SECOND EDITION

Prepared by consultants Heather Nesbitt Planning
in association with Bligh Voller Nield for the Library
Council Of New South Wales
www.sl.nsw.gov.au
www.atmitchell.com
PEOPLE
A GUIDE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDINGS IN NEW SOUTH WALES
PLACES
ISBN 0 7313 7156 9
Published by the Library Council Of New South Wales
Macquarie Street Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
www.sl.nsw.gov.au
www.atmitchell.com
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A GUIDE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDINGS IN NEW SOUTH WALES
SECOND EDITION
Prepared by
CONSULTANTS
HEATHER NESBITT PLANNING IN ASSOCIATION WITH
BLIGH VOLLER NIELD
for the
LIBRARY COUNCIL OF NEW SOUTH WALES
2005
PEOPLE
PLACES
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005
Second Edition 2005
ISBN 0 7313 7156 9
Published by the Library Council of New South Wales
Macquarie Street
Sydney NSW 2000
Australia
www.sl.nsw.gov.au
atmitchell.com
© The Library Council of New South Wales, 2005
This document and supplementary material, including examples of recent library building
projects in New South Wales, can be found on the State Library of New South Wales web
pages at www.sl.nsw.gov.au
P&D-1854-10/2005
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FOREWORD iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION: How to Use People places 1
1.1 The Purpose of People places 1
1.2 How People places was Developed 2
1.3 The Structure of People places 5
1.4 How to Use People places 5
SECTION 2 PUBLIC LIBRARIES: An Essential Resource for the Community 7
2.1 Public Libraries for the Future 7
2.2 Trends Impacting on Public Libraries 7
2.2.1 Public Libraries as Places of Social Capital 8
2.2.2 Ageing of the NSW Community 8
2.2.3 Youth Culture 9
2.2.4 New Information Technologies 10
2.2.5 Our Multicultural Society 11
2.2.6 Our Indigenous Community 11
2.2.7 Competition and Marketing 12
2.2.8 Cultural Development 13
2.2.9 Changing Structure of NSW Coastal and Rural Communities 13
2.2.10 Impacts of Urban Consolidation 14
SECTION 3 NEEDS: Planning for Your Community 15
3.1 Planning for Your Community 15
3.2 Collaborative Planning 16
3.3 Needs Assessment 16
3.3.1 IdentifedNeed 18
3.3.2 Normative Need 19
3.3.3 Comparative Need 20
3.3.4 Benchmark-Based Need 20
SECTION 4 PROCESS: Getting the Right Players Involved 32
4.1 Collaborative Planning 32
4.2 Setting up a Working Group 32
4.3 Funding Opportunities 32
4.4 Co-location and Joint Use 34
4.5 Developing a Local Technology Plan 37
4.6 StaffngRequirements 39
4.7 Library Collection Plan 40
4.8 Library Fitout 40
Contents
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SECTION 5 PLANNING: Upfront Planning is the Key 42
5.1 Choosing a Site for a Public Library 42
5.2 Safer by Design Principles for Sites and Buildings 45
5.3 New Building or Refurbishment 45
5.4 Schedule of Public Library Functional Areas 46
5.5 Developing a Brief 47
5.6 Selecting the Architect, Project Manager and other Consultants 48
SECTION 6 DESIGN: Key Design Factors for Public Libraries 50
6.1 Image and Identity 50
6.2 Flexible and Multifunctional Buildings 50
6.3 Order, Orientation and Functionality 50
6.4 Accessibility and Mobility 51
6.5 Smart Technology 51
6.6 Marketing 52
6.7 Ecological Sustainability 53
6.8 Lighting 56
6.9 Acoustics 57
6.10 Heating and Ventilation 57
6.11 Occupational Health and Safety 57
6.12 Personal and Property Security 58
6.13 Shelving 59
6.14 Furniture and Fittings 60
6.14.1 Signage 61
6.14.2 Storage 62
6.15 Asset Management 62
6.16 Mobile Libraries 63
SECTION 7 FURTHER INFORMATION AND RESOURCES 64
7.1 Library Development Grants 64
7.2 State Library of New South Wales Contacts 64
7.3 Specialist Planning, Building and Architectural Advice 64
7.4 Methodology for Developing a Service-Based Benchmark 64
7.5 Methodology for Developing a Population-Based Benchmark 65
7.6 References and Further Reading 66
INDEX 69
Contents (continued)
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Foreword
The vital contribution of public libraries to social capital and to the educational and economic
development of communities is recognised across the developed world. Support for this role
has underpinned the commitment of local and State governments in New South Wales to high
quality public library services. Libraries can be fully effective for their communities only if
theyhavetherightcombinationofprofcientstaff,up-to-dateinformationresources,reliable
equipmentandtelecommunications,andwell-plannedbuildings.
Library buildings represent a major investment by local authorities. In order to promote
planning techniques and practical guidelines Heather Nesbitt and Bligh Voller Nield were
commissionedtoresearchandpreparewhatbecamethefrsteditionofPeople places in 2000.
Since then, the principles of People places have been applied to scores of library building
projects across New South Wales. Other Australian States have found the publication useful
and it has also attracted some international attention as a helpful planning guide. Special
recognition was given to People places when it was awarded a Commendation by the Royal
Australian Planning Institute, New South Wales, in the category ‘Plan Making and Strategies
by State or Federal Governments’.
Libraries operate in a dynamic technological, economic and social environment, and the Library
Council therefore undertook to review People places from time to time. By 2005 many library
buildings planned using People places as a guide had been open long enough for an assessment
to be made of the relevance and effectiveness of the planning principles. There was also a need
toaddressissueswhichhadgainedprominenceinthosefveyearsorwhichwereexpectedto
haveamajorimpactoverthenexttentoffteenyears.Itwasimportantforthereviewtobe
based on wide consultation within the New South Wales Public Library Network, as had been
the case with the original publication.
Independent external consultants were therefore sought and, after a competitive selection
process, Heather Nesbitt Planning and Bligh Voller Nield were appointed to carry out the review
and revision. The consultation process has shown wide acceptance of People places. There has
been unanimous appreciation of the soundness of its planning principles. The integrity of these
principlesremains,asdothefoorspacebenchmarks,buttherehasbeenextensiverevisionof
the text to clarify issues and to extend the information provided. The range of issues raised and
the revisions made in this edition are set out fully in section 1.2.
The effectiveness of a sample of post-People places buildings was also assessed as part of this
consultancy. Six library buildings were examined in detail and their case studies are on the
State Library’s website. These are just a few of the many successful public library buildings
constructedinNewSouthWalesinthepastfveyears.
This new edition of People places was endorsed by the Library Council of New South Wales at
its meeting on 24 October 2005. Like the previous edition, it shares a wealth of practical advice
on the exciting but often challenging process of planning a new public library building to meet
the needs of the community well into the new millennium.
Belinda Hutchinson
President,
Library Council of New South Wales
October 2005
Dagmar Schmidmaier AM
State Librarian & Chief Executive,
State Library of New South Wales
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Acknowledgements
This second edition of People places, like its predecessor, was developed in close consultation
with practitioners involved in the planning, building and management of public libraries in
NSW. Their experience in applying the guidelines to public library building projects was
invaluable.
Focus groups were a key part of the consultation process, and the cooperation of participants
and of the organisations which hosted these meetings is gratefully acknowledged. Focus
groups were held at the State Library of New South Wales, Singleton Public Library and
Temora Public Library. Case studies on the application of the guidelines to recently built public
librarybuildingswerealsoundertakenatLithgow,Narellan,Narooma,Strathfeld,Singleton
and Temora. A site visit was also made to the Riverina Regional Library Mobile Service at
Lockhart.
In addition, all NSW Councils and public libraries were invited to participate through faxbacks,
written submissions and feedback at workshops in Sydney, Singleton and Temora. Councils,
library organisations and others who participated in the focus groups, responded to the
discussion paper and draft revision, and/or provided valuable background information about
their library projects were:
• AshfeldMunicipalCouncil
• Auslib Library Consulting
• Baulkham Hills Shire Council
• Bankstown City Council
• Bega Valley Shire Council
• Bland Shire Council
• Bourke Shire Council
• Camden Council
• Campbelltown City Council
• City of Blue Mountains
• City of Canada Bay Council
• City of Lithgow Council
• City of Ryde Council
• City of Sydney Council
• Eurobodalla Shire Council
• FairfeldCityCouncil
• Great Lakes Council
• Hornsby Shire Council
• Hurstville City Council
• Inverell Shire Council
• Kogarah Municipal Council
• LakeMacquarieCityCouncil
• Lane Cove Municipal Council
• Leeton Shire Council
• Leichhardt Municipal Council
• Libraries Alive! Pty Ltd
• Maitland City Council
• Marrickville Council
• Monaro Regional Library and
Information Service
• Narrandera Shire Council
• Northern Regional Library and
Information Service
• Randwick City Council
• Riverina Regional Library
• Rockdale City Council
• Singleton Shire Council
• StrathfeldMunicipalCouncil
• Sutherland Shire Council
• Tamworth Regional Council
• Temora Shire Council
• Tumbarumba Shire Council
• Upper Hunter Shire Council
• Wagga Wagga City Council
• Warringah Council
• Willoughby City Council
• Wollongong City Council
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The consultants for the project were Heather Nesbitt, Heather Nesbitt Planning and Tim Brook,
Bligh Voller Nield.
A Steering Committee met and communicated regularly with the consultants. This group
included representation from country and city library services and from local government,
together with State Library personnel. Its members were:
• Lynne Makin, CEO/Library Manager, Upper Murray Regional Library Service
representing the Country Public Libraries Association (CPLA)
• Richard Morriss, Director Corporate Services, Jerilderie Shire Council
• Frances Sims, Library Services Manager, Willoughby City Library representing the
Metropolitan Public Libraries Association, New South Wales (MPLA)
• Kathleen Bresnahan, Assistant State Librarian, Public Library Services, State Library
• Kerrie Burgess, Research Coordinator, State Library
• Dr David Jones, Manager, Building and Advisory Services, Public Library Services, State
Library (Convenor)
• Cameron Morley, Manager, Funding and Advisory Services, Public Library Services,
State Library
The support and assistance of all these individuals and organisations is gratefully
acknowledged.
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1.1 The Purpose of People places
Since 2000, People places: A guide for public library buildings in New South Wales has provided
public libraries throughout NSW with an important planning tool to assist in the development
of public library buildings. But with rapid changes occurring within our communities, it was
resolved that the document be revisited, evaluated and revised within fve years. This was
considered to be an essential component of good planning and good library management.
This second edition is the result of this revision process. Its focus remains on being a practical
resource tool for all stakeholders involved in the planning and construction of public library
buildings.Thisnotonlyincludespubliclibrariansbutalsolocalgovernmentoffcers,elected
representatives, architects, library users and the general community.
To ensure that it provides the type of information which is relevant to this broad range of
stakeholders, People places discusses not only issues involved in the actual design of a
library but also the process required to achieve a successful library development project. It
provides information based on a number of library projects throughout NSW and discussions
withstakeholdersinvolvedfrst-handintheseprojects.Boththepitfallsandthesuccessesare
highlighted, as a library development project, like any building project, can be long, complex
anddiffcult.Itishopedthat People places will help to improve and expedite the process for
all stakeholders involved.
This revised edition provides information on:
• The importance of public libraries in our community
• Future trends which impact on library design
• How to determine the need and size for a new or extended library building
• What issues need to be considered in planning for a new or extended library building
• Establishing a process which will take the library development project from inception to
completion
• Designing and building a public library which meets the community needs both now and
in the future
People places focuses on new innovative models for library provision and the integration of
modern technology into library functions and design. This deliberate approach is in response to
the strong push from stakeholders to ensure that all new and extended library buildings grasp
the many opportunities available to them to provide a facility and service which is relevant to
future generations. Public libraries need to be planned and built not only to meet the needs of
our community today but also for the future.
Introduction:
How to use People places
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1.2 How People places was developed
We live in an ever-changing community in which new trends and challenges are constantly
evident. For public libraries in NSW, this dynamic environment provides a range of
opportunities for the development and enhancement of public library services and will ensure
theyareequippedandrelevantinthenewmillennium.Alreadymanycommunitiesaremeeting
the challenge and forging new models for both the physical design of public libraries and the
delivery of public library services to the community.
In early 2000, the Library Council of New South Wales published People places. In 2005, it
engaged consultant Heather Nesbitt in association with architects Bligh Voller Nield to evaluate
and potentially revise these guidelines based on the outcomes of a consultation program with
key stakeholders. The consultants also evaluated the application of the guidelines to six case
study library buildings built since 2000.
The project was guided by a Steering Committee comprising representatives from the
Metropolitan Public Libraries Association, NSW (MPLA); Country Public Libraries Association
of NSW (CPLA); a Council representative; and the State Library of New South Wales. An
issues paper and draft revision of People placeswerenotifedtoallNSWCouncilsandmade
available on the State Library website for public comment.
People places is the outcome of this process and provides an updated approach to the
planning and construction of public libraries. It is the product of the extensive involvement
andcommitmentoflocalgovernmentandcommunitiesthroughouttheStateandrefectstheir
views and aspirations for the future of public libraries.
Additions to the guidelines are based on feedback from the key stakeholders and a focus on
improvementstomaketheguidelinesmoreuser-friendlyandapplicableintheupcomingfve
to ten years. The table following summarises the revisions made. Importantly, no changes
have been made to the methodologies used to determine the benchmark area sizes for public
library buildings. The case study evaluations highlighted that the benchmark methodologies
have been successful in providing public library buildings which meet the vision and needs
of their communities. The consultation feedback focussed primarily on the need to make the
benchmark methodologies simpler to understand and apply. This edition has sought to respond
to this issue.
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Issue Section Reference Revision
Need to update statistical
data
Section 2 and throughout
text
Updated census data and
current trends
Importance of public libraries
as social capital
Section 2.2.1 Public libraries
as social capital
New section provided
Diffculty of applying and
using population and service-
based benchmarks
Section 3.3.4 Benchmark-
based need
Shelving height reduced to 4
shelves rather than 5. Minor
increase in items per shelf.
Minor wording changes to
service and population based
benchmarks to improve
understanding
Co-location example
provided.
Increased number of optional
service areas, e.g. archival
storage, specialist genre
collection
Co-located and joint-use
libraries will increase in
popularity for Councils
Section 4.4 Co-location and
Joint Use
Provides information on
planning, management,
operation, and marketing.
Includes information on
building implications, e.g.
soundproofng, room
dividers, etc
Increasing infuence of
technology
Section 4.5 Developing a
local technology plan
Standard for public access
internet computer increased
to 1 per 3000 persons which
is slightly higher than the
existing NSW provision.
Allows for an expected
increase in computer and
Internet demand in the next
5 years.
Reviewed local technology
plan space and function
requirements
What’s New in this Edition?
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Issue Section Reference Revision
Importance of locational
criteria
Section 5.1 Choosing a site
for a public library
Expanded recommended
locational criteria
Increase in specialist/genre
collections
Section 5.4 Checklist of
public library functional areas
Reviewed description of
collections and their space
requirements
Little information on
managing the construction
process
Section 5.6 Selecting the
Architect, Project Manager
and Other Consultants
Added new sub-section
on appointment of project
manager
Environmentally sustainable
buildings will become more
important for local Councils
Section 6.7 Ecological
sustainability
Rewritten to provide
information on BASIX and
Green Star rating systems
and implications for library
building design.
Marketing is essential for
libraries
Section 6.6 Marketing
Section 6.13 Shelving
New section on marketing
Expanded section on shelving
with minor changes. Number
of shelves high reduced from
5 to 4.
Importance of mobile libraries Section 6.16 Mobile Libraries Expanded section and added
reference/web link
No mention of occupational
health and safety
requirements
Section 6.11 Occupational
Health and Safety
New section on Occupational
Health and Safety
Increasing role of libraries
for archival storage and
conservation
Throughout text Included in functional and
space requirements
Provided link to
State Records NSW
Concern over safety of staff
and users
Section 5.2 Safer by Design
principles for sites and
buildings
Section 6.12 Personal and
Property Security
New section with information
about “Safer by Design”
guidelines
New section about personal
safety and crime prevention.
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1.3 Structure of People places
People placesisdividedintosevensections.Eachsectionrelatestoaspecifcpartoftheoverall
process involved in the planning and design of a new or extended public library building. The
sectionsarenumberedtoenablequickreferencetotheinformationrequired.Eachsectioncan
be used independently, collectively or in sequence depending on what is appropriate for the
particular issues to be addressed.
People places is supplemented by information on the State Library of New South Wales
website. This will include fact sheets on a number of recent library projects throughout the
State built using People places.
1.4 How to Use People places
As a resource tool, People places should be used to assist you in any matter involving the
planning and design of public library buildings.
Ifyouareinterestedinspecifcissues,usetheTable of Contentstofndoutwhichsectionhas
the appropriate information. For example, you may want to look at the range of approaches
tofnancingpubliclibrarybuildings.Section 4.2 provides information on a range of potential
funding approaches, which can be explored.
People places can also be used as a step-by-step guide to the planning and eventual construction
of a new library building. In this instance, your community may be growing rapidly and it
is obvious that one or several new service points will be required in the next 20 years. By
following each section as a step-by-step process, you can map out a work program or fow
chart on what should be done to plan for this expansion of the library service. Reading the text
like a story, People places will take you through an overall process with guidance on what
needs to be considered and how this should be addressed.
The examples of recent public library buildings on the State Library’s web pages (www.sl.nsw.
gov.au/pls) are intended to illustrate the innovative approaches that have been used throughout
NSW and how each community addresses its own particular needs. The consultations
highlighted that very often, when planning a new library, stakeholders visit other recently
builtlibraries.Theywanttofndouthowotherareashavetackledsimilarissuesthattheyare
facing. The examples on the web pages provide this information in a readily accessible form.
Personal visits to new libraries you are interested in should certainly still be undertaken, but
the projects on the web pages will help to provide a broader overview of new approaches and
innovations.
It is important to remember however that each library building and the service it provides is
uniqueandshouldrefecttheneedsandaspirationsofitscommunity.Theexamplesontheweb
pages will provide you with ideas on what other communities are doing and hopefully provide
some direction on potential solutions. They are not intended to be replicated in communities
throughout the State but rather to highlight the range of approaches that can be used.
A list of references, including web sites, and relevant contacts is provided in Section 7 for
further information and research. As with any guide, this listing will become dated over time
and you should ensure that you check for any later editions of the works included, particularly
codes and standards.
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Planning and Construction
of Public Library Buildings
A Collaborative Planning Process
Identify community needs
n Identifed need
n Normative need
n Comparative need
n Benchmark based need
Set up working group
n Funding
n Co-location and joint use
n Local Technology Plan
n Staffng Requirements
n Library Collection Plan
n Library Fitout

Set the criteria
n Site selection
n New building/extension/refurbishment
n Safer by design principles
n Schedule of functional areas
n Developing a brief
n Selecting an architect
Consider key design criteria
n Image and identity
n Flexibility
n Functionality
n Smart technology
n Ecological sustainability
n Environmental control
n Asset management
n Compliance standards
NEED
PROCESS
PLANNING
DESIGN
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2.1 Public Libraries for the Future
Public libraries are one of the most well used educational, cultural and social facilities available
within our community. The relevance of libraries to today’s community is evident in their high
levels of use and attraction to a broad range of users from all ages and backgrounds.
Almost half of the New South Wales population are registered library members with many
more people visiting and using public libraries than are registered members. In 2003/04, 99.6
million visits were made in Australia and 29.9 million visits in NSW to a local government
library.Thisequatesto4.5visitstoalocalpubliclibraryforeveryNSWresidentduringthe
year (ABS, 2005).
