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Sierra College History 17A - Pre-Columbian Native Americans to Civil War Christian Jardine Spring 2012 MW 12:30 Phone:

(916) 640-3841 COURSE DESCRIPTION The course is a survey of U.S. History from pre-Columbian Native-American cultures to the Civil War that provides a narrative overview of some of the most significant political events and currents of the period, as well as a more detailed, critical analysis of selected social, cultural, intellectual, and economic forces which have played a major role in shaping America's development, and can help shine a light on present social problems. Particular attention will be focused on issues of race, ethnicity, gender, class, and the way these categories interact with one another. We will approach the American past from the perspective African-Americans, immigrants, women, workers, etc., and explore the major role, too often neglected, that these groups have played in our nation's history. This does not mean we will neglect the role of the powerful institutions, groups, and individuals ( i.e., Congress, upper class, Alexander Hamilton) in U.S. History, but we will do so from the viewpoint of the traditionally underprivileged groups, examining how power acted upon them. Students will be asked to acquire the foundational detailed knowledge in western civilization that is necessary to become proficient in the study of the subject, since history is an empirically based discipline. This means a solid grounding in events and facts, (the who, what, where, when of western civilization), including names, dates, and places. But this will be done with attention given to a further level of complexity in the subject, meaning that we will be asking questions about the past (the why and how), interpreting it, illustrating how it can be a useful tool in understanding the present, drawing conclusions about historical phenomena, and trying to understand both continuity and change through the epochs studied. In other words, a strenuous effort will be made to help students make the connection between the important specific details of history and the critical thinking and analysis that allow us to put them into a larger perspective. We will try to see how the particular and the general must be woven together to get a clear understanding of the past and inquiry into it. Aiding us in these endeavors, we will make consistent use of primary source documents (written materials from the time period studied) throughout the course. Student Performance Outcomes: Through combined essay/objective exams, and/or formal papers, and/or in-class discussions, and/or in-class group presentations, students will be able to: 1. Identify primary and secondary sources and describe their use as evidence in historical analysis; 2. Engage in historical analysis by writing a minimum of 2,500 words over the course of the semester; 3. Identify and analyze the significance of individuals, ideas, and events in American history to 1877; 4. Examine, discuss, and compare the development of the various regions and the establishment of differing societies in colonial America with emphasis on the unique experiences of gender, ethnicity, and race; 5. Analyze the evolution of the American political system and the establishment of the Constitution and constitutional principles; 6. Compare and contrast the development of the differing economic systems in America including the social and political conflict that arose over that development; 7. Describe the impact of Western expansion on all groups in America; 8. Analyze the causes of sectional conflict and the dissolving of the Union; and

9. Discuss the challenges of rebuilding the Union. REQUIRED READING Roark, James, et. al. The American Promise:A Compact History, Volume I. (For helpful tips on how to read a college history text effectively see Appendix 1 below). Hollitz, John. Thinking Through the Past, Volume I. (For helpful tips on how to read primary sources effectively see Appendix 2 below COURSE CALENDAR. 1/23 Introduction . 1/25 Introductory lecture Thinking Historically. 1/30 - Introductory lecture Thinking Historically. 2/1 Pre-Columbian Native Americans: Paleo-Indians, Clovis points, Archaic cultures, Anasazi, Mississippian cultures, Cahokia. (Roark Ch. 1). 2/6 - Pre-Columbian Native Americans: Native American values 2/8- The European invasion of America, 1492-1600: European age of discovery, Spanish New World empire, Columbus, Cortez, Pizarro (Roark Ch. 2), the fall of Aztecs & Incas. 2/13 The European invasion of America, 1492-1600: the Dutch & New Netherlands/New Amsterdam; the French, New France, Samuel de Champlain, the Jesuits; dealing with Native Americans. 2/15 -Quiz #1 Virginia & the South in the 17th century: Jamestown & Virginia Company, John Smith & Starving Time, tobacco & development of slavery (Roark Ch. 3). 2/22 Virginia & the South in the 17th century: Bacons Rebellion & social hierarchy in early Virginia 2/27 Massachusetts & North in the 17th century: Mayflower Compact & Plymouth, John Winthrop & Massachusetts Bay Colony, Puritan religion & values, congregationalism, town meetings. (Roark Ch. 4) 2/29 - Massachusetts & North in the 17th century: Pequot War & King Phillips War, Roger Williams, Ann Hutchinson, Salem Witch Trials. 3/5- Quiz #2; 18th century colonial society: 18th century colonial economic & demographic development, development of New York & Pennsylvania, colonial assemblies. (Roark Ch. 5). 3/7- 18th century colonial society: the Great Awakening, the Enlightenment, Benjamin Franklin & Thomas Jefferson as exemplars of Enlightenment values 3/12 - Great Britain and the Colonial Crisis: Origins of the American Revolution, British Navigation Acts & mercantilism, French & Indian War, Stamp Act Crisis, Townshend Duties, Coercive Acts, Samuel Adams & Sons of Liberty. 3/14 - Great Britain and the Colonial Crisis: Committees of Correspondence, First & Second Continental Congress, nonimportation, the rise of John Adams & Thomas Jefferson (Roark Ch. 6).

