
IAU`s MacAiihui Cam¡us anu an cxccllcni
cxam¡lc ol a wcll-ucsigncu iown. Thc
REAITORS
®
iouicu ihc iown lciwccn scssions
on smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs, ¡lanning, anu
liinging aciivism inio a communiiy.
¨Wc iiicu io show ihai ihcic`s no smaii-giowih
¡ioioiy¡c ihai will hi cvciy communiiy oi
cvciy villagc in Iloiiua," says Golusicin. ¨Bui
whai wc can uo is cuucaic ¡co¡lc anu alcii
ihcm io whai ihc ¡ossililiiics aic anu whai
succcss sioiics cxisi - anu ihai can lighi a hic
unuci ihcm."
Gcoigc Canicio, Golusicin`s succcssoi as
council chaii, coniinucu io cuucaic Iloiiua
REAITORS
®
aloui smaii giowih, wiih
conlcicnccs in Oilanuo anu Scasiuc. ¨Wc wani
io mainiain ihc awaicncss ol whai`s ha¡¡cning
in oui siaic wiih smaii giowih," says Canicio.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I ll3
Thc IAU cuiiiculum was again ihc ccnici¡iccc
ol ihcsc mcciings, whcic hc auucu an o¡cn
loium loi ¡co¡lc io ialI aloui any ¡osiiivc
oi ncgaiivc issucs ihcy aic lacing wiih smaii
giowih. ¨As wc aiiiculaic ihc issucs ol smaii
giowih wiih moic licqucncy, wc scc icsisiancc
uio¡¡ing, anu ¡co¡lc icalizc ii`s noi a onc-
sizc-his-all soluiion. Wc wani io show ihai smaii
giowih can lc iailoicu io mcci ihc nccus ol
cach communiiy anu ihc culiuic ol an aica."
Bascu in Miami, Canicio locuscs on
inicinaiional luycis anu scllcis in ihc
icsiucniial maiIci. Hc says his clicnis`
¡iimaiy conccins aic housing alloiualiliiy,
convcnicncc io sciviccs, anu a scnsc ol salciy,
all ol which hc says aic auuicsscu ly smaii
giowih. ¨Thcsc aic human issucs ihai cui
acioss ihc ¡iicc s¡cciium whcn ¡co¡lc luy
ical csiaic in any communiiy," hc says.
What Cther REALTCRS
®
Associations
can Learn Iron Florioa´s Experience
¨Siaii ihc convcisaiion," suggcsis Canicio. ¨Wc
havcn`i uonc anyihing caiih-shaiiciing, lui wc
havc siaiicu incicasing awaicncss...Evciyonc
wanis insiani giaiihcaiion, lui cvciyihing has
a ¡ciiou ol gcsiaiion...ii iaIcs iimc loi smaii
giowih io caich on."
Golusicin, now aciivc in hci own
ncighloihoou auvisoiy giou¡, Inows ihai
ihc clloiis io cuucaic REAITORS
®
aloui
smaii giowih will ¡ay oll in ihc long iun.
¨REAITORS
®
aic ihc loiciunncis. Wc`ic ihc
hisi oncs ¡co¡lc coniaci io iaIc caic ol ihcii
lilc nccus. Ii`s im¡oiiani ihai wc lcain liom
cach oihci anu gci ins¡iiaiion liom cach
oihci. Wc wani io uo somcihing clsc lcsiucs
|usi collcciing a commission. Wc wani io
givc mcaning io whai wc uo. Uliimaicly, as
human lcings wc wani io havc counicu loi
somcihing. Wc wani io maIc a uillcicncc."
Contact:
]ohn Sclicc
Vicc Picsiucni - Pullic Policy
Iloiiua Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
¸Sò0) 224-1400
|ohnsClai.oig
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
ll4
Nºw Mº\itc Ctstcmitº1
St+tº Lº]isl+ticr
Sunnary
Alici ninc ycais ol liuiilcss
aiicm¡is io amcnu siaicwiuc
¡lanning anu zoning laws,
ihc Ncw Mcxico REAITORS
®
associaiion
ucciucu io iaIc auvaniagc ol NAR`s ¡iogiam
ihai ollcis ihc assisiancc ol a naiionally Inown
lanu-usc law him in wiiiing anu auvocaiing loi
siaic smaii giowih lcgislaiion. Thc inlusion
ol ouisiuc cx¡ciiisc hcl¡cu mcmlcis locus
on csscniial ¡iovisions anu uio¡ unncccssaiy
clcmcnis ihai cngcnucicu o¡¡osiiion. This
¡ioccss cx¡anucu ihc giou¡`s inuucncc.
Naking progress in New Nexico
In ihc caily 1990s, ihc Ncw Mcxico lcgislaiuic
¡asscu siaicwiuc ¡lanning anu zoning
lcgislaiion ovci ihc ol|cciions ol many
REAITORS
®
. Ioi ycais, ihc REAITORS
®
Associaiion ol Ncw Mcxico ¸RANM) iiicu
unsucccsslully io amcnu ihc lcgislaiion. In
200S, ihc oiganizaiion uscu ihc NATIONAI
ASSOCIATION OI REAITORS
®
Cusiomizcu
Siaic Smaii Giowih Icgislaiion Piogiam anu
succccucu in ¡assing iwo amcnumcnis.
¨Ioi ninc ycais wc woulu go anu lcai oui
hcaus againsi ihc wall anu iiy io maIc
changcs," says REAITORS
®
]im Mauuox, who
scivcu as RANM`s volunicci lcgislaiivc chaii
in 200S anu is a ¡asi ¡icsiucni ol ihc siaicwiuc
oiganizaiion. ¨Thcn wc iooI auvaniagc ol ihis
¡iogiam. Ii lighicns ihc loau on volunicci
REAITORS
®
, icuucing whai ihcy havc io
icscaich anu unucisianu lcloic cmlaiIing on
a lcgislaiivc clloii."
Thc cusiomizcu lcgislaiion ¡iogiam hcl¡s
siaic associaiions iaIc ihc lcau in wiiiing
anu iniiouucing lcgislaiion io lciici auuicss
ihc challcngcs ol giowih anu im¡iovc local
communiiics. Thiough ihc ¡iogiam, NAR
¡ioviucs associaiions wiih ihc sciviccs ol lanu-
usc law him Rolinson 8 Colc anu ¡ays hall
ol ihc lcc ¸Il a siaic associaiion cannoi lunu
iis hall, auuiiional assisiancc may lc availallc
ihiough anoihci NAR ¡iogiam). Thc law
him hcl¡s uiali siaic lcgislaiion on smaii
giowih issucs, ¡ioviuing auvicc on lcgislaiivc
siiaicgy, cicaiing ialIing ¡oinis, assisiing
wiih coaliiion ucvclo¡mcni anu unuciiaIing
somc limiicu uiicci lollying. Thc associaiion
commiis io a lcgislaiivc cam¡aign, iucniihcs
ol|cciivcs loi ihc lcgislaiion io achicvc,
a¡¡oinis a lcgislaiivc iasI loicc, ¡aiiici¡aics
in siiaicgy anu coaliiion ucvclo¡mcni,
sccuics lill s¡onsois, anu oiganizcs mcmlci
coniaci icams io lolly lcgislaiois. Ncw
Mcxico is onc ol ihicc siaics ¸along wiih
Souih Caiolina anu Massachusciis) ihai has
uscu ihc ¡iogiam.
¨Wc hau wonucilul lcgal auvicc iooicu in
u¡-io-uaic lanu-usc ¡iaciiccs," says Maiy E.
MaiiincI, RANM`s hisi govcinmcni allaiis
uiiccioi. ¨Rolinson 8 Colc caiiicu ihai auvicc
inio suggcsiions loi coaliiion-luiluing ihai
allowcu us io ¡ui iogcihci ihc unuci¡innings
ol a succcsslul lcgislaiivc siiaicgy."
In ¡icvious ycais, MaiiincI cx¡lains, RANM
uscu an all-volunicci lcgislaiivc commiiicc
wiih uozcns ol mcmlcis ihai woiIcu iogcihci
io ucvclo¡ ncw iniiiaiivcs. Onc huiulc ihcy
laccu ycai alici ycai was ihc o¡¡osiiion ol ihc
cnviionmcnial anu ¡ullic ¡olicy giou¡ callcu
1000 Iiicnus ol Ncw Mcxico. Thcy siiongly
o¡¡oscu ¡iovisions in ihc associaiion`s
amcnumcnis calling loi com¡ichcnsivc
zoning ¡lans ai ihc couniy lcvcl anu ihc
¡iohiliiion ol loiccu mcigcis ol coniinuous
¡aiccls ol lanu, ¡iimaiily in iuial aicas.
Whcn a ncw govcinmcni allaiis uiiccioi was
hiicu in 2002, ihc associaiion ucciucu io iiy
a uillcicni a¡¡ioach. RANM iuincu io ihc
Cusiomizcu Siaic Icgislaiion Piogiam anu
cicaicu a small volunicci iasI loicc wiih only
a hanulul ol ¡co¡lc anu ihc aliliiy io maIc
uccisions. This giou¡ woiIcu closcly wiih
Biian Blacssci, a ¡aiinci in Rolinson 8 Colc,
who camc io Ncw Mcxico io hcl¡ ucvclo¡ a
lcgislaiivc siiaicgy, luilu coaliiions, anu uiali
lcgislaiion. Onc ol ihc hisi mcciings hc hclu
was wiih ihc 1000 Iiicnus ol Ncw Mcxico
io unucisianu ihcii o¡¡osiiion. Ii iuincu
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I ll5
oui ihai hc was allc io climinaic viiiually all
ihc languagc ihcy o¡¡oscu anu siill achicvc
ihc icsulis ihai ihc REAITORS
®
nccucu.
Thcii su¡¡oii uliimaicly hcl¡cu gci loih
amcnumcnis ¡asscu.
¨Ii was hcl¡lul io havc somconc ¡oini oui ihai
wc wcic gciiing io ihc samc ¡lacc," MaiiincI
says, ¨lccausc somciimcs voluniccis gci so
wcuucu io ihc way ihcy ihinI ii shoulu go."
Alluquciquc REAITORS`
®
Bill Cam¡lcll III,
CCIM, a volunicci mcmlci ol ihc lcgislaiivc
commiiicc, agiccs. ¨Wc`u lccn laiiling ihc
samc ¡co¡lc ovci ihc lanu-usc issucs loi a
long iimc," hc says. ¨You cnu u¡ uiawing
lincs in ihc sanu anu no onc wanis io luugc.
Whcn you liing somclouy liom ihc ouisiuc
wiih a licsh vicw, ii`s casici io ncgoiiaic. Anu
Rolinson 8 Colc lioughi a loi ol cicuililiiy
io ihc iallc. Thcy`ic goou ai whai ihcy uo.
Thcy`ic vciy cllcciivc, ihcy Inow ihc issucs,
anu ihcy`ic vciy lasi. Wc woulun`i havc goiicn
ii uonc wiihoui ihcm."
Mauuox hcaucu u¡ ihc iasI loicc, which
incluucu MaiiincI, ihc associaiion`s cxccuiivc
vicc ¡icsiucni Pcggy Comcau, Cam¡lcll, anu
scvcial auuiiional volunicci REAITORS
®
, all
ol whom wcic cxiicmcly Inowlcugcallc aloui
ihc issucs anu wcic acccssillc via ccll ¡honcs
24 houis a uay. UnliIc in ihc ¡asi, Mauuox says,
whcn a changc io a singlc scnicncc mighi iaIc
uays io gci a¡¡iovcu, ¨Wc unucisioou ihc issucs
anu coulu maIc uccisions wiihin minuics.
Rolinson 8 Colc lioughi ihc lcgal cx¡ciiisc,
lui ii ically hcl¡cu ihai ihc associaiion
siicamlincu ihc uccision-maIing ¡ioccss."
MaiiincI says ihai using a small iasI loicc
was a ¨¡aiauigm shili" loi ihc associaiion, lui
ii was ¡icuicaicu u¡on ihc scnsc ol comloii
anu sccuiiiy ihai camc liom woiIing wiih
Rolinson 8 Colc. ¨Ii gavc oui voluniccis a
iicmcnuous scnsc ol conhucncc," shc says,
noiing ihai oihci REAITORS
®
can lcain liom
ihc Ncw Mcxico cx¡ciicncc. Whilc somc
mcmlcis woiiicu ihai an ouisiuci woulu lail
io unucisianu ihcii issucs, ihai sim¡ly was noi
iiuc, shc says.
By using ihc cusiomizcu lcgislaiion ¡iogiam,
MaiiincI says, ihc REAITORS
®
in Ncw Mcxico
cnhanccu ihcii siaius as ¨movcis anu shaIcis"
in ihc lcgislaiivc aicna. Moicovci, ii gavc
ihcm a loosi iowaiu sulscqucni lcgislaiivc
achicvcmcnis.
Contact:
Pcggy Comcau
Exccuiivc Olhcci
REAITOR
®
RR Associaiion ol Ncw Mcxico
2201 Bioihcis Roau
Sania Ic, NM S7ò0ò
ò0ò-9S2-2442
¡comcauCmsn.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
ll6
\ºrttr+
Cctrt¡ Cc+st+l
ksscti+ticr c| K|kLI9KS
®
+r1 B9M|
Sunnary
In ihc 1990s, REAITORS
®
in Vcniuia Couniy,
Caliloinia, lccamc woiiicu ihai incicasing
siiiciuics on giowih anu ihc iniiouuciion
ol ¨lalloi-lox zoning" wcic shuiiing oui
housing loi all lui ihc wcalihicsi inuiviuuals.
Rcalizing ihai iaIing ihc liu oll giowih was noi
an o¡iion, ihc local associaiion ¡aiiici¡aicu
in cicaiion ol Housing O¡¡oiiuniiics Mauc
Easici, oi HOME, a non-¡iohi coaliiion ihai
is auvocaiing succcsslully loi wcll-ucsigncu,
highci-ucnsiiy ucvclo¡mcni ihai mccis ihc lull
iangc ol housing nccus.
Creating the HCNE coalition
Alici voicis in Caliloinia`s Vcniuia Couniy
¡asscu giowih-coniiol lcgislaiion in ihc laic
1990s, housing ¡iiccs siaiicu iising, s¡uiicu
ly ihc cx¡ansion ol Ios Angclcs io ihc
souih anu Sania Bailaia io ihc noiih. Whcn
miuulc-class woiIcis siaiicu gciiing ¡iiccu
oui ol ihc housing maiIci, ihc local cconomic
ucvclo¡mcni associaiion loimcu a housing
iasI loicc, which quicIly concluucu ihai a
housing ciunch woulu maIc aiiiaciing ncw
lusincss io ihc couniy incicasingly uilhculi.
Wiih ihc su¡¡oii ol ihc Vcniuia Couniy Coasial
Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
, ihc iasI loicc
lccamc a non-¡iohi oiganizaiion in 2000 callcu
HOME: Housing O¡¡oiiuniiics Mauc Easici.
A communiiy-lascu oiganizaiion locuscu on
incicasing ihc su¡¡ly ol aucquaic housing
loi all ¡co¡lc in Vcniuia Couniy, HOME now
incluucs REAITORS
®
, ucvclo¡cis, alloiuallc
housing auvocaics, local govcinmcni olhcials,
lusincss ¡co¡lc, anu oihcis who wani io
¡iomoic iaiional giowih siiaicgics loi
Vcniuia Couniy.
¨Wc`ic in a long-icim laiilc io win hcaiis anu
minus," says REAITOR
®
RR Iicu Iciio, who iuns
ihc Vcniuia olhcc ol NAI Ca¡iial Commcicial
Rcal Esiaic Sciviccs anu scivcu as HOME`s
chaii uuiing iis hisi ihicc ycais.
In 199S, icsiucnis in Vcniuia Couniy
ovciwhclmingly a¡¡iovcu a couniywiuc
giowih-coniiol mcasuic callcu Savc Oui
Agiiculiuial Rcsouiccs ¸SOAR). Sincc ihcn,
cighi ol ihc couniy`s icn ciiics havc a¡¡iovcu
similai lcgislaiion ihai ¡iohiliis cxicnsion ol
ciiy sciviccs ouisiuc ol Ciiy Uilan Rcsiiiciion
Bounuaiics ¸CURB) anu icquiics a ¡ullic
voic loi ucvclo¡mcni ol any laimlanu oi o¡cn
s¡acc ouisiuc ihc linc.
¨Thcic aic now ¡icucicimincu lincs whcic
you cannoi ucvclo¡ wiihoui going lacI io
ihc ¡ullic loi a voic," cx¡lains Kay Runnion,
govcinmcnial allaiis uiiccioi ol Vcniuia
Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
anu a mcmlci ol HOME`s Sicciing
Commiiicc. Alici ¡assing ihc icsiiiciions, shc
says, ¡co¡lc siaiicu o¡¡osing all ncw housing
ucvclo¡mcni. ¨Thai |usi isn`i icalisiic," shc
assciis, noiing ihai ihc couniy ol 79ò,000
¡co¡lc coulu io¡ a million wiihin a uccauc.