With changing demographic and social trends, ever-increasing fnancial constraints for
government and rapidly changing information technology, the design and function of libraries
must change to meet these and other new challenges.
By providing a public library building that is well designed and consistent with the trends
identifedin People places,thebeneftswillbesignifcant.Ourfuturepubliclibrariesmustbe
buildings that:
• Provide a cultural hub and focal point for the community
• Are functional and multipurpose accommodating a range of activities and uses
• Enable access to the latest in technology in a user-friendly manner
• Attract a wide range of users providing areas for relaxation, research, leisure and learning
• Areeffectiveandeffcientinthedeliveryofservices
• Develop from a co-operative approach between all stakeholders to ensure that the changing
needs of the community are met
With good planning and the allocation of adequate resources, public libraries can and will
provide value for money for the community. A sound initial investment will provide a library
building that remains functional and viable for the future.
2.2 Trends Impacting on Public Libraries
In designing public infrastructure, it is important to consider the changing social and demographic
trends evident within the community and how these may affect the provision and delivery of
servicestothecommunity.Arangeofissueshasbeenidentifedbelowwhicharelikelytohave
an impact on the design and function of public libraries in the next 10 to 20 years. Some are
issues that are affecting libraries worldwide, while others are trends that are particular to NSW.
It is important to monitor and identify emerging social and demographic trends continually, as
in our modern world many systems are interrelated and connected. To remain relevant in our
ever-changing community, public libraries must have a holistic view and take full advantage of
the many opportunities available.
Some of the emerging trends which are likely to impact on the design and function of public
libraries are outlined below.
Public Libraries:
An Essential Resource for the Community
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2.2.1 Public Libraries as Places of Social Capital
Public libraries bring people from a range of backgrounds together to meet, network and
potentially develop relationships with other members of the community. This is called social
capital and is one of the building blocks of a strong community. Research highlights that
social networks have value and affect the productivity and health of individuals and groups
(Putnam, 2000).
For more vulnerable groups such as youth, older people, people with a disability and people
from multicultural backgrounds, social capital is particularly important as it helps to build
bridges of support with other members of the community and promotes inclusiveness. For
all users, public libraries provide a “safe haven” where people can feel a part of the broader
community (Cox et al, 2000 and PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005)
Public libraries often provide a community focal point or cultural focus. They may store
information about local Indigenous and European heritage; information about community
groups, events and activities; display local artworks and community art projects; and promote
information about Council and government services and programs.
Public libraries are often a resource for social and economic regeneration. They provide
resources for skills development, training and lifelong learning and as such are a major tool for
people to increase economic opportunities.
For many communities, the public library building is often the only civic building in the area
whichispubliclyaccessibletoeveryoneandtypicallygeneratessignifcantpride.Itisstrongly
valuedbythecommunityandthisisrefectedinitshighlevelsofvisitationandusage.
This important role for public libraries is supported by data from some libraries where 50%
of users are non borrowers. Libraries are no longer only the realm of people borrowing books
but also a place where people come to sit, read the newspaper, listen to music, play computer
games, search the Internet and/or take part in the many activities and events held.
Section 7 provides references on the social value of public libraries to our communities and in
particular, their importance as community meeting places.
2.2.2 Ageing of the NSW Community
The ageing of populations in modern Western societies is a well-documented trend. With
people living longer and fewer children being born, the proportion of older residents in our
community is increasing. Currently in NSW, 13% of residents are aged over 65 years with
signifcantvariationsacrosstheState.Itisestimatedthatby2011,oneinfvepeopleinNSW
(20%) will be aged over 65 years. Growth along the coastal areas of NSW is expected to be
high with 30% of residents in the Great Lakes Shire expected to be aged 65 years and over by
2019. The largest proportional increases are expected to occur in people aged over 85 years
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002).
So how will this trend impact on library design and function? Already older residents are
major users of libraries and this trend is likely to grow as the number of older residents with
signifcant leisure time increases.Access to specialist collections, adult education, activities
targeting seniors, increasing computer usage and browsing areas for casual users are examples
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of potential trends that may be experienced. Access for older residents in retirement villages
and housebound services will also need to be considered.
Research indicates that as age increases so does the level of disability in our community. Access
for people with a disability will become an increasingly important issue and legislation such as
the Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and NSW Disability Services Act 1993
are having a signifcant impact on how services are designed and provided. Many Councils
have formed Access Committees and/or have a Disability Action Plan which recommend
actions for improving access to services for people with a disability. The State Library of New
South Wales has a Disability Access Service that provides specialist advice and referral for
people with a disability.
For both older people and people with a disability, physical design issues are of major
importance. This translates into demands for single level buildings (or multilevel buildings
with easy to access lifts), ramped access and automatic opening doors, easy-to-read signage,
accessible toilets, accessible shelving and a range of other building requirements which are
likely to have increased importance in the future. For many buildings, these design features
also provide increased access for the broader community.
Specifcservicesforolderresidentsandpeoplewithadisabilitymayalsoneedtobeconsidered.
These may include large print books, specialist resources for people with a disability and
a range of technology for accessing print and electronic resources. Designing libraries to
meet the needs of our growing older population will be a major challenge in the future (see
Section 6.4)
2.2.3 Youth Culture
Young people are important to our community and comprise 16% of NSW residents (Australian
BureauofStatistics,2001).Youthisgenerallydefnedasthoseaged13-24yearsoldwiththe
olderagegroupoftenstilldependentsengagedinfurthereducation.Theyaresignifcantusers
of public libraries, major consumers of information technology, and hold social attitudes that
are often different from other groups in our community. Education approaches have changed
and the NSW Board of Studies now promotes co-operative learning, research and group
interaction. Individual learning is not the sole approach used and youth are encouraged to
interact, discuss and develop ideas together in a co-operative and team manner.
Forlibraries,thishashadamarkedeffectwithmanylibrariesnowflledeachafternoonwith
young people undertaking research projects, working on joint projects with fellow students
and discussing project approaches and outcomes. The provision of meeting rooms, noisy
areas, student research areas and facilities are some of the physical outcomes of this trend.
Importantly,youthareinterestedandeffcientinusingnewtechnologyandhavebeenquickto
utilise the technology resources of libraries. Overseas and in NSW, many libraries are meeting
the information needs of youth through the provision of online school resources and web pages.
Accessed at home or at the library, this approach is proving popular and effective. It is evident
that many other services can be linked to the needs of our youth and by maintaining their
interest, our library customers of tomorrow will be assured.
Some of the examples of library projects on the State Library web pages (www.sl.nsw.gov.
au/pls) highlight the efforts made by public libraries to meet the needs of youth in their new
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libraryprojects.TheStateLibraryofNewSouthWalescanalsobecontactedregardingspecifc
information on designing public libraries to meet the needs of youth.
2.2.4 New Information Technologies
The “Information Society”, the “Information Superhighway” and the “Information Rich
versus the Information Poor” are all terms which are used to highlight the expanding role of
information technology in our society. The fact that changing information technology will
heavily impact on our lives is well documented although how it will change our lives is not so
clear. There are many wide ranging views with digital televisions, “smart” buildings, increased
remote use of services, electronic commerce and so forth. Who does know where it will take
us or where the changes will ever end?
In 2003, it was estimated that 65% of NSW households had a computer at home and 54% of
NSW households had Internet access (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003). Access varies
between capital cities and rural communities, between affuent and poorer communities and
between young people and older people. Access is increasing through work, school, libraries
and other educational facilities however this may be restricted by workplace and educational
facility policies.
The New South Wales Government, through NSW.net and the connect.nsw strategy has
provided an electronic information network linking Councils and public libraries throughout
NSW. This enables the community to access many Government electronic services free of
charge regardless of their location. The network provides access to the Internet, selected
databases and in some instances, email facilities.
However, as computer and Internet access at home has increased so too has the provision and
usage of computers in NSW public libraries. The total number of public access computers in
NSW local government public libraries rose from 711 in 1999/00 to 2083 in 2003/04 with
100% having Internet access. Total booking hours have increased threefold by 1.4 million
hours over the same period (State Library of New South Wales, 2004).
Research together with feedback from library users highlights that, to date, computer technology
is likely to be used primarily for reference and information rather than fctional works and
“reading for pleasure”. As highlighted in one of the focus groups, “you can’t cuddle up to a
computer to read a novel”. Important references that highlight the future role of technology in
our community are provided in Section 7.6.
Similarly, the concerns of some commentators that the increasing use of technology for
research and information will mean that public libraries should be getting smaller, is not
supported by the evidence gathered for this study. As highlighted in some of the case studies
on the State Library web pages (www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls) public libraries have been required
to provide additional space for technology such as computer training rooms, large areas for
public access catalogues, dedicated computerised work stations for staff and additional storage
for audiovisuals and CD-ROMS. As one library manager commented “with around half of all
library visits apparently not involving a loan transaction, the library’s space for technology
and other uses is at least as important as the library’s collection”. Appropriate, functional and
adequatespacetoaccommodatenewinformationtechnologiesisnowamajorrequirementfor
public libraries.
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New technologies such as self-check loans, self-help desks, quick use computers, wireless
technology, ports for laptops and wireless local area network access points together with
specialist librarians to assist online users are all impacting on library design and layout.
In summary, what is important for library stakeholders, is not what is going to happen with
information technology but rather making sure that public libraries are ready and able to take
full advantage of the opportunities that are presented by technology.Thisrequiresavisionand
commitment to providing dedicated infrastructure that will provide the technological services
needed by the community, as they become available. Sections 4.5 and 6.5 provide more detailed
information on how to meet these technological challenges in your library project.
2.2.5 Our Multicultural Society
AlmostoneinfvepeopleinNSWwerebornincountrieswhereEnglishisnotthefrstlanguage.
In some communities in Sydney, more than half of the residents were born in non English
speaking countries. Currently 20% of NSW residents speak a language other than English
at home. The main languages spoken in NSW other than English are Arabic, Cantonese,
Italian and Greek with Asian languages the fastest growing group (Australian Bureau of
Statistics, 2001).
Our multicultural community is having and will continue to have a marked effect on our
libraries. The increased provision of multilingual collections, English language classes and
multilingual signage are evident in many libraries in NSW. Research conducted as part of
this project and for the Library Council of New South Wales indicates that many people from
multicultural backgrounds like to use the library and particularly view it as a place for social
contact with other residents from similar backgrounds (Cultural Perspectives, 2003).
In terms of the physical design of the library, the impact of multiculturalism is perhaps less
evident. But certainly there is a need to ensure that there are prominent areas for browsing and
reading multicultural resources; meeting room space for social contact with people of similar
backgrounds and interests; and enquiry/information desks for those needing assistance. As
libraries move towards improving access and services for our multicultural community, other
design and service innovations will occur. The State Library of New South Wales Multicultural
Consultant can advise on developing appropriate collections, services and library facilities
for our multicultural community. Information is also available on appropriate promotional
materials to encourage increased visitation and borrowing. A reference is provided in Section 7
to research undertaken for the Library Council of New South Wales on approaches to providing
library services appropriate to culturally diverse communities (Cultural Perspectives, 2003).
2.2.6 Our Indigenous Community
Recognition and celebration of our indigenous community is an important component of
Australian culture. In many communities, public libraries play an important role in the promotion
of Aboriginal culture, with many housing specialist collections of books, audiovisual materials
and periodicals about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Several public libraries
located in communities with large indigenous populations are working to ensure that they are
attractive, welcoming and relevant to all members of their community.
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The incorporation of Aboriginal art and cultural activities into public libraries has also played
a major role in encouraging indigenous users. This must continue in order to facilitate the
increased use of public library resources by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
As highlighted in Section 3.3.1, consultation with users is essential and for Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander people, this process must be culturally appropriate and meaningful. Seek
assistancefromthelocalAboriginalLandCounciland/orspecialistAboriginalLiaisonOffcers
often employed by a range of Government departments or Councils. Ensuring that the new
library meets the needs of indigenous residents is an important issue to be addressed.
Specialist advice and information is available through the Indigenous Services Librarians at the
State Library of New South Wales. Protocols for libraries, archives and information services
are published by the Australian Library and Information Association for the Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Library and Information Resource Network (ATSILIRN) (http://www.
ntu.edu.au/library/protocol.html).
2.2.7 Competition and Marketing
Interviews with selected Councils undertaken as part of this study identifed the growing
competition from other sources of information, education and entertainment as a signifcant
factor likely to impact on libraries in the future. Our world is rapidly changing and people
are now able to access information through a range of media sources. Electronic forms of
communication such as the Internet, CD-ROMs, email, videos, DVDs and television provide
people with wide ranging information which is current, topical and easy to access. With access
to these forms of information becoming easier in the home, will libraries be able to compete
and attract the number and range of users they have in the past?
The delivery of education services is also changing with many institutions now providing
students with options for distance and open learning, courses through the Internet and various
adult education programs.
Entertainment comes in a wide variety of forms and in many communities there is a range
of activities to attend, courses to do and social activities to participate in. How people spend
their leisure time is changing and how this will impact on public libraries is worthy of
consideration.
So should libraries be more proactive in terms of marketing and promotion of their services to
ensure that they retain their “market niche”? Should they be looking to develop marketing plans
and strategies to encourage customers to use the library resources more? Advertising, library
promotions, changing and professional displays, customer loyalty plans – are these things that
need to be considered in our libraries of the future? Many people consider that marketing
strategies are important to our future libraries and already libraries provide promotional
material, arrange book displays, hold events and use exhibitions to attract users.
In recent years, many public libraries have sought to improve their marketing through the
adoption of various retail strategies. This has resulted in some changes to the physical design
ofpubliclibrarybuildingssuchastheprovisionoffexiblefoorspacewhichcanbeusedfora
variety of activities; furniture and shelving which is moveable and changeable; and exhibition/
display space which is appropriately lit, attractive and accessible. By looking at retail strategies,
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new trends such as concept stores (where a range of linked products are sold); in-house cafes;
themedshoppingareas(consistentcolours,fttingsandfxtures);andproductdisplay(featured
products are displayed prominently) may all have some relevance to the design of libraries
(Hennah, 2005).
Section 6.6 provides further information on how marketing strategies affect library
building design.
2.2.8 Cultural Development
In recent years, we have experienced some recognition of the importance of people’s culture
to our communities. Culture relates to the values, beliefs and customs of a community and the
forms through which that culture is expressed. For many people, traditional media of art, dance,
theatre,flmandmusicareusedtoexpressourculturewhileournaturalandbuiltenvironment
are further extensions of our cultural image. The celebration of “our culture” very often has
taken the form of cultural works and particularly public and community art in our buildings and
publicspaces.Publiclibrarieshaveveryoftenbeenthebenefciaryofthistrend.
Several Councils have adopted cultural plans, public art policies or have in-house cultural
planners who promote the celebration of local cultural identity and the provision of public
events, cultural programs and public art in the community.
For some libraries, public art policies have ensured that a proportion of the capital construction
of a building be spent on art works. Similarly, Councils also access grants from the Australia
Council or the NSW Ministry for the Arts to employ community artists who involve the
community in developing artworks or undertake “placemaking” projects in public libraries.
Inclusion of artworks not just in public libraries but also in other public buildings, commercial
developments and even the open spaces at Sydney Olympic Park highlight the importance of
this trend to connecting a building with the community through culture.
Further information on cultural planning can be obtained from the NSW Ministry for the Arts
and the Local Government and Shires Association with references provided in Section 7.6.
2.2.9 Changing Structure of NSW Coastal and Rural Communities
Our regional communities are changing. Coastal NSW is expected to grow at a faster rate than
NSW to 2051 (NSW Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, 2004).
Increasing numbers of retirees are moving to these communities together with many young
people, providing an unusual population mix. Many coastal communities are geographically
dispersed with small communities dotted amongst the inlets and beaches of the coast. Public
transport is often poor while major centres struggle to provide a range of accessible services for
residents and tourists. Servicing the diverse needs of these communities is a major challenge
for libraries in coastal communities.
Other areas in rural NSW are suffering from declining populations and a changing economic
basewhichmakesplanningforlibraryservicesdiffcult.Inthesecommunitiesmanyservices,
such as banks and government offces, have closed and have added further to the declining
employment base and resident population. This has provided a challenge and an opportunity
for many rural communities. They have sought to maintain and develop library services
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with limited fnancial resources coupled together with plans for new sources of economic
development.
Rural and coastal NSW has developed many innovative solutions to their changing communities
and are seeking to ensure that libraries remain relevant to the needs of their residents. Information
technology is seen as a major resource that can provide residents with resources and education
to develop and staff new industries.
Information technology is also seen as the communication link that may free up various
service sectors and enable them to locate outside the Sydney region. By linking technology to
libraries, these communities will increase the technological resources of the area and provide
opportunities for new growth industries.
2.2.10 Impacts of Urban Consolidation
The New South Wales Government has adopted a policy of compact cities, which seeks to
reduce the spread of the Sydney region by making greater use of new and existing areas. It
considers that the most effective way to utilise existing resources such as public transport, road
infrastructure and public utilities is to increase housing densities in strategic locations throughout
the Greater Sydney, Central Coast, Illawarra and Hunter regions. Urban consolidation has
been the major housing thrust of the New South Wales Government in recent years with both
established and fringe areas targeted for multi unit dwellings. It is also considered that multi
unit housing, such as units and townhouses, is more consistent with trends towards smaller
household sizes, particularly for our increasing numbers of older residents and singles.
Again, the impact of urban consolidation is currently being experienced in many libraries as
the demand for study space and reading areas grows. Particularly in areas with concentrations
of unit development, the availability of space for home study or leisure is limited and it
appears that residents are opting to use the library instead. So will this trend increase as urban
consolidation continues? It is expected that some 70% of new housing development will occur
in established areas of Sydney in the next 25 years with 30% in new communities in Sydney’s
southwestandnorthwest.Anestimated23,000newhomesarerequiredeachyeartohouse
Sydney’s expected population growth over the next 25-30 years with the majority expected
to be multi unit housing (NSW Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural
Resources, 2004).
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Needs:
Planning for your Community
3.1 Planning for Your Community
Everycommunityisunique,andforlocalgovernmenttheprovisionofanytypeofpublicbuilding
must relate closely to the local community – its needs, demands and aspirations. For public libraries,
the greatest issue is the service provided and how it meets the needs of the surrounding community.
The building is really only one of several service models through which a library service can
be delivered. The library service, in many communities, is delivered through a diversity of
service models including mobile libraries; specialised services for housebound, schools and
TAFE students; joint developments with other activities and increasingly, library web sites and
home access services.
Thelibraryserviceneedstoftintothe bigger picture of what is happening in the community
and how the many opportunities available can be harnessed to add value to the library service
provided. For example, there may be an opportunity to provide a joint TAFE/public library
service that would increase the resources, in terms of books, technology, staff and buildings,
available to all in the community. In another area, Council may have identifed, through its
Social Plan, that the needs of young people, particularly those who are unemployed, should be
addressed. The library service could meet this challenge by developing technology programs
and services that link to local employment providers and skills training.
Finally, it is essential to recognise that the development of public libraries and in fact, the
allocation of resources for any public facility and/or service, is an inherently political process.
It involves a range of issues, for which tradeoffs and compromises may need to be made. It
also involves many stakeholders with particular interests and ideas. You may try to avoid it,
butpoliticsplaysasignifcantroleinlibrarydevelopmentprojects.However,asitisapolitical
process, the need is even greater to have a sound planning approach and assessment tools in
place to ensure that the process is well organised and informed.