3/19- Quiz #3; The American Revolution: the role of George Washington, Lexington & Concord, Patriots & Tories, Declaration of Independence, Saratoga. (Roark Ch. 7). 3/26- The American Revolution/ From Articles of Confederation to Constitution Valley Forge, Nathaniel Greene, Yorktown, women, African-Americans & Native Americans in the Revolution; A Constitution for the few or many? The influence of Charles Beard & interpretations of the motives of the Framers; Articles of Confederation, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Northwest Territory & reasons for Constitution. 3/28 - From Articles of Confederation to Constitution: Philadelphia Convention (1787), Virginia & New Jersey Plans, Great Compromise, 3/5 compromise, Bill of Rights, ratification controversy & road to ratification, The Federalist. (Roark Ch. 8). 4/9- Quiz#4; The New Republic, 1789-1800: Washington as president, Hamiltons program and reports to Congress, Assumption, National Bank, (Roark Ch. 9). 4/11 The New Republic, 1789-1800: development of Republican and Federalist parties, Jays Treaty, Washingtons Farewell Address, 4/16 - The New Republic, 1789-1800: Adams Administration & the challenges it faced, XYZ Affair, Alien & Sedition Acts. 4/18 - The Era of Republican dominance and the War of 1812: The Jefferson Revolution of 1800, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis & Clarke Expedition, Embargo Act; development of Supreme Court, John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, Dartmouth v. Woodward & their significance. (Roark Ch. 10). 4/23 - The Era of Republican dominance and the War of 1812 Tecumseh, the Prophet, William Henry Harrison, & conflict on the Northwest frontier; Conflict with Great Britain over American trade, War Hawks, Mr. Madisons war, Era of Good Feelings, Monroe Doctrine. (take-home essay midterm due) 4/25 - Quiz #5; The Expanding Republic: Market Revolution & its ramifications, Samuel Slater, Lowell System, Erie Canal; Jacksonian Democracy, rise of Andrew Jackson, Election of 1824 & Corrupt Bargain, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, American System, Election of 1828. 4/30 - The Expanding Republic: Indian Removal, Nullification crisis, war on Second National Bank, antebellum culture, Second Great Awakening, rise of womens movement, Seneca Falls meeting, Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony (Roark Ch. 11). 5/2 Antebellum Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement: The historians of slavery, daily life on plantations, methods of control by slave-owners, slave resistance & culture, Nat Turners Rebellion. (Roark Ch 13). 5/7 - Antebellum Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement: The rise of the Abolitionist Movement, American Anti-Slavery Society The Liberator William Lloyd Garrison, , Frederick Douglass, Grimke sisters. 5/9 Quiz#6; North, South, West and the "House Divided": Missouri Compromise, Manifest Destiny, Texas & Lone Star Republic, James K. Polk & Mexican American War, Free Soil, Compromise of 1850. (Roark Ch. 12 & 14 & 15) 5/14 - North, South, West and the "House Divided"/ The Civil War: Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scot Decision, the rise of Abraham Lincoln; Lincoln-Douglas Debates, John Browns Raid, rise of Republican party & Election of Abraham Lincoln Why did the North win? Why were there so many casualties? Bull run, George McClellan, Robert E. Lee, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Emancipation Proclamation.