¨Wc nccu io cuucaic ¡co¡lc aloui alloiuallc
housing anu oihci smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs
lccausc ol ihcsc icsiiiciions."
Iciio says ihc ¨lalloi lox zoning" cou¡lcu
wiih ¨uoullc-uigii annual incicascs"
in icsiucniial homc ¡iiccs s¡uiicu ihc
ucvclo¡mcni ol HOME. ¨No-giowih ¡olicics
aic im¡lcmcnicu laigcly lccausc ihcy`ic
¡oliiically ¡o¡ulai anu lcasillc, lui no onc
ihinIs aloui ihc ui¡ siuc, ihai homc ¡iiccs
iisc anu ¡co¡lc liIc nuiscs, mcchanics,
anu ¡oliccmcn can`i alloiu io livc in ihc
communiiy anymoic."
Euucaiion anu ouiicach quicIly lccamc onc
ol ihc ¡iimaiy goals ol HOME uuiing Iciio`s
icnuic as chaii.
Ai ihc ouisci, ihc all-volunicci oiganizaiion
woiIcu io luilu a uivcisc lasc ol mcmlcis
whilc gaihciing uaia aloui housing cosis,
¡o¡ulaiion giowih, |ol giowih, ihc amouni
ol ucvclo¡allc lanu wiihin ihc CURB lincs,
anu zoning icgulaiions ihai limiicu ihc
communiiy`s aniici¡aicu housing ucmanus.
Thc Couniy Planning Dc¡aiimcni alicauy
was loiccasiing a signihcani housing shoiiagc
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I ll7
cvcn wiih luiluallc lanu ucvclo¡cu accoiuing
io ihc couniy`s ¡lans. A local cm¡loyci
suivcy lounu ihai moic ihan 90 ¡ciccni
ol ics¡onucnis ciicu laiiicis io aiiiaciing
ncw woiIcis lccausc ol housing conccins.
Oihci siuuics showcu ihai somc icsiucnis
wcic s¡cnuing ò0 ¡ciccni ol ihcii houscholu
incomc on housing.
HOME uscu inloimaiion liIc ihis io s¡icau
ihc woiu aloui ihc couniy`s nccu loi
smaii giowih. Thc giou¡`s hisi ncwslciici,
¡ullishcu in lall ol 2001, saiu ¨Tcachcis,
¡ullic salciy woiIcis, anu young auulis |usi
cniciing ihc woiIloicc will lc ihc hisi io lc
uiivcn oui ol Vcniuia Couniy ly ihc housing
ciisis, anu il woiIcis commuic lacI io ihc
couniy loi |ols, ihcn oui alicauy uilhculi
iialhc ¡iollcms will lc luiihci cxaccilaicu.
Howcvci, an acioss-ihc-loaiu housing
shoiiagc also allccis coi¡oiaic cxccuiivcs anu
cniic¡icncuis. Il ]ihcy| can`i hnu aucquaic
anu convcnicni housing, ihcy will sim¡ly
looI clscwhcic io locaic ihcii lusincsscs."
Ii concluucu ihai ihc housing shoiiagc
coulu lcau io an cconomic uowniuin anu
siagnaiion in ihc couniy.
Thc giou¡ also s¡onsoicu a sciics ol scminais
io incicasc awaicncss ol ihc housing ciisis in
ihc lusincss communiiy anu io highlighi somc
smaii giowih lcsi ¡iaciiccs. ¨Inhll housing
can lc a haiu scll," noics Iciio, cs¡ccially
in communiiics ollciing only a¡aiimcnis
anu singlc-lamily homcs. HOME showcu
ihai alloiuallc housing can lc aiiiaciivc
anu coniinucs io co-hosi onc oi iwo housing
scminais annually.
HOME also uscu scvcial icchniqucs io icach
oui io ihc gcncial ¡ullic anu local lcgislaiois,
incluuing cicaiing a wclsiic ¸www.vchomc.
oig) anu using ¡ullic acccss callc iclcvision.
Onc ol ihc mosi cllcciivc icchniqucs, siill uscu
iouay, is a 20-minuic PowciPoini ¡icscniaiion
cicaicu loi usc ai mcciings wiih ncighloihoou
giou¡s, civic associaiions, ucvclo¡cis, clccicu
olhcials, anu ¡oicniial su¡¡oiicis. ¨Wc say,
hcic`s ihc ¡iollcm, hcic aic somc siaiisiics
io lacI ii u¡, anu hcic aic somc ¡ossillc
soluiions,`" says Runnion. ¨Wc aic iiying io
gci ¡co¡lc io looI ai ihc alloiuallc housing
issuc, io maIc ¡co¡lc awaic ol ihc uillcicni
¡iinci¡lcs ol smaii giowih, io cx¡lain ihai
ucnsiiy isn`i a uiiiy woiu, anu io show ihai
ihcic aic slow, maiuic aciions io lc iaIcn."
Shc says many local REAITORS
®
nccucu
a ¡iimci on alloiuallc housing anu oihci
smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs lccausc singlc-
lamily homcs hau always lccn ihc lulI ol
ihcii lusincss. ¨Wc havc io siaii uio¡¡ing
ihc concc¡i ol only onc iy¡c ol housing loi
¡co¡lc. Il ihcic aic oihci choiccs, ¡co¡lc can
ai lcasi looI," says Runnion.
Alici cuucaiing ihc mcmlcishi¡, ihc
associaiion hcl¡cu launch a s¡caIcis luicau
loi HOME, cncouiaging local REAITORS
®
io usc ihc HOME ¡icscniaiion io s¡caI io
giou¡s in ihcii communiiics. ¨Ii icquiics
consiani cuucaiion io cnallc REAITORS
®
io
lccl conhucni anu siiong in ihcii auvocacy
ol housing issucs," says Runnion. ¨Somc lcai
ii`s ioo scll sciving, lui wc icminu ihcm ihai
REAITORS
®
¡ioviuc a scivicc ly gciiing
inloimaiion oui io ¡co¡lc lccausc REAITORS
®
Inow housing lciici ihan anylouy."
Iciio says all ol ihc ouiicach has hau an
im¡aci in Vcniuia Couniy. ¨Thcic`s gicaici
¡ullic awaicncss, ihcic`s moic uialog liom
a moic uivcisc giou¡, anu ihcic`s gicaici
collaloiaiion lciwccn giou¡s ihai unucisianu
ihc ¡iollcm." Hc says onc ol ihc giou¡`s
luiuic goals is io sccuic ¨long-icim lunuing io
hcl¡ solvc a long-icim ¡iollcm."
Onc aica ihai hc ucsciilcs as a ¨wcaI s¡oi" in
HOME`s caily siagc was iis goal ol cnuoising
¡io|ccis. Thc iuca was io havc a ihiiu-¡aiiy
¡ancl ol cx¡ciis ¸aichiiccis, ¡lanncis,
cnviionmcnialisis anu oihcis) icvicw
¡io¡oscu ucvclo¡mcnis. Il ihcy mci HOME`s
ciiiciia - ¡iomoiing cconomic sialiliiy, using
goou ucsign, minimizing uilan cx¡ansion,
cicaiing alloiualiliiy, mixing uscs anu
su¡¡oiiing ¡ullic iiansii - ihcy woulu lc
cnuoiscu anu ¡ullicizcu ihiough ¡icss
iclcascs anu su¡¡oiicu ai ¡ullic hcaiings.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
ll8
Whilc HOME uiu cnuoisc a hanulul ol
¡io|ccis, ihc ¡ioccss was iimc-consuming
anu uilhculi io mainiain, icquiiing consiani
icciuiimcni ol volunicci cx¡ciis. Bccausc
ol ihis, Iciio says, ihc sicciing commiiicc
icccnily ucciucu io ic-ccnici iis locus on
communiiy cuucaiion anu ouiicach.
Runnion vicws ihc ¡io|cci cnuoiscmcni
¡iogiam as a lcaining cx¡ciicncc loi HOME
anu oihci REAITORS
®
Associaiions who
aic lacing giowih-iclaicu issucs in ihcii own
communiiics. ¨Don`i iiy io uo ioo many
ihings," shc says. ¨Kcc¡ ii sim¡lc, ¡iomoic a
lcw siiong clcmcnis, siay locuscu, anu uon`i
givc u¡. Thcic aic iimcs whcn you wani io
ihiow u¡ youi hanus, lui you |usi havc io Icc¡
¡lugging away."
Shc cncouiagcs all REAITORS
®
io
gci acquainicu wiih ihc NATIONAI
ASSOCIATION OI REAITORS
®
Smaii
Giowih Piinci¡lcs. ¨Evcn il you aic noi lacing
giowih issucs io ihc ucgicc ihai wc aic in
Vcniuia Couniy, you will lacc giowih issucs
cvcniually...Ii`s going io ha¡¡cn cvciywhcic.
As Caliloinia gocs, ihc icsi ol ihc naiion gocs."
Contact:
Kay Runnion
Govcinmcni Allaiis Diiccioi
Vcniuia Couniy Coasial Associaiion ol
REAITORS
®
2Sò0 WanIcl Way
Oxnaiu, CA 9S0S0
S0ò-9S1-2100
gauCvchomchnucis.com
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I llº
\cr| Cit¡
S+rr¡:
K|kLI9KS
®
ûºt tc Krcw Ilºir Bcmºtcwr
Sunnary
Rcviializaiion ol cxisiing iowns anu ciiics is a
Icy clcmcni ol smaii giowih, lui sclling ical
csiaic in many ol ihcm can lc iiicIy. Thc
REAITORS
®
Associaiion loi YoiI anu Auams
Couniics, Pcnnsylvania, ¸RAYAC) cicaicu
ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc io lciici cqui¡
REAITORS
®
io scll icsiucniial ¡io¡ciiics in ihc
ciiy. Mouclcu on ihc similai Sclcci MilwauIcc
couisc, YoiI Ciiy Savvy ollcis s¡caIcis who aic
lcaucis in YoiI Ciiy`s ¡ullic anu ¡iivaic scciois,
giving ¡aiiici¡anis a lioau unucisianuing ol
whai ihc ciiy ollcis ¡oicniial homcluycis.
Bringing Honebuyers into York City
Ioi ycais, many REAITORS
®
in ihc YoiI Ciiy,
Pcnnsylvania, aica wcic icluciani io show
¡io¡ciiics in ihc ciiy iiscll. Thc convcniional
wisuom was ihai schools wcic ¡ooi anu
iaxcs high. Buycis, ioo, olicn camc wiih
¡icconccivcu noiions aloui ihc wisuom ol
luying in iown. Iiusiiaicu ihai ihcsc vicws
lingcicu cvcn alici ihc ciiy lcgan io iuin
aiounu, RAYAC Homcowncishi¡ Cooiuinaioi
Bcisy BucIingham wcni looIing loi iucas loi
how io changc ihc siiuaiion.
In 2002, shc uiscovcicu ihc Sclcci MilwauIcc
¡iogiam anu coniacicu Scoii Bush ai ihc
Gicaici MilwauIcc Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
,
who iolu hci how ihc associaiion hau ucvclo¡cu
a couisc ihai hcl¡s cuucaic mcmlcis aloui ihc
myihs anu icaliiics ol ciiy lilc, so ihai ihcy can
lciici mcci ihc nccus ol clicnis loi whom ii
woulu lc a goou hi.
Thc YoiI Ciiy Savvy ¡iogiam is hcl¡ing
REAITORS
®
ca¡iializc on ihc ciiy`s luisi ol
giowih. A nighi sccnc wiih icsiauianis anu
cluls has lcgun io llossom, ¡lans aic unuci
way loi consiiuciion ol a ncw minoi lcaguc
lall¡aiI uowniown, anu many ncw housing
o¡iions havc o¡cncu u¡, incluuing u¡scalc
lolis anu iown homcs, as wcll as o¡iions
loi alloiuallc housing. In auuiiion, scvcial
ichaliliiaiion ¡io|ccis aic in ¡iogicss, incluuing
ma|oi icnovaiions lcu ly ihc local YWCA anu
YMCA in aicas au|accni io uowniown. Thc
ciiy is homc io ihicc inicinaiionally Inown
hims - Plalizgiall, Dcnis¡ly Inicinaiional,
anu Glailclici - anu is locaicu wiihin icach ol
ma|oi Miu-Ailaniic huls: aloui an houi liom
Baliimoic, an houi anu a hall liom Washingion,
D.C., anu iwo houis liom Philaucl¡hia.
York City Savvy:
The Course Breakoown
REAITORS
®
nccu io mcci no icquiicmcnis io
cnioll in YoiI Ciiy Savvy, anu ihc couisc is licc
ol chaigc. U¡on com¡lciion ol ihc couisc,
¡aiiici¡anis icccivc a ¡in anu ¨YoiI Ciiy Savvy"
ucsignaiion. Ai-laigc RAYAC mcmlcishi¡ lccs
aic noi uscu io su¡¡oii ihc ¡iogiam.
Thc couisc consisis ol loui scssions ol
ihicc houis cach ihai locus on uisiinci lui
lunuamcnially iniciiclaicu as¡ccis ol YoiI Ciiy:
ncighloihoou govcinancc, schools, icsiucniial
o¡iions loi homcluycis, anu hnancing issucs.
Scssion onc ollcis a liicl hisioiy ol ihc
YoiI Ciiy Ncighloihoou Alliancc anu iis
amcniiics, incluuing ¡aiIs anu iccicaiion,
culiuial o¡¡oiiuniiics, anu s¡ccial inccniivcs
loi young ¡iolcssionals. S¡caIcis who havc
voluniccicu ihcii iimc incluuc ihc chaii ol ihc
Ncighloihoou Alliancc, olhcials liom ihc Ciiy
PaiIs anu Rccicaiion Dc¡aiimcni, anu ihc
uiiccioi ol ihc Hcalihy YoiI Couniy Coaliiion.
Thc scssion also iouchcs on ihc ciiy`s iich
hisioiy, incluuing iis lounuing in 1741 anu
iis iolc in hosiing ihc Scconu Coniincnial
Congicss in 1777-7S.
Scssion two ¡uis ihc lcns io YoiI Ciiy schools,
aiming laigcly io clcai u¡ misconcc¡iions
ihai luycis may havc. In ¡asi vcisions ol ihc
couisc, ihis scssion has incluucu a ioui ol
Smiih Miuulc School. Aiicnuccs lcain aloui
ihc vaiious anu uniquc ¡iogiams loi siuucnis
ol all agcs anu lcvcls.
Scssion thrcc ¡ioviucs a suivcy ol icsiucniial
o¡iions wiihin YoiI Ciiy. Thcsc incluuc ¨iow
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l2O
homcs, homcs on iicc-lincu siiccis, conuos,
lolis, homcs in suluilan sciiings, anu homcs in
commcicial ccnicis," accoiuing io ihc couisc
wiiic-u¡. In ¡asi scssions, s¡caIcis havc incluucu
ihc ciiy`s Coucs Olhcci, as wcll as ic¡icscniaiivcs
liom ihc YoiI Ciiy Human Rclaiions
Commission, who ¡ioviucu u¡uaics on laii
housing issucs. Ol inicicsi hcic is YoiI`s ¡iouu
aichiicciuial hciiiagc, which siicichcs lacI
ncaily ihicc ccniuiics. Accoiuing io iiavcl wiiici
Pai Mcsicin, YoiI`s collcciion ol Vicioiian-cia
iow houscs is scconu only io ihai ol Baliimoic.
Scssion Iour locuscs on cicuii, moiigagc
¡iouucis anu assisiancc ¡iogiams, anu YoiI`s
Moiigagc Cicuii Cciiihcaic, wiih ¡icscnicis
suggcsiing ways io usc ihcsc sciviccs in
comlinaiion. Thc mosi laci hllcu ol ihc loui
scgmcnis, ihis scssion has incluucu ¡icscnicis
liom ihc Cicuii Buicau anu ihc Housing
Council, as wcll as liom ¡iivaic lanIs anu
Ruial O¡¡oiiuniiics, Inc., a communiiy
ucvclo¡mcni oiganizaiion.
Thcic also is a YoiI-s¡ccihc moiigagc ¡iogiam
anu an cm¡loyci-assisicu housing ¡iogiam,
ucvclo¡cu ly somc ol ihc ciiy`s laigci
cm¡loycis io cncouiagc cm¡loyccs io livc
wiihin ihc ciiy. Also iclaicu io ihis uiscussion
aic ihc lollowing YoiI Ciiy ¡iogiams:
W First-timc homcbuycrs program: a uown
¡aymcni anu closing cosi assisiancc
¡iogiam loi qualilying homcluycis.
W Adopt-a-housc program: connccis local
coi¡oiaiions wiih ncglccicu ¡io¡ciiics.
Com¡lcicu homcs aic solu ai maiIci cosi.
W Rchabilitation loans: hcl¡ hnancc
consiiuciion ai lclow-maiIci iaics.