So how do you determine what type of library service your community needs and how best
these services can be delivered to the community? People Places recommends:
• A collaborative planning process that involves all stakeholders in determining how to
prepare an overall development plan for library services
• A needs assessment planning method to determine why the community wants or needs
a new/changed library service. Needs assessment is used extensively as a planning tool,
particularly for community services and social planning. It has a strong basis in community
consultation, socio-demographic indicators and comparison to other communities/service
models.
Section 3 primarily focuses on how to undertake a needs assessment for your community.
This will enable you to gather the right sort of information to show why changes are needed
to library services and/or buildings. It will also help you to monitor the changing needs of the
community and how this may affect the provision of library services. The Section also outlines
the importance of collaborative planning and how it should be used to determine an overall
plan for library services or a Library Development Plan for the community. The process is
more fully explained in Section 4 Process – Getting the Right Players Involved and particularly
Section 4.1 Collaborative Planning is the Key to Public Library Development.
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3.2 Collaborative Planning
Planning is part of good management and occurs at a range of levels in all organisations,
particularly local government. Public libraries already undertake planning functions as part
of their responsibilities to Council. However, it is how these plans are developed and linked
which is important in ensuring the right outcomes for the public library service.
Collaborative planning is based on involving a range of stakeholders in the planning process.
It seeks out those who have a stake or interest in the potential outcomes and ensures that their
ideas and issues are addressed in the planning process. In the consultation program used to
develop People Places, “team approach”, “whole of Council” and “whole of community” were
terms many librarians used to describe the planning process used for a new/expanded library
building. In short, this is collaborative planning.
Collaborative planning should be used to develop a Library Development Plan for one and/or
all of the libraries in the service area. It can be done for communities of varying sizes, including
local areas, the whole local government area (LGA) or even on a regional basis. A collaborative
plan should include:
• Identifcationofthevariousstakeholderstobeinvolved
• Type of information to be gathered and/or issues to be addressed
• Consultation approaches to be used for gathering this information
• Integration of this information into a Library Development Plan
This approach will ensure that the Library Development Plan is linked to other plans that local
government is responsible for such as:
• Management Plan: provides an overall direction for the Council over a 5 year cycle
• Social Plan:outlinestheneedsofthecommunityandidentifesactionsCouncilwillpursue
to address these needs. The implementation of the Social Plan must be reported in Council’s
Management Plan.
• Cultural Plan: identifes the culture of a community and recommends strategies for
promoting and strengthening cultural identity and activities
• Local Environmental Plan:providesthelegislativeframeworkfortheallocationofspecifc
land uses throughout the community
• Annual Budget:allocatesfundsfromCouncilfnancestospecifcprojectsandworksfor
theupcomingfnancialyear
• Section 94 Contributions Plan and Planning Agreements: provides the legal basis on
which contributions are sought from local development towards the cost of additional
public infrastructure needed as a result of this development
It may also result in links to other plans developed by agencies such as the local economic
development board, university or technical and further education college, tourism development
committee and the Department of Health.
3.3 Needs Assessment
So why does this community need a new library building or changed library service? This
question often becomes the basic issue for many librarians as they try to prepare a Library
Development Plan. For many, the real distinction lies between needs and wants and the
concernthatprovisionisonlybasedonthearticulatedwantsofprofessionaloffcersorasmall
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vocal minority in the community. There may be a high level of community debate involved in
determining whether the community really needs and not just wants a new library building.
People Places provides a suite of four different tools for assessing need, given that it is
generallyacceptedthatneedisbothrelativeandsociallydefned.Byusingall of these tools,
you will have a resource of valuable information that will enable more effective collaborative
planning.Youshouldassesstheneedforandsizeoflibraryrequiredusingall of the four tools
outlined below. Information collected by each tool will provide a more complete analysis of
what type of services need to be provided which can then be translated into the actual design
andfunctionalfoorareasrequiredinanew/expandedlibraryfacility.
The four assessment tools are:
• Identifed Need: expressed by stakeholders such as library staff, community groups and
Counciloffcers.Itrefectswhatneedsareexpressedbyserviceproviders,practitionersand
consumers. It is also often referred to as qualitative information.A range of consultation
techniquesmaybeusedtogatherthisinformationandensurethattheextentandtypeof
need is fully understood (see Section 3.3.1).
• Normative Need: based on socio-demographic information and recognised statistical
indicators about library usage, provision per capita, etc. It is well known however, that
statistical or quantitative data can be changed around to show a very different picture
depending on what is used. Therefore, needs determined in this way should be checked
againstrealitytoensurethattheyareconsistentwiththequalitativeinformationgainedin
determiningIdentifedNeed(seeSection 3.3.2).
• Comparative Need: based on comparing service provision with other communities with
similar socio-demographic characteristics. Feedback from the consultation program used in
developing People Places highlighted that many local Councils and librarians rely heavily
on comparing themselves with other communities of similar size and characteristics.
They often visit these library services and seek to provide service models similar to these
communities. The advantage in using comparative need is that stakeholders can see the
outcomes for themselves. They know that it works (see Section 3.3.3).
• Benchmark-Based Need: using specifc tools related to the services provided by public
libraries and the population served by a library, this tool provides two different approaches
for determining the actual foor area of a public library. By using both methodologies, a
targetrangefoorareaforanewlibrarywillbeprovided.Thisinformationshouldbeused
with the other needs assessment tools discussed in this Section. This will provide Council
withsomefexibilityindeterminingtherequiredsizeofalibraryandenableamorelocal
assessment of what best meets community needs. If service provision through a mobile
library is being considered, reference should be made to the International Federation of
Library Associations Mobile Library Guidelines (Pestell, 1991) (see Section 3.3.4).
Thesetoolsareoutlinedinmoredetailbelowwithspecifcinformationonhowtousethemand
what resources are available. It is likely that other sections of Council and/or other local agencies
may be collecting the same information or using processes through which you could gather
usefulinformation.Besuretocheckthisoutfrstbeforeestablishingyourworkprogram.
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3.3.1 Identifed Need
This tool determines the need expressed by service providers, practitioners and consumers
aboutlibraryservicesand/oranewlibrarybuilding.Thereisarangeofconsultationtechniques
which can be used, and very often Council may have in place several consultation processes
which you may be able to participate in. These include regular surveys of ratepayers, community
meetings, precinct committees and social planning projects. However, before starting any
consultation it is essential to ask yourself:
• What is the aim of the consultation process, i.e. what information am I
trying to get?
It is essential to work out very clearly why you are using this tool and what type of
information you want to get. To get informed comment, you need to provide participants
withinformation.Don’taskinitialvaguequestionslike“Whatdoyouthinkaboutbuilding
a new library?” or “Do you want a new library?” without some opportunity to develop a
discussion around the issue. Determine what are the physical problems with the current
library; what other activities/services they would like in the library; and ideas users have on
how to increase use.
• What will the information be used for?
Only collect information that you can use and don’t be caught in the trap of collecting
information just for the sake of it. Too much information can be as big a problem as too
little.
• Who is to be consulted?
Think of which stakeholders need to be consulted and how this can best occur. Choose the
most appropriate technique for each group. For example, if you want broad community
views, do a phone survey, shopping centre survey or survey at a community event. If you
want to get the views of young people, visit them at school or a local youth centre. It is
importanttorememberthatthoseconsultedshouldrefecttherangeofdifferentgroupsin
thecommunity.Therearearangeofconsultationtechniqueswhichcanbeusedsuchas:
– Discussion papers inviting comments
– Individualquestionnairesandinterviews
– Focusgroupmeetingswithspecifcgroups,e.g.staff,youngpeople,olderresidents,
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, etc
– Community meetings
– Phone-ins
• What do participants get out of the process?
As consultation occurs regularly in the community around a range of issues, it is important
to remember that those involved need to gain something out of the process. At the very
least, they should receive a written report about what came out of the process. You may
provide a light lunch/refreshments, a thank you letter and invitation to a special Council
event, or a free book reservation at the library. Young people might feel more rewarded by
gift vouchers for the local bookshop. Or you might be able to organise a special presentation
by a local sportsperson or celebrity as a thank you for their involvement. The important
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issue however is to ensure that you really use this information which has been given to you.
Always let participants know what the information is to be used for and how they might be
able to further participate in the process.
Therearelotsofresourcesavailableoutliningconsultationtechniqueswithsomeoftheselisted
in Section 7.6.
3.3.2 Normative Need
This tool uses socio-demographic information and recognised statistical indicators to assist in
determiningtheneedforadditionallibraryfacilities.AllcouncilsinNSWarenowrequiredto
prepare a Social Plan to comply with the Local Government (General) Regulation 1999. This
is typically undertaken by Council’s Community Services section and includes a community
profle and statistical data about the local government area (LGA). Other information may
also be available through planning documents from Council’s Environmental Planning section.
You should use these documents to inform the library planning process and gather statistical
informationwhichidentifesissuesofimportancetolibraryplanningsuchas:
• Size and distribution of population
• Future population growth
• Work, shopping and recreational patterns of the community
• Transport patterns and issues
• Location and size of particular target groups, e.g. older residents, residents with disability,
children, young people, residents from multicultural backgrounds, Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander people, etc
• Size and distribution of important indicators such as household income, English language
skills, employment, etc
• Location of other services, e.g. child care centres, seniors’ centres, etc
Statistical indicators highlighting the use of library services in the LGA should also be collected
to inform this data. This will help to identify the extent of need and issues relating to existing
library service points. Some of this data may already be available as part of the regular statistics
collected by the State Library of New South Wales and/or benchmarking data used to encourage
best practice. It is important however, to choose the data which you think is the most useful to
provide realistic information in order to identify service needs. The data may also be related to
thecommunityprofledatacollectedabove,enablingthedevelopmentofanindividualservice
point/libraryprofle.Usefuldatatocollectmayinclude:
• Size, distribution and characteristics of library members
• Number and distribution of non resident members
• Grossfoorareaofeachservicepoint
• Distance between and transport availability for each service point
• Number of visits per service point
• Circulation per service point
• Size of collection/library materials per service point
• Opening hours per service point
• Existing and future plans for libraries in adjoining local government areas
Together, this statistical data should help to highlight the particular needs of different
communities and how the existing library/service point meets those needs.
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3.3.3 Comparative Need
To some extent, comparative need can be used to compare the levels of service provision
whichexistwithintheLGA.Forexample,itmaybeconsideredequitabletoprovidelibraries
of similar size when servicing communities with similar needs in the one LGA or region.
However, in reality this does not often occur with communities rarely being the same.
However, comparative analysis does help to identify need based on trends outside the local
area and to highlight what has worked in other communities. This tool is particularly useful
for the broad range of stakeholders involved in library development projects. It illustrates the
standards of provision considered reasonable in other communities and will enable stakeholders
to compare their community needs with what others have provided.
For example, when considering the need for a new library, visits to other communities that
have recently built new facilities will encourage informed discussion. The size of these new
libraries, the communities they serve, the range of services provided and innovative approaches
they may have used, can be used to compare with existing service provision in your community.
You should collect this information and develop a picture of what other similar communities
are providing.
This does not mean that all communities should replicate each other, but this tool provides an
opportunity to use the models already adopted and working in other communities. This may be
particularly useful for areas undergoing major population growth. In these cases, experience
from other library services located in areas which have experienced major growth, the problems
they addressed and the resultant services they have provided, will be invaluable information
fordevelopingcommunities.Equally,forremotecommunities,informationfromotherareas
on how new library buildings are providing for increased technology will be invaluable to local
Councillors and community representatives.
The examples shown on the State Library of New South Wales web pages (www.sl.nsw.
gov.au/pls) provide information on the planning and building of a range of public libraries
throughout NSW. Use these examples, together with other examples you know of, as one tool to
comparativelyevaluatetheneedforandsizeoflibrarybuildingsrequiredinyourcommunity.
3.3.4 Benchmark-Based Need
These benchmarks are considered by the Library Council of New South Wales to provide
minimum area sizes for public library buildings in NSW. They have not been changed from
thosepublishedinthefrsteditionofPeople Places in 2000.
People Places provides two methodologies that should be used to set the parameters for
determining the need for and resultant size of a new or expanded library building. They are the
service-based benchmark and the population-based benchmark which are outlined below
together with relevant examples to explain how they should be used in practice. These two
methodologies should be used together to provide a range of sizes for a new/expanded library
building.
Consideration should also be given to the minimum recommended size for a public library
building of 139 sq m gross foor area (State Library of New South Wales, 1995 p. 24). It is
important to note that a library of this size is only likely to accommodate a collection of
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4,400 books, 20 periodicals, 200 audio visual items and two OPACs. The remaining half
of this net area (i.e. 58 sq m) would need to be available for reading/study area, borrowing,
resources and staff work area.
It is particularly important for rural areas with declining or small populations, to give
greater weight to the service-based benchmark which focuses on providing a range of quality
library services consistent with the needs of the community.
The model of one central library with several branch libraries is used as the traditional service
structure for many public libraries throughout NSW. However, there are various other models
used such as area/district libraries. The benchmarks can be applied to each of these service
structures.
It is important to note that mobile libraries are not taken into account when assessing the
catchment area of a public library building. For remote and/or isolated communities they
may be an important service but typically the service points are temporary and access is often
limited to a few hours per week per location. More detailed information on mobile libraries is
available in the International Federation of Library Associations’ Mobile Library Guidelines
(Pestell, 1991) and at www.mobilelibraries.com.au.
Working examples of the service-based benchmark and population-based benchmark applied
to four sample library building projects are provided at the end of each methodology. By
comparing the outcomes of both methodologies it is evident that the calculated gross foor
areas utilising the two methods vary. The discrepancy generated by the two methodologies
isnotanerrorandinrealityprovidesomefexibilityforthedeterminationofthefoorspace
requiredforaproposedlibrarybuilding.
A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates both the population-based
benchmark and service-based benchmark based on the data you provide for your library
building project is available at www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls/policies/build/docs/benchmarks.xls.
Service-Based Benchmark
Thismethodisusedtodeterminetherequiredsizeofthelibrarybasedonthefuturecollection
size of the library and the type and range of services and core functions that the proposed
librarybuildingwillincorporate.Theserequirementsarethentranslatedintoafoorareafor
eachfunctionalareaandusedcumulativelytodeterminethesizerequirementoftheproposed
library. The process derives from a simple concept - that library space needs are based on
a level of service provision requiring a range of materials and functional areas necessary to
servethecommunityadequately.Eachservicehasanidentifablespatialrequirementandto
alargeextentalloftheservicesareinterrelated.Themethodologydefnessixbroadtypesof
library space and allows a projection of future needs and provides a way to translate resulting
serviceassumptionsintospatialrequirements.Section 7.4 provides additional information on
the methodology and space standards used for this benchmark. The six areas are as follows:
1. Collection area, (books, volumes, non print material, digital and virtual resources and the
base for library building size)
2. Reading and study areas, (meeting areas, study carrels, tables and chairs)
3. Resource areas, (catalogues, photocopiers, scanners, fax machines, vending machines, etc)
4. Staffareas,(servicedesk,staffworkroom,offces,workareas,storage,etc)
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5. Amenities and storage areas, (toilets, store rooms, maintenance areas, etc)
6. Additional service areas, (storytelling, family history, multipurpose rooms, etc)
The benchmark uses the overall size of the collection area as a base which is considered to
haveadirectimpactontheareasrequiredfortheotherlibraryservices.Itisimportantthatthe
projected collection size (Target Collection Factor -TCF) takes account of future population
andlikelyservicerequirements.Aswiththeprojectionofthelibrary’sservicepopulation,it
is most effective to make these projections over a 10 year period based on an understanding
of the community’s library service patterns, priorities, and needs. Comparative statistics and
published data can be used to suggest a minimum collection size, which can be modifed
accordingtothelibrary’srateofacquisitionsanddiscards.
The library’s service emphases may also have an effect on collection size. Each library will
also need to assess the impact of the growing availability of information by way of virtual
anddigitalresourcesandthetechnologyrequiredtoaccessthem.Forinstance,somelibraries
anticipatethatdigitalresourcesandthetechnologyrequiredtoaccesstheseresourceswillslow
therateofgrowthintraditionalcollectionsorevenreducethequantitiesthatwillbeneededin
those traditional collections. Other libraries anticipate little effect. Still others anticipate that
some parts of the collection (periodicals, reference holdings) will be affected substantially
while other parts will be affected less dramatically. The key to this step is an understanding of
local needs.
Equally,itisimportanttodeterminetheproportionoftheprojectedcollectioninthelibraryat
one time, while the remainder is on loan. Many libraries allow for only 65-75% of the projected
collection to be on the shelf at one time and each library service should assess its own future
needs.
Thefguresusedinthetablesbelowassumeanaislewidthbetweenshelvesof1500mmand
that each shelf unit is 4 shelves high. The functional areas for each service are based on studies
of existing libraries and architectural ‘circulation’ standards and assume a recommended
minimum service provision plus optional additional service areas. For simplicity, the functional
areas (2, 3, 4, 5, & 6 in the types of library spaces) are all based on a percentage of the projected
collection size (Target Collection Factor -TCF) and together are called the Relative Area
Factor (RAF). The Target Collection Factor (TCF) and the Relative Area Factor (RAF) are
multipliedtogethertoproducetheactualsize,orgrossfoorarea,ofthelibrary.
Service-Based Benchmark Calculations
Section 7.4 provides additional information on the methodology used to derive this benchmark.
A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates the service-based
benchmark based on the data you provide for your library building project is available at
www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls/policies/build/docs/ benchmarks.xls.
The Gross Floor Area (GFA) is the Target Collection Factor (TCF) multiplied by the Relative
Area Factor (RAF), expressed more simply as:
GFA = TCF x RAF
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In brief, the process outlined above involves the following steps.
Step 1
To determine the size of the collection to be accommodated in the library, calculate the space
requirementforeachpartofthecollectionandaddthemtogether.Ensurethatthecollection
sizewillaccommodatefuturetrendsandchangesinservicerequirementsandthatanallowance
is made for material out on loan. In our examples we have assumed that between 30% and 35%
of the collection is on loan at any given time, and that 65% to 70% will be on the shelves. Your
assessment may vary, and you can use your own estimates. Refer to Section 4.7 for guidance
on projected collection size.Add these fgures together to get the Target Collection Factor
(TCF).
Calculating the Target
Collection Factor Area
No. of Items Less % on
Loan
Space Standard Your
Calculation
Books on shelves
(number of volumes)
100 books per
1 sq m
Periodicals
(number of titles)
10 titles per
1 sq m
Non-print material (tapes,
CD’s videos, CD-ROM’s,
DVD’s etc)
100 recordings
per 1 sq m
Virtual and digital
resources (number of
public terminals)
1 terminal to
5 sq m
Total Target Collection
Factor – TCF
Step 2
Refer to the table below showing Functional Areas and delete the areas of services that are
not to be provided in your library. The core minimum Relative Area Factor (RAF) for most
librarieswillbe200%(i.e.thetotalofthefveassociatedfunctionalareasareequaltotheTarget
Collection Factor area). In an extended or co-located library facility some functions such as
foyer, display, amenities or meeting rooms may also be accommodated elsewhere. There may
also be additional services or functions provided in the library not in this list in which case a
comparativeassessmentshouldbemade.Byaddingtheseadditionalfgurestogetheryouwill
get the Total Relative Area Factor (RAF).
It should be noted that in the table below, the storage areas in Optional Additional Service
Areas should be added to the areas allowed for these additional services as they are not factored
into Staff Areas storage in part 4 of the table.