5/16 - The Civil War Rise of U.S. Grant, Shermans March to the Sea, Appomattox, Why the North won, why so many died, Life at home in North & South during Civil War. Quiz #7; take-home essay final due; x-credit due (or within approx. 1 week from this date via email (see below). NOTE: All dates for units and quizzes are subject to changes as announced by instructor. Nothing will ever be moved forward, only backward, and all units will come in the same order as listed above, even if the dates change. COURSE REQUIREMENTS Class meetings & class participation boost: Class meetings will consist entirely of lectures, but lectures that include a large dose of Socratic Method and class participation.. Students are encouraged to participate in lectures by asking questions, making comments, sharing opinions, and answering questions posed by the instructor. (At the end of the semester, those students who have done an outstanding job participating in lectures will have their semester grade bumped up a full letter). -To receive the boost students must do the following: show up to class regularly, come prepared (meaning showing signs that you have read relevant material and have gone over previous notes), take an energetic approach to class meetings, and raise your hand often, asking and answering questions, as well as making comments, all of which must be relevant to the subject matter being dealt with on any given class meeting. Mini-exam/quizzes: There will be seven quizzes, one corresponding to each chapter (There is NO final exam). Each quiz will be made up of 6 multiple-choice questions, 5 matching problems, and one chronological placement segment (4 items must be placed in chronological order from 1st (earliest in history) to 4th (latest in history). Each correct answer on any of the three parts of the quiz is worth two points, so each quiz is worth 30 total points. A study guide/lecture outline, handed out the first week of class, will be your guide to preparing for parts one and two of the quiz (will tell you what to study from the text and lecture notes), and the 6 Chronologies will be assigned by the instructor. For tips on reading effectively in preparation for quizzes please see Appendix 1 below. Before each quiz I will direct you to one such chronological table and pick 6 of the events (4 of which will show up on the quiz). I will drop your lowest quiz at the end of the course, so you have one to burn. This allows you to miss one quiz free of penalty. After that, each missed quiz will go down as a zero in the grade book. NO MAKE-UPS, except in RARE circumstances. Under such circumstances, I may grant you a chance to make up a missed quiz after the one freebie, and it will be based on my discretion, (but beware: you better have a good reason (documentation would help) and make a strong lawyers argument for me to agree to it). Though quizzes are already scheduled on the course calendar, those dates may be subject to change if unforeseen circumstances interfere. ALL quizzes after being graded are only returned for you to look at, write down your score, and check the answer key. They are to be returned to me by the end of class after you have done these things. If I do not get it back, it will go into my grade book as a zero score! Since I drop your lowest quiz, the first time you miss a quiz DO NOT ask me for a make-up. That will be the one that is dropped. If you miss other quizzes after that, you may approach me about a make-up, but you had better come with a persuasive lawyer-like argument (documentation would help), because I am inclined to otherwise say no. Quiz breakdown (Each one the same format): 3 parts (30 point quizzes) -6 multiple-choice questions (2 points each, 12 total). -5matching (2 points each, 10 total) -4 chronology (2 points each, 8 total.

Homework: There is a homework assignment scheduled for each chapter of the Hollitz text, but each student will select any 8 assignments, and skip the others. You get no credit for any assignments over 8 that are turned in. So you get to pick a number of them not to do without penalty (since only 8 count for points), but any assignments under eight not turned in will go down as zeros in the grade book. This allows you some flexibility and opportunity to strategize or make tactical adjustments as the course progresses. They are to be typed and turned in during class on the due date. NO LATE ASSIGNMENTS will be accepted under any circumstances. Each homework assignment is worth 4 points (so a total of 32), which is few enough points that not turning in one or two will not prove catastrophic to a students grade, but enough points overall, that they cannot be safely avoided, since the assignments added together represent the point equivalent of a quiz. Though your lowest quiz score is dropped (see below), the total homework score will not be dropped even though it is almost the same number of points possible as a quiz. Near the beginning of each Hollitz chapter under a section titled Investigation the author lays out a handful of questions to keep in mind as you read the rest of the chapter. It is these questions you are to answer in writing as your homework. Each assignment should be approximately two pages of double-spaced writing, and the answers should be as complete for ALL assigned questions within the space allowed. Full answers that quote liberally from the primary source documents (since analyzing documents is the MAIN point of the homework assignments), make comments on how they relate to the questions, display an understanding of the question, and have accurate and insightful responses will get 4 points, less complete answers will receive 3, 2,1, or 0 points. If a student fails to answer one or more of the assigned questions, this could also result in a score reduction. Each homework assignment is handed back after being corrected. For crucial assistance in reading and comprehending primary source documents please see Appendix 2 below. Thought paper take-home final This assignment is an essay assignment that requires you to make an argument in response to a question (you will have a number o choose from) posed by the instructor iu a 5-6 page essay. The essay required will be a standard argumentative essay (see Appendix 3 below), and other than providing a clear thesis statement and persuasive argument, I will be looking for signs that you read the book in its entirety. The essay will be due at the very end of the course (I will hand out the question mid-semester), and MUST be turned in or you WILL RECEIVE A FAILING GRADE IN THE COURSE. I will talk about the essay from time to time through the course of the semester. The best thing you can do to prepare yourself is to get started on reading the book as soon as possible. I may give the class up to a week of extra time to turn in the essay (by email of course). I will let the class know if and when this becomes a possibility. Extra-credit There is one extra credit assignments consisting of a movie review of a historically based film that fits the subject matter of our course (worth 5 points). Your assignment is to write a minimum to page essay assessing the historical accuracy of the film to the best of your ability. I do not provide a list of films that are acceptable, but you are free to ask me for suggestions or to run something by me to see if it is an appropriate movie. Grade Scale 244-272=A (90% or more) 217-243=B (80% or more) 190-216=C (70% or more) 163-189=D (60% or more) Below 163=F (Less than 60%) Keeping track of your scores (write your scores in the spaces provided to keep your own records so you know where you stand in the course). Point Distribution 6 Quizzes (30 points each)180 8 Homework assignments...32 1 Take-home essay final .60 Totals..272