Early Cutcones
]uuging liom ihc high couisc-com¡lciion
iaic anu cnihusiasiic icmaiIs on cvaluaiion
loims, ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc has lccn an
unqualihcu succcss. Gaylc Sanucis, a couisc
¡aiiici¡ani who woiIs loi ]acI Gaughcn
REAITOR
®
RR ERA
®
AA , cx¡laincu, ¨As ical csiaic
¡iolcssionals, wc nccu io lci oui clicnis anu
cusiomcis Inow ihai wc`ic noi |usi hcic loi
ihc commission. Wc`ic hcic lccausc wc ically
caic aloui oui communiiy." By lcaining moic
aloui ihcii communiiy on issucs ianging liom
schools io hnancing o¡iions, REAITORS
®
can noi only hnu ihc iighi hi loi clicnis, ihcy
also lccomc moic involvcu civic mcmlcis.
Oihci ¡aiiici¡anis, such as Eihcl Davis, a
REAITOR
®
RR wiih Iong 8 Iosici, saw ihc couisc
as a usclul iclicshci. ¨I hau a Inowlcugc ol ihc
communiiy, anu ihis was a vciy hcl¡lul icvicw
loi mc," shc saiu.
In ihc shoii icim, ihc ¡iogiam uclivcis oihci
lcnchis. Rc¡icscniaiivcs ol RAYAC aic noi
auihoiizcu io iccommcnu onc REAITOR
®
RR
ovci anoihci io ihc gcncial ¡ullic. Bui il
somconc icqucsis a REAITOR
®
RR anu has an
inicicsi in moving inio ihc ciiy, a RAYAC
ic¡icscniaiivc can say, ¨Thc lollowing ¡co¡lc
com¡lcicu ihc YoiI Ciiy Savvy couisc." Thai`s
whcic ihc ucsignaiion comcs in vciy hanuy.
RAYAC`s wcl siic incluucs a lisi ol REAITORS
who havc caincu ihc ucsignaiion.
Auucu Sicvc Sncll, RAYAC`s Exccuiivc Olhcci,
¨I`vc lccn ¡lcascu lccausc ihis ¡iogiam has
mauc ii clcai ihai oui associaiion iccognizcs
ihc iniciiclaicuncss ol oui communiiy`s
munici¡aliiics. Thai mcans ihc succcss ol ihc
ciiy, incluuing uowniown, allccis us all. Thiough
ihis ¡iogiam, wc show wc`ic uoing whai wc can."
Aining Ior Cbsolescence
Couisc ucvclo¡ci Bcisy BucIingham noics: ¨My
gicaicsi ho¡c is ihai ihc ¡iogiam will lccomc
unncccssaiy, as ii uiu in MilwauIcc." Thc iuca
is ihai cnough REAITORS
®
will lccomc ¨YoiI
Ciiy savvy" ihai ihc ¡iogiam will havc scivcu
iis ¡ui¡osc - io incicasc ihc numlci ol local
REAITORS
®
lciici ¡ic¡aicu io scll homcs
in YoiI Ciiy anu io signihcanily incicasc ihc
¡ciccniagc ol homcowncishi¡ in ihc ciiy.
Contact:
Sicvc Sncll, Exccuiivc Olhcci
REAITORS
®
Associaiion ol YoiI anu Auams
Couniy
4Sò Wcsi Philaucl¡hia Siicci
YoiI, PA 17404
S00-SSò-12SS
sicvcCiayac.com
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l2l
Sºllir] Cit¡ 9wrº1
|rcpºrtiºs ||htiºrtl¡
(SC9||} ir B+ltimcrº:
!cirt |rcjºtt Urlº+slºs
M+r|ºt |crtºs cr Ict]l |rc|lºm
Sunnary
Thc Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol REAITORS
®
is woiIing wiih Ciiy ol Baliimoic olhcials,
lounuaiions, anu oihci oiganizaiions io lisi
anu scll ciiy-owncu vacani anu alanuoncu
¡io¡ciiy. Thc iniiiaiivc, Inown as SCOPE
¸Sclling Ciiy Owncu Pio¡ciiics Elhcicnily),
is a maiIci-oiicnicu a¡¡ioach io ¡iomoic
homcowncishi¡ anu ichaliliiaiion ol
housing in llighicu ncighloihoous. Thc
hisi ¡hasc ol ihc SCOPE Pio|cci has shown
signihcani ¡oicniial, anu Ciiy olhcials aic
now sulsianiially incicasing ihc numlci ol
¡io¡ciiics ollcicu loi salc.
City Strives to Cet Title
to 5,OOO Properties
Baliimoic, Maiylanu, liIc oihci laigc ciiics
acioss ihc naiion, has lccn slow io iccovci
liom ihc loss ol manulaciuiing |ols ihai oncc
coniiiluicu io a iolusi uilan cnviionmcni.
Po¡ulaiion ucclinc, which was ¡aiiiculaily
scvcic in ihc 1990s, has lcu io housing
vacancics ihai now amouni io aloui 1ò,000
¡io¡ciiics in ihc ciiy. Somc ¡io¡ciiy owncis
havc alanuoncu ¡io¡ciiics iaihci ihan ¡ay ical
csiaic iaxcs oi maIc ic¡aiis - such as lcau ¡aini
alaicmcni - nccucu in Baliimoic`s numcious
oluci homcs, incluuing many liicI iow houscs.
In 2002, Baliimoic Mayoi Maiiin O`Mallcy
¡io¡oscu Pio|cci ò000, unuci which ihc Ciiy
¡lanncu io acquiic clcai iiilc io ò,000 vacani
¡io¡ciiics wiihin iwo ycais. Pioccuuics
loi gaining iiilc incluuc iax uclinqucncy
¡iocccuings, ¡uichasc, anu cxcicisc ol
cmincni uomain. Wiih viiiually all ol ihcsc
¡io¡ciiics ai lcasi in ihc loicclosuic anu
liiigaiion siagc, ihc Ciiy is now cx¡loiing
o¡iions loi ihcii uis¡osiiion. Somc ol ihcsc
¡io¡ciiics aic sulhcicnily conccniiaicu io
cnallc laigc-scalc icucvclo¡mcni ly ihc Ciiy.
Bui many moic aic scaiicicu on inuiviuual
lois, anu ihai`s whcic SCOPE his in.
Scvcial ycais ago, ihc Baliimoic Economy anu
Elhcicncy Iounuaiion ¸BEEI) asIcu ihc Ciiy ol
Baliimoic anu ihc Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol
REAITORS
®
¸GBBR) io hcl¡ ucvclo¡ a maiIci-
uiivcn mcchanism loi ichaliliiaiing houscs
on inuiviuual lois in scvcial ncighloihoous.
Thc ¡ui¡osc ol ihis ¡io|cci woulu lc io iciuin
vacani anu alanuoncu ¡io¡ciiics io ¡iouuciivc
usc, liinging ihcm lacI onio ihc iax iolls anu
s¡aiIing inicicsi in au|accni icsiucniial anu
commcicial ¡io¡ciiics.
Duiing ihc ucvclo¡mcni siagc, GBBR
inviicu ihc Rcal Esiaic BioIcis ol Baliimoic
¸Rcaliisis) io ¡aiiici¡aic in SCOPE anu
|oin ihc icvicw ¡ancl ihai sclccicu agcnis
io maiIci SCOPE ¡io¡ciiics. Rcaliisis aic
alhliaicu wiih ihc Naiional Associaiion ol
Rcal Esiaic BioIcis ¸NAREB), which is mauc
u¡ ol minoiiiy ¡iolcssionals. Thc GoluscIci
Iounuaiion ¡ioviucu lunuing loi logisiical
anu siall su¡¡oii.
Alici a iwo-ycai ¡lanning ¡ioccss, ihc Ciiy
iucniihcu 62 vacani ¡io¡ciiics as icauy io go
on ihc maiIci. Thc SCOPE Pio|cci inviicu
lioIcis anu agcnis io a¡¡ly as lisiing agcnis
loi ihcsc ¡io¡ciiics. Ol ihc moic ihan 100
who a¡¡licu, 10 wcic sclccicu io lisi SCOPE
¡io¡ciiics. Thcsc 10, who aic Rcaliisis anu/
oi REAITORS
®
, aic ¡aiiiculaily lamiliai
wiih loicclosuic salcs anu ihc naiuic ol ihc
ncighloihoous involvcu, as wcll as highly
qualihcu in ical csiaic iiansaciions.
How SCCPE Works: Narket
Processes with Controls
Pio¡ciiics aic lisicu on ihc Mciio¡oliian
Rcgional Inloimaiion Sysicms ¸MRIS)
anu aic incluucu in ihc naiional uaialasc
acccsscu ovci ihc Inicinci ihiough www.
REAITOR.com. This lisiing cnallcs any
ical csiaic lioIci oi agcni io ¡aiiici¡aic in
ihc ¡io|cci on lchall ol a luyci. GBBR has
lccn insiiumcnial in ucvclo¡ing sianuaiu
¡uichasc anu sciilcmcni loims, which aic
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l22
now availallc on ihc Boaiu`s wclsiic ¸www.
icalioislaliimoic.com).
S¡ccial icquiicmcnis uo a¡¡ly. In sclccicu
ncighloihoous, onc conuiiion ol salc is
ihai ihc housc musi lc ownci-occu¡icu anu
ichaliliiaicu wiihin 1S monihs. Elscwhcic,
ihc luycis also musi ichaliliiaic ihc housc
in 1S monihs, lui ihcy may Icc¡ ii as a icnial
¡io¡ciiy oi scll ii as an invcsimcni ¡io¡ciiy.
Thcsc icquiicmcnis hcl¡ io cnsuic ihai
SCOPE ¡io¡ciiics will lc ichallcu anu noi
mcicly hclu in a uila¡iuaicu conuiiion waiiing
loi icsalc ¡iiccs io iisc. Poicniial luycis ol
SCOPE ¡io¡ciiics musi uisclosc inloimaiion
aloui oihci ¡io¡ciiics ihcy own in ihc Ciiy,
anu Baliimoic`s Boaiu ol Esiimaics has ihc
auihoiiiy io ic|cci any salc il ihc luyci is
consiucicu unqualihcu loi SCOPE.
Alongsiuc ihcsc icquiicmcnis aic aiiiaciivc
inccniivcs. Thc Ciiy ol Baliimoic cncouiagcs
ical csiaic agcnis io ¡aiiici¡aic ly ¡aying a
salcs commission ol S2,ò00 oi cighi ¡ciccni,
whichcvci is gicaici. Pios¡cciivc luycis aic
ollcicu a licn-licc ¡io¡ciiy anu havc u¡ io S0
uays alici ihc Ciiy iaiihcs ihc coniiaci io lacI
oui ol ihc ucal wiih no ¡cnaliics.
Why Try a Narket Solution?
Thc scalc ol ihc alanuonmcni anu ncglcci
in somc aicas ol Baliimoic hau ¡ui ihc Ciiy
in ihc unwiiiing iolc ol ma|oi ical csiaic
maiIcici. Bui lcw icsouiccs wcic availallc in
ihc ¨cash-siia¡¡cu" ciiy io cnsuic ihai vacani
¡io¡ciiics on scaiicicu siics wcic solu anu
ichaliliiaicu, accoiuing io Rolcii Pi¡iI,
Diiccioi ol Assci Managcmcni anu Dis¡osiiion
ai Baliimoic`s Dc¡aiimcni ol Housing anu
Communiiy Dcvclo¡mcni. Uiilizing ¡iivaic
sccioi ical csiaic ¡iolcssionals allows ihc Ciiy
io avail iiscll ol ihc mulii¡lc lisiing scivicc anu
¡uis ¨a loi moic lcci on ihc siicci."
Thc Ciiy uocs noi ¡ay a commission on
a ¡io¡ciiy uniil ihai ¡io¡ciiy gocs io
sciilcmcni. Baliimoic also savcs moncy ii
woulu havc s¡cni on auvciiising ¡ullic
salcs. MaiIci loiccs siimulaic com¡ciiiion,
which incicascs ihc ¡iicc ihc Ciiy icccivcs
loi ihcsc ¡io¡ciiics anu also maIcs ii casici
loi ihc Ciiy io sii¡ulaic ihai ¡io¡ciiics lc
ichaliliiaicu. Rchaliliiaiion is Icy. Pi¡iI
noics ihai ihc SCOPE ¡iovisions cnsuic ihai
icucvclo¡mcni is ¨woiIing loi ihc lcnchi ol
ihc communiiy. Thai`s ciiiical loi Baliimoic."
Early Cutcones: SCCPE Cenerates
Revenue ano Buzz
Alihough SCOPE is in iis inlancy, ihc iniiial
ics¡onsc ly Ciiy olhcials, ihc ical csiaic
scivicc communiiy, anu consumcis has
lccn cnihusiasiic. In a mcciing lcloic ihc
Baliimoic Ciiy Council on ]uly 1, 2004,
housing olhcials noicu ihai S9 ¡ciccni ol ihc
oiiginal 62 ¡io¡ciiics hau coniiacis. Aloui
1ò ¡ciccni hau gonc io sciilcmcni. SCOPE
hau gcnciaicu S1ò6,000 in icvcnuc loi ihc
Ciiy, wiih anoihci SS91,000 unuci coniiaci.
Salc ¡iiccs loi ihcsc ¡io¡ciiics, which wcic
gcncially guiicu shclls, iangcu liom S2,ò00 io
Sò0,000 wiih an avciagc ol aloui S10,000. Thc
Ciiy cx¡ccis io icccivc an csiimaicu S6 million
in homc consiiuciion anu valuc liom ihc
¡io|cci lascu on ihc iniiial lisiings.
SCOPE has noi lccn wiihoui iis liusiiaiions.
Dclays havc icsulicu liom ihc vciiing nccucu
io uciciminc ihai inuiviuual luycis aic
qualihcu. Mosi ol ihc ¡io¡ciiics aic loaiucu
oi liicIcu u¡, maIing ii ncccssaiy loi ihc
Ciiy io o¡cn ihcm anu ¡ioviuc uoois ihai aic
Icycu loi ihc scllcis ihc samc way as oihci
homcs on ihc MRIS.
Thc liggcsi challcngcs sicm liom cumlcisomc
auminisiiaiivc anu lcgal ¡ioccuuics ihai can
uclay sciilcmcni loi six monihs whilc ihc Ciiy
cnsuics clcai iiilc io a ¡io¡ciiy. Accoiuing
io ]osc¡h ¸]ouy) Ianucis, Exccuiivc Diiccioi
ol GBBR, ihc Ciiy is ¡ic¡aiing a uowchaii ol
luicauciaiic loiilcnccIs anu is woiIing in
ianucm wiih ihc ical csiaic inuusiiy io consiuci
ways io siicamlinc ihc ¡ioccss, ¡ossilly wiih
ihc usc ol ¡iivaic icsouiccs. ¨This is a solvallc
¡iollcm," hc says.
Viio Simonc, a REAITOR
®
RR who has lisicu
SCOPE ¡io¡ciiics, is convinccu ihai ¨ihc
maiIci¡lacc is ihc lcsi ¡lacc io gci ihings
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l23
uonc anu io gci ihc lcsi icsulis," ¡aiiiculaily
wiih scaiicicu-siic housing. By using ihc
cncigics anu icsouiccs ol ical csiaic lioIcis
anu agcnis, SCOPE ¨cicaics a lcvcl ¡laying
hclu loi consumcis." Hc auus: ¨Anyihing
ihai ¡uis housing on ihc o¡cn maiIci is a
goou ihing. You casi a wiuci nci loi ¡oicniial
homcowncis anu invcsiois."
Wiih 107 houscs solu as ol Maich 2006, ihc
comlinaiion ol SCOPE anu Pio|cci ò000
havc lccn cicuiicu wiih hcl¡ing iuin-aiounu
ncighloihoous such as Rcscivoii Hill. Pi¡iI
noics ihai SCOPE has aiiiacicu a ¨lioau aiiay"
ol luycis, liom ¨uilan ¡ionccis" io chuichcs,
small invcsiois, anu laigci ucvclo¡cis. ¨SCOPE
has also gcnciaicu a loi ol luzz," hc says. ¨Ii`s
uchniicly an im¡oiiani iool in oui Iii."
Contact:
]osc¡h T. Ianucis III, Exccuiivc Diiccioi
Gicaici Baliimoic Boaiu ol REAITORS
®
1S06 Bcllona Avcnuc, 1si Ilooi
Iuihcivillc, MD 2109S
410-SS7-7200
]TIanucisCRcalioisBaliimoic.com
www.icalioislaliimoic.com/sco¡c/
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l24
Mitli]+r L+r1 Usº
kt+1ºmiºs: K|kLI9KS
®

Lº+rr tc |tt tlº Br+|ºs
cr Spr+wl
Sunnary
Thiough iis Ianu Usc
Acaucmics, ihc Michigan Associaiion ol
REAITORS
®
cuucaics qualihcu mcmlcis
aloui ihc im¡oiiancc ol smaii giowih in
ihc siaic. Thc ¡iogiam lcgan in 2004 alici
Govcinoi ]cnnilci Gianholm`s li¡aiiisan
Ianu Usc Icaucishi¡ Council ic¡oiicu on ihc
nccu io cuil unsusiainallc giowih ¡iaciiccs.