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Functional Area Quick Area Guide Your Calculation
1. Collection Area
Books and volumes on shelves
Periodicals
Non-print material
Virtual and digital resources
Base Area 100%
2. Reading and Study Areas
Meeting Areas
Study Areas
Browsing, Display, Information
10%
15%
5%
3. Resource Areas
Catalogues, photocopiers, etc
Vending machines, telephones

10%
5%
4. Staff Areas
Service Desk
Staff Work Area
Storage

15%
15%
5%
5. Amenities
Foyer, Lobby, corridors, etc
Toilets, restrooms, storage, etc
Plant equipment, maintenance

10%
5%
5%
Core Relative Area Factor
200%
6. Optional Additional Service Areas
Children’s Storytelling Area
Young Adult Area
Specialist Genre Collection Area
Specialist Room, Local and Family History
Multipurpose, Training, AV Room
Bookshop, Coffee Shop
Toy library
Community Services, Bank Services
Storage Area for Archival Materials/
Conservation
Mobile Library Services Area
Central or Regional Work Area
Central or Regional Community Offces
Other (add your own assessment)

5-10%
5-10%
5-10%
10-15%
20-25%
10-15%
10-20%
5%
5%

5%
5%
5%
Total Relative Area Factor
(i.e Core RAF plus optional areas)
Total Relative Area Factor
– RAF
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Step 3
Multiply the Target Collection Factor (TCF) by the Total Relative Area Factor (RAF).
The result is the total Gross Floor Area for the library.
The following examples apply the service-based benchmark methodology to four different
library building projects.
Examples
1. Branch Library with a projected catchment of 15,500 people. Projected
Collection: 34,000 books with 70% on shelf, 150 periodicals, 1,800 recordings
and 5 public access computer terminals.
Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF)
TCF = (34,000/100 x 0.7) + (150/10) + (1,800/100) + (5 x 5)
= 238 + 15 + 18 + 25
= 296
RAF = 240% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% +
Children’s Area 10% + Multipurpose Room 25% + Mobile Service Area 5%)
GFA = 296 x 240%
= 710
Therefore this benchmark allows for a branch library with a gross foor area of 710 sq m

2. Central library with 29,000 projected residents in its local catchment, a
projected non resident workforce of 1000 people and a projected 50,000
residents in the entire LGA. Projected collection of 84,000 books with 65%
on shelf, 250 periodicals, 5,500 recordings and 16 public access computer
terminals.
Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF)
TCF = (84,000/100 x 0.65) + (250/10) + (5,500/100) + (16 x 5)
= 546 + 25 + 55 + 80
= 706
RAF = 270% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% +
Children’s Area 10% + Youth Area 10% + AV Area 20% + Family History 15% +
Mobile 5% + Regional Areas 10%)
GFA = 706 x 270%
= 1906
Therefore this benchmark allows for a central library with a gross foor area of 1906 sq m
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3. Area/District library with 43,000 projected residents in its local catchment
and 160,000 projected residents in the entire region. The central library
functions are split equally between four area/district libraries. Projected
collection of 105,000 books with 70% on shelf, 300 periodicals, 4,000
recordings and 30 public access computers for each Area/District library.
Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF)
TCF = (105,000/100 x 0.7) + (300/10) + (4,000/100) + (30 x 5)
= 735 + 30 + 40 + 150
=955
RAF = 235% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% +
Children’sArea5%+CentralWorkArea5%+CentralOffces5%+
Multipurpose Room 20%)
GFA = 955 x 235%
= 2244
Therefore this benchmark allows for an Area/District library with a gross foor area of 2244
sq m
4. Expansion of an existing Central Library to meet the needs of a future
local population of 33,000 people and a regional population of 46,000. The
existing Central Library has a GFA of 770 sq m. Projected collection of 96,000
books with 70% on shelf, 450 periodicals, 3,000 recordings and 15 public
access computers.
Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF)
TCF = (96,000/100 x 0.7) + (450/10) + (3,000/100) + (15 x 5)
= 672 + 45 + 30 + 75
= 822
RAF = 225% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource areas/staff area/ amenities
100% + Audiovisual Room 20 % + Children’s Area 5%)
GFA = 822 x 225%
= 1850
GFAofExtension =1850minus770(existingfoorarea)
=1080sqm
Therefore the benchmark allows for a library extension with a gross foor area of 1080 sq m
and total library gross foor area of 1850 sq m.
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Population-based Benchmark
The population-based benchmark assumes that users primarily use their closest library and
thisdefnesthelibrarycatchment.Thisbenchmarkisbasedonthesizeofthefuturepopulation
who are likely to use/ or have access to a new/expanded library. Section 7.5 provides detailed
information on the methodology used to develop this benchmark.
To apply the benchmark, you need the current and future population data for your community.
Information is also required on the distribution of the population and the number of people
who are served by each library service point. Future population projections over a 10 year
period are particularly important to ensure that the library building project meets the future
needs of the community. These projections should be sourced through the Australian Bureau
of Statistics. This includes accurate population statistics from the most recent Population and
Housing Census, annual population estimates and future population projections at 5 yearly
intervals.
Consideration should also be given to the future size and distribution of the non resident
workforce and its projected use of library facilities. For example, a library located in a
major city centre or commercial area is likely to be used by employees working in the area.
Many of these employees may not be residents of the LGA and therefore not accounted for
in the resident population data. This information may be available in Council’s Social Plan,
strategy documents available from Council’s Environmental Planning unit and/or the NSW
Department of Planning. Information may also be available from Journey to Work data held
by the NSW Department of Transport’s Transport Data Centre and the Australian Bureau of
StatisticsWorkingPopulationProfle.Bothdatasetsarederivedfrominformationcollectedby
the Australian Bureau of Statistics as part of the Population and Housing Census (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2001).
Population-Based Benchmark Calculations
Section 7.5 provides additional information on the methodology used to derive this benchmark.
A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates the population-based
benchmark based on the data you provide for your library building project is available at
www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls/policies/build/docs/ benchmarks.xls.
To calculate the area of a library using this benchmark the calculation has to include an area
component for the Local Area served and a component for its function as a Central library
where applicable.
The Gross Floor Area (GFA) is calculated by adding the Local Area Factor (LAF) and the
Central Area Factor (CAF), and adding 20% for circulation and services space, expressed
more simply as:
GFA = (LAF + CAF) x 1.2
Where
GFA = Gross foor area
LAF = Local Area Factor which is the projected local resident and non resident workforce
served, divided by 1000 and multiplied by the building area factor shown in the table overleaf
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CAF = Central Area Factor is 15% of the product of the projected LGA or regional population,
divided by 1000 and multiplied by the building area factor shown in the table below
1.2 = building circulation/services allowance of 20%
Building Area Factors
Projected Population Served Net Building Area Factor per 1000
population
Less than 10,000* 42 sq m
10,001 – 20,000 42 sq m
20,001 – 35,000 39 sq m
35,001 – 65,000 35 sq m
65,001 – 100,000 31 sq m
More than 100,000 28 sq m
* In communities where the projected population is less than 2,750 persons, use the
recommended minimum size for a public library of 139 sq m gross. In communities where the
population is declining use the existing population served.
A central library, which typically provides the main library service for an LGA or region,
requires additional area for its large collection and range of specialist services.To calculate
thegrossfoorareaofacentrallibraryusingthepopulation-basedbenchmark,aLocal Area
Factor (LAF) and Central Area Factor (CAF) are determined as outlined below:
Step 1 Calculate the projected population (including the non resident workforce where it is
considered to have a signifcant impact on library services) for the central library, that is its
own local catchment.
Step 2 Based on the population above; multiply the relevant building area factor (as shown in
the table above) by the population divided by 1000. This is the Local Area Factor for a central
library or LAF.
Step 3Acentrallibraryalsorequiresadditionalfoorspaceforcentrallibraryfunctions (Central
Area Factor or CAF). To determine this, calculate the projected total population for the central
library’s total catchment area, i.e. the LGA or regional population.
Step 4Usingthispopulationfgure;multiplytherelevantbuildingareafactor(asshownin
the table above) by the population divided by 1000. The Central Area Factor or CAF is 15%
of this calculation.
Step 5 By adding together the Local Area Factor (LAF) and Central Area Factor (CAF), a
total net foor area for the central library is determined.To determine the Gross Floor Area
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(GFA),calculate20%ofthenetfoorareaasabuildingcirculationallowanceandaddthistothe
netfoorarea.Ifdeterminingthesizeofanextensiononlytoanexistingbuilding,thisbuilding
circulation allowance may be less than 20%. For example, if the existing library has toilets and
amenities that will be retained to service the new extension, an allowance of only 10% may be
allowed. Therefore, the calculation will be GFA = (LAF + CAF) x 1.1. Seek specialist advice
to determine the building circulation allowance where an extension is involved.
The method outlined above can also be used to determine the size of a branch or area/district
library.
A branch library typically services a smaller population catchment than its central library and
does not have the specialist services provided by the central library. Therefore, only the Local
Area Factor (LAF)isrequired.FollowthesamestepsasoutlinedaboveexcludingSteps3,4
and 5.
An area/district library is typically a combination of both central and branch library functions
and may require all or a proportion of the Central Area Factor (CAF) to be added to the
calculation. Therefore include Steps 1 through to 5 but in Step 4, determine how much of CAF
is distributed to each library. For example, 4 area/district libraries will each require 25% of
CAF.
Four examples of calculations for a central library, branch library, area/district library and
library extension are provided below. Remember; use this benchmark as a guide only and in
conjunction with other tools outlined in Section 3.
Examples
1. Branch Library with a projected catchment of 15,500 people
Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.2
Gross Floor Area = [(15,500/1000 x 42) + (no central area factor)] x 1.2
= (15.5 x 42) x 1.2
= 651 x 1.2
= 781
Therefore the benchmark allows for a branch library with a gross foor area of 781 sq m
2. Central library with 29,000 projected residents in its local catchment, a
projected non resident workforce of 1,000 people and 50,000 projected
residents in the entire LGA i.e. its total service area
Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.2
Gross Floor Area = [(30,000/1000 x 39) + (50,000/1000 x 35 x 0.15)] x 1.2
= [(30 x 39) + (50 x 35 x 0.15)] x 1.2
= (1170 + 263) x 1.2
= 1433 x 1.2
= 1720
Therefore the benchmark allows for a central library with a gross foor area of 1720 sq m
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3. Area/District library with 43,000 projected residents in its local catchment
and 160,000 projected residents in the entire region i.e. its total service area.
The central library functions are split equally between four area libraries.
Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.2
Gross Floor Area = [(43,000/1000 x 35) + (160,000/1000 x 28 x 0.15 x 0.25)] x 1.2
= [(43 x 35) + (160 x 28 x 0.15 x 0.25)] x 1.2
= (1505 + 168) x 1.2
= 1673 x 1.2
= 2008
Therefore the benchmark allows for an area library with a gross foor area of 2008 sq m
4. Expansion of an existing Central Library to meet the needs of a future local
population of 33,000 people and a projected regional population of 46,000.
The existing Central Library has a GFA of 770 sq m. As the existing toilets,
foyer and other amenities are well-located and will be maintained to service
the new extension, the building circulation allowance has been reduced to
10%.
Gross Floor Area = [(Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.1]
– Existing Gross Floor Area
Gross Floor Area = [(33,000/1000 x 39) + (46,000/1000 x 35 x 0.15) x1.1] – 770
= [(1287 + 242) x 1.1] - 770
= 1682 - 770
= 912
Therefore the benchmark allows for a library extension with a gross foor area of 912 sq m
and total library gross foor area of 1682 sq m.
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Example of Determining the Size of a New Co-Located Library
With co-located libraries, shared areas, such as foyers, meeting spaces, plant rooms and toilets,
will vary from one situation to another. To calculate the library’s share, frst work out the
total library foor area (the benchmarked area, including any potentially shared areas) as
a percentage of the total foor area of the combined facility. Then apply this percentage to
thesharedspace–theresultingfoorareacanbecountedaspartofthelibrary.Thefollowing
example shows how this works.
Let’s assume we are planning a library with a benchmarked gross foor area of
1906 sq m, including potentially shared areas. In the same building, co-located
with the library, is a Council art gallery with a gross foor area of 750 sq m, also
including potentially shared areas. In this example the proposed shared areas
(foyer, toilets and plant) have a gross foor area of 168 sq m. How much of this
168 sq m will be part of the Library’s benchmarked 1906 sq m?
Library foor area as a percentage of total foor area of proposed facility
= 1906/ (1906 + 750) x 100
= 1906/2656 x 100
= 72%
Library portion of shared spaces
= 0.72 x 168
=121sqm
Library components
BenchmarkedfoorareaforLibrary 1906sqm
Libraryportionofsharedspaces 121sqm
Libraryexcludingsharedspaces 1785sqm
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Process:
Getting the Right Players Involved
4.1 Collaborative Planning
As outlined in Sections 3.1 and 3.2, People Places recommends a collaborative planning
process which involves all stakeholders in determining how to prepare an overall development
plan for library services. Based on feedback from the consultation process used for People
Places, involvement of all stakeholders in the planning process is essential. Planning in
isolation without incorporating the views and opportunities identifed by other stakeholders
will not provide the more successful outcomes evident in collaboratively developed projects.
The following Sections provide information on the collaborative planning process and what
issues should be addressed prior to determining the detailed design of any library building
project. Getting the right stakeholders involved and addressing the issues that need to be
considered will ensure the success of your project.
4.2 Setting up a Working Group
A working group is an established organisational framework used by local government to work
collaborativelyonspecifcissues.Whenconsideringtheprovisionoflibraryservicesorpreparing
a Library Development Plan (see Section 3.2), a working group should be formed to address the
various issues involved and advise Council on actions to be taken. This working group should
comprise stakeholders who can contribute constructively to the process and provide a range
of specialist advice. Very often working groups may include Councillors, Council Directors,
the Library Manager and key library staff, offcers from Finance, Planning, Engineering,
Information Technology and Community Services, and community representatives.
The formation of a working group also ensures that the Library Development Plan is
incorporated into a range of Council’s strategic and management plans, providing an integrated
and co-ordinated approach. Opportunities for strategic alliances with other sections of
Council, particularly related to technology and fnance, may also be developed through this
framework.
Initial work should focus on the role of the working group and the issues to be addressed.
This will ensure appropriate and satisfying outcomes for all involved. The working group may
need to change over the life of the project with different stakeholders involved as the process
proceeds. In some cases initial working groups involved in the planning of a library project
may become smaller project management groups when the library project is actually being
built. A Project Manager may also be appointed to deal with the day to day issues and to liaise
between the builder and architect.
4.3 Funding Opportunities
Like all public buildings, the cost and ability to fund the construction and operation of a new/
extended public library is one of the main concerns of local government. Whether the service
istobelocatedinanew,extendedorrefurbishedbuilding,fnancingofthedevelopmentmust
be considered. Consideration should be given to the following cost components of a library
development project (see also Section 6):
• Land
• Building costs whether construction or refurbishment, including professional fees
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• Fitoutincludingequipment,furniture,shelving,etc
• Removalofcollection,furnitureandequipment
• Temporary relocation of library service for extensions or rebuild on existing site
• Site costs including engineering works and utilities
• Car parking and landscaping
• Operational costs including short and long term maintenance
• Staffng
In practice, there are many sources available to fund a library development project with local
government developing many interesting funding models. These include:
• Section 94 Contributions and Planning Agreements: Local government areas experiencing
signifcant population change as a result of new development are able to require
contributions from developers towards the cost of providing community facilities such as
libraries. Contributions are reliant on adoption of a Section 94 Contributions Plan for the
area experiencing growth and you need to work closely with the Environmental Planning
section to ensure that library provision is considered in this plan. Recent changes to the
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 also enable funds to be collected for
facilities to be shared between adjoining local government areas.
• Co-located Libraries:toprovidefexibilityandimproveduseraccess,manypubliclibraries
are co-locating with other Council services such as community centres, arts centres, youth
facilities and one stop shop services. Very often buildings may be shared but with separate
areas for each service. Other examples may share the site only or be located on adjacent
sites, providing central access for users to a range of services. For any of these options it
isimportanttoensurethatthequalityofserviceprovidedisnotdiminishedorthreatened
andthattherearebenefts/improvementsfortheprovideranduser.Thetypesofco-located
libraries vary enormously and the opportunity exists for very innovative and successful
projects. Section 4.4 outlines more fully the issues to be addressed in co-located projects.
• Joint-use libraries: this approach involves the development of a shared public library
service between two or more distinct service providers with funding provided by both local
government and the other service provider. For example, Technical and Further Education
services may be interested in pooling funds with Council for a joint library service for
TAFE students and the broader community. In both cases, funding is being sourced from
different authorities and the development of detailed agreements on the joint use library
service must be undertaken.
• Grant Programs: the Library Council of New South Wales annually administers the Library
Development Grants program (see Section 7.1). Funds from this program have been used to
assist in the development of many new/refurbished library buildings throughout New South
Wales.
Many other State and Federal government agencies also operate grant schemes which
provide funding for specifc projects. The requirements for these programs often change
and it is important to constantly review the funding sources available. Most require a
contribution from Council as part of the project and typically focus on capital expenditure
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or short term consultancy/contract staff projects.
These funding programs may provide funding opportunities for multi function buildings;
technology and specialist staff; community arts and cultural development; specialist
equipment for people with a disability; services forAboriginal andTorres Strait Islander
people; and services in remote communities. Information on grant schemes is available
from the web sites of individual government departments and the State Library of New
South Wales.
• Commercial Development Opportunities: local government has the capacity to utilise
its resources for community beneft. This may involve utilising existing resources more
effectivelyorinamorecommercialmannertoachievefnancialreturns.Examplesofthis
type of approach include land swaps for more appropriate property; refurbishing existing
Council or non Council buildings; lease of redundant buildings; sale of Council operational
assets to fund a new library; development of commercial spaces for lease as part of the
library project, etc. These and many other funding approaches have been used to fund
library development projects. When considering any of these approaches it is important to
have specialist advice and the working group framework will facilitate the investigation of
various funding options (see Section 4.2).
4.4 Co-location and Joint Use
Prior to determining the need for and size of a library development project, it is essential
to consider the opportunities provided through new and innovative service models such as
co-location and joint use. As outlined in Section 4.3, these models provide a new approach to
the funding of public library developments while also facilitating opportunities to add value to
any proposal.
These models typically provide a “community hub” or “community precinct” acting as a strong
focal point for community activities and identity. The approach is extensively used in Australia
and overseas and has recently been supported by the NSW Parliament Legislative Assembly
(2004) Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings. In NSW, co-location
and joint use developments with public libraries have included the following uses:
• Art galleries, community arts centres, theatres and exhibition areas
• Community centres
• Community Technology Centres (CTCs)
• Libraries for Technical and Further Education (TAFE)
• University access centres
• Police stations
• Community health centres
• Home and community care centres
• Ruralfreservice
• State emergency services
• Early childhood health centres
• Postoffces
• Museums
• Recreation and leisure centres
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• Shopping centres
• Public school libraries
• Council administration centres
The differences between these models are outlined below:
• Co-located librariesaredefnedasmultiplebuildingsand/orservicesprovidedononesite
or on separate adjacent sites. They may be located in one building, in separate buildings or
a combination of both. The library service however is only funded by local government and
operates as a separate service. Co-located libraries typically bring together other Council-
related services such as the Council Chambers/offces, community centres, arts centres,
youth facilities and/or one stop shop services. More recently, co-located libraries have been
developed with other government services such as community health centres, home and
community care centres, employment services or community technology centres. There are
many examples in NSW of co-located libraries.
• Joint-use libraries are defned as libraries where two or more distinct library service
providers serve their client group in the same building, the governance of which is co-
operatively arranged between the separate authorities. For example, a joint use library may
be developed between a local government authority and the NSW Department of Education
and Training for a library serving both high school students and the broader community.
The service is shared with pooled funding provided by both agencies to cover the capital
and recurrent costs of the service. There are few examples of joint-use libraries in NSW.