Homework #1_____/4 #2_____/4 #3_____/4 #4_____/4 #5_____/4 #6_____/4 #7_____/4 #8______/4

Mini-exam..#1______/4 Mini-exam..#2______/30 Mini-exam..#3______/30 Mini-exam .#4______/30 Mini-exam..#5______/30 Mini-exam..#6______/30 Mini-exam .#7______/30 Take-home Essay Final______/60 NOTE: There are a number of ways that grades may veer away from a strictly percentage grade as listed above, all of which can potentially benefit the student. First (as already noted), students who participate regularly in class will get a boost in their final grade. Second, if the mini-exam scores as a whole are generally low on any given quiz, the instructor reserves the right to give everyone a supplement. Third, this instructor tends to reward improvement, so if exam scores show clear signs of getting better throughout the course, a student may end up with a higher grade than their total points would otherwise dictate. Fourth, when doing final grades, sometimes scores will be grouped together if there are clumps of them fairly close to each other, and then a pretty considerable jump downward to the next lowest scores. Keep in mind that all of these exceptions are discretionary; the instructor reserves the right to judge when it is appropriate and fair to invoke one of these exceptions. CLASS CONDUCT & SUGGESTIONS FOR SUCCESS Class conduct -Student emails will be returned as promptly as possible, and I will do my best to stick to a 3 day return policy (excluding Saturday and Sunday). So for an email sent on a Thursday, the three day return time would be Tuesday. -Attendance and being on time to class meetings are important. Any student may be dropped from the course once they miss more than 5 class meetings. Since the roll will be taken at the END of each meeting (through your turned-in answer to the lecture question of the day), if you leave early, you will be counted as absent (unless the

instructor is furnished ahead of time with what is considered a valid excuse for leaving before the class has ended). As mentioned above, make sure to turn in the scrap of paper for the end-of-class lecture question with a name on it, whether said lecture question has been answered or not, because without that the student will be marked absent. -Coming to class on time is also important. A couple of exceptions can be tolerated, but after that late entry could cause dismissal from class for the rest of that days meeting. -Academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism) - Academic dishonesty is a serious matter that cannot be tolerated, and the degree of dishonesty will be the determining factor in the type of action taken as a result. Penalties range from getting a failing grade on a test, paper, or assignment, to having your course grade somewhat lowered, to possibly getting a failing grade for the course. - Making comments to a neighbor, giggling, sleeping in class, texting, using the internet or any action or noise that detracts from what the instructor is doing in class will absolutely not be tolerated. If the instructor has to warn the offending student more than once (whether its during the same class meeting or over time), she/he may be asked to leave class for the rest of that meeting and possibly for all of the next. -Overall, basic adult and professional conduct is expected of the student, consistent with campus policy, and students that do not comply, in one way or another, will be warned of any inappropriate conduct once (egregious violations may result in immediate dismissal from the classroom), and thereafter will possibly be subject to being dismissed from class for the rest of a single class meeting and possible the entirety of the following meeting. -If a student decides to drop the class, even if it is after the first class meeting, and is already enrolled, he/she should not assume they will be dropped. Roll sheets do get cleaned up periodically, so a student intending to drop probably will be stricken from the class roster, but this should always be double-checked by the student just to make sure nothing slips through the cracks. -Please remember to turn cell phones off before entering the classroom; talking/texting is absolutely prohibited while class is in session; though computers may be used to take lecture notes, going online during class is prohibited as well. -If you miss a class and need a handout that was given on that day, you may ask me the next time you are in class for a copy, and if I have one with me its yours. If not, your next best option is to borrow it from someone in the class and make a copy. As a last resort, you may email me and request a copy online through a return email and attachment. However, I DO NOT PROMISE THAT I WILL BE ABLE TO GET IT TO YOU IN TIME. I will do so if I can, but my student email traffic is heavy, and I dont consider missed handouts to be a top priority since I already handed them out once in class. The absolute best way to insure you have all the handouts is to come to class EVERY TIME!