NAR ano the Covernor´s Lano Use
Leaoership Council
In ihc miu-1990s, lanu usc lccamc a
¡iomincni issuc on ihc lcgislaiivc agcnua in
Michigan. Communiiics laigc anu small wcic
giowing unchccIcu, anu cxisiing laws anu
icgulaiions lacIcu ihc ucxililiiy io coniiol
ihc icsuliing s¡iawl. Icw REAITORS
®
in
ihc siaic unucisioou ihc nuanccs ol lanu
usc. In ics¡onsc, ihc Michigan Associaiion
ol REAITORS
®
¸MAR) iniiiaicu a siaicwiuc
cuucaiion cam¡aign.
Gil Whiic, ihcn MAR`s ¡icsiucni-clcci, anu
Rolcii Cam¡au, MAR`s vicc ¡icsiucni loi
¡ullic ¡olicy anu lcgal allaiis, iooI ihc lcau,
oiganizing lanu usc summiis wiih ihc Michigan
Enviionmcnial Council, ihc Michigan Iaim
Buicau, anu oihci giou¡s. Whiic conccivcu
ol ihc Ianu Usc Acaucmics in 200S whilc
aiicnuing a mcciing ol ihc Michigan Ianu
Usc Icaucishi¡ Council, co-chaiicu ly loimci
govcinoi William MilliIcn anu Aiioincy
Gcncial IianI Kcllcy. Thc 26 mcmlcis, who
ic¡icscnicu a lioau aiiay ol inicicsis, siuuicu
iicnus anu conscqucnccs ol Michigan`s lanu
usc ¡olicics ai ihc local anu siaic lcvcl.
Accoiuing io Whiic, icscaichcis lounu ihai
lciwccn 19S0 anu 199ò uilan ucvclo¡mcni,
which hau covcicu 6 ¡ciccni ol ihc siaic in
197S, hau cx¡anucu ai cighi iimcs ihc iaic ol
¡o¡ulaiion incicasc. Ai ihai iaic, Michigan`s
ucvclo¡cu lanu was cx¡ccicu io incicasc ly
17S ¡ciccni ly 2040.
In iis hnal ic¡oii, A.·L.¿nr`· 1nrJ, A.·L.¿nr`·
Euìu.e, ihc Michigan Ianu Usc Icaucishi¡ e
Council iccommcnucu ihai ihc govcinoi
anu siaic lcgislaiuic iaIc sic¡s io lciici guiuc
ihc siaic`s giowih. Thc council auvocaicu
mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni wiih high ucnsiiy in
a¡¡io¡iiaic locaiions, an a¡¡ioach associaicu
wiih smaii giowih. Thc council also auvocaicu
ihc ¡ic¡aiaiion ol housing im¡aci siaicmcnis,
cconomic siuuics asscssing ihc cllccis ol
govcinmcni icgulaiion on ihc availaliliiy ol
alloiuallc housing.
Iinally, wiih siiong lacIing liom MAR, ihc
council iccommcnucu ihai 60 ¡ciccni ol ihc
mcmlcishi¡ ol ¡lanning commissions, zoning
loaius ol a¡¡cal, loaius ol iiusiccs, anu ciiy
councils in cach |uiisuiciion lc icquiicu io
com¡lcic a coniinuing cuucaiion couisc in
smaii giowih in oiuci io icccivc siaic aiu.
The Lano Use Acaoenies:
New ano Continuing Eoucation
MAR ollcicu iis hisi Ianu Usc Acaucmy in 2004
anu has ollcicu ihcm ai icgulai inicivals sincc,
ai loih iniiouucioiy anu cx¡anucu lcvcls.
Land Usc Acadcmy I. Ianu Usc Acaucmy I
is o¡cn io ò0 siuucnis who qualily ly viiiuc
ol cx¡ciicncc auuicssing lanu usc issucs oi
collaloiaiing wiih local govcinmcnis, oi
an aliuing inicicsi in ihc hclu. Thcic is no
chaigc, anu siuucnis icccivc iwo coniinuing
cuucaiion cicuiis.
Thc liochuic ¡iomiscs ihai ihc uay-anu-
a-hall couisc icachcs ¡aiiici¡anis ¨how io
iniciaci wiih local govcinmcnis aloui all
ihings lanu usc. Siuucnis will lcain maiIci-
liicnuly ucvclo¡mcni icchniqucs ]anu|
goou ucsign ihcoiics." S¡caIcis incluuc
cx¡ciis liom ihc ical csiaic, govcinmcni, anu
cnviionmcnial communiiics.
Duiing ihc summci 200ò scssion. Bol
McNamaia, ¡olicy ic¡icscniaiivc ol ihc
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l25
Naiional Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
, lcu a
hanus-on scssion in which hc showcu sliucs
ol vaiious lanu usc sciiings - laimlanu,
small iowns, commcicial siii¡s, anu so loiih
- anu asIcu ¡aiiici¡anis io iucniily cxam¡lcs
ol smaii giowih. Whcic smaii giowih was
noi uc¡icicu, siuucnis uscu a com¡uici
a¡¡licaiion io simulaic im¡iovcmcnis.
A gucsi insiiucioi was Don Chcn, cxccuiivc
uiiccioi ol Smaii Giowih Amciica, a coaliiion
ol naiional, siaic, anu local oiganizaiions.
Chcn ucsciilcu his oiganizaiion`s clloiis
io ¨im¡iovc ihc ways wc ¡lan anu luilu ihc
iowns, ciiics, anu mciio aicas wc call homc."
Auuiiional ¡icscniaiions wcic givcn ly MAR`s
ouisiuc lcgal counscl Daviu Picison, who
uiscusscu siiaicgics loi woiIing wiih local
govcinmcni on zoning issucs, Biau Gaimon,
Ianu Piogiams Diiccioi ai ihc Michigan
Enviionmcnial Council, who ¡icscnicu an
cnviionmcnial ¡cis¡cciivc on ucnsiiy, anu
Bill Rusicm, a longiimc ¡oliiical aciivisi, who
¡ioviucu an u¡uaic on lanu usc maiicis acioss
ihc siaic ol Michigan.
Land Usc Acadcmy II. In ihc scconu couisc in
ihc sciics, s¡caIcis anu ¡aiiici¡anis cx¡anu
ihc uiscussion io casc siuuics anu ¡iinci¡lcs
lchinu cllcciivc ucsign ol icsiucnccs anu
communiiics. Ianu Usc Acaucmy II is o¡cn io
REAITORS
®
who aiicnucu ihc iniiial couisc.
Thcic is no chaigc loi aiicnuancc anu no
coniinuing cuucaiion cicuii.
Thc summci 200ò scssion lcaiuicu ialIs ly
Pcici Allcn, a Michigan uilan ucvclo¡ci
anu au|unci ¡iolcssoi ai ihc Univcisiiy ol
Michigan, who s¡oIc on uilan icviializaiion,
anu Tciiy Sanloiu ol ihc cngincciing anu
suivcying him Ncucivclu Associaics, who
analyzcu casc siuuics on smaii giowih.
ChucI EcIcnsiahlci, a chaiici mcmlci ol
ihc Amciican Insiiiuic ol Planncis, uiscusscu
conscivaiion suluivision ¡lanning, anu
lusincss siiaicgisi Davc Icviii highlighicu
clhcicni ways io ucsign anu aiiangc icsiucniial
¡io¡ciiics. MAR lcgal counscl Daviu Picison
uiscusscu zoning anu siicamlining ihc ¡lai
¡ioccss, which is ihc ma¡¡ing oi chaiiing ol
lois, suluivisions, oi communiiics io show
lounuaiy lincs, luiluings, anu cascmcnis.
Positive Stuoent Feeoback
Eiic DcYoung, a REAITOR
®
RR ai RE/MAX
Voguc in Hollanu, Michigan, who aiicnucu
ihc 2004 Ianu Usc Acaucmy, commcnucu
ihc ¨uivcisc anu hcl¡lul" s¡caIcis. ¨I
was cx¡cciing io hcai ihings liom ihc
cnviionmcnial giou¡s ihai I woulu icsisi," hc
saiu. ¨Bui I ihinI ihcy`ic on ihc iighi iiacI,
anu wc all nccu io woiI iogcihci io maIc wisc
usc ol oui limiicu lanu icsouiccs."
Bill M. Nalcis ol Rivci¡oinic Rcaliy in Dciioii
aiicnucu Ianu Usc Acaucmics I anu II anu
lcli ihai loih auuicsscu lanu usc issucs long
ignoicu in ihc siaic. Noiing ihc ucvasiaiing
¡iollcms conlioniing his ciiy, which coniinucs
io losc ¡o¡ulaiion anu laccs a hnancial ciisis,
Nalcis saiu hc a¡¡icciaicu whai hc lcaincu
aloui ovcicoming luicauciaiic olsiaclcs.
Hc sccs ihai io¡ic as ¡ciiincni io clloiis in
Dciioii io ¡ass a lanu lanI oiuinancc allowing
lanIs io issuc long-icim loans on ical csiaic in
iciuin loi moiigagcs.
Ioi ]uuy McIalua, who owns Hailoi Rcaliy
Tcam, IIC, in iuial Rogcis Ciiy anu aiicnucu
loih Acaucmics, ihc scssion coiiccicu
misconcc¡iions. ¨Thc uiscussion ol unuscu
lanu lioughi u¡ ¡cis¡cciivcs I hau ncvci
consiucicu," shc saiu. ¨Dcnsiiy is noi always a
lau ihing."
Eoucation Leaos to Action
Rccommcnuaiions ol ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Icaucishi¡ Council aic lcing im¡lcmcnicu
ihioughoui ihc siaic. Mcasuics havc lccn
auo¡icu io siicamlinc ihc ¡lai ¡ioccss,
im¡lcmcni conuiiional oi coniiaci zoning
¸ihc iczoning ol a ¡aiiiculai ¡iccc ol ¡io¡ciiy
lascu on an agiccmcni lciwccn ihc ucvclo¡ci
anu local govcinmcni), anu auo¡i lanu lanI
¡olicics io cnallc ¡iouuciivc usc ol ¡aiccls
sianuing vacani. An Ociolci 2004 aiiiclc in
ihc 1nr·.r¿ Sìnìe Jou.rnI announccu ihai in
Mciiuian Townshi¡ olhcials a¡¡iovcu mixcu-
usc zoning, which hau lccn illcgal sincc ihc
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l26
1960s. ¨Pco¡lc can walI anu iiuc ihcii liIcs
]liom ihcii homcs io sho¡s|," Whiic says
in ihc aiiiclc. ¨Ii`s onc ¡aii ol ihc ¡uzzlc in
cicaiing gicai ¡laccs whcic ¡co¡lc wani io
livc, woiI, anu ¡lay."
Thc lcssons ol ihc Michigan Ianu Usc
Icaucishi¡ Council anu Ianu Usc Acaucmics
show ihai uialoguc among inicicsicu ¡aiiics
can ¡iom¡i lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy aciion,
s¡uiiing luiihci cuucaiional clloiis anu moic
ichncu lcgislaiion. Thc long-icim ouilooI loi
Michigan is onc ol lciici inloimcu lanu usc
¡olicy anu smaiici giowih.
Aovice to REALTCR
®
Associations
Thc Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
ollcis ihcsc ii¡s io oihci associaiions ihai
mighi wani io siaii ihcii own lanu usc
cuucaiion ¡iogiams:
W Iccl licc io usc s¡caIcis wiih uillciing
¡oinis ol vicw, so long as ihc ihiusi ol ihcii
¡icscniaiion uocs noi conuici wiih youi
ovciall mcssagc.
W Holu ¡aiiici¡anis` inicicsi ly ¡icscniing
a mix ol ucvclo¡mcni oi salcs siuuics anu
acaucmic oi ihcoiciical s¡caIcis.
W Sciccn a¡¡licanis loi cx¡ciicncc anu
inicicsi io cnsuic ihai ¡aiiici¡anis lcain
liom onc anoihci.
W Euucaic youi associaiion`s lcaucishi¡ aloui
lanu usc ¡aiicins in youi siaic. Alihough a
siaic nccu noi lc in a ciisis mouc io waiiani
a couisc on lanu usc, cm¡hasizing ihc
uigcni nccu loi icloim can givc ¡aiiici¡anis
a scnsc ol ¡ui¡osc loih as communiiy
mcmlcis anu as ical csiaic ¡iolcssionals.
W Choosc an inicicsiing vcnuc. Thc
Michigan acaucmics havc lccn hclu ai
wilucincss iciicai laciliiics in oiuci io
hcl¡ ¡aiiici¡anis immcisc ihcmsclvcs in a
ncuiial cnviionmcni.
Contacts:
Rolcii Cam¡au,
Vicc Picsiucni, Pullic Policy anu Icgal Allaiis
Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
PO Box 4072ò
Iansing, MI 4S901-792ò
ò17-S72-SS90
icam¡auCmiicaliois.com
Biau Waiu,
Diiccioi ol Pullic Policy anu Icgal Allaiis
Michigan Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
PO Box 4072ò
Iansing, MI 4S901-792ò
ò17-S72-SS90
lwaiuCmiicaliois.com
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l27
Nºw \cr| St+tº ksscti+ticr
c| K|kLI9KS
®
Sm+rt
ûrcwtl kw+r1s |rc]r+m
Sunnary
Thc Ncw YoiI Siaic
Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
annual Awaiu loi Smaii
Giowih Exccllcncc
iccognizcs ihc succcsslul
clloiis ol communiiics wiihin ihc siaic io
incoi¡oiaic ihc ¡iinci¡lcs ol smaii giowih
inio ihcii ¡io|ccis, ¡olicics anu ¡iogiams.
Awaro progran oebuts in 2OO5
Alici aua¡iing anu auo¡iing ihc Naiional
Associaiion`s smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs, ihc
NYSAR ucciucu io cicaic an awaiu ihai woulu
hcl¡ io iaisc ihc ¡iohlc ol ihosc concc¡is
whilc honoiing ¡io|ccis oi communiiics
ihai cxcm¡lily ihcm. Thc ¡iogiam accc¡is
a¡¡licaiions loi luili ¡io|ccis, ¡olicy anu
icgulaiion iniiiaiivcs, anu a com¡ichcnsivc
a¡¡ioach io smaii giowih ihiough a
comlinaiion ol ¡olicy anu luili ¡io|ccis.
Thc winnci is sclccicu ly a ¡ancl ol qualihcu
inuiviuuals liom oiganizaiions anu ¡ullic
insiiiuiions ihai havc an inicicsi anu woiIing
Inowlcugc ol smaii giowih, anu is honoicu ai
ihc associaiion`s lall lusincss mcciing.
Thc hisi awaiu, in 200ò, wcni io ihc iown ol
WaiwicI, locaicu òò milcs noiihwcsi ol Ncw
YoiI Ciiy in Oiangc Couniy, in iccogniiion ol
ihc iown`s succcsslul clloiis io incoi¡oiaic ihc
¡iinci¡lcs inio iis com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan.
Thc ¡lan csiallishcu a laimlanu ¡ioicciion
¡iogiam anu ¡ui inio ¡lacc innovaiivc zoning
icchniqucs. WaiwicI`s ¡lan is ucsigncu io
¡icscivc ihc iown`s iuial chaiacici anu as
many o¡ciaiing laims as ¡ossillc, io uiicci
giowih iowaiu alicauy viliani sciilcu villagcs
anu hamlcis, anu io ¡ioviuc signihcani anu
uniquc naiuial aicas ihai aic im¡oiiani
loi loih ccological icasons anu loi wilulilc
haliiai. Thc smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs
climinaic ihc cncioachmcni ol housing on
¡iouuciivc laimlanu ly cicaiing inccniivcs io
havc ucvclo¡mcni on alicauy sciilcu villagcs
oi hamlcis.
¨Oui com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan . allows us io
¡icscivc whai WaiwicI`s S0,000 icsiucnis lovc
aloui ihcii communiiy - iis iuial chaiacici
anu agiiculiuial hciiiagc - whilc allowing
ucvclo¡mcni now anu in ihc luiuic," saiu iown
ol WaiwicI Su¡civisoi Michacl P. Swccion.
¨This ¡lan was a communiiy-wiuc clloii."
Thc ncw zoning oiuinancc cncouiagcs
clusici ucvclo¡mcnis, walIallc
ncighloihoous, alloiuallc homcs anu o¡cn
s¡acc ¡icscivaiion. Sincc ihc auo¡iion ol
ihc couc, all ¡io¡oscu suluivisions havc
lccn clusicicu, ¡icsciving an avciagc ol 60
¡ciccni ol ihc siic as o¡cn s¡acc, anu loi
valucs havc sincc incicascu ly as much as ò0
io 7ò ¡ciccni. Alloiuallc housing as¡ccis
ol ihc couc icquiic ucvclo¡cis io ¡ioviuc
ai lcasi 10 ¡ciccni ol a ncw suluivision
as alloiuallc housing. Ii also cncouiagcs
ucvclo¡mcni ihai im¡oscs lcss im¡aci on ihc
communiiy ly allowing ¡iivaic anu naiiowci
ioaus wiih lcss cuiling, ihcicly icuucing
iunoll anu calming iialhc.