Potentialbeneftsofallmodelsinclude:
• Sharingofresourcessuchasstaff,spaceandequipment
• Encouraging wider public use by providing access to a range of services at one facility, i.e.
the one stop shop concept
• Improving the cost effectiveness of the service provided while also enhancing service
quality
• Reducing duplication of resources
• Rationalisation of property portfolios
• Providing specialist facilities and services, e.g. specialist expertise in technology together
withequipment
• Reducing worker isolation and encouraging more co-ordinated service delivery.
In considering any co-located or joint use library however, the potential disadvantages also
need to be addressed. Strategies to overcome these disadvantages may be developed but, in
somecases,thesestrategiesmaynotbesuffcienttosupporttheproject.
The following objectives have been developed to guide library development projects considering
co-location and joint use. They are based on consultation with stakeholders involved in existing
projects and also refect the NSW Parliament LegislativeAssembly (2004) Inquiry into the
Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings and a submission by the State Library of New
SouthWalestothisinquiry.
The objective of any co-located or joint use library is to:
• Provide an integrated and improved level of service, both collectively and as individual
services, than would occur through stand alone facilities;
• Meet the individual performance standards required by the governing bodies and
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authorities involved; and
• Where possible, provide a more economic use of services and resources.
Other factors to be considered are:
• Motivation: those involved in such a project must be willing partners committed to working
in partnership, co-operation and sharing throughout the life of the project. Without this
commitment, negotiations can be meaningless and time- consuming. All services should
have,orbeworkingtowards,developingcommongoalsandbewillingtomakefnancial
and operational commitments to achieve these goals. The sharing of common goals is
possibly one of the most critical factors in ensuring a successful project.
• Service Compatibility: the image, operating structure and users of the services involved
need to be compatible. The project should not result in any users feeling that the new project
is uncomfortable or undesirable. For example, joint school/community libraries have found
itdiffculttoattractadultusers.Equally,somefacilitieswhichinvolveolderresidentsand
youth sharing space have experienced problems.
• Common Design and Management Goals: it is important for all services to agree on the
design and management options for the project. In practice, this is where many projects have
failed, with problems in design and management rendering a project inoperable. Common
goals,developmentofjointmanagementarrangementsandsignifcantbeneftsevidentto
all services are essential components of a viable project. This may be time-consuming but
it is essential to have written agreements to cover each aspect of the project. Each service
needs to be fully aware of its management responsibilities and that the staff involved are
committed to these agreements.
• Financial Implications:allservicesmustfullyunderstandtheirfnancialobligationstowards
the project. This should include both capital and recurrent costs where appropriate. It may
become evident during the negotiations that the project may not deliver major fnancial
savings when compared to a stand alone facility. However, the improved service outcomes
may be of greater importance to all those involved. It is essential that co-location and joint-
use libraries are not basedonpotentialfnancialbeneftsonly.
If the opportunity exists to develop a co-located or joint use library the following elements
should be addressed:
• Consultation with key stakeholders in the planning process – it is essential that the key
agencies involved in any co-located or joint use library are involved in the siting and design
process for the project. Discussions on management arrangements should also be formally
agreedtoatthisstageasthismayimpactonthesiterequirementsand/orbuildingdesign.
For example, due to NSW Childcare Regulations 2004, a licensed child care centre cannot
share space with other services. The entry to the centre, outdoor play area, kitchen and
toiletamenitiesmustbetotallyindependent.Equally,whenplanningcomputertechnology
requirementsforaco-locatedlibrary,separatelocalareanetworkswillberequiredtoensure
thatconfdentialdatacannotbeaccessedthroughasharedsystem.Thismayimpactonthe
facilitydesign.Whereafacilityistobesharedwithotheruserssoundproofngandacoustics
are very important. If the project involves leasing space to a commercial café, bookshop
or other private use information from commercial retailers/leasing agents on viability and
design implications should be sought.
• Facility management – an agreement must be prepared detailing the responsibilities of each
service/organisation including building maintenance, car parking, cleaning and security.
Protocolsfor implementing theseresponsibilities alsoneedtobeidentifedtogether with
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processes for dispute resolution, e.g. who to ring for building maintenance, who is responsible
forlockingthebuilding,etc.Council’sPropertyoffcerstypicallyareresponsibleforthese
arrangements and should be involved in the project planning. This agreement should also
include the establishment of a board/committee of management comprising representatives
from each user group. The board/committee should meet regularly to discuss the management
and operation of the facility.
• Construction agreement –thiswillberequiredprimarilywherenonCouncilservicesare
involved in the project. Council’s Property offcers and/or an appointed project manager
would typically be responsible for these arrangements and should be involved in the project
planning.Equally,Council’sEnvironmentalPlanningsectionshouldbeconsultedregarding
potential statutory zoning issues and the development approval process.
• Facility operation – a joint mission statement is required to confrm agreement between
services about the role and function of the facility and the services provided. In addition,
a memorandum of understanding to confrm how the co-located or joint use facility
and/or site will operate should be prepared including procedures and responsibilities for
terminationofanyservices.Issuessuchashoursofoperation,staffngandprogramming
needtobedetermined.Theaimistoprovideacoordinatedservicewhichmayrequirenew
staff agreements and/or changed work programs.
• Marketing – importantly, these projects provide an opportunity for joint marketing and
promotion. To the community, the facility/site should be viewed as a “one-stop shop”
and can be marketed in this manner. Combined open days, information days, promotional
material, signage, website and advertising can be delivered through a joint project.
When considering any co-located or joint use library service, you should discuss the potential
beneftsanddisadvantageswithotherlibrariesthathavedevelopedsimilarprojects.Youmay
also contact the State Library of New South Wales for information about other projects.
4.5 Developing a Local Technology Plan
The pace of changing technology is being felt in public libraries in New South Wales. Changes
in library design, function and management can be directly attributed to new technologies and
this is likely to increase at an even more rapid rate in the future.
As outlined in Section 2.2.4, the issue for public library buildings is really not what is going
to change but how can these changes be accommodated over the long term. To meet this
challenge, it is important in the initial planning of a library building project to identify how
technology is likely to be used. This can then be used as input into the design brief (see Section
5.5 Developing a Brief).
Developing a Technology Plan is recommended as an appropriate tool to ensure that the
technological needs of our future libraries will be met at the local level. An overall Technology
Plan should be prepared at an LGA or regional level as a strategy document for the integrated
development of technology services in public libraries. This Plan would then link to an
individual Local Technology Plan for each public library facility or service point.
In preparing either an overall or Local Technology Plan, it is important to include relevant
stakeholders in the development process. Information technology is very important to local
government, with many councils actively involved in improving the information available both
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in-house and to the public via computer technology and online services. The need to involve
librarystaffandotherCouncilstaff,particularlyoffcersresponsibleforCouncil’sInformation
Technology, is imperative.
Analysis of the need for public access computers in the Local Technology Plan can be based
on the needs assessment approach outlined in Section 3.3. Information on the use of computers
at home and the Internet within the local area, the LGA and other comparative communities
is available in the Census of Population and Housing (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001).
Information on existing computer use in public libraries is also available from the Public
Library Statistics, State Library of New South Wales. Councils may also have data on use of
onlinematerials,nonloansvisitsandemailrequestsforlibraryassistance.Analysisofthisdata
andthetrendsrefectedcanbeusedtoinformtheLocalTechnologyPlan.
The following checklist provides direction for developing a Local Technology Plan but the
needs and issues for each community will be different. Obviously, an overall Technology Plan
deals with many broader issues and goals and will be more complex. A Local Technology Plan
must be linked to the overall plan but looks at technology provision that relates to the actual
design and function of a library building. A Technology Plan for a Central Library is likely to
be more complex than that for a Branch or Area Library.
All plans should have short and long term goals and be linked to appropriate levels of capital
and recurrent funding, i.e. acquisition of computers, staff to run computer courses and
develop online services, etc. Opportunities exist to gain funding for technology through other
government resourcing programs, partnerships with other agencies, etc. Some libraries have
developed their technology services by using opportunities available outside the traditional
library funding sources. For example, Community Technology Centres (CTCs) and universities
have co-located additional computer resources with public libraries. To ensure that public
libraries provide public and staff access to the most up-to-date technology, allowances should
alsobemadefortheconstantupgradingofequipment.
The LocalTechnology Plan will have signifcant implications for library layout and design.
Traditional customer fows in particular will change as a result of the introduction of more
technology to public libraries. The provision of self-checking equipment will signifcantly
reducetheamountoftraffcatthecirculationdeskwhiledispersedOPACsmayreducethearea
traditionallyrequiredforinformation.ManylibrariesarealsoprovidingquickaccessInternet
computers for people who want limited access online information. Often these are provided at
standing-only work stations.
Online resources such as journals and newspapers may reduce the amount of space traditionally
required to store these materials while staff may also be freed up from traditional activities
behind the circulation desk to be out in the library addressing user needs and/or resourcing
onlinerequests.Asaresult,staffworkspaceislikelytobereallocatedtootherareasandthe
potential for “hot-desking” (where different staff temporarily use the same work space) is
already evident in the public areas of several libraries.

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Checklist for a Local Technology Plan
• Computerised and online library systems: for circulation including scanners/printers and
self-checking equipment for borrowing; acquisitions; and cataloguing including Online
Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) terminals.
• Computerised and online Community Information Systems: for community information,
Council meeting minutes and other Council public information
• Terminal work stations for staff: provision is often based on one dedicated work station
per full-time staff member
• Public access computers: all public libraries should provide a minimum of one personal
computer for public access to the Internet per 3,000 residents or part thereof. Many public
libraries in NSW already achieve this level of provision with the existing provision rate
for NSW at one per 4,000 residents. The recommended standard allows for the expected
continuing growth in computer and Internet usage. Where the library serves less than 20,000
residents, at least three personal computers with Internet access are required.Additional
public access computers should be provided with current software, linked printing facility,
scannerandassociatedequipment.Considerationmaybegiventoprovidingpublicaccess
computers for computer games particularly in the children’s and/or youth areas. Increases
in provision should be incorporated into the Technology Plan based on this guideline,
community needs and the range of services to be provided by the library, such as public
Internet courses, services for a large student population and local business developments.
Appropriate furniture and equipment to access all technology resources within the new
library should be provided for all users, particularly for people with a disability.
• Telephone system: capacity to deal with a number of different lines, cordless and headset
options and other new facilities.
• Provision for personal laptops and wireless technology: provision should be made for
the public to use their own personal computers in the library. Ports for laptops should be
provided throughout the library together with provision for wireless technology.
• Security systems:whichinterfacewiththelibrarymanagementsystem,e.g.radiofrequency
identifcationtechnology(RFID)
• Fax machine and scanner: for both staff and public use
• Photocopier: colour and black/white copiers
• Audiovisual equipment: CD player, DVD player, overhead projector and other resource
equipment should be provided based on the needs of community and services to be
provided
4.6 Staffng Requirements
When planning for a new/extended library building, provision should be made for staffng
requirements based on the new library design. Research highlights the importance of well-
trained staff in a library and the high value placed on this service component by users. In
additiontoqualifedlibrarians,librarytechniciansandassistants,specialistlibrarystaffmay
also be required to meet the service needs identifed in Section 3 Needs:Planning for Your
Community. The number of service points within a new library building has a direct impact on
staffngrequirements.Thisshouldbeamajorconsiderationwhendesigningtheinternallayout
of a new library building.
Ifanewlibrarybuildingisbeingplanned,youshoulddeterminetherequiredstaffnumbersand
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skills mix based on:
• Internal layout and function of the building
• Existing levels of provision in the community
• Potential of a joint venture project to increase non library staff within a building and thereby
reduce worker isolation and increase personal safety
• Comparison with similar new library projects in other communities
• Guidelines provided in Towards a quality service (Australian Library and Information
Association, 1990)
TheconsiderationofstaffngneedsisessentialandoneofthecriteriausedtoassessLibrary
Development Grant applications.
4.7 Library Collection Plan
An equally important component of a library development project is the provision of an
improved library collection. As outlined in Section 3 Needs; Planning for Your Community,
the service provided by a public library is the most critical for users. This means the size and
qualityofthecollectionavailableandtheprovisionofwell-trainedstafftoensurethatthese
resources are accessible and useful. The library building is merely the service model through
which service delivery occurs.
Therefore, it is essential that plans be made to upgrade the library collection as part of a new
building project. The community will expect something new and different. In some cases, an
expandedcollectionwillberequiredifyouareaddinganewlibrarytotheexistingnumberof
service points in the community. Where a new project replaces an existing facility this may
mean increasing the collection slightly. Statistical indicators such as the number of library
resources per head of population may be used to determine how many new resources need to
beadded.Recentacquisitioncostsperitemwilltranslatethisinformationintoabudgetitem
for your library development project.
Opportunitiesalsoexisttoprovidespecifcareasforspecialgenrecollections.Forexample,the
newlibrarymayhaveaspecifcareaforgardeningwiththebookandaudiovisualcollection
locatedinoneareawithcomfortablechairs,tablesanddisplaycabinets.Equally,acommunity
language collection may also be located around tables for group learning and information
boards.
It is important to remember that the library collection not only includes books, but an on-
site and off-site electronic collection, audiovisual materials, magazines, periodicals and other
resources.
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4.8 Library Fitout
Library ftout is equally important and will be a major component of any library budget.
Experience suggests that library furniture and equipment should be attractive, comfortable,
robust and durable with limited maintenance requirements.The following checklist outlines
some of the itemsthatmaybecostedintheftoutofanew/extendedlibrary:
• Shelving for different book collections
• Specialist shelving for audio visual materials, magazines and periodicals
• Study carrels, group tables and chairs
• Lounges and comfortable chairs for the browsing area
• Specifcfurnitureforthechildren’sandyouthareas
• Specifcfurnitureforspecialistgenrecollections,e.g.studytablesforbusinesscollection
• Specialist storage and conservation resources for archival material
• Craft and activity tables
• Computer hardware and software
• Workstationsandoffcefurniture
• Signage
• Circulation desk, including self-service checkouts
• Information and other service desks
• Public art
• Fire-resistant book return chute
• Audiovisualequipment
• Meetingroomequipment,i.e.tables,chairs,whiteboard,kitchenequipment
• Staffamenitiesequipment
• Security system
• Photocopiers,faxmachineandotherresourceequipment
• Carpet/foorcovering
• Window treatment, i.e. blinds, curtains, etc
• Telephones
• Compact shelving and other storage facilities
• Change machine
• Noticeboards
• Display cabinets
• Trolleys
• Lockers
It is important for the architect’s budget to include not only the total cost of the library building
butalsoallbuilt-infttingsandfurniture.TheLibrary’sbudgetmustthereforemakeprovision
for all these items, which could account for 10% of the total cost of the library project. However,
it is normal practice for the librarian to prepare a full list of all these requirements at the
building design stage so that the architect can be consulted on furniture design and an agreed
list of items budgeted by the local authority.
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Planning:
Upfront Planning is the Key
5.1 Choosing a Site for a Public Library
Thatoldrealestateadage“location,location,location”appliesequallytopubliclibrariesas
with any activity that needs to be accessible to a broad range of users. The process of siting a
new/extended public library needs to address key criteria which are essential to the successful
location of a public library.
Christine Koontz’s Library facility siting and location handbook (1997) highlights that little
has changed over the years with factors such as high visibility, location in a main shopping
area and potential for expansion remaining as relevant today as they were in the late 1800’s.
In many communities, local councils are now looking at the value of retaining major public
infrastructuretoattractshoppersandvisitorsinCityCentres.Equally,privatedevelopersare
often interested in accommodating a public library in a new shopping centre development as it
attracts large volumes of visitors who may also shop after visiting the library.
As outlined in Section 3 Needs – Planning for Your Community, the general location of a
new/extended library is very much based on the needs of the community. A needs assessment
shouldbeundertakentodeterminewherethenew/extendedlibraryisrequiredandwhattypeof
services will meet the community needs. A detailed methodology is presented in Section 3 and
should be read in conjunction with this Section. However, issues of resident and non resident
characteristics; population growth projections; shopping and recreation patterns; location of
schools and higher education facilities; transport patterns; and future developments are some
of the factors that may be considered as part of this analysis.
Following this analysis, a broad area or suburb will be identifed in which a new/expanded
libraryisrequired.Fromthisbase,severalsitesmaybechosenandassessedintermsoftheir
suitability. People Places recommends that, as a minimum, all of the following 12 locational
criteria be considered in determining the most appropriate site for a public library.
Site Criteria for a Public Library
• Main street or shopping area location
• Highly visible location particularly from the shopping area
• Streetfrontagewithlibraryongroundfoorandnothiddenfromtheroadbytreesoranother
building
• HighlevelofpersonalandpropertysafetyasoutlinedinSaferbyDesignrequirements(see
Section 5.2)
• Fully accessible for people with limited mobility
• Close to and/or accessible from local schools and educational facilities
• Potential for an outdoor area to be attached to the library
• Priority pedestrian access which is safe and attractive, particularly for older residents,
children and parents with prams
• Walking distance from public transport which is typically 400-500 metres with minimal
gradient
• Access to convenient and safe car parking with priority for people with a disability, older
residents, parents with prams, staff and night-time users.
• Accessible for community buses, mobile libraries, deliveries and other vehicles
• Siteabletoaccommodatefutureexpansionofthelibraryifrequired
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To determine which site is best from a locational viewpoint, a simple or weighted matrix can be
used as an evaluation tool. Simply give one point to each site that meets the locational criteria
provided above.You may add other locational criteria which are important to your specifc
community,e.g.notonfoodproneland,withintheCity’sculturalprecinct,etc.
As shown in the following table, a more detailed approach could be used if you want to
further distinguish between the sites and/or include the views of other stakeholders. Ask
each stakeholder to give a score of between 1 and 3 for how well each site meets the criteria.
You might even decide to weight the criteria yourself between 1 and 3 depending on their
importance.Forexample,thestakeholdersmayconsiderthatalocationwithadequateparking
is more important than being located right in the shopping centre. As shown in the table below,
parking is given a weighting of 3 points while shopping centre location has a weighting of 1
point. Site A, which has ample on-site parking would receive 9 points (i.e. 3 for its criteria
weighting and 3 for the site score or 3 x 3 = 9). Site B, located right in the shopping centre,
would receive 3 points (i.e. 1 for its criteria weighting and 3 for its site score or 3 x 1 = 3).
Inthetableoverleaf,fctionalsitelocationsandascorehasbeendevelopedasanexampleof
how to use a locational matrix to assist in the site selection process. Using this methodology,
the site with the highest total score is the most suitable for a public library. In this example;
• Site A is on a side street in a shopping centre
• Site B is located right on the main street
• Site C is behind the Council administration building.
This methodology may not be needed if the locational criteria can be easily applied to the
sitesavailable.Also,politicalprocessesandotherissuesmayinfuencethepreferredlocation
of a public library, making the choice of the most appropriate site a diffcult or contentious
issue. It may be appropriate at this stage, to engage an independent consultant to undertake an
assessment of potential sites, facilitate the process and prepare reports.
In all cases, it is essential, as a minimum, to address the locational criteria provided in this
Guide. Poor locations for public libraries can result in public monies being wasted. Research
strongly supports that location is a major factor for library users and a well-located library is
essential to achieve increased utilisation.