Suggestions for success (More detailed suggestions than included below can be found on D2L and the appendices below). -Students are encouraged to take advantage of campus support services for maximum success in the course and college in general. -To do well on the mini-exams, skimming or reading the material once is probably not enough. Some type of highlighting or note taking system that allows you to go back and study the most important points is highly encouraged.

-Students should ALWAYS take careful lecture notes, both from the verbal lectures, and visual PowerPoint presentations. -Use common sense and necessary social skills in dealing with classmates and the instructor. Students should try to put themselves in the shoes of classmates/instructor and anticipate how certain comments may be construed by them so that you avoid inappropriate comments. -Be enthusiastic and interested in the course or do the next best thing, do a convincing job faking it. Appendix 1 10 tips for reading history effectively 1. Reading in history is not like reading a best-selling novel. You cannot just skim a history text (book) and get the gist of the story. 2. You must read history actively not passively. Active reading means engaging in a dialogue with the book (John Adams used to write in the margins of his books, arguing with the author, even if long since deceased!). Active readers ask questions about what they are reading, make comments, engage in critical assessments at times, and connect what they are reading to other books or things they already know. 3. The reader needs to not only understand the content of a book , chapter, etc., but also must be able to evaluate its usefulness, analyze its importance, and synthesize the reading into a coherent picture. 4. Pre-reading is a key to productive reading in history. For instance, when reading an entire chapter in a text from start to finish, it is helpful to thumb through it first, looking at subheadings, maps, illustrations, etc., to ascertain ahead of time the general subject matter of the chapter and its organizational structure. 5. Determine the authors thesis/argument. What this really means is determining the authors conclusion as soon as you can (meaning well before you finish the reading). Figuring out the main idea of a book, chapter, or section enables the reader to absorb and comprehend the text more effectively. One simple rule that can be helpful is to read the introduction and conclusion before the meat of the text as a good way to ascertain the main point. 6. Read by thinking about the authors thesis. Instead of only trying to memorize details, the reader has a better chance of understanding what he/she is reading if the focus instead is also on figuring out how the author constructs her argument in support of the thesis or main idea. 7. Identify the main pieces of evidence used in the argument in support of the thesis. 8. Constantly ask questions as you read. Why the author use this example? What point is being made here? Do I agree with that point why or why not? These questions often lead the reader to more detailed questions taking them deeper into the reading. 9. Write as you read. The active reader is literally physically active, writing things down as he/she reads. This can be done in a number of ways: taking notes on a separate sheet of paper, writing in the margins, highlighting/underlining. The benefits of this assertive element in reading include allowing you to more easily find important passages later on, to more easily remember what youre reading as you put into your own words what the author has written, and help you gain a better overall understanding of the book. Another useful writing component to successful historical reading is looking up unfamiliar words in the dictionary, then writing them down along with their definitions. 10. Review what you have written. If done well, the ideas and words that you write down are likely the most important, so reviewing them is essential. Its also important to go back and attempt to answer any questions you asked of the text and the author as you were reading. Appendix 2 10 questions to ask when evaluating primary source documents