In 2006, NYSAR lcsiowcu ihc awaiu on ihc
Town ol Clilion PaiI which is aloui 20 milcs
noiih ol Allany. Thc Town ol Clilion PaiI
has succcsslully im¡lcmcnicu smaii giowih
concc¡is inio iis com¡ichcnsivc a¡¡ioach io
¡lanning, which has csiallishcu an o¡cn s¡acc
¡ioicciion ¡iogiam anu ¡io¡oscu innovaiivc
zoning icchniqucs ucsigncu io mainiain a
so¡hisiicaicu mixcu usc communiiy. Thc
iown`s hvc-ycai clloii has icsulicu in: an o¡cn
s¡acc ¡lan, ihc ¡cimancni ¡icscivaiion ol
moic ihan 700 acics ol lanu, ihc cicaiion ol
12 milcs ol iiails wiihin ihc iown, a Gcnciic
Enviionmcnial Im¡aci Siaicmcni ¸GEIS)
covciing 14,000 acics ol lanu in ihc wcsicin
scciion ol iown, ihc cicaiion ol Wcsicin
Clilion PaiI Dcsign Guiuclincs as a iool loi
owncis anu ucvclo¡cis, cnacimcni ol ncw
zoning uisiiicis in ihc wcsicin scciion, anu ihc
hiiing ol an o¡cn s¡acc cooiuinaioi io hcl¡
im¡lcmcni ihc iown`s ¡iogiam. Thc iniiiaiivcs
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l28
aic ucsigncu io mainiain ihc qualiiy anu scnsc
ol ¡lacc ol Clilion PaiI as ii coniinucs io giow
in ihc luiuic.
NYSAR 2006 Picsiucni ]. Gicgoiy Connois
siaicu ihai, ¨Thc ¡ui¡osc ol ihc awaiu is
io ¡iomoic ihc coniinucu auvanccmcni
ol smaii giowih in oui siaic in accoiuancc
wiih ihc ¡iinci¡lcs auo¡icu ly ihc Naiional
Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
. By honoiing
succcsscs ol communiiics such as Clilion
PaiI ihiough oui ongoing Awaiu loi Smaii
Giowih Exccllcncc ¡iogiam, wc coniinuc
io cicaic awaicncss ol ihc lcnchis ol smaii
giowih anu cncouiagc moic communiiics
io cmliacc ihis a¡¡ioach io ucvclo¡mcni.
Ncw YoiI`s REAITORS
®
iccognizc ihc many
lcnchis ol uiilizing a smaii giowih a¡¡ioach
io communiiy ucvclo¡mcni anu ihc ¡osiiivc
im¡aci ii has on oui communiiics."
Contact:
Salvaioic Piiviucia, ]i.
Diiccioi ol Communicaiions anu S¡ccial
Pio|ccis
Ncw YoiI Siaic Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
1S0 Washingion Avcnuc
Allany, NY 12210
ò1S-46S-0S00 cxi 20S
s¡iiviuciaCnysai.com
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l2º
K|kLI9KS
®
ir ktticr
J
ust as REALTCR
®
associations are stepping up to the plate to ensure that
their connunities grow snart, so too are inoivioual REALTCRS
®
naking
signifcant connitnents to shaping their connunities as they grow. As
these case stuoies oenonstrate, their reasons Ior getting involveo are
varieo but all oI these REALTCRS
®
have Iouno that their civic involvenent has
hao the collateral beneft oI boosting their business.
Kºr !+t|scr, CClM, CKS, ûKl
Florence, South Carolina
Kcn ]acIson is a lusy
guy. Thc Iloicncc,
S.C., REAITOR
®
RR is
a loimci chaii anu
cuiicni mcmlci ol
his local ¡lanning
commission. Hc
scivcs as chaiiman
ol ihc loaiu ol
iiusiccs ai Iiancis
Maiion Univcisiiy. Hc icccnily co-chaiicu ihc
Govcinoi`s Qualiiy ol Iilc TasI Ioicc anu lcu
ihc Souih Caiolina Associaiion ol REAITORS
®
.
Anu hc`s a siiong ¡io¡oncni ol smaii giowih,
somcihing hc sim¡ly uchncs as ¨ucvclo¡mcni
ihai cnhanccs oui qualiiy ol lilc."
As a REAITOR
®
RR , ]acIson uocs a liiilc lii
ol cvciyihing: icsiucniial, commcicial, anu
inuusiiial, ¡lus somc ¡io¡ciiy managcmcni.
Hc says hc ncvci consciously ucciucu io gci
involvcu wiih smaii giowih. Ii |usi iuincu
oui his inicicsis anu aciiviiics - ihc ¡lanning
commission, REAITORS
®
associaiions,
cconomic ucvclo¡mcni, anu cuucaiion
- ha¡¡cncu io maich many clcmcnis ol smaii
giowih. ¨As I goi moic involvcu in cach ol
ihcsc, I uiscovcicu how iniciiclaicu ihcy
aic anu how liiilc ihcy aic cooiuinaicu,"
hc says. ¨I also camc io icalizc ihai I coulu
maIc a uillcicncc ly unucisianuing how ihc
lcgislaiivc anu icgulaioiy ¡ioccss woiIs anu
lcing Inowlcugcallc on ihc issucs."
]acIson lclicvcs ¨Ii is im¡ciaiivc ihai
REAITORS
®
¡aiiici¡aic in local ¡lanning
uccisions. Wc musi icalizc ihai il wc as
REAITORS
®
aic noi ai ihc iallc whcn uccisions
aic mauc, wc havc liiilc ioom io com¡lain."
His succcss anu ¡osiiivc im¡aci ai ihc local anu
siaic lcvcl ovci ihc ¡asi 10 ycais may ins¡iic
oihci REAITORS
®
io lollow his lcau anu gci
involvcu in ihcii own communiiics.
Ken Jackson Starts Planning
Alici lccoming a REAITOR
®
RR in 1990, ]acIson
wanicu io gci moic involvcu in his communiiy
ol 40,000 in noiihcasicin Souih Caiolina. ¸Thc
Ciiy ol Iloicncc is wiihin Iloicncc Couniy,
which has a ¡o¡ulaiion ol 12ò,000.) His homc
siaic ianIs among ihc naiion`s lasicsi giowing
siaics, so hc also wanicu io lcain aloui ncw
ucvclo¡mcni ¡io|ccis. Thc local ¡lanning
commission sccmcu a logical ¡lacc io siaii.
Hc was a¡¡oinicu io ihc commission in 1994.
¨Alici I was ihcic a lcw monihs ii was olvious
ihai ihc uccisions wc wcic maIing wcic ol
iicmcnuous im¡oiiancc io ihc communiiy,"
]acIson iccallcu. ¨I icalizcu vciy quicIly ihai
mosi ¡co¡lc, incluuing many clccicu olhcials,
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l3O
uon`i icalizc ihc inuucncc ihai a ¡lanning
commission has on ihc way a communiiy
giows. I quicIly lcli a scnsc ol ics¡onsililiiy io
iaIc ihis ¡osiiion ol ¡ullic iiusi sciiously."
Hc says ii iaIcs ycais io ically unucisianu
how ¡lanning woiIs anu how ihc uillcicni
oiuinanccs, icgulaiions, anu com¡ichcnsivc
¡lans aic inicnucu io woiI iogcihci. In many
cascs, ¡lanning commissioncis may noi havc
ihc iimc io gci cuucaicu. ¨I havc hau an insiuc
vicw ol how ¡lanning uccisions aic mauc anu
how uncooiuinaicu govcinmcni cniiiics ically
aic in ihcii uccision maIing." Hc chaiicu ihc
commission loi scvcial ycais anu icmains an
aciivc mcmlci. By unucisianuing ihc issucs anu
aciivcly ¡aiiici¡aiing in ihc ¡ioccss, hc says, ¨you
will sianu oui anu havc moic inuucncc ihan
ihc ¡cison who |usi shows u¡ loi mcciings. You
also lccomc somconc who is looIcu io ly ihc
communiiy, ihc clccicu olhcials, anu ihc ¡icss
as somconc wiih cx¡ciiisc anu an inloimcu
o¡inion on ¡lanning issucs."
Accoiuing io Iloicncc Mayoi IianI Willis,
]acIson has ihosc iiaiis. ¨Kcn liings an acuic
unucisianuing ol ihc ¡lanning ¡ioccss io ihc
iallc which many ol ihc commissioncis uo
noi havc, unloiiunaicly. His Inowlcugc anu
lcaucishi¡ havc lcu ihc ¡lanning commission
io unucisianu ihc iolc ihcy ¡lay in ucvclo¡ing
smaii giowih iniiiaiivcs anu in qualiiy ol lilc
issucs. Thc Commission has gicai ics¡cci loi
Kcn so ihcy lollow his guiuancc. Thc long-
icim im¡aci is ihai hc has sci a sianuaiu loi
ihc commission ihai will lc in ¡lacc loi many
ycais io comc."
Whilc ]acIson was ¡ic¡aiing io scivc as
siaic associaiion ¡icsiucni in 2002, hc goi
involvcu in clcciing MaiI Sanloiu as Souih
Caiolina`s govcinoi. A loimci ical csiaic
lioIci, Sanloiu mauc qualiiy ol lilc a ma|oi
¡aii ol his ¡lailoim. Oncc clccicu, hc
asIcu ]acIson io co-chaii his Qualiiy ol Iilc
TasI Ioicc. Thc giou¡ incluucu ncaily S0
uivcisc mcmlcis ic¡icscniing coi¡oiaiions,
conscivaiion oiganizaiions, civic associaiions,
anu ucvclo¡cis. ¨Many ol ihc ic¡icscnicu
oiganizaiions hau uisagiccu on many issucs
ovci ihc ycais," noicu ]acIson. ¨Ii was amazing
io scc ihai oncc wc siaiicu ialIing, wc all hau
ihc samc goals loi Souih Caiolina."
Thcy agiccu ihai ihcii mission was ¨io
cnhancc ihc qualiiy ol lilc loi ¡icscni anu
luiuic gcnciaiions ol Souih Caiolinians
ihiough ihc sicwaiushi¡ ol oui commonly
hclu valucs ol PIACE," an acionym loi
Pco¡lc, Iong-icim, As¡iic, Communiiy,
anu Euucaiion. Whilc smaii giowih was
ncvci uiiccily mcniioncu, ihc giou¡`s
iccommcnuaiions incluucu many smaii
giowih ¡iinci¡lcs: inicgiaic ¡ullic
iians¡oiiaiion wiih lanu-usc ¡lanning,
cncouiagc uowniown icncwal anu
icviializaiion ¡io|ccis, su¡¡oii ¡iivaic-
sccioi clloiis in alloiuallc housing, anu
icmovc lcgal im¡cuimcnis io iiauiiional
ncighloihoou ucsign. Alicauy, somc ol ihc
iccommcnuaiions aic maIing hcauway in ihc
siaic lcgislaiivc ¡ioccss.
Summaiizing ]acIson`s woiI, Govcinoi
Sanloiu saiu, ¨Kcn is somclouy who noi only
unucisianus how ccniial qualiiy ol lilc is io
oui cconomic ucvclo¡mcni clloiis as a siaic,
hc`s somclouy who`s also consianily on ihc
lioni lincs ihiowing oui cicaiivc iucas io gci us
whcic wc nccu io lc. Hc`s a siiong auvocaic
loi managing giowih in a way ihai`s consisicni
wiih maiIci ¡iinci¡lcs anu ¡iivaic ¡io¡ciiy
iighis, anu his woiI on oui Qualiiy ol Iilc iasI
loicc was invaluallc in hcl¡ing sci ihc ionc loi
ihis auminisiiaiion`s clloiis on ihai lioni."
What Cther REALTCRS
®
Can Learn
Whilc noi cvciy REAITOR
®
RR is going io gci
involvcu io ihc cxicni ihai ]acIson has, his
sioiy cm¡hasizcs ¨ihai onc ¡cison can maIc
a uillcicncc," says Mayoi Willis. ¨REAITORS
®
havc a uniquc unucisianuing anu ¡cis¡cciivc
ol ihc giowih ol a communiiy. On a uaily lasis
ihcy aic coniiiluiing io ihc giowih ol ihc
communiiy anu shoulu unucisianu how anu
why ihcii aciions hcl¡ oi hinuci goou` giowih.
Thcy aic in an inuusiiy ihai is uc¡cnucni
on giowih anu as such shoulu cxcii somc
ics¡onsililiiy as io how ihai giowih iaIcs ¡lacc."
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l3l
]amcs Pcicis, loimci Exccuiivc Olhcc ol
SCAR, says ]acIson is ¡iool ihai ¨you can lc
involvcu anu lc succcsslul. Kcn`s involvcmcni
wiih ihc siaic associaiion has cnhanccu his
lusincss, his succcss, anu ihc qualiiy ol lilc
wiih his own lamily."
]acIson says hc cn|oys ihc vaiious aciiviiics,
which havc lcnchicu his lusincss anu mauc
him a lciici REAITOR
®
RR . Whcn asIcu why
oihcis in ihc ¡iolcssion shoulu gci involvcu in
smaii giowih, hc ic¡lics, ¨Thcic shoulu lc no
oihci Iinu ol giowih! Smaii giowih is aloui
hcl¡ing cicaic a lciici qualiiy ol lilc in oui
communiiics, anu REAITORS
®
aic uniqucly
qualihcu io scivc in ¡osiiions ol inuucncc on
issucs iclaicu io qualiiy ol lilc. Gci cuucaicu
on ihc issucs anu gci involvcu."
Contact:
Kcn ]acIson CCIM, CRS, GRI
147 N. Iily Siicci
Iloicncc, SC 29ò01
¸S4S) 669-104ò Exi. 20S
KcnCIoiSalcinIloicncc.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l32
Lir1+ Cl+r|
Fort Worth, Texas
REAITOR
®
RR Iinua ClaiI has livcu in ihc samc
ncighloihoou loi moic ihan 40 ycais, |usi
souih ol uowniown Ioii Woiih, Tcxas. Shc
wasn`i ha¡¡y whcn ihc aica`s main ¡cucsiiian-
liicnuly commcicial siicci moi¡hcu inio
an unaiiiaciivc six-lanc ihoioughlaic, lui
whcn lusincsscs siaiicu closing ihcii uoois,
ClaiI moiivaicu hciscll anu oihcis io savc
Bciiy Siicci. Hci icnaciiy anu vision hcl¡cu
io ic|uvcnaic ihc coiiiuoi, liinging ncw
lusincsscs, icsiucnccs, anu viialiiy lacI io hci
ncighloihoou.
¨I waichcu ii go liom a ¡lacc whcic you
coulu luy ¡iaciically anyihing io a ¡lacc ihai
ollcicu almosi noihing," says ClaiI, who
chaiicu ihc all-volunicci Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc
loi scvcn ycais. Thc giou¡`s clloiis lcu io
siiccisca¡c im¡iovcmcnis anu ihc o¡cning
ol small lusincsscs. Now a sizallc mixcu-usc
ucvclo¡mcni is unuci consiiuciion, soliuilying
ihc siicci`s iuinaiounu. ¨This Iinu ol ihing
¡ushcs my luiions anu maIcs mc moic cxciicu
aloui whai I uo on a uay-io-uay lasis," says
ClaiI, a commcicial REAITOR
®
RR wiih Klinc 8
Co. ¨Ii`s cxciiing - anu ii`s my ncighloihoou."
Conccivcu as a icsiucniial siicci ncai Tcxas
Chiisiian Univcisiiy in ihc 1920s anu S0s,
Bciiy Siicci siaiicu aiiiaciing commcicial
lusincsscs in ihc 1940s anu ò0s, whcn
¡ci¡cnuiculai ¡aiIing s¡accs wcic auucu.
As a TCU collcgc siuucni in ihc 1960s, ClaiI
licqucnily walIcu io Bciiy Siicci`s uc¡aiimcni
sioic, uiyclcanci, giocciy sioic, anu oihci
ncighloihoou lusincsscs. A 1970s uilan
icncwal ¡io|cci wiucncu ihc liicI-lincu siicci
io a six-lanc ¡avcu ihoioughlaic, wi¡ing oui
ihc convcnicni ¡aiIing s¡accs anu siii¡¡ing
ihc siicci ol iis ¡cucsiiian-liicnuly lccl. By
ihc 19S0s, lusincsscs siaiicu io lc shuiicicu.
Whcn ihc uc¡aiimcni sioic announccu iis
uc¡aiiuic in laic 1994, ii was moic ihan ihc
ncighloihoou coulu hanulc.
¨I goi 1ò ¡honc calls in onc uay whcn ihc
ncws hii," says ClaiI, who hau hcl¡cu ¡icscivc
a hisioiic convcni ncai Bciiy Siicci anu
o¡¡oscu a highway ¡io|cci. ¨Pco¡lc Ic¡i
asIing, Whai aic wc going io uo.`" Shc anu
oihcis wcic conccincu ihai ihc siicci woulu
coniinuc iis uownwaiu s¡iial anu iuin inio a
¨magnci loi iioullc." Moic ihan 400 ¡co¡lc
showcu u¡ ai a ¡ullic mcciing in ]anuaiy
199ò io voicc ihcii conccins, incluuing ihc
TCU chancclloi, Bciiy Siicci lusincss anu
¡io¡ciiy owncis, anu scoics ol local icsiucnis.