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Example of Locational Matrix for Identifed Public Library Sites
Locational Criteria Weighting
(optional)
Site A Site B Site C
Main street or shopping
centre location
1 2
(1x2)
3
(1x3)
1
(1x1)
Highly visible location 3 3
(3x1)
9
(3x3)
6
(3x2)
Ground foor and street
frontage
3 6
(3x2)
9
(3x3)
9
(3x3)
High levels of personal and
property safety
3 3
(3x1)
9
(3x3)
3
(3x1)
Fully accessible 3 6
(3x2)
9
(3x3)
9
(3x3)
Accessible from local schools 2 2
(2x1)
4
(2x2)
6
(2x3)
Potential for outdoor space 1 1
(1x1)
2
(1x2)
3
(1x3)
Priority pedestrian access 3 6
(3x2)
9
(3x3)
3
(3x1)
Walk to public transport 1 2
(1x2)
3
(1x3)
1
(1x1)
Convenient and safe parking 3 9
(3x3)
6
(3x2)
9
(3x3)
Accessible for all vehicles 3 3
(3x1)
3
(3x1)
9
(3x3)
Future expansion 2 4
(2x2)
2
(2x1)
6
(2x3)
OVERALL SCORE 47 68 65
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5.2 Safer by Design Principles for Sites and Buildings
In many communities throughout Australia and indeed overseas, many people have strongly
voiced their concerns regarding perceived and real lack of personal safety in the home, street
and public places. In response to public concerns, the NSW Department of Urban Affairs
and Planning prepared the guidelines Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
(CPTED) to assess the appropriateness of proposed developments to provide a safe, crime
free environment. Prepared in conjunction with the NSW Police, many Councils assess all
development applications using these guidelines (NSW Department of Urban Affairs and
Planning, 2001).
The “Safer by Design” guidelines have adopted the following design principles:
• Surveillance – natural and technical surveillance are important and focus on ensuring that
people can see what people are doing. Typically public areas need to be overviewed by
others with clear sightlines from private to public areas, effective lighting of public places
and landscaping which does not provide areas for people to hide or entrap victims. Private
areas need to have well-defned, well-lit entries with safety provisions incorporated into
windows/courtyards fronting public area.
• Access control–publicplacesneedtobeclearintheirdefnitionofwherepeoplecanand
cannotgoandtodefneprivatepropertyboundaries.Theuseofphysicalbarriers(egfencing,
locked doors) and symbolic barriers (eg landscaping) are important in access control. This
isequallyimportantforentriestoindividualapartmentsandcommunalresidentareas,e.g.
car park, garbage collection area, storage areas, etc.
• Territorial reinforcement – areas that are well-maintained, have a feeling of “ownership”
and are well-used reduce opportunities for criminal activity. Public areas need to clearly
defne their intended use and encourage community activity. This equally needs to be
applied to communal private areas as outlined earlier.
• Space management – areas need to be attractive and well-maintained with regular removal
of waste, mowing, removal of graffti, repair of vandalism and the refurbishment of old
equipment/furniture.Thisappliestobothpublicandcommunalprivateareas.
It is recommended that these design principles be applied as part of the planning process for the
proposed library site (see Section 5.1) and library building (see Section 5.3). More information
on the specifc assessment criteria can be obtained from Council’s Environmental Planning
section and at: www.police.nsw.gov.au /community_issues/crime_prevention/safer_by_
design.
5.3 New Building or Refurbishment
Thechoiceofsitemayalsobeinfuencedbythepossibilityofreusingoradaptinganexisting
building.Theprospectofutilisingarefurbishedbuildingratherthananewfacilitymayatfrst
appear to be a more cost-effective option. However, the suitability of the building as a library
can have a substantial impact on the initial capital cost, the end costs and running costs, and
can have a substantial impact on the future development of the library and future services to be
provided. Issues to consider are:
• Provision for mechanical and electrical services in existing buildings particularly those with
heritagesignifcance.
• Flexibility,adaptabilityandexpansioncapabilityforfuturemodifcations
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• Fire upgrades and compliance with the Building Code of Australia.
• Maintenance and running costs
• Cablingtoaccommodatelocaltechnologyplanrequirements
• Floorloadingabletoholdsignifcantcollectionweights
• Access particularly for people with a disability or limited mobility
5.4 Schedule of Public Library Functional Areas
This schedule provides a guide to the type of functional areas that may be included in a public
library. Each area, its size and possible location within the library will vary from building
to building depending on the type of services the library provides and the needs of the local
community. There may be other specifc functional areas required in your library building
project which have emerged from analysis of the community’s needs and benchmark needs
standards (see Section 3 Needs – Planning for your Community). The following functional
areas should be considered when planning and designing a public library building:
Collection
• Reference collection
• Fiction collection
• Nonfctioncollection
• Specialist collections (Local Studies, Community Languages and Indigenous collections)
• Large print collection
• Children’s collection
• Young adult collection
• Audiovisual collection
• Special genre collection, e.g. business, gardening
Activity Areas
• Children’s activity area
• Computer games area
• Young adult area
• Family history service area
• Informal reading and browsing area
• Newspaper and periodical area
• Study areas including separate group rooms
• Theatre/lecture room/auditorium
• Outdoor area/courtyard
• Public art
Technology Areas
• OPACs
• Publicaccesscomputers,scanners,photocopiers,faxmachineandotherequipment
• Audiovisual areas including listening posts, computer games, televisions for DVDs
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Service Areas
• Reference/Information desk
• Children’s desk
• Circulation desk/self checking area
• Community information/display
• Community services
• Entry foyer
• Exhibition and display area
• Refreshment area/coffee shop/vending machines
• Banking services
Ancillary Areas
• Kitchen facilities
• Public toilets including baby change and/or parents room
• Staff work room
• Librarians’offces
• Specialist work areas (including home library service, mobile library service, etc)
• Stack areas and other storage facilities
• Storage area for archival materials
• Staff room and staff toilets and showers
• Public lockers/storage
• Cleaners’ storage
• Loading and delivery area
• Change machines and public telephone area
5.5 Developing a Brief
The process of writing a brief for the new/extended library will grow out of the needs analysis
and will evolve through the planning process. At the outset it is important to focus on the bigger
picture and set clear and achievable targets in the form of a mission statement. The brief is
much more than just the allocation of space within the building. It should establish the desired
philosophy, ideals and aspirations of all stakeholders involved with the library. This can be
documented or established through focus groups and community meetings (see Section 4).
Onceestablished,theworkinggroupshouldalsocloselyassessthespatialrequirementswithin
thelibraryanddevelopafnelytunedscheduleoffunctionsandservicestobeaccommodated
within the building. Key design issues should be discussed with priorities set and included
withinthebriefngdocument(seeSection 6). To facilitate this, it is imperative for library staff
to be involved in all stages of the planning and brief development and direct liaison should be
established between the planning and design teams and library staff.
Thereisnosubstituteforfrsthandexperienceofotherlibrariesasworkingmodels.However,
the examples of recent public library buildings on the State Library of New South Wales web
site(www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls)andtheexperienceofprofessionalsintheirparticularfeldscan
be valuable for the working group. Library buildings are becoming more and more technically
complex with many issues to be considered. Now it is more important than ever to engage a
range of specialists to optimise the design of a public library.
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In writing a brief for the design team for a new/extended library the following issues should
be clearly set out:
• Project background
• Project aims and objectives
• Project budget and timeframe
• Procurement methods
• Project organisation structure
• Proposed scope of services for the architect and consultants
• Form of consultancy contract
• Schedule of functional areas (see Section 5.4)
5.6 Selecting the Architect, Project Manager and other Consultants
The selection of an architect is obviously a key element in the planning and design of a library.
There are a number of ways of entering into a selection process such as open or limited design
competition, a tender process, calling for expressions of interest or choosing an architect
outright based on experience and reputation. Each method can have advantages and pitfalls but
inallcasesitisimperativethattheworkinggroupisconfdenttheyhaveengagedaprofessional
with whom they can work collaboratively.
In almost all cases there will be a need to call for some form of tender for professional services.
Local Councils will have a policy and procedure for calling of tenders and the appointment
of consultants. Further advice can be sought from professional institutions such as the Royal
Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) who publish a wide range of documentation such as
competitionprocedureandqualifcationbasedassessmentofarchitecturalpractices.
Selection criteria for assessment include:
• Recent relevant experience
• Professional skills of nominated staff
• Ability and willingness to communicate effectively
• Proven design capability
• Resource availability
• Technical capability
• An understanding of the project
• Management practices and methodologies
• Quality and completeness of information supplied with the submission
• Cost effectiveness and value for money
• Quality assurance
• Professional indemnity insurance
Also important to the process is the appointment of a project manager to manage the construction
process.Thisisanequallycriticalcomponentofasuccessfullibrarybuildingproject,toensure
that the planned facility is completed on time, on budget and consistent with the overall vision
and plan for the facility. The project manager may be from within Council, such as a Council
engineer, or an external consultant/architect. The role of the project manager is to administer
the building contract on site and provide the formal channel of communication and liaison
between library staff and the building contractor/architect.
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Councilsmustassesswhetheranin-houseappointeehassuffcientskills,experienceandtime
to undertake the process, though this option obviously offers a cost saving. The alternative is
an external appointee who will be a further consultant cost to the project. The latter option can
providebeneftsbecauseitispossibletosourceaprojectmanagerwhohasspecifcprevious
experience and skills with public libraries, and in the administration of building contracts.
Within the building industry, these types of skills are called “value adding” and in the long
run utilising a professional project manager, which costs money, may be less costly than an in-
house appointee who lacks the skills, and time to follow the job through thoroughly.
Projectmanagerscanalsoassistinthesourcingandcostingofftoutwhichmaybeinaddition
to the works covered in the building contract.
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Design:
Key Design Factors for Public Libraries
6.1 Image and Identity
Libraries are a focal point for the community - a place where groups and individuals will meet,
discuss, listen and learn. The library building also serves an important civic function, both in
terms of the service it provides and the impression it creates. A library should be expressive
of its community. It must relate to the people it serves in an inviting, non institutional and
welcoming way.
Importantly, creating an image and identity for your library does not need to be expensive.
Primarily it is about developing an agreed vision for your library facility and then using this
image to build a service and facility that the community knows and values.
6.2 Flexible and Multifunctional Buildings
Design,layoutandservicerequirementschangesorapidlythatfexibilitymustbedesignedand
built into a new building. In assessing the needs and service provision for a community (see
Section 3), population growth and future service requirements may require additional space
or provision for expansion that must be accommodated as part of the conceptual and building
design. It is rarely possible to set aside space for all future uses but an approach to the design
thatallowsfexibilityandadaptabilitywillenablefutureLibraryManagerstooptimisetheuse
of the space.
The following issues should be considered:
• Non load-bearing walls or demountable partitions can be removed or relocated within the
building with minimal disruption to the building structure and services.
• The position and type of lighting has a direct impact on the potential for
relocation of shelving systems. Flexibility is maximised when there is a high level
of general lighting throughout the space (see Section 6.8).
• The reticulation of mechanical and electrical services should be planned to accommodate
change. Gridded false ceilings will allow for various layouts of air- conditioning grilles,
light fttings and power circuits. Skirting trunking with power and data cabling along all
wallsoptimisesthepotentiallocationsforcomputersandelectronicequipment.
• Whenplanningforfutureextensionsitisimportanttoidentifyspecifclocationsaspartofthe
designprocess.Allowanceshouldbemadeforsuffcientspaceonsitefortheconstruction
of a later stage and if building upward the structure should be designed to accommodate the
extra loading.
• Provision can be made for future subdivision or subletting of the space
6.3 Order, Orientation and Functionality
A simple plan is invariably a good plan. A simply laid out library where the relationship and
accessbetweenspacesisclearandlogicalwillbeeasiertouseandthereforemorefrequented.
Clear routes of travel assist in creating legibility and promote a sense of orientation. This
makesthingseasiertofndandpreventsdisruptionbetweenareasandfunctions.Unobstructed
sightlines and visual markers, or perhaps colour coding or art works can also provide a means
of orientation in larger buildings.
Equallythesetoutoftheshelvingshouldbeclearandlogical.Thisdoesnotnecessarilymean
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theshelvingshouldberegimentedbutitshouldallowasystematicsequencingandanordered
location of book types. It is not enough to rely on signage. Order comes through clarity and
good design.
Alibrarymustwork.Itmustfunctionadequately.Thespacesandobjectsdesignedmustrespond
primarily to their function and to user requirements.The best way to ensure this is through
detailedresearchwiththelibrarystafftogainanunderstandingofthefunction,theequipment
and the tasks to be carried out.
6.4 Accessibility and Mobility
A library must be open and accessible to the whole community. This means designing a building
thatpromotesequalityforyoungandold,peoplewithpramsandpeoplewithadisability(see
Section 2.2.1).Thefollowingissuesallrequireattention:
• Layout:asinglelevellibraryisdesirablealthoughawell-locatedliftdoessuffceinmulti
level buildings.
• Access and approach: the entry and all parts of the library should be barrier free, i.e. without
steps or obstacles, and designed in accordance with building regulations and standards for
ramps, door widths, door furniture, lift controls, toilets, etc.
• Entry: the front door, the frst point of contact with the library, must be highly visible,
easytofndandeasytoopenforallusers.Electronicslidingdoorsarepreferableandthe
provision of lobbies and air locks should be considered in terms of the internal climate and
external wind conditions.
• Car parking: provide specially marked car parking spaces for people with a disability close
to the entry.
• Mobility: aisle widths and corridors must accommodate wheelchairs, prams, motorised
scooters, etc
• Furniture and equipment: should be comfortable and fully accessible. Counter height at
service desks, readers’ desks and carrels must cater for wheelchair users.
• Floor coverings: provide non slip surfaces.
• Communication: provide clear external and internal signage, tactile indicators and hearing
loops.
• Shelving: provide shelving at the appropriate height and reach for all users.
• Standards: comply with the Building Code of Australia, Australian Standard 1428: General
requirements for access,AS 1735: Lifts and Escalators, and other applicable codes and
standards.
6.5 Smart Technology
Information technology has a major impact on the shape and form of public libraries and in
the ways we are now using them. The way technology is integrated into the building should
be developed as part of a Technology Plan which will determine the level of usage and the
type of services to be provided (see Section 4.5). The debate on whether further technological
advanceswillincreaseordecreasespacerequirementsinpubliclibrarieswillcontinueoverthe
years, but it is evident already that the demand for access and training on computer, Internet
andaudiovisualfacilitiesiscreatingaservicerequirementwithinlibraries.
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One thing is certain – online information services through the Internet will increasingly be at
the core of a library’s information and reference services and to cater adequately for future
demand, a library needs appropriate space. The rapid changes and developments we have seen
in the information technology industry will, no doubt, continue and the design of your library
willneedtobefexibleandadaptableenoughtoaccommodatethechangesandtorespondto
the service demands. Some space related issues are outlined below:
• Therateofchangewithtechnologymeansthatmorepeoplewillrequireaccesstoup-to-
datetechnology.Itcannotbeassumedeveryonewillhavetheequipmentathomeorthat
they will be in a position to pay, or indeed that they have the time or expertise to locate and
package the information in a meaningful way.
• Digital information is unlikely to replace hard copy entirely and in the foreseeable future
theremaywellbedualsystemsrequiringmore,notlessspace.
• Libraries could well provide rooms suitable for IT training services.
• Informationthatisaccesseddigitallywilloftenrequirereproductioninhardcopyformat.
Librariesmaywellrequiredocumentormultimediaproductionfacilitiessuchasprinters,
scanners,copiers,etcaswellasaudiovisualfacilities.Alltheseadditionalservicesrequire
allocated space.
• More and more people are working from home and working in smaller business environments.
Libraries can provide space for personal interaction, meetings and seminars.
• As the use of technology increases, particularly Internet access, the availability of information
becomes more and more international and inherently broader based. The technology
baseinthelibrarycanprovidevaluablelocalisedinformationspecifcallyfocusedonthe
community, local culture and local heritage.
6.6 Marketing
To ensure that the community can use the resources of the library effectively, many libraries
are using retail strategies to increase visits and borrowings. These strategies focus on ensuring
that all the resources of the library can be more readily seen by users and that they are actively
encouraged to use them. Strategies include:
• Signage
• Product placement
• Promotional displays
• Ambience
• Customerfow
Forthephysicaldesignofthelibrarythesestrategiesmayrequire:
• Provision of separate quiet areas and noisy areas with both attracting different types of
users for different types of library activities. Quiet areas are typically used by students and
older people for research and study. Particularly in urban areas, some people just want
aquietcalmarea–anoasisinthecity.Noisyareasaremorelikelytobeusedforgroup
activitiesandbychildren,youthandfamilies.Theremaybeaudiovisualequipment,toys
and group activities such as children’s story time or author talks. All are legitimate uses and
activities in a library.
• Consideration of internal and external colour schemes to create ambience or themes. Case
studies undertaken for this project included examples of;
– vibrant colours on the outside of the building to ensure that the library is strongly
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identifedwithinwhatmayalreadybeavisuallybusyretailshoppingstrip.
– warm internal colours to create a softer image rather than the more traditional image
of a book warehouse. Many libraries are moving towards the creation of “living room”
spaces to create a more welcoming and relaxed ambience.
– internalcoloursrefectingamorenaturalenvironmentforthefacility,e.g.green
furnishingsandwoodfnishes.
– contrasting internal colours to highlight particular areas, e.g. bright colours for the
children’s and youth areas.
• Creative design and use of shelving to display new books, promote genre collections, or to
link to a particular community issue/theme, e.g. legal information, health information, etc.
Section 6.13 discusses shelving in more detail but it is evident that shelving should be not
just to store books but importantly for promotion. As is evident in many retail book stores,
the face-out displays, appropriate shelving for large format books and children’s picture
books are important.
• Consideration of customer fows to ensure that areas of heavy usage are well-located and
large enough to minimise disruption of other activities, e.g. self-check areas and OPACs.
Promotional displays and quick reference products should be placed in areas of high
customer fows to ensure maximum exposure, e.g. new book displays and library events
information.
Further information on marketing strategies which can be used in public libraries is available
from your Public Library Services Consultant. Relevant publications are also referenced in
Section 7.6.
6.7 Ecological Sustainability
Ecological sustainability, the “green agenda”, is a cultural shift which is becoming more
prevalent in residential, public and commercial buildings.
Fundamentally, the ways that the community can minimise its environmental footprint upon the
earth-whatwasfveyearsagoafringephenomenon-hasbecomeamainstreamenvironmental
movement which is now supported by legislation.
Thelegislation,whichdoesnotcurrentlyaffectlibrarybuildings,isexemplifedbyBASIXand
Green Star, which are two of the most relevant ratings tools. These are outlined below:
• BASIX – this is the legislative ratings tool that is now applied by building codes to
residential buildings in NSW. The tool applies to both individual dwellings and multi
dwelling developments and assesses energy use and effciency. Residential buildings are
required to meet energy use/effciency targets which apply both to controlling solar heat
gain in summer with the aim of reducing the automatic adoption of air-conditioning, and the
reduction of heat loss through building elements, particularly windows, in winter. The latter
aimstominimiseheatlossbecausethiswillleadtoareductionintheheatinginputrequired
and hence total energy use.
• Green Star–thisisanonlegislativecommercialoffcedesigncertifcationwhichidentifes
projects that have demonstrated a commitment to sustainability by designing a building
which has the potential to achieve the highest environmental performance. Green Star is
offciallycertifedbytheGreenBuildingCouncilofAustralia(GBCA).
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TobeeligibleforaGreenStar–OffceDesignCertifcationaprojectmust:
• Achieve a minimum score of 45 points
• Achieve a minimum predicted rating of 4 stars using the Australian Building Greenhouse
Rating (ABGR) for the base building design
• Not be built on land of high ecological value.