1.Who is the author? 2. When was the source written? 3. Who was the expected audience? 4. What was the main purpose of the document? 5. In what historical context was the source penned and read. 6. Are there any unspoken assumptions in the primary source? 7. What biases can you ascertain in the text? 8. Was the source influenced by anyone (group, institution, etc.) other than the author. 9. How do other sources from the same time compare with this one? 10. How does the authors background (class, gender, culture, etc.) compare to those who read the document. Appendix 3 Take-home Essay Content Tips for effective historical writing (adapted here for take-home essay). 1. Answer the question: The assignment requires you to write an argumentative essay based on the primary source documents from the chapters relevant to the question asked. You MUST make at least 8 references (with page numbers indicating where the material came from in the Sources text) to the relevant primary documents and main text, and they should be divided between paraphrases and direct quotes from those sources. Introductory sections of Sources, written by Perry CANNOT be used as citations, though you will almost certainly want to read those to help you to understand the documents presented in the book. What I am asking you to do is argue a thesis (your answer to the question) using primary sources from our sources book and quotes from the main text as the evidence needed to back up said thesis and your supporting argument You must present a clearly stated thesis that directly answers the question, and it needs to be done near the beginning of the essay (preferably after a few sentences of introductory statements that put the question into context). So use quotes from the texts liberally. The references to the text, however, cannot stand alone. You must not only quote (and/or paraphrase) from relevant passages, but follow every such reference with comments/analysis that explain how the quote is helping to answer the essay question (support your thesis) . 2. Avoid excessive narrative or description: This assignment requires you to write an argumentative essay not a description of events or chronological rehashing of facts. The only historical facts that should be used are those that in some way assist you in convincing me that your answer to the question is the correct one. After every sentence you write, after every fact you include, you should ask yourself, "how does this help me to prove my point"?, and if it does not, it should be omitted. This especially applies to your use of the texts, because that is the main goal here for you to be able to use primary documents as evidence to bolster a thesis statement and arguments supporting it. 3. Organize the essay and provide an essay map: Along with the thesis or immediately after, clearly lay out your argument. Before going on you should inform the reader exactly where you are going by giving him a sneak preview or map of what arguments will follow in support of your thesis, and in what order they will follow (the standard number of arguments for such an essay is 3, but this is not mandatory). This helps keep the essay organized, logically consistent, and easy for the reader to follow. (Example - Thesis: "Contrary to popular belief, the 1920s was not truly defined by prosperity and good times." Essay Map: "We can see this by examining the

many problems that existed in the social, economic, and cultural spheres during the decade."). To do this successfully you need to spend some time organizing your thoughts with an outline before you begin writing. Turning on your computer and immediately writing without any forethought and preparation is a recipe for disaster. 4. Use reasoned argument and evidence: After providing a thesis and laying out your argument you then must use reason, evidence, quotations (you must make references to our texts), etc, to convince your reader that each argument has validity and demonstrate how it supports your original position or thesis. Any facts or quotations that you provide from our readings cannot be left to stand on their own, but must be accompanied by your own comments that tell the reader explicitly how they support the thesis. Think of yourself as an attorney leading a jury through evidence. When presenting evidence regarding DNA, the murder weapon, motive, the crime scene, etc., a good attorney doesnt just let the evidence speak for itself, but tells the jury what is significant about a certain piece of evidence and how it relates to the bigger issues, like the guilt or innocence of the defendant. This is probably the most important aspect of your essay, because it is where I see whether you are demonstrating critical and independent thinking skills, so please work at doing this. Essays that fail in this respect, even if they are well written, will receive no better than a C grade. 5. Provide topic sentences: Please include a topic sentence for each paragraph that clearly states the main idea of the paragraph. Each paragraph can be seen as a microcosm of the essay as a whole. Certain key words like Another, Secondly, etc. to start a paragraph can be a good way to alert the reader that you are moving from one argument to the next. 6. Acknowledge opposing arguments: Although you are taking sides in answering the question you should not totally avoid arguments that counter your own. You should anticipate what someone on the other side of the argument might say in criticism of your thesis, make concessions where it is reasonable to do so, but then use reason to demonstrate why your argument is still the better one. 7. Be confident and think things through: Do not make the mistake of thinking, I dont know anything about this subject, so I cant really take a position on the question. If you approach the assignment this way your argument will likely fail to be persuasive. Pretend that you have a PhD in History and have been teaching the subject for years and your essay will be the better for it. Also, this assignment does not require knowledge of facts so much as ability and willingness to think about the question and the issues surrounding it. Some brainstorming after reading but without looking back at the texts is probably a good idea. For instance, if you were answering a question on whether or not the Revolutionary War was inevitable, it would be useful to brainstorm about just what "inevitable" means, what would be required for something to be inevitable, is inevitability even possible, etc. Form 1. Essay MUST be at least 5 typed, double spaced pages. 2. Grammatical problems will not be penalized unless they are so serious that they detract from the ideas being presented. 3. Outside sources NOT necessary or advised 4. No works cited page is required or desired. Simply follow a quote or paraphrase with something like: (Perry, 236). No outside sources are necessary or advised. 5. I do not require any adherence to a style manual like MLA. 6. Please do not include a title page (if you feel compelled to title your essay just use on line at the top of page one and underline it in the same font as the rest of the paper). put the paper in any kind of folder just staple it! 7. Please do not put essay in any kind of folder just staple it!