Iollowing ihc mcciing, a mcmlci ol ihc
ciiy council asIcu ClaiI io chaii a volunicci
icucvclo¡mcni clloii. Shc accc¡icu ihc iolc,
anu ihc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc was launchcu.
¨My cx¡ciicncc gavc mc ihc vocalulaiy anu
cnough Inowlcugc io hcl¡ ihc communiiy
asI ihc iighi qucsiions liIc, Whai ha¡¡cncu.`
anu, How uo wc hx ii.`," says ClaiI. Shc
cicuiis ]amcs Kunsilci`s looIs on Amciica`s
changing lanusca¡c wiih iniiouucing hci
io smaii giowih anu hcl¡ing hci io cicaic a
vision loi ihc luiuic ol Bciiy Siicci. ¨Kunsilci`s
Ceo¿.n¡L, o¡ NowLe.e ucsciilcu whai ha¡¡cncu e
on ihc coiiiuoi, anu his Ho»e ¡.o» NowLe.e
ucsciilcu how io hx ii. Thc soluiion involvcs
gciiing ¡ullic invcsimcni io luic ihc ¡iivaic
sccioi in io ¡ioviuc ihc cconomic siimulus.
Thai`s lasically whai has ha¡¡cncu on Bciiy
Siicci. Ii has iaIcn a long iimc - longci ihan I
cvci imagincu - lui ii is ha¡¡cning."
ClaiI anu oihcis involvcu wiih ihc Bciiy Siicci
Iniiiaiivc s¡cni counilcss houis lciwccn 199ò
anu 199S hosiing anu aiicnuing mcciings,
iaising ¡ullic awaicncss, anu iniiiaiing clcan-
u¡ ¡io|ccis. Thcii clloiis lcu io a SS million
lonu issuc in 199S io lunu a ncw ucsign anu
somc iniiial im¡iovcmcnis along ihc coiiiuoi.
Thc ciiy hiicu a ucsign him, which woiIcu
closcly wiih ihc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc loi
moic ihan a ycai, io cicaic whai ClaiI calls
¨a uynamiic ¡lan" ihai csiallishcu uciailcu
guiuclincs loi ncw lanusca¡ing, siicci signs,
lighiing, siucwalIs, anu oihci im¡iovcmcnis.
¨Thc Bciiy Siicci Iniiiaiivc has lccn ihc
ciiy`s closcsi anu mosi icliallc ¡aiinci as wc
havc lcgun io iiansloim Bciiy Siicci liom
a uisiicsscu commcicial coiiiuoi inio a viial
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l33
mixcu-usc uilan villagc," says Icinanuo
Cosia, ¡lanning uiiccioi loi ihc Ciiy ol Ioii
Woiih. ¨Iinua has ¡laycu an im¡oiiani iolc in
liinging iogcihci ¡io¡ciiy owncis, lusincss
anu ncighloihoou lcaucis, Tcxas Chiisiian
Univcisiiy, anu vaiious ¡ullic olhcials
io ¡uisuc ihis amliiious clloii. Shc has
ucmonsiiaicu cxcc¡iional lcaucishi¡ qualiiics
anu sccmingly lounulcss uciciminaiion io
accom¡lish hci communiiy`s goals."
Thc siicci is iciuining io iis ¡cucsiiian-liicnuly
lccl, wiih 16-looi siucwalIs, on-siicci ¡aiallcl
¡aiIing, anu loui lancs ol iialhc uiviucu ly a
iicc-lincu mcuian. Ncw lusincsscs havc now
o¡cncu, incluuing iwo naiional uiug sioics, a
viuco sioic, a lasi-loou ¡lacc, anu a sii-uown
icsiauiani. In 200ò, ihc o¡cning ol a S47
million mixcu-usc ucvclo¡mcni will sccuic ihc
iiansloimaiion ol Bciiy Siicci. Thc ¡iivaicly
lunucu ¡io|cci incluucs S1,000 squaic lcci ol
iciail, 24ò a¡aiimcnis loi TCU siuucnis, anu a
òS0-s¡acc ¡aiIing gaiagc.
Thc CEO ol ihc Gicaici Ioii Woiih
REAITORS
®
Associaiion, Shciiy Maiina, calls
ClaiI ¨a iiiclcss auvocaic ol im¡iovcmcni. Hci
vision siaiicu ihis clloii, anu ii`s |usi giown
anu giown anu giown. Shc has mauc a lasiing
coniiiluiion io hci communiiy."
Whilc ihc icucvclo¡mcni iooI much longci
ihan ClaiI aniici¡aicu, shc says ii was woiih
ii. ¨As liusiiaiing as ii has lccn lccausc ol ihc
lcngih ol iimc, all I havc io uo is uiivc uown
ihc siicci anu looI aiounu io scc ihc im¡aci
wc`vc hau," shc says. ¨Thcic`s somcihing ically
iangillc loi mc, ¡cisonally, Inowing I mauc
a uillcicncc. Anu, as a REAITOR
®
RR , ii auus
io ihc sialiliiy anu ¡iiccs ol ihc suiiounuing
ncighloihoous. Thcic`s no uouli ii auus valuc."
Oihci communiiics in Ioii Woiih havc
iaIcn noiicc ol ihc changcs on Bciiy
Siicci, ioo. ¨Thc visillc uillcicncc in
Iinua`s ncighloihoou is so gicai ihai ii has
ins¡iicu icucvclo¡mcni ¡io|ccis along oihci
coiiiuois," says Maiina. Shc says ihcic aic
ninc oihci coiiiuois ihioughoui ihc ciiy
ihai aic slaicu io lollow Bciiy Siicci`s lcau.
ClaiI`s auvicc io oihci ¡io|ccis is io hnu
moncy io hiic ai lcasi ¡aii-iimc ¡aiu siall io
hcl¡ managc ihc volunicci clloii, which shc
says is haiu io mainiain ovci scvcial ycais.
Noncihclcss, shc aciivcly cncouiagcs oihcis
in hci ¡iolcssion io gci involvcu wiih smaii
giowih in ihcii own communiiics. ¨MaIc
ihc iimc anu siay involvcu anu lcain aloui
ucvclo¡mcni concc¡is," shc suggcsis. ¨Ii`s so
im¡oiiani - anu wc can maIc a uillcicncc."
Ioii Woiih`s Cosia, ¡lanning uiiccioi scconus
hci suggcsiion. ¨Iinua ¡ioviucs an cxccllcni
cxam¡lc ol how civic-minucu REAITORS
®
can maIc a lig uillcicncc in ihc lilc ol ihcii
communiiics," says Cosia. Hc iccommcnus ihai
REAITORS
®
gci cuucaicu aloui smaii giowih,
ihcn ¨a¡¡ly youi Inowlcugc wiih conviciion,
anu uon`i lci minoi uisa¡¡oinimcnis gci in ihc
way ol youi succcss."
Contact:
Iinua ClaiI
Klinc 8 Com¡any
1S0ò W. Magnolia Avc.
Ioii Woiih, TX 76104
¸S17)924-19S7
lcIlinccoCslcglolal.nci
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l34
Lir1+ ûcc1wir·Nitlcls, CKS, ûKl
Vice Nayor, City oI Kissinnee, Florioa
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols
has hau a lilclong slogan:
¨You only gci oui ol a
communiiy whai you ¡ui
inio ii." Anu shc noi only
lclicvcs ii, shc livcs ii ly
gciiing involvcu - anu
clccicu.
Picsiucni ol Goouwin Rcaliy 8 Associaics
in Kissimmcc, Iloiiua, Goouwin-Nichols
has voluniccicu loi counilcss loaius anu
commiiiccs uuiing hci S0-ycai ical csiaic
caicci. Anu loi ncaily cighi ycais, shc has
scivcu as an clccicu olhcial on hci ciiy
commission, incluuing ihc ¡asi loui ycais as
vicc mayoi.
¨Bcloic I ucciucu io iun, I lcaicu ihai
uccisions I woulu maIc as an clccicu olhcial
woulu huii my lusincss," says Goouwin-
Nichols. ¨Thai was ihc mosi incoiicci ihoughi
I cvci hau in my lilc. ...Bcing an clccicu
olhcial has uonc noihing lui cnhancc my ical
csiaic caicci."
As an clccicu olhcial in a ia¡iuly giowing
communiiy, shc`s hau io maIc ¡lcniy ol
iough uccisions, lui shc`s siaycu locuscu on
hcl¡ing hci communiiy giow smaiily iaihci
ihan ha¡hazaiuly. Accoiuing io Ciiy Managci
MaiI Duilin, ¨Shc`s always allc io maIc ihc
iighi uccision. Shc`s a naiuial loin lcauci."
Hc`s sccn many commissioncis uuiing his
17-ycai icnuic uiicciing Kissimmcc, anu
hc icauily summaiizcs hci woiI. ¨Shc`s a
ihinIci, a ¡lannci, anu uocs noi lci cmoiions
coniiol uccisions shc maIcs. Ai ihc samc
iimc shc`s com¡assionaic anu has ¡ushcu ihc
ciiy io ¡ioviuc sciviccs io icsiucnis who nccu
govcinmcni hcl¡."
Kissimmcc siis in ihc miuulc ol Iloiiua, wiihin
10 milcs ol Disncy Woilu anu suiiounucu
ly Osccola Couniy, onc ol ihc siaic`s lasicsi
giowing aicas. Thc ¡o¡ulaiion has moic ihan
quauiu¡lcu, liom 12,ò00 whcn Goouwin-
Nichols siaiicu hci lusincss io ncaily òò,000
¡co¡lc iouay. ¨I`vc sccn a liiilc cow iown mauc
u¡ ol laigc lanuowncis, caiilc ianchcis, anu
laimcis lccomc a mulii-culiuial, uivcisihcu
communiiy," shc says. Touiism anu consiiuciion
lucl ihc local cconomy, oncc uominaicu ly
laiming. ¨Giowih ¡icscnis iis challcngcs
- ihc ioaus aic ovciciowucu, ihc schools aic
ovciciowucu, cvciyihing`s ovciciowucu - so
you locus on maIing a lciici communiiy."
Onc ol ihc liggcsi challcngcs shc`s laccu whilc
in olhcc is ovciciowucu schools. Kissimmcc
is locaicu in ihc Sunshinc Siaic`s lasicsi
giowing school uisiiici - anu iis ¡ooicsi. Moic
ihan 70 ¡ciccni ol aica siuucnis icccivc licc
lunchcs ¸an inuicaioi ol low lamily incomc
lcvcls). Whilc Goouwin-Nichols says ii woulu
havc lccn casy loi clccicu olhcials io ignoic
ihc issuc anu lci ihc school loaiu iacIlc ihc
challcngcs alonc, ihc ciiy commissioncis
Incw ihcy hau io hcl¡ lccausc schools aic a
communiiy issuc.
Alici shc was hisi clccicu in 199S, ihc ciiy
commissioncis voicu io luilu a ¡ullic chaiici
school. Thc commissioncis aciually ian ii,
liIc a school loaiu, lcloic iuining ii ovci io
an cuucaiional lounuaiion. Moic icccnily,
ihc commission cicaicu Euucaiional Bcnchi
Disiiicis, cncouiaging ucvclo¡cis io sci asiuc
acicagc loi ncighloihoou schools luili in
¡aiincishi¡ wiih ihc local school loaiu. Pco¡lc
who luy in ihc communiiy ¡ay a lcc ¸similai io
homcownci associaiion uucs) loi ihc lcnchi
ol having ihcii chilu ai a school closc io homc.
¨Ii is a ¡hcnomcnal way io lunu ncw schools,"
noics Goouwin-Nichols, who loasis ihai
Osccola Couniy has no lailing schools ucs¡iic
many challcngcs. ¨Wc can`i sio¡ giowih, so wc
nccu io lc cicaiivc wiih ways io lunu schools."
Onc ol ihc liggcsi o¡¡oiiuniiics shc`s hau
as ciiy commissionci is io hcl¡ sha¡c ihc
luiuic ol Kissimmcc ihiough anncxaiion.
Shc noics ihai a icwiiic ol ihc communiiy`s
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan whilc shc`s lccn in olhcc
has cnallcu ciiy lcaucis io uiciaic whai will
lc on ihc lanu anu how ii will lc ucvclo¡cu,
iaihci ihan ucvclo¡cis uiicciing ihc giowih.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l35
In ihc laic 1990s, ihc ciiy inIcu ihc laigcsi
anncxaiion in iis hisioiy. Thc 1,200-acic
¡aiccl ¡ushcu ihc ciiy limiis oui io a ma|oi
ihoioughlaic, Osccola PaiIway. Thc ¡iimc
ical csiaic was ¡oiscu loi ia¡iu icsiucniial
ucvclo¡mcni. Il noi loi ihc com¡ichcnsivc
¡lan, ¨moic cooIic-cuiici ucvclo¡mcnis"
mighi havc s¡iung u¡ on ihc lanu, says
Goouwin-Nichols. Insicau, ihc ¡lan callcu loi
moic susiainallc communiiics, wiih gaiagc
scilacIs, housing vaiiciy, anu moic iicc covci,
which shc says ¨ically iaiscu ihc lai on ihc
lcvcl ol houscs lcing luili in ihis aica. Wc`vc
ically woiIcu haiu io ucvclo¡ whai oui Iius
anu gianuIius aic going io cn|oy."
Whilc shc uocsn`i consiuci hciscll a
smaii giowih cx¡cii, shc unucisianus ihc
iniciconnccicuncss ol all clcmcnis wiihin a
communiiy, anu uscu ihai lasic smaii giowih
icnci io hcl¡ guiuc hci ¡oliiical uccisions. ¨I
uon`i ihinI smaii giowih is iocIci scicncc.
I ihinI you havc io looI ai a communiiy`s
challcngcs anu you`vc goi io lacc ihcm anu
gci ihcm unuci coniiol as much as ¡ossillc.
As an clccicu olhcial, smaii giowih has
hcl¡cu mc looI ai ihc long-iangc vision ol my
communiiy. Ii`s cnallcu mc anu oihcis on ihc
commission io loiccasi whai ihc challcngcs
aic iouay, whai ihcy`ic going io lc, anu how
ihcy`ic going io im¡aci qualiiy ol lilc, so wc
can solvc ihosc challcngcs lcloic ihcy cannoi
lc solvcu."
Duilin says ihai, as a REAITOR
®
RR , Goouwin-
Nichols is highly aiiuncu io giowih issucs. ¨Shc
unucisianus ihc ins anu ouis ol giowih lccausc
shc has sccn ihcm ihioughoui hci caicci.
Hci Inowlcugc anu ¨lig-¡iciuic ihinIing"
havc lccn asscis io ihc ciiy commission, hc
says, noiing ihai shc has hcl¡cu cuucaic ciiy
¡lanncis uuiing hci icnuic. ¨Planncis icnu io
looI ai ihings liom a icxilooI ¡oini ol vicw,
anu shc liings ihc ical woilu cx¡ciicncc."
Tcim limiis cnucu Goouwin-Nichols`
siini as ciiy commissionci in Novcmlci
2004, anu Duilin says, ¨I`m going io miss
hci iicmcnuously." Hc cncouiagcs oihci
REAITORS
®
io gci involvcu anu says cvcn il
ihcy uon`i wani io iun loi olhcc ihcy shoulu
maIc ihcii voiccs hcaiu. ¨Ii`s im¡oiiani
loi REAITORS
®
io unucisianu ihai ihcii
loiiuncs aic iicu io ihc loiiuncs ol ihc local
govcinmcni. Il ihc govcinmcni is uoing a
goou |ol ¡ioviuing sciviccs, ihai`s going io
maIc a REAITOR`s
®
|ol casici."
Goouwin-Nichols says lcing an clccicu olhcial
has lccn an invaluallc cx¡ciicncc anu
cncouiagcs oihci REAITORS
®
io gci aciivc
anu iun loi olhcc. ¨Il you`ic com¡laining anu
you`ic noi involvcu, ihcn nolouy shoulu lisicn
io you." Shc says ciiy cm¡loyccs havc asIcu
loi hci hcl¡ anu shc`s also lioIcicu somc
¡io¡ciiics loi ihc couniy. ¨Evciyonc Inows
I`m a REAITOR
®
RR ," shc says, noiing ihai shc
has always lccn a REAITOR
®
RR hisi anu ihcn a
ciiy commissionci. ¨I ncvci go io onc ol ihcsc
mcciings wiihoui gciiing a lcau. Ii`s ihc casicsi
maiIciing in ihc woilu."
Contact:
Iinua Goouwin-Nichols, GRI, CRS
Goouwin Rcaliy 8 Associaics
9S1 W OaI Si Sic 100
Kissimmcc, II S4741
¸407)S46-27S7
goouwinuCaol.com
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l36
Brºr1+ |llswcrtl
Nayor, Ash Crove, Nissouri
As mayoi ol Ash Giovc,
Missouii, REAITOR®
Bicnua Ellswoiih saw
a chancc io maIc ihc
mosi ol hci conncciions
io ihc icsouiccs ol NAR
io hcl¡ hci communiiy
lccomc a lcauci in
smaii, ciiizcn-uiivcn ¡lanning.