Green Star rates the following areas in commercial buildings:
• Management
• Indoorenvironmentalquality
• Energy
• Transport
• Water
• Materials
• Land use and ecology
• Emissions
Neither BASIX nor Green Star directly apply to library buildings, but their agenda is something
thatlibrarybriefnganddesignteamsshouldreviewandadoptwhereappropriate.
The following are key issues:
• Natural Ventilation and Energy Use: in most localities in New South Wales the range
of external conditions will require public library buildings to be air conditioned for the
comfortofusersandfortheconservationoflibrarymaterials.However,itisquitelikely
that during spring and autumn there will be periods when areas of the library could be
naturally ventilated. In air-conditioning terms the inclusion of “fresh air cycle” design
is called mixed mode. Natural ventilation of parts of the library can be achieved by the
provision of opening vents or windows. In this case the air-conditioning system would be
turned off. Alternatively natural ventilation can be provided by mechanical means utilising
the air-conditioning ducts to pump fresh temperate air from outside with the air-conditioning
system either fully turned off, or in a low performance mode.
In the design of a mixed mode system that can operate in fresh air mode, the following must
beconsideredatthebriefnganddesignstage:
– azonedair-conditioningsystemthatcanbeturnedoffmanuallyinspecifcareas
– opening windows, vents, and/or doors that can be opened, while maintaining security
to provide fresh air ventilation
– an operating system that is either automated, or fully explained to the buildings users
– the library staff.
In summary, the design should aim to minimise the use of energy from non renewable
resources. Wherever possible it should consider local sources of renewable energy such as
solar, geothermal and wind.
• Natural Lighting: A greater provision of natural light in the building is targeted in the green
building agenda for the following reasons:
– morenaturallightmeanslessartifciallightingwhichresultsinlowerenergyuse
(and costs)
– greater natural light leads generally to better comfort conditions within the building
both for the staff, and public
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– more natural light contributes to a feeling of well-being amongst staff and the public
andmakesasignifcantcontributiontothepreventionofthe“sickbuildingsyndrome”
which is found in old buildings with poor natural lighting and which are wholly air
conditioned with poor mechanical systems.
Thebeneftsofnaturallightingareobvious,butnaturallightingprovisiontolibrariesshould
be designed with care to avoid the following:
– the creation of glare, which will cause discomfort to users, and may affect the stock,
and
– solar heat gain which will cause a rise in air-conditioning energy costs
Ultimately, the design should aim to work with the natural climate factors, and energy
sources, in particular solar access and summer shade.
• Minimal Use of Resources: To reduce the ecological footprint the building makes on the
earth,theselectionofbuildingandfnishingmaterialsshouldbeundertakentomaximise
the use of ecologically sound materials, and of renewable plantation timbers, rather than the
use of non renewable rainforest timbers. The following are issues to consider:
– PVC product use (wiring and vinyl) is being reduced. Linoleum (a natural product) is
nowoftenspecifedinsteadofvinyl
– Carpet with green credentials. Low volatile organic compounds (VOC) backings,
which can be 100% recycled at the end of their life
– Low VOC paints to walls contribute to a healthy building because they don’t emit
noxious fumes
– Use plantation, renewable timbers
– Utiliselessmediumdensityfbreboard(MDF)duetonoxiousformaldehydeglues
utilized in production
– Be aware of the embedded energy associated with the recommended materials
– Insulation with “green” products are available, such as natural wool products, instead
offbreglasswool
• Recycling of Materials:Manyoffcesandpublicbuildingshavejoinedthegreenagenda
by the introduction of recycling systems. Recycling systems exist in both passive and non
passive forms. Many commercial and public buildings have already embraced passive
recycling systems. The procurement of a new library building is an opportunity to introduce
non passive recycling systems. Consideration should be given to the following:
– Passive recycling of paper and cardboard.
– Passive recycling of glass bottles and plastics.
– Reductions of non recyclable waste through purchasing regimes.
– Rainwater reclamation can be used as “grey water” in toilet systems, and for landscape
irrigation.
– Roof mounted solar collectors – energy saving by the reclamation of the sun’s energy.
– Energyeffcientlighting,withareaszonedtoenablethemtobeswitchedoffwhennot
in use.
– Energyeffcientmechanicalsystems,withareaszonedtofacilitateareasnotinuseto
be switched off.
• A Holistic Approach: Many of the areas discussed above are interrelated as sustainable
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design principles and must be embodied in a holistic response of the building to its
environment. Many local councils have policies and procedures relating to ecological
sustainability and further design guidance is provided by the Environment Design Guide
(Australian Council of Building Design Professionals) and various publications by the New
South Wales Sustainable Energy Development Authority (www.seda.nsw.gov.au). Grants
may also be available from government agencies for energy saving initiatives in a public
building project.
6.8 Lighting
The lighting design in a library has a huge impact not only on the functionality of the space
butalsoonthefeelorambienceinthelibrary.Lightingdesignisasmuchaboutthequalityof
light as it is about the appropriate level of light. The aim is to create a degree of control and
fexibilitybetweendaylightandartifciallighting.
ThebeneftsofnaturallightingarereferredtoinSection 6.7 Ecological Sustainability, but may
pose other problems such as glare, particularly relating to computer screens. It is not realistic
to expect natural lighting to provide one hundred percent of the illumination in a public library.
Thepurposeofwindowsandrooflightsisthereforetosupplementartifciallighting,toprovide
for views from the outside advertising the interior of the library, and to provide the building
users with a “feel good” ambience by connecting the inside space to the outside. Windows of
excessive size and number can create serious problems of heat gain and light control and in
reducing the useable wall area for shelving stock. Problems of glare and direct sunlight can
bereducedbytheuseofsolarflmandexternalsunshades.Itisfarmorebenefcialtoprotect
windows from solar heat gain by the provision of external sun shades rather than the provision
of tinted glass.
One of the greatest failures with lighting a public library is in having artifcial lighting of
insuffcientintensityandunevendistribution.Itisdiffculttolaydowngeneralstandardsof
lightingsinceitistosomedegreeasubjectiveissueandrelatestothespecifcbuildingdesign.
However the following issues are important:
• Lighting should illuminate all shelf areas evenly, with no variations of light and dark areas
• Ceilingandwallsurfacesshouldbelightrefectingratherthanlightabsorbing
• Ensure that lighting and shelving are carefully related so that readers are not standing in
their own light
• Lightfttingsshouldbeaccessible(nottoohigh,easilymaintainedandeasilycleaned).
• Check that focal points in the library such as displays and service points, are highlighted
using higher intensity lamps or spotlights.
• Coloured or feature lighting adds to the visual impact of the building after dark
• Many libraries also experience problems with refected glare on computer screens from
windows and other nearby light sources. Consideration must be given to the location of
computer terminals and type of computer displays to be provided.
In some cases, additional localised task lighting may well be required at locations such as
study desks and reading chairs. Recommended lighting standards for libraries are provided in
Australian Standard 1680: Interior lighting.
Exteriorlightingisrequiredforadvertisingandsecurity.Apubliclibraryisusedwhenitsreaders
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fnditconvenient,whichinmanyareasmeanseveningandafter-darkuse.Thelibraryshould
be visually accessible and appealing from the street to promote use of the library and to ensure
the safety and security of users. Exterior security lights on a time switch or on photovoltaic
sensors will probably be necessary and will certainly discourage vandalism.
6.9 Acoustics
In recent years, the changes in the ways that people use libraries have meant a growing need
fornoisyaswellasquietareas.Theratiooftheseareasdependsonthecommunityandthetype
of services to be provided, but careful planning can ensure correct placement of compatible
functions.Inthisway,studyandreferenceareascanremainquietwhilethevigourandactivity
associated with a contemporary library can continue without being disruptive. Where necessary,
acoustic treatment of walls and ceilings can assist in attaining comfortable sound levels. For
further information refer to the Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard 2107:
Design sound levels for building interiors.
6.10 Heating and Ventilation
As discussed in Section 6.7 Ecological Sustainability, the control of the internal climate within
libraries located in NSW to achieve comfort levels for staff and users and optimum temperature
andhumiditylevelsforthematerialcollection,willgenerallyrequireair-conditioning.Thereis
also now a widespread expectation among users that public buildings will be air conditioned.
The capital costs of full air-conditioning may seem high, but should be compared with the
cost of electrical equipment, which is required to produce a less effcient substitute such as
fans, radiant heaters and evaporative coolers. Operating costs of air-conditioning and the
equivalentnumberofheatersandfansarecomparablebutotherfactorssuchasenvironmental
sustainability and full life cycle costs should be examined.
Rising energy costs, and a more prominent ecological sustainability agenda, plus a temperate
climate during spring and autumn have led to the design of mixed mode systems that can
be turned off at times, or supplemented with temperate external air, which is either pumped
through the building or provided merely by opening windows and vents.
This can be assisted by the provision of separately controllable air-conditioning zones which
can operate at different times, and at different levels, to allow the building to operate with a
mixture of natural ventilation, or no air-conditioning at all. Reference should also be made to
the Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard 1668: Air-conditioning and ventilation
in buildings
6.11 Occupational Health and Safety
Libraries must be designed for an anticipated large scale use. Many people at the extremes of
childhood and old age and with varying degrees of mobility will pass in and out of the building,
and their safety must be considered in the planning and design of the building. The following
issuesrequireattention:
• Stairs should be designed so that there are no openings between the treads or at the sides
of staircases through which a small child could fall. Stair treads should be of a good depth,
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fnishedinanonslipmaterialandwithedgeswell-defnedvisually.RefertotheBuilding
Code of Australia.
• Balconyrailingsmustbeofsuffcientheighttopreventapersonfromaccidentallytipping
over the top. Refer to the Building Code of Australia.
• Glazedareassuchasglassdoorsandlargeglazedareasshouldbefttedwithtransombarsor
other horizontal markings clearly visible at waist height. Refer to Australian Standard 1288:
Glass in buildings.
• Floors with highly polished foor surfaces should be avoided because of the danger of
slipping.
• Potential trip hazards, such as exposed cabling, inappropriate furniture and sharp edges,
need to be avoided.
These issues similarly apply for staff areas with additional consideration given to:
• Appropriate work areas with desk heights and chairs suitable for minimising work-related
injuries
• Trolleys for movement of books and equipment within the library. For multipurpose
facilities, trolleys for chair and table storage have proven to be successful.
Reference to Council’s risk assessment policy during the planning and construction stages of
the library building project is recommended.
6.12 Personal and Property Security
An appropriate level of security is now required in all public libraries to ensure the safety
of staff, users, the building and the collection. Electronic surveillance, although sometimes
necessary, becomes intrusive and can affect the friendliness of the library. Good security can
be designed into the library from the outset through clear sightlines, good positioning of the
circulation desk and the avoidance of blind spots.
However, additional security measures such as surveillance cameras and distress alarms should
be considered where:
• Library is used for customer service activities such as rates payments or other uses involving
the handling of money
• A lone staff person operates a facility
Libraries may suffer some vandalism and abuse, although probably less than other unattended
publicbuildings.Thebuildings,fttingsandcontentsoflibrariesareveryvaluable,andsenseless
vandalism will cause considerable expensive damage. To counter the possibility of vandalism,
some precautions can be taken:
• Design the building so that there are no concealed corners with windows (particularly
louvres or sliding windows) which can be broken or forced
• Provide night security lighting on a time-switch
• Provide alarms connected to any windows or doors that can be forced
• Locate in an area where there is good passive surveillance from adjoining land uses (eg
residents,businessowners)andpassingpedestrianandvehiculartraffc
• Reduce the amount of blank walls which are attractive for graffti and/or use building
materialswhicharediffculttograffti
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Exits from the library must be limited and controlled to avoid illegal removal of library
materials.Any necessary fre exits must be designed so that they cannot be used for other
than the designated purpose. Similarly the exterior of the building should be designed with
clear lines of sight around the building, appropriate light levels and designed to avoid blind
spots. As outlined in Section 5.2, detailed Safer by Design guidelines are available through
Council’s Environmental Planning section and www.police.nsw.gov.au/community_issues/
crime_prevention/safer_by_ design.
6.13 Shelving
The provision of appropriate and well-designed shelving is one of the most important
components of a library building. It impacts directly on the collections and services of the
library and for users, is one of the most important features of their library visit. Good shelving
will result in higher levels of resources on loan.
In most contemporary public libraries, adjustable steel shelving is a standard item although
there may be times when custom-built shelving is required. Standard steel library shelving
must comply with Australian Standard 2273: Steel library shelving. The shelving can be colour
coded, modular, and ‘dressed’ with end panels and canopies to enhance the appearance and to
assist users in locating types of resources. There is an increasing trend towards shelving with
no top canopy which increases the visual openness of the collection area.
The following issues need to be addressed when installing and design shelving:
• Shelving can be attached to the wall but is generally freestanding. The recommended height
in the adult library is 1600mm. A lower height for freestanding shelving will facilitate
sightlines, supervision and ease of access. In the children’s area the recommended height is
1300 mm, although a maximum of 1550 mm is acceptable.
• 900 mm is the usual width for shelves, although manufacturers will also supply 600 mm and
1200 mm shelves as standard. Non standard sizes can be specially manufactured but at an
additional cost and longer delivery times.
• Itispreferableforthelowestshelftobeabout300mmfromthefoorforeaseofaccess,
although this will reduce the number of shelves that can be accommodated. Alternatively,
this dimension can be reduced to 100 mm if the bottom shelf is mounted at an angle so
that the books are tilted back 10-20 degrees from the vertical. In this way the spines of the
books will be better lit and easier to read. This could also be applied to all shelves below
eye level.
• Shelving on metal casters can improve the fexibility of use of the collection space and
enable collection areas to be easily expanded or contracted depending on use.
• Aisles between bays of shelves must be generous enough to suit all users, including those
with disabilities, to pass comfortably behind people standing and browsing. The minimum
aisle width between shelves is 1500 mm (i.e. the clear space between facing shelves).
• All library shelving manufacturers offer a range of accessories, which enable their basic
shelf units to be adapted to store or display other library materials. These accessories include
magazine display racks, audiovisual kit shelves, newspaper displays, poster rails, CD and
CD-ROM storage, DVD storage, adjustable bookends and signage.
• In reference collections, slide-out reference shelves are useful although they can cause
obstruction in the aisles, and must have rounded corners. The preferred alternative is a work
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bench at the end of each reference aisle or centred within the reference section with some
benches at a suitable height for wheelchair users.
Considerable change has occurred in the way that public libraries present themselves which
includes the presentation of collections. The standard steel shelf can be dressed up in various
ways to make the display more attractive. Changes worth considering are:
• More face-out shelving which is often judiciously located near the main entrance, main
circulation areas, or at the entry to aisles
• Small shelving display units added to the ends of shelving aisles. In various guises these are
able to display face-out books, and carry aisle signage, etc.
• Face-out display of magazine racks, CDs, DVDs, and talking books is very attractive.
• The use of permanently attached clear perspex A4 card holders on end panels to provide
easily changeable displays, or signage relating to changing events.
• Display inserts which convert standard shelving into display shelving.
Shelves flled with books are exceptionally heavy, and the foor loading required to support
them is considerably higher than normal offce foor loadings. As the library’s layout may
changeitiswisetoconstructalllibraryfoorswiththesameloadingtopromotefexibility.
Compact shelving is mounted on rails allowing the shelves to be moved to provide access.
Space is saved due to the elimination of permanent access aisles. Compact shelving is not
appropriate for general public access library collection shelving. It can however, successfully
maximisethestoragethatcanbeprovided,forinstance,forthestack.Compactstoragefoor
loadingrequirementsvaryfromoneinstallationtoanother,dependingonthetypeofshelving
system, its capacity and the nature of the materials stored, but is considerably higher than
normalfoorloadings.Astructuralengineerinconsultationwiththelibrarianmustassessfoor
loadings. Reference should also be made to AS1170.
6.14 Furniture and Fittings
Above all, furniture and fttings should be robust, attractive, durable and comfortable, and
should be selected with the characteristics of the library users in mind. The selection of
furnitureshouldftwiththeoverallphilosophiesgoverningfexibility,image,functionalityand
sustainability. It is normal practice for the architect’s budget to include not only the total cost
ofthelibrarybuildingbutalsoallbuilt-infttings,includingthefollowing:
• Shelving for stock, whether wall mounted or freestanding
• Benchfttingsinworkrooms
• Built-in cupboards for stationery, cleaners, etc
• Offcefurnitureandworkstations
• Tables and chairs
• Display units
• Signage
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Thedesignandselectionoffurnitureandfttingsisveryimportantandsomeofthefollowing
issuesrequirespecifcattention:
• Modular or systems furniture has some advantage over custom built items such as greater
fexibility and reduced cost. The systems are generally designed to be reassembled in a
numberofconfgurationsandoftenaccommodatepoweranddatacablemanagement.
• The future availability of stock should be considered in terms of replacement and addition
of items.
• Thecolourandtextureofallfurnitureandfttingshasanimmediateimpactontheoverall
design and should therefore be integrated into an overall concept.
• Floor surfaces should be hard wearing, comfortable and non slip.
• The cost and maintenance of all items should be considered particularly in reference to
cleaning, painting and repairs.
The circulation or loans desk and the reference and service desks are some of the most important
itemsoffurnitureinalibraryandinvariablyoneofthemorediffcultitemstogetright.The
library staff must have the greatest input into the design of these items, if a successful outcome
is to be achieved. Some important points are listed below:
• Staff will invariably stand at the desk for extended periods of time and a carpeted, sprung
timberfooringoranti-fatiguemattingismoreforgivingonthelegs.
• Amodularsystemcanprovidefexibilityforlaterchangeorextension.
• Correct desk height and counter height are crucial and should cater for all users. Consider
accessibility and comfort for wheelchair users, children and library staff.
• Provide general and task lighting on dimmer switches for control.
• Clearsightlinescanoptimisestaffeffciencyandassistingeneralsecurity.
6.14.1 Signage
Librarysignageisoftenneglectedandunplannedanditisnecessarythatsuffcientfundsbe
allocated within the cost estimates. Signage is important in libraries especially larger ones,
because many people will not be used to library layouts and may be confused by a wide range
of books and other materials on the library shelves. Signage falls into a number of categories:
• Street signposting – directional signs indicating the library location from neighbouring
streets.
• Exterior identifcation – large lettering on the exterior walls near the entrance, out of reach
of vandalism, sometimes illuminated.
• Door and directional signage–variouspermanentsignplatestooffcesordepartmentswill
berequired.Illuminatedemergencyexitsignsarealegalrequirementinallbuildings.
• Changeable signs – showing the layout of a large library, opening hours, “what’s on in the
library”, etc.
• Collection signage – large signs visible from a distance allow library users to take in at a
glance the various sections, collections and service desks.
• Aisle signage – bays of shelving in public areas will require fexible guiding to indicate
the contents. Some commercial library signage systems are marketed for this purpose,
especially for metal shelving units.
• Shelf signage – sliding shelf guide systems are also available from suppliers and these are
designed to indicate the subject content of each shelf as distinct from each bay.
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All library guides and signs, including their wording and design, should be prepared by the
architect and librarian in close consultation, and department stores and bookshops may be
worth visiting for ideas in good professional signage.
6.14.2 Storage
Storage areas are essential within a public library with each activity and service likely to
generate the demand for storage. As shown in the case studies undertaken for this project
storageareasandspecifctypesofstorageequipmentareoftenrequiredfor:
• Children’s and youth activities – either located within the children’s activity area or within
closeproximitytoit,largecupboardsarerequiredtostorecraftsupplies,resources,toysand
display boards. A wet area with a sink, water and storage is also desirable.
• Multipurpose rooms – typically need adjoining store room for chairs, tables, audiovisual
equipmentandmeetingroomequipment.Iftheroomistobeusedregularlybycommunity
groups,individuallockablestoragecupboardsmayberequiredforgroupequipment.
• Archives and conservation – provision for compact shelving may be necessary (see
Section 6.13) together with storage for specialist council collections, e.g. heritage items, art
collections, etc. Information on specialist archival storage is available from State Records
New South Wales on www.records.nsw.gov.au.
• Staff work areas – storage cupboards and shelving in staff areas for stationery, resources,
flesandequipment
• Storage of users bags – coin operated lockers for library users to store excess bags
• Cleaners room–shelvingandcupboardsforcleaningmaterialsandequipment
6.15 Asset Management
The ongoing running costs of a building are important considerations in the overall provision
of a facility. Effective asset management requires the inclusion of these costs together with
scheduled long term maintenance costs of a building. It is these recurrent costs which are often
ofmajorconcerntoCouncilsastheyrepresentfxedcostswhichareusuallynotcoveredby
other outside funding sources. The ongoing costs of a building may include:
• Regular building maintenance
• Scheduled maintenance
• Fire protection
• Cleaning
• Security
• Air-conditioning
• Grafftiremoval/propertymaintenanceduetovandalism
• Building insurance
• Utilities
• Updatingoftheftout
• Technologyandequipmentreplacement
It will be necessary to prepare long term and short term budget forecasts. To do this it is
advisable to refer to council’s property, maintenance and asset managers and to review the
developing design, at key stages, in relation to the long term asset management policies and
strategies developed by the building owners.
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6.16 Mobile Libraries
In NSW mobile libraries play an important role in the delivery of library services to isolated
and/or remote communities.Inareasof lowpopulation density orto cater forspecifcusers
(such as rural schools, retirement villages, etc) a mobile library service may be considered.
There are pros and cons for such a service as follows:
Advantages
• A mobile library provides a close-at-hand, convenient service, especially for the less mobile
such as young children and older residents.
• Itcaneffectivelyfllagapbetweenlibrariesandanisolatedpocketofpopulationforwhich
a permanent building would be uneconomic.
• It can provide an effective interim service in developing areas where the population does not
yetjustifyapermanentsiteorapermanentsitecannotyetbeidentifedbecausedevelopment
plans are not far enough advanced.
Disadvantages
• A mobile library is not a cheap alternative to permanent buildings. The rate of depreciation
is high, as are establishment and operating costs.
• It can at best offer a one day a week service at any one location.
• Stocks are typically small since the largest vehicle will only carry about 7,000 books.
For information on establishing a mobile library, reference should be made to:
• www.mobilelibraries.com.au which has been developed in conjunction with mobile library
services throughout Australia. It provides valuable information on key contacts, setting up a
mobile library service, online services for mobile libraries together with support information
for occupational health and safety issues and examples of mobiles in other communities.
• International Federation of Library Associations’ Mobile Library Guidelines (Pestell,
1991)
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Further Information and Resources
7.1 Library Development Grants
Each year, the Library Council of New South Wales recommends to the Minister for the Arts
the allocation of Library Development Grants to local government authorities for specifc
library projects. The aim of the grant scheme is to improve the quality of library services
available throughout NSW and new, extended or refurbished buildings are one of the eligible
categories.
Information on the Library Development Grants is available on the State Library of New South
Wales web pages at www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls
7.2 State Library of New South Wales Contacts
The State Library of New South Wales provides a wealth of specialist resource information
and support for all stakeholders involved in the planning and building of a public library. Visit
the State Library Web site www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls to fnd specifc contact names and phone
numbers. The State Library of New South Wales also publishes Public Libraries in New South
Wales: Directory which is available at all NSW public libraries. This directory has a detailed list
oftheStateLibraryservicesandspecialiststaffwhocanhelpyouwithspecifcinformation.
7.3 Specialist Planning, Building and Architectural Advice
The State Library of New South Wales has a consultancy service to advise on library building
projects. The Building and Planning Advisory Service can be contacted at the State Library.
The Service also maintains a current list of architectural frms that have worked on library
development projects throughout NSW.
7.4 Methodology for Developing a Service-Based Benchmark
The service-based benchmark outlined in Section 3.3.4 is derived from research carried out by
the consultancy team into the relative areas within existing public libraries. It is based on the
premisethattheoverallsizeofthelibrarywillbeinfuencedbythetotalmaterialscollection,
electronic resources and access and further space allocated for additional services.
Thespacestandardshavebeenadjustedslightlyinthiseditiontorefectthegenerallowering
of shelving bays from 5 to 4 shelves which provides for greater accessibility to resources;
improved supervision through better sight lines; and an increased sense of openness and
legibility (see Sections 6.3, 6.4 and 6.6). Information contained in the following documents
was also used to develop the benchmark:
• People Places: A guide for public library buildings in New South Wales, 1st edition (State
Library of New South Wales, 2000)
• The Planning and Design of Public Library Buildings, revised edition (State Library of
New South Wales, 1995)
• Towards a Quality Service: Goals, Objectives and Standards for Public Libraries in
Australia (Australian Library and Information Association, 1990)
• Public Library Statistics, published by the State Library of New South Wales (annual)
• Comparative Information on NSW Local Government Councils (New South Wales
Department of Local Government, annual)
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The space allocation for the materials collection is based on:
• Shelving an average of 30 volumes per shelf with a standard shelf being 900 mm long
• Bays of shelving spaced at 1500 mm clear width between aisles
• Bays 4 shelves high and ranging to 6 shelves long, i.e. 5400 mm
Thisconfgurationgivesamoduleof14.49sqmcontainingonaverage1440volumeswhich
equatestoapproximately100volumespersquaremetreoffoorarea.
7.5 Methodology for Developing a Population-based Benchmark
The population-based benchmark outlined in Section 3.3.4 remains unchanged from People
Places 2000. Originally, the benchmark was derived from the standards set out in The Planning
and Design of Public Library Buildings (State Library of New South Wales, 1995). This
standard provides a range of population sizes or catchments that in turn generate a recommended
foorspacerateper1000residents.Differentratesareprovidedforbothabranchlibraryandthe
local and central component of a central library. When determining the size of the central library
two different population sizes are used – a local catchment and local government area/regional
catchment. In fact, the foorspace rates used for determining a central library are basically
thesameasthebranchlibrary.Thefoorspaceratesusedforthelocalcomponentofacentral
libraryistwothirdsoftheequivalentbranchfoorspaceratewhilethecentralcomponentisone
thirdtheequivalentbranchfoorspacerate.
Tosimplifythesetablesandthecalculationsrequiredtodeterminethebenchmarksizefora
new/extended library, the consultants for People Places assessed the average variation in size
of the central library using only the branch library building rates. Using several test scenarios
andthemathematicalrelationshipidentifedabove,15%ofthebranchfoorspacerateforthe
central library component has been adopted as a reasonable factor to be used. By using the
service-based benchmark and the population based benchmark there are two approaches to
estimatingthesizerequiredforanew/extendedlibrary.Byusingboth measures a size range
for the new/extended building can be determined.
It must be emphasised that the use of 15% has no exact mathematical relationship to the
building rates used in the 1995 guidelines. Also, it should not be used as an exact measure
ofthefoorspacerequiredforcentralareafunctionsofacentrallibrary.Ratheritispurelya
mathematical factor to be used in the formula derived for the population based benchmark
and provides an allowance for central area functions as an addition to the usual size of a branch
library.
An extra factor of 20% is used in the formulae for conversion of the net foor area to gross
foor area. This allows for foyer, lobby, corridors, toilets, rest rooms, plant equipment and
maintenance areas. This percentage is considered reasonable and is based on the effciency
rates and the average allocation of useable space within a public building of this type. This
fguremaybevariedwithmoredetailedexaminationofthespecifccircumstances,forexample
where foyers or other spaces are shared with other facilities, or where extensions to existing
libraries are involved.
As outlined in Section 3.3.4, the population-based benchmark should be used in conjunction
with the service-based benchmark to provide the range of sizes for a new/extended public
library.ThisapproachprovidessomefexibilityforCouncilsandencouragesaninformedlocal
response based on the range of information collected.
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7.6 References and Further Reading
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Web site at http://www.abs.gov.au
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, CLIB 01 - Census in your library,[computerfle;includes
WorkingPopulationProfle],Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2002, Australian social trends: regional population, ageing,
Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003, Household use of information technology Australia,
(ABS Catalogue no. 8146.0), Canberra
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005, Public libraries Australia 2003-2004, (ABS Catalogue
no 8561.0), Canberra
Australian Council of Building Design Professionals, Environment design guide, [publication
withquarterlyupdateservice].
Australian Library and Information Association 1990, Towards a quality service: goals,
objectives and standards for public libraries in Australia. Canberra.
Australian Library and Information Association 1995, Protocols for libraries, Archives and
Information Services. http://www.ntu.edu.au/library/protocol.html
Briggs, Sharyn, Guldberg, Hans and Sivaciyan, Sevan, Lane Cove Library – a part of life, the
social role and economic beneft of a public library, Library Council of New South Wales in
association with Lane Cove Council, 1996
Broadband Services Expert Group 1995, Networking Australia’s future: the fnal report,
Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service
Building Code of Australia [Latest edition].
Cox, Eva et al 2000, A safe place to go: libraries and social capital. Sydney, University of
Technology, Sydney and State Library of New South Wales. Available at www.sl.nsw.gov.
au/pls/publications/pdf/safe_place.pdf
Cultural Perspectives Pty Ltd 2003, Culturally diverse communities and the public library: a
review of NSW public library multicultural services, Research report, Library Council of New
South Wales. Available at www.sl.nsw.gov.au/pls/ publications /pdf/multicultural2004.pdf
Great Britain, Department of Culture, Media and Sport 2003, Framework for the future -
libraries, learning and information in the next decade. Available at http://www.culture.gov.
uk/global/publications/archive_2003/framework_future.html
Great Britain, House of Commons, Culture, Media and Sport Committee 2005, Public libraries,
London:StationeryOffce.Availableathttp://www.parliament.the-stationery-offce.co.uk/pa/
cm200405/cmselect/cmcumeds/81/81i.pdf
Grogan, David and Mercer, Colin 1995, The Cultural planning handbook: an essential
Australian guide, St Leonards, NSW, Allen and Unwin
Hennah, Kevin, 2005, Public libraries image handbook, Melbourne, State Library of Victoria
and Australian Retailers Institute Victoria
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The public library service: the IFLA/UNESCO guidelines for development, 2001. Available at
www.ifa.or/VII/s8/proj/publ97.pdf(Englishfulltext)
Jones, David J. 2001, ‘People Places: public library buildings for the new millennium’,
Australasian public libraries and information services vol 14 no 3 September pp.81-89
Jones, David J. 2004, ‘Critical issues in public library planning: the New South Wales
experience’, Australian library journal, vol 53 no 4, November 2004, pp. 375-382
Jones,DavidJ.2004,‘Inquiryintothejointuseandco-locationofpublicbuildings:information
paper prepared by the State Library of New South Wales’, August 2004
Koontz, Christine M. 1997, Library facility siting and location handbook, Westport, Conn,
Greenwood Press
Local Government and Shires Associations 2002, Second Cultural Accord 2002 -2005
McCabe, G and Kennedy, J 2003, Planning the modern library building, Westport,
Connecticut
Mercer, C. 1995, Navigating the economy of knowledge. Prepared for the Libraries Working
GroupoftheCulturalMinisters’CouncilbytheInstituteforCulturalPolicyStudies,Griffth
University,Brisbane,GriffthUniversity
Mercer, Colin 1996, 2020 vision: towards the libraries of the future: a strategic agenda and
policy framework for Australia’s state and public libraries, [Prepared for the Libraries Working
Group by Colin Mercer with Margaret Smith for the Australian Key Centre for Cultural and
Media Policy], South Brisbane, Libraries Working Group of the Cultural Ministers’ Council
New South Wales Department of Local Government, Comparative information on NSW local
government councils, Sydney, [Annual]
New South Wales Department of Planning, Infrastructure and Natural Resources 2004,
Planning a better future: Metropolitan Strategy, discussion paper, Sydney
New South Wales Department of Planning, Infrastructure and Natural Resources 2004, NSW
State and regional population projections 2001 -2051, Sydney
NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning 2001, Crime prevention and the assessment of
development applications, guidelines under 79c of the Environmental Planning and Assessment
Act 1979, Sydney
NSW Ministry for the Arts 2004, Cultural planning guidelines for local government
NSW Parliament Legislative Assembly 2004, Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of
Public Buildings, http://www. parliament.nsw.gov.au and search for 5304 report
NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority, New South Wales, Web site at http://www.
nsw.gov.au
Pestell, Robert 1991, Mobile library guidelines, (Professional Report no 28), The Hague,
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
Public libraries in New South Wales: directory [annual], State Library of New South Wales
Public Library Services, Sydney
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Putnam, Robert D. 2000, Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community,
New York, Simon and Schuster
PricewaterhouseCoopers 2004, Libraries Impact Project, for the Laser Foundation. Available
at www.bl.uk/about/cooperation/laser-pubs.html
Royal Australian Institute of Architects 1996, QBS: A guide to Qualifcation Based Selection
of architects, 2nd edition, Sydney
Standards Australia, Various standards including:
AS1288: Glass in buildings
AS1428:Generalrequirementsforaccess
AS1668: The use of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings.
AS1680: Interior lighting
AS1735: Lifts and escalators
AS2107: Acoustics- recommended design sound levels and reverberation times
for building interiors
AS2273: Steel library shelving
State Library of New South Wales 1995, The planning and design of public library buildings,
Revised edition, Sydney
State Library of New South Wales 2000, People places: a guide for public library buildings in
New South Wales, Sydney
State Library of New South Wales 2004, Public library statistics 2003/04, Sydney
State Library of New South Wales, Public Library Services web pages, http://www.sl.nsw.gov.
au/pls
State Library of Queensland 1997, Guidelines and standards for Queensland public libraries,
Brisbane.Availableatwww.slq.qld.gov.au/serv/publib/policy/guidelines
State Library of Victoria 2005, Libraries/building/communities: the vital contribution of
Victoria’s public libraries – a research report for the Library Board of Victoria and the Victorian
Public Library Network, Melbourne: State Library of Victoria. Available in full at http://www.
slv.vic.gov.au/about/information/publications/policies_reports/ plu_lbc.html
Worpole, Ken 2004, 21st century libraries: changing forms, changing futures, London. A full
text of the report is available at http://www.buildingfutures.org.uk
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Index
2020 Vision, 67
A
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library
and Information Resource Network, 12
Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders
library design and, 11
protocols for library resources, 12
services for, 11
Access Committees, 9
Accessibility, 51
Acoustics, 57
Adaptability, 50
Aged. See Older people
Air-conditioning, 54, 57
Aisle width, 59
ALIA. See Australian Library and
Information Association
Amenities, 22
Architects
selection, 48
selection criteria, 48
Area libraries, 21
population-based benchmark and, 29
Areas of the library. See Functional areas
Art, public. See Public art
Artworks. See Public art
Assessment of needs. See Planning process
- needs assessment
Asset management, 62
ATSILIRN. See Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Library and Information
Resource Network
Audiovisual materials. See Library materials
Australia Council, 13
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 27, 66
Australian Council of Building Design
Professionals, 66
Australian Key Centre for Cultural and
Media Policy, 67
Australian Library and Information
Association, 12, 40, 64, 66
Australian Standards, 51, 56, 57, 58, 59, 68
AV materials. See Library materials
B
Balance area. See Circulation space
Benchmark-Based Need
assessment, 20
defned,17
Benchmarks, 17, 31
co-location, 31
population-based, 20
population-based - calculating, 31
population-based - examples, 31
population-based - methodology, 65
service-based, 20, 31
service-based - examples, 25
service-based - methodology, 64
spreadsheet, 21, 22, 27
Bligh Voller Nield Architects, 2
Bookmobiles. See Mobile libraries
Books. See Library materials
Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of
American community, 68
Branch libraries, 21
population-based benchmark and, 29
Brief
community involvement, 47
preparation, 47
working group and, 47
Briggs, Sharyn, 66
Broadband Services Expert Group, 66
Budget
ftout,60
Budgets
ftout,41
local authority, 16
Building and Planning Advisory Service, 64
Building Area Factors, 28
Building Code of Australia, 46, 51, 57, 58,
66
Building grants. See Grants for buildings
Building size. See Floor area
C
CAF. See Central Area Factor
Case studies. See Library buildings:
examples on web pages
Catchment. See Benchmarks - population-
based
Central Area Factor, 27
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005 70 [
defned,28
Central libraries, 21
additionalfoorarea,28
component in population-based
benchmark, 65
Changes in this edition, 2
Circulation space, 27
allowance for, 65
Cities, consolidation of, 14
CLIB 01, 66
Collections. See Library materials
Co-location, 33, 34
defned,35
Colour scheme, 61
Commercial developments, libraries in, 34
Community consultation. See Consultation
during planning
Compact shelving, 60
Comparative Information on NSW Local
Government Councils, 64, 67
Comparative Need
assessment, 20
defned,17
Computers, 10
Internet access - minimum provision, 39
connect.nsw, 10
Consultants. See Architects, Design Team,
Library Building Consultant
Consultation during planning, 16
methods, 16, 18
techniques,18
Costs, running, 62
Counters. See Desks
Country areas
information technology and, 13
trends, 13
Country Public Libraries Association of
NSW, 2
Cox, Eva, 66
CPLA. See Country Public Libraries
Association of NSW
Crime Prevention and the Assessment of
Development Applications, 67
Cultural Accord, 67
Cultural development, 13
Cultural Ministers’ Council, 67
Cultural Perspectives Pty Ltd, 66
Cultural planning, 13, 16
Cultural planning guidelines for local
government, 67
Cultural Planning Handbook, 66
Culturally diverse communities and the
public library, 66
D
Demographic trends, 8
use in needs assessment, 19
Department of Local Government (NSW),
64, 67
Department of Planning (NSW), 67
Department of Transport (NSW), 27
Design brief. See Brief
Design team
selection, 48
Desks, 51, 61
Digital resources
included in assessment, 22
space for, 23
Disability Action Plans, 9
Disability Discrimination Act (Cwlth), 9
Disability Services Act (NSW), 9
Disabled people. See People with a disability
District libraries, 21
population-based benchmark and, 29
E
Ecological issues, 53
Ecologically Sustainable Development, 53
Environment Design Guide, 66
Environmental Health and Safety, 57, 58
Environmental issues, 53
Equipment.See Computers, Fitout,
Information Technology
ESD. See Ecologically Sustainable
Development
Examples
benchmark calculations, 31
building projects, 5, 47
site matrix, 43
Existing buildings, reuse, 45
Extension, provision for, 50
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005 [ 71
F
Fitout, 60
budget, 41, 60
checklist, 40
design, 61
Fittings. See Fitout
Flexibility, 50
Floor area
minimum, 20
population-based benchmark, 28
service-based benchmark, 21
shared, 31
Floor loading for shelves, 60
Forecasts. See Population forecasts
Framework for the Future, 66
Functional areas
checklist, 46, 47
Funding for library buildings, 32
Furniture. See Fitout
G
GFA. SeeGrossfoorarea
Grants for library buildings, 33, 64
Great Britain
Department of Culture, Media and Sport,
66
House of Commons, Culture, Media and
Sport Committee, 66
GriffthUniversity,67
Grogan, David, 66
Grossfoorarea,22
in current Guidelines, 20
Grossing factor. See Circulation space
Guidelines
arrangement, 5
changes in this edition, 2
consultation for, 2, 5
purpose, 1
role, 1
structure, 5
use of, 5
Guidelines and Standards for Queensland
Public Libraries, 68
Guldberg, Hans, 66
H
Hennah, Kevin, 66