As a icsuli ol hci 2004 iniiiaiivc, hci iown was
sclccicu as ihc hisi ciiy in ihc U.S. io icccivc
an cxicnsivc lcvcl ol assisiancc liom ihc NAR
Smaii Giowih Piogiam. A liiilc moic ihan a
ycai laici, ihc ciiy ol Ash Giovc anu ihc NAR
Smaii Giowih Piogiam wcic honoicu wiih an
Exccllcncc in Planning Awaiu loi ¨Ouisianuing
Communiiy Iniiiaiivc" liom ihc Missouii
Cha¡ici ol ihc Amciican Planning Associaiion.
Ii lcgan in ihc s¡iing 2004, whcn Ellswoiih
anu ihc Gicaici S¡iinghclu Boaiu ol
REAITORS
®
icqucsicu assisiancc liom NAR`s
Smaii Giowih Piogiam io iniiiaic a ¡iogiam
io ¡lan loi ihc ciiy`s luiuic. Ash Giovc, wiih
a ¡o¡ulaiion ol a¡¡ioximaicly 1,ò00, is 20
milcs liom ia¡iuly-giowing S¡iinghclu anu
is cx¡ccicu io scc signihcani giowih in ihc
ncai luiuic. Ellswoiih saiu shc lcgan ihc
¡lanning iniiiaiivc lccausc ol ihc communiiy`s
ucsiic io ¨mainiain oui chaiacici anu scnsc
ol communiiy in ihc lacc ol giowih. Mosi
small-iown lcaucis uo noi havc ihc nccucu
Inowlcugc io maIc ihai ha¡¡cn anu uo noi
havc ihc lunus io hiic ihc ¡cison ihai uocs."
Thc iown uscu ihc NAR assisiancc io hiic A.
Nclcsscn Associaics, a naiionally iccognizcu
¡lanning anu ucsign him liom Bcllc Mcau,
Ncw ]ciscy, io conuuci visioning anu ¡lanning
woiIsho¡s ovci a loui-uay ¡ciiou in Ash
Giovc. Moic ihan 120 Ash Giovc icsiucnis,
lusincss owncis anu oihci siaIcholucis
aiicnucu ihc woiIsho¡s. Paiiici¡anis
com¡lcicu visual ¡iclcicncc suivcys anu
qucsiionnaiics on lanu-usc ¡olicics, anu
woiIcu in icams io cicaic ma¡s ic¡icscniing
ihcii iccommcnuaiions loi giowih. Planncis
liom A. Nclcsscn Associaics wcic assisicu
ly volunicci ¡lanncis liom NAR, ihc ciiy ol
S¡iinghclu, anu ihc ¡lanning laculiy anu
siuucnis liom Missouii Siaic Univcisiiy.
¨Thc ¡aiincishi¡ lciwccn Ash Giovc, NAR,
ihc local REAITOR
®
RR loaiu, anu ihc univcisiiy
was so im¡oiiani io ihc succcss ol ihis
¡lanning clloii," says ]oc Molinaio, managci
ol NAR`s Smaii Giowih Piogiam. ¨Anu ihc
laci ihai so many ciiizcns ¡aiiici¡aicu is a
icsiamcni io Mayoi Ellswoiih`s lcaucishi¡."
Soon alici ihc ¡lanning cvcni, ciiizcn woiIing
giou¡s wcic loimcu io luiihci ¡uisuc many
ol ihc iucas ucvclo¡cu in ihc ¡icliminaiy
¡lan, anu ihc ciiy is cuiicnily woiIing io
incoi¡oiaic ihc ouicomcs ol ihc ¡ioccss inio
a com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan anu u¡uaicu lanu-
ucvclo¡mcni icgulaiions. Thc ¡icliminaiy
¡lan also ¡ioviucu ihc im¡cius anu su¡¡oii
loi ihc ciiy`s iwo succcsslul a¡¡licaiions loi
lunuing liom ihc Missouii Dc¡aiimcni ol
Tians¡oiiaiion io insiall siucwalIs anu siicci
lighiing anu ¡lani iiccs along ma|oi ioaus
in ihc ciiy, anu was ihc caialysi loi luiihci
woiI wiih Diuiy Univcisiiy`s aichiicciuic anu
lusincss schools io ucvclo¡ ucsign concc¡is
anu a maiIciing ¡lan loi uowniown.
Contact:
Bicnua Ellswoiih, CRS, GRI
Uniicu Couniiy Suluilan BioIci
P.O. Box SSS
Ash Giovc, MO 6ò604
417-7ò1-SSSS
licnc2Caol.com
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Vn·L.r¿ìor FEA1TOFS
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Cu.Je or Low FEA1TOFS
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.r¡o.»nì.or or ìLe VAF QunI.ì, o¡ 1.¡e P.o¿.n» ·ee
www.waicalioi.com/Govcinmcni/qol.as¡
Action Plan
Thc lollowing ouilincs a ¡io¡oscu aciion
¡lan loi local REAITOR
®
involvcmcni in
u¡uaics oi ic-wiiics ol ihcii communiiics`
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lans. Thc answcis io
ihc qucsiions asIcu in ihc lay ol ihc
lanu` scciion ¡ioviuc a liamcwoiI loi
local aciivisis io gci ihc inloimaiion ihcy
nccu io lccomc inloimcu anu involvcu.
Answcis io ihc qucsiions may lc oliaincu
liom ¡lanning siall mcmlcis, ¡lanning
commission mcmlcis anu clccicu olhcials
anu ihcii sialls.
A loi ol ihis woiI will lc luiluing anu
mainiaining iclaiionshi¡s, somcihing ihai
REAITORS
®
uo cvciy uay in ihcii woiI wiih
clicnis.
K|kLI9K
®
ktticr ûti1º
Strategy ano Tone
Thcic aic scvcial lunuamcnial
iccommcnuaiions io sci ihc siiaicgy anu ionc
loi local involvcmcni.
W REAITORS
®
shoulu gci involvcu in ihc
¡lan u¡uaic ¡ioccss immcuiaicly. Thc goal
is io gci ihc com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan u¡uaic
¡io¡osal io icucci ihc REAITORS
®
¡olicy
ol|cciivcs liom ihc ouisci.
W Anoihci unucilying goal is io ¡osiiion
REAITORS
®
as a ihoughilul anu ¡osiiivc
loicc in gciiing ihc local ¡lans u¡uaicu
in ways ihai avoiu ¡ullic conuici anu
coniiovcisy, anu auvocaics who will assisi in
oliaining communiiy su¡¡oii loi ihc ¡lan.
Iocal REAITORS
®
shoulu maIc ii clcai
ihai ihcy aic gciiing involvcu io ollci somc
ol ihcii insighis inio ihc communiiy anu
aic commiiicu io ongoing involvcmcni in
ihc u¡uaic ¡ioccss.
W Mcciings wiih local olhcials, ¡lanning
commissioncis, anu siall mcmlcis shoulu
noi lc com¡laining scssions aloui whai
is wiong in ihc communiiy anu wiih ihc
cuiicni ¡lan. REAITORS
®
shoulu insicau
ollci assisiancc io maIc ihings lciici.
W Iocal REAITORS
®
shoulu ciic local
cxam¡lcs ol ¡io|ccis ihai accom¡lish ihc
Neetings with local oIfcials, planning connissioners, ano staII nenbers
shoulo not be conplaining sessions about what is wrong in the connunity
ano with the current plan. REALTCRS
®
shoulo insteao oIIer assistance to
nake things better.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
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l38
ol|cciivcs ol ihc ¡lanning clcmcnis ihcy
wani io scc incluucu. Exam¡lcs liom
ncighloiing communiiics may lc uscu il
nonc cxisi in ihcii own communiiics.
Cet lnvolveo Early ano CIten
The sooner you Ieorn obout ond get invoIved
in the process, the better o[[ you`II be.
W MaIc allics ol ihc ¡lanning siall as caily
as ¡ossillc. Having ihc siall on youi siuc
anu auvocaiing loi youi ¡iovisions is much
lciici ihan having ihcm o¡¡osc ihcii
inclusion alici ihc ¡lan is ¡ui loiwaiu.
W Auvisc clccicu uccision-maIcis as soon as
¡ossillc aloui whai you`ic uoing anu why.
Kcc¡ ihcm u¡uaicu as ihc ¡ioccss anu
youi involvcmcni coniinucs.
W Il siall mcmlcis aic noi iccc¡iivc io youi
involvcmcni, havc sym¡aihciic clccicu
olhcials maIc ¡io¡osals io ihcm loi you
anu cncouiagc siall io maIc suic you`ic ai
ihc iallc.
Cetting the Lay oI the Lano
You woulun`i uicam ol iiying io scll a housc
wiihoui Inowing iis locaiion, sizc, ihc numlci
ol lcuiooms anu iis amcniiics. Euucaiing
youiscll on ihc issucs anu ¡co¡lc involvcu in ihc
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan u¡uaic is |usi as im¡oiiani.
Educote yourseI[ obout the existing
comprehensive pIon poIicies.
W Do ihc cxisiing ¡olicics incluuc ihc ¡olicy
clcmcnis su¡¡oiicu ly REAITORS
®
.
W Il ihcy uo, how aic ihc cxisiing ¡olicics
woiIing anu whai changcs mighi maIc
ihcm lciici.
W Which clcmcnis aic noi incluucu in ihc
cxisiing ¡lan.
W Is ihcic uiali languagc availallc liom oihci
communiiics ihai mighi woiI in youi aica.
W Aic ihcic cxam¡lcs in youi communiiy,
oi in ncighloiing aicas, ol ¡olicics ihai
aic woiIing wcll anu ihai shoulu lc
cncouiagcu.
IdcntiIy thc clcctcd oIhcials and staII
who will be invoIved in the updote process.
W Will a couniy oi ciiy council commiiicc
a¡¡iovc ihc u¡uaic lcloic ii gocs io ihc
lull council. Il so, who is ihc commiiicc
chaii anu who aic iis mcmlcis. Which
commissionci, il any, will hcau u¡ ihc
¡ioccss anu which aic mosi inicicsicu in
¡lanning issucs.
W Will a ¡lanning commission lc involvcu.
Who aic ihc chaii anu mcmlcis.
W Which local REAITORS
®
havc goou
iclaiionshi¡s wiih s¡ccihc olhcials anu can
ialI wiih ihcm aloui ihc ¡lan u¡uaic.
W Which ciiy oi couniy uc¡aiimcni will lc
conuuciing ihc u¡uaic. Who is ihc hcau ol
ihc uc¡aiimcni anu which siall mcmlcis
aic uoing ihc woiI.
W Do any local REAITORS
®
havc goou
iclaiionshi¡s wiih ihc ¡lanning siall anu
can ialI wiih ihcm aloui ihc u¡uaic.
Identi[y the updote process ond scheduIe
W Will ihcic lc woiIsho¡s io uiscuss ihc
¡lan.
W Whcn will ii hisi lc lioughi loiwaiu loi
¡ullic icvicw anu commcni.
W Will a ¡lanning commission oi oihci
similai louy uo ihc iniiial icvicw. Il so,
whai will ihcii ¡ioccss anu schcuulc lc.
W Whcn anu whcic will ¡ullic hcaiings lc
hclu.
W How anu whcn can you anu youi allics
anu su¡¡oiicis maIc commcnis on ihc
¡io¡oscu ¡lan.
W Who will you gci io aiicnu any woiIsho¡s,
icvicw scssions, mcciings anu hcaiings io
s¡caI in lavoi ol ihc ¡lan clcmcnis you
su¡¡oii.
Identi[y Your AIIies
W Who in ihc local ical csiaic communiiy
woulu lc cllcciivc in uiscussing youi clloii
wiih s¡ccihc clccicu olhcials anu siall.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l3º
W Whai oihci local giou¡s oi oiganizaiions
mighi su¡¡oii youi ¡osiiions. Naiuial
allics may incluuc chamlcis ol commcicc,
luilucis, cconomic ucvclo¡mcni councils,
ioiaiics anu oihci lusincss oiganizaiions.
W Consiuci lcss olvious allics: Aic ihcic low-
incomc housing auvocaics, laloi unions,
ncighloihoou giou¡s, ¡aiIs auvocaics oi
cnviionmcnialisis who may shaic vicws
aloui clcmcnis ol ihc com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan
u¡uaic.
W Who in youi communiiy has coniacis wiih
ihosc giou¡s anu may lc allc io cx¡loic
common giounu.
Identi[y PotentioI Opponents
W Aic ihcic local ncighloihoou,
conscivaiion, cnviionmcnial oi oihci
giou¡s liIcly io lc involvcu in ihc u¡uaic
¡ioccss.
W Whai iy¡cs ol ¡osiiions anu aciions havc
ihcy iaIcn in ihc ¡asi icgaiuing lanu usc
issucs.
W Havc ihcy lccn involvcu in ¡iioi
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan u¡uaics.
W Do ihcy havc goou coniacis wiih siall who
will ucvclo¡ ihc ¡lan anu uccision-maIcis
who will auo¡i ii.
W Can you hnu ioom loi agiccmcni. Whai
issucs. Can you agicc io movc loiwaiu on
aicas ol agiccmcni.
Identi[y Medio
W Whai mcmlcis ol ihc local mcuia ¸ialI anu
ncws iauio, iclcvision, ncws¡a¡ci) mighi
lc inicicsicu in ihc com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan
u¡uaic.
W Whai local REAITORS
®
havc goou
iclaiionshi¡s wiih ihcm.
W Whai local REAITORS
®
will hanulc mcuia
inquiiics.
W Whai local REAITORS
®
anu allics mighi
lc availallc io liicl cuiioiial wiiicis ai
a¡¡io¡iiaic iimcs.
I+|ir] ktticr
Atteno local hearings
Ii is im¡ciaiivc ihai REAITORS
®
aiicnu local
hcaiings whcn im¡oiiani issucs aic uiscusscu.
Rcmcmlci ihis:
W Pooily ¡lanncu aiicnuancc ai an im¡oiiani
mcciing coulu icsuli in a misscu o¡¡oiiuniiy.
W A wcll-oichcsiiaicu aiicnuancc ly
REAITORS
®
anu homcowncis in laigc
numlcis can maIc a siiong im¡icssion on
local olhcials.
Iollow ihcsc sic¡s io maIc ihc mosi ol youi
aiicnuancc:
W Havc REAITORS
®
mcci lcloichanu io
agicc on a siiaicgy anu mcssagc.
W Dcsignaic a s¡oIcs¡cison¸s) io
communicaic ihc REAITOR
®
RR ¡osiiion.
W Dcvclo¡ ialIing ¡oinis, an ouilinc ol youi
Icy mcssagcs.
W Aniici¡aic ihc aiicnuancc ol local mcuia
anu incoi¡oiaic ihis inio youi siiaicgy. Ii
coulu mcan valuallc ¨caincu mcuia iimc"
loi youi mcssagc.
Stay inIorneo
REAITORS
®
alsoluicly musi siay inloimcu
aloui local issucs. Thcic aic a numlci ol sic¡s
you can iaIc io siay on io¡ ol ihings:
W Rcau local ncws¡a¡cis
W Sulsciilc io anu moniioi local agcnuas
anu minuics. Somc ol ihis is availallc ovci
ihc Inicinci.
W Aiicnu local council anu ¡lanning
commission hcaiings.
W Dcvclo¡ siiong iclaiionshi¡s wiih local
govcinmcni olhcials anu siall.
W Aiicnu local civic cvcnis hosicu ly allicu
inuusiiy giou¡s such as ihc Chamlci
ol Commcicc anu Builuing Inuusiiy
Associaiion.
W Inviic local olhcials io s¡caI io youi
associaiion on s¡ccihc issucs.
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l4O
Porticipote in IocoI commissions
ond tosh [orces
W You can inuucncc ihc uclaic aloui local
issucs ly having REAITORS
®
sii on local
commissions anu iasI loiccs.
W Il youi ciiy govcinmcni has noi cicaicu a
commission oi iasI loicc, iaIc ihc iniiiaiivc
anu suggcsi ihai onc lc loimcu.
W Paiiici¡aiion in ihcsc loiums is ihc lcsi
way loi REAITORS
®
io gci involvcu in ihc
uialoguc caily anu counici ihc inuucncc
ihai local govcinmcni siall anu o¡¡osiiion
loiccs may havc ovci clccicu olhcials.
DeveIoping reIotionships with IocoI o[fcioIs
Ii is im¡oiiani io ucvclo¡ iclaiionshi¡s wiih
local olhcials lcloic coniiovcisics icach
ihcii high ¡oini io cnsuic ihai you will havc
an o¡cn cai. Ways io ucvclo¡ ¡iouuciivc
lcgislaiivc iclaiionshi¡s aic:
W Hosiing a ¨mcci anu gicci" iccc¡iion loi
local olhcials ai youi associaiion olhcc.
W Hosi lunuiaiscis loi canuiuaics anu
clccicu olhcials.
W Inviic govcinmcni olhcials io s¡caI io youi
mcmlcishi¡ on ¡aiiiculai issucs.
W Havc a icgulai ¡icscncc ai local
govcinmcni mcciings.
W Placc youi associaiion on local clccicu
olhcials` mailing lisis.
W Placc youi local clccicu olhcials on ihc
associaiion`s mailing lisis.
W Coniinuc youi iclaiionshi¡ wiih olhcials
alici a uccision has lccn mauc, cs¡ccially il
ihc uccision was lavoiallc.
Don´t Iorget about staII
Covernment sto[[ inµuences eIected o[fcioIs
os much, i[ not more, thon onyone eIse
W Siall ¡ic¡aics ic¡oiis, siuuics anu analyscs
ol im¡oiiani issucs.
W Elccicu olhcials olicn cuucaic ihcmsclvcs
ly icvicwing ihc inloimaiion ihcy icccivc
liom siall.
W REAITORS
®
musi mainiain o¡cn lincs ol
communicaiion wiih siall io cnsuic ihai ii
¡ioviucs ol|cciivc inloimaiion io clccicu
olhcials.
W Similaily, ii is im¡oiiani io havc o¡cn lincs
ol communicaiion wiih clccicu olhcials,
in ihc cvcni ihai siall uocs noi shaic youi
¡oini ol vicw.
Identi[y Your Objectives
Giowih issucs manilcsi ihcmsclvcs in many
loims - lalloi mcasuics, zoning oiuinanccs,
¡io|cci a¡¡iovals, oi com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan
u¡uaics, io namc a lcw. Rcgaiulcss ol ihc iy¡c
ol siiuaiion you aic lacing, ii is im¡oiiani loi
you io iucniily youi ol|cciivcs hisi, lcloic you
ucvclo¡ a siiaicgy.
Determine your gooIs
W Whai uo you ho¡c io accom¡lish in
iclaiion io ihis issuc. Aniici¡aic uillcicni
lcvcl sccnaiios.
W Bc ¡ic¡aicu io com¡iomisc anu io accc¡i
somcihing lcss ihan youi iucal ouicomc.
EvoIuote Your Resources
W Whai icsouiccs uo you havc ai youi
uis¡osal io achicvc youi goals.
W Aic voluniccis oiganizcu anu icauy io
molilizc.
W How much moncy uocs youi associaiion
havc, anu how much is ii willing io s¡cnu.
W Whai moucs ol communicaiion can you usc.
W Do you nccu, anu can you alloiu, io hiic a
¡iolcssional consuliani.
W Whai iclaiionshi¡s uo youi mcmlcis havc
wiih local olhcials.
Mop out the poIiticoI dynomics
W Know whai ihc ¡oliiical lcasililiiy is ol
achicving youi goals.
W Do you havc ihc voics anu whai will ii iaIc
io gci ihcm.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l4l
Identi[y Torgets
Tayloi youi mcssagc io ihc auuicncc you nccu
io ¡cisuauc, whcihci:
W Policy-maIcis ¸lcgislaiois, council
mcmlcis, commissioncis, cic.)
W Iocal govcinmcni siall
W Planning commissioncis
W Homcowncis
W Voicis
W All icsiucnis
W Poicniial coniiiluiois
DeveIop o messoge
This is ihc mosi im¡oiiani ¡aii ol ihc ¡ioccss!
Hcic aic sic¡s io lollow:
W Dciciminc how you wani io convcy youi
¡osiiion io ihc iaigci auuicncc.
W Kcc¡ youi mcssagc succinci, sim¡lc anu
casy io unucisianu.
W Youi mcssagc shoulu convcy ihc ¡osiiivc
¡oinis ol youi ¡osiiion.
W SiicI wiih youi mcssagc.
Toctics
How will you convcy youi mcssagc. Consiuci
ihcsc sccnaiios:
W Il you nccu io lolly ihc ciiy council on an
oiuinancc ¡io¡osal, you will nccu io woiI
wiih siall, mcci wiih ¡olicy-maIcis, aiicnu
hcaiings, icsiily, anu maIc suic you havc ihc
voics ncccssaiy io achicvc youi ol|cciivc.
W You may wani io conuuci a ¡ullic
cuucaiion cam¡aign, incluuing lciicis io
ihc cuiioi ol ihc local ncws¡a¡ci oi maylc
a iown hall loium wiih clccicu lcaucis.
W Youi iaciics will uc¡cnu ¡iimaiily on whai
youi iaigci auuicncc is anu whai ii is ihai
you aic iiying io communicaic.
BuiId CooIitions
Allicu inuusiiy giou¡s can hcl¡ you
communicaic youi mcssagc wiih auucu
icsouiccs.
W Homcowncis
W Voicis
W Builucis
W Associaiions
W Iocal Busincsscs
W Chamlcis ol Commcicc
W Economic Dcvclo¡mcni Councils
W Poii Disiiici olhcials
W Schools anu PTAs
W Ialoi Unions
W Enviionmcnialisis
Any oi all ol ihc alovc may shaic ihc samc
¡osiiion as REAITORS
®
on housing, cconomic
ucvclo¡mcni, giowih managcmcni oi
¡io¡ciiy-iclaicu issucs. Thcy can lc cnlisicu
in a vaiiciy ol ways loi a common ¡ui¡osc.
Adopt a stratcgy Ior achicving your goals
Hcic aic somc ol youi choiccs, uc¡cnuing on
youi goals anu how you havc cvaluaicu all ol
ihc oihci issucs mcniioncu alovc.
W Giassioois cam¡aign, molilizing
REAITORS
®
, ¡io¡ciiy owncis anu oihcis
W Pullic cuucaiion cam¡aign. This mighi
incluuc iaigci mailings, ¨caincu" mcuia
¸sioiics anu o¡inion ¡icccs in local ncws
ouilcis) oi ¡aiu mcuia.
W Coaliiion luiluing
W Iollying ciiy council oi siall
Youi uliimaic siiaicgy will uc¡cnu on youi
goals, youi iaigci auuicncc anu how you
inicnu io icach ii. Ioi cxam¡lc, il ihc ciiy
council is consiuciing an oiuinancc, ihcn you
will wani io lolly ihc council.
Youi iaciics will uc¡cnu ¡iimaiily on whai
youi iaigci auuicncc is anu whai ii is ihai you
aic iiying io communicaic.
Use Eorned Medio
You may hnu ii usclul io conuuci a ¡ullic
cuucaiion cam¡aign. Thc lcsi way io uo ihis
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l42
wiihoui s¡cnuing valuallc icsouiccs is ly
using caincu mcuia:
W Euiioiial loaius
W Iciicis-io-ihc-cuiioi
W O¡inion cuiioiials
Set up o °Key Contoct` progrom
REAITORS
®
havc csiallishcu a ¨Icy coniaci"
¡iogiam ai ihc siaic lcvcl ihai can lc aua¡icu
io ihc local lcvcl. A ¨Icy coniaci" is a ¡cison
who is maichcu io a siall ¡cison oi clccicu
¡olicy maIci in ihcii communiiy. Thc ¨Icy
coniaci" scivcs as a souicc ol inloimaiion loi
¡olicy-maIcis aloui issucs allcciing ihc ical
csiaic inuusiiy. Thc Washingion Associaiion
has a hanulooI ihai can hcl¡ you in
csiallishing ihis ¡iogiam.
InitioI Contocts
W A icam ol local REAITORS
®
shoulu
lc iucniihcu io cnsuic ihai cnough
commiiicu ¡co¡lc aic availallc io lcgin
anu mainiain ihc involvcmcni ¡ioccss.
W Mcciings shoulu lc hclu as quicIly
as ¡ossillc wiih ¡lanning siall anu
commission mcmlcis, as wcll as wiih
clccicu olhcials anu ihcii sialls. Ai ihcsc
mcciings REAITORS
®
woulu uiscuss why
ihcy wani io lc involvcu, how ihcy ¡lan on
¡aiiici¡aiing, whai ihcy havc io ollci ihc
¡ioccss anu ihc ouicomcs ihcy ho¡c io
achicvc.
W Iocal cxam¡lcs ol succcsslul ucvclo¡mcni,
zoning anu icgulaiions ihai illusiiaic
anu align wiih ihc REAITORS
®
s¡ccihc
Checklist Ior REALTCRS
®
W Visii www.icalioi.oig/smaiigiowih.
W Aiicnu a ciiy council oi couniy
commission mcciing.
W Dcvclo¡ an unucisianuing ol local
giowih issucs.
W Rcqucsi ¸oi uownloau) NAR icsouiccs
io usc locally.
W A¡¡ioach ¡oicniial coaliiion ¡aiincis.
W Voicc youi su¡¡oii loi smaii giowih ai
a ¡ullic hcaiing.
W Wiiic a lciici io ihc cuiioi ol ihc local
ncws¡a¡ci.
W Mcci wiih clccicu olhcials.
W ]oin an RPAC commiiicc.
W Su¡¡oii a canuiuaic loi olhcc.
W Volunicci loi a communiiy
oiganizaiion.
W SccI an a¡¡oinimcni io a local loaiu.
W Run loi olhcc.
Checklist Ior REALTCR
®
Associations
W Hosi a smaii giowih siiaicgic ¡lanning
scssion.
W Euucaic youi mcmlcishi¡.
W Cicaic volunicci icsouiccs.
W Pcisonalizc NAR maiciials loi
uisiiiluiion io youi mcmlcishi¡ anu
communiiy lcaucis.
W S¡icau ihc smaii giowih woiu ai ihc
communiiy lcvcl.
W Ioim iclaiionshi¡s wiih a lioau lasc ol
¡aiincis.
W Hosi a smaii giowih scminai loi
communiiy lcaucis.
W Co-s¡onsoi a ¡lanning cvcni.
ûºttir] (+r1 St+¡ir]} lrrclrº1
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l43
com¡ichcnsivc ¡lan u¡uaic ¡olicy
iccommcnuaiions shoulu lc uocumcnicu
anu ¡ioviucu io ¡lanning siall anu olhcials
lollowing ihc iniiial mcciings.
Ongoing InvoIvement
W Ongoing coniaci shoulu lc mainiaincu
wiih ¡lanncis, clccicu olhcials anu
ihcii sialls io auvocaic loi s¡ccihc
¡olicy iccommcnuaiions anu ongoing
involvcmcni.
W Iocal REAITORS
®
shoulu lc ¡icscni
ai cvciy mcciing, woiIsho¡, uiscussion
oi hcaiing ai which ihc com¡ichcnsivc
¡lan u¡uaic will lc uiscusscu. Planning
commission, ciiy anu couniy councils anu
commissions, anu ¡ullic mcciings hclu ly
siall aic cxam¡lcs ol ihc iy¡cs ol mcciings
ai which REAITORS
®
shoulu mainiain
an ongoing ¡icscncc. Bui icmcmlci ihai
mosi uccisions aic mauc lchinu ihc sccncs,
so you`ll wani io lc involvcu ihcic, ioo.
W Whcncvci ¡ullic commcnis aic allowcu, lc
ihcy wiiiicn, oi oial, REAITORS
®
anu ihcii
allics shoulu lc molilizcu io ¡ioviuc ¡ullic
su¡¡oii loi ihc ¡lan u¡uaics you sccI.
Siall anu olhcials shoulu lc shown ihai
ihcic is wiucs¡icau, vocal anu susiaincu
su¡¡oii loi youi ¡io¡osals anu uccisions io
cnaci ihcm. This is ¡aiiiculaily im¡oiiani
lccausc olhcials aic much moic liIcly
io a¡¡iovc ¡lan ¡iovisions il ihcy Inow
ihcy aic siiongly su¡¡oiicu ly commiiicu
communiiy mcmlcis.
W Ii is ciiiical io ¡ioviuc wiiiicn anu oial
icsiimony loi ihc ¨iccoiu" io cnsuic
you havc ¨sianuing" ¸ihc lcgal iighi io
lc involvcu anu auuicss ihc issucs you
¡icscnicu) shoulu ¡olicy uccisions lc ¸oi
nccu io lc) challcngcu.
|irislir] Up
ThanI anu coniinuc io su¡¡oii olhcials who
a¡¡iovcu ¡olicics you ¡io¡oscu. Rcmain
involvcu in ihc communiiy.
Iinally, ihinI aloui gciiing REAITORS
®
clccicu anu a¡¡oinicu io local olhcc.
Having REAITORS
®
a¡¡oinicu io ¡lanning
commissions oi clccicu io ciiy council
¡ioviucs ihc lcsi assuiancc ihai youi voicc will
lc hcaiu on im¡oiiani issucs.
Sanple Legislation
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|clit¡ is tlº tritit+l lir| |ºtwººr pl+rrir] +r1
tlº pl¡sit+l rº+lit¡ c| ctr tcmmtritiºs.
S M k K I û K 9 ü I B I 9 9 L K l I l45
Thc lollowing ¡ioviucs an assoiimcni ol
sam¡lc ¡olicics anu lcgislaiion ihai havc lccn
cnacicu in vaiious communiiics aiounu ihc
couniiy. Thc inicni is io ¡ioviuc you wiih a
signihcani siaii in youi clloii io liing smaii
giowih ¡olicics io youi communiiy.
U.S. |rrircrmºrt+l |rctºtticr k]ºrt¡
Gciiing io Smaii Giowih: 100 Policics loi
Im¡lcmcniaiion, now in iwo volumcs, ¡ioviucs
cxccllcni cxam¡lcs ol ¡olicics ihai su¡¡oii
smaii giowih ¡iinci¡lcs liom communiiics
aiounu ihc couniiy. Whilc ihc lcgislaiivc icxi
is noi incluucu, ii is an cxccllcni ¡lacc io siaii
iiacIing uown ¡olicics ihai auuicss s¡ccihc
as¡ccis ol smaii giowih. Boih volumcs can lc
uownloaucu liom: www.e¡n.¿o./·»n.ì¿.owìL/
¿eìì.r¿_ìo_·¿2.Lì»
kmºrit+r |l+rrir] ksscti+ticr
Giowing Smaii Icgislaiivc GuiuclooI: Moucl
Siaiuics loi Planning anu ihc Managcmcni
ol Changc ¡ioviucs a com¡ichcnsivc guiuc
io icloiming ¡lanning siaiuics anu uiscusscs
how io lcgin ¡lanning siaiuic icloim ihiough
ihc siaic lcgislaiuic, ihc govcinoi, anu ¡iivaic
inicicsi giou¡s, anu ¡ioviucs guiuancc loi
siaic, icgional, anu local lanu-usc ¡lanning,
incluuing moucl siaiuics. Thc looI can lc
oiuci liom: www.¡Inrr.r¿.o.¿/¿.ow.r¿·»n.ì
S+mplº Lº]isl+ticr
A
principal reason why snart growth oevelopnent is not nore connon
is that the existing zoning laws in nany connunities prohibit conpact,
nixeo-use high oensity oevelopnent. Connunities that have naoe
the eIIort to change their oevelopnent guioance are seeing the
oesireo types oI oevelopnent take place.
Smaii Giowih Coucs ¡ioviucs 11 moucl smaii
giowih oiuinanccs on ihc lollowing io¡ics,
wiih commcniaiy, scc: www.¡Inrr.r¿.o.¿/
·»n.ì¿.owìL·oJe·/¡Ln·e1.Lì»
W Mixcu-Usc Zoning Disiiici Oiuinancc
W Town Ccnici Oiuinancc
W Alloiuallc Housing Dcnsiiy Bonus
Oiuinancc
W Unihcu Dcvclo¡mcni Pcimii Rcvicw
Pioccss Oiuinancc
W Tianslci ol Dcvclo¡mcni Righis Oiuinancc
W Clusici Dcvclo¡mcni Oiuinancc
W Pcucsiiian Ovcilay ¸POD) Disiiici
W On-Siic Acccss, PaiIing, anu Ciiculaiion
Oiuinancc
W Shaicu PaiIing Oiuinancc
W Siicci Conncciiviiy Sianuaius Oiuinancc
Ilº Sm+rt ûrcwtl Nºtwcr|
Thc wcl siic ¡ioviucs many usclul iools loi
liinging youi communiiy`s ucvclo¡mcni
icgulaiions u¡ io s¡ccu loi smaii giowih
ucvclo¡mcni, incluuing iwo ¡ullicaiions,
Smaii Giowih Zoning Coucs: A Rcsouicc
Guiuc anu Thc Inhll 8 Rcucvclo¡mcni Couc
HanulooI as wcll as onlinc acccss io s¡ccihc
coucs liom communiiics aiounu ihc couniiy.
See: www.·»n.ì¿.owìL.o.¿/I.b.n.,/IJ.I.·ì.n·¡
N k I l 9 N k L k S S 9 C l k I l 9 N 9 | K | k L I 9 K S
®
l46
NkK 9rlirº Kºsctrtºs
NAR`s Smaii Giowih wcl siic has linIs io
oihci sam¡lc/moucl lcgislaiion, incluuing
cxam¡lcs loi:
W Tiauiiional Ncighloihoou Dcvclo¡mcni
W Ioim-Bascu Zoning Couc
W Inclusionaiy Zoning Oiuinancc
W Builuing Rchaliliiaiion Couc
W Vacani Pio¡ciiy Rcclamaiion
W Taigciing Giowih
W Alicinaiivc Tians¡oiiaiion
See: www..enIìo..o.¿/·¿ìooII.ìI.rI·
smartgrowth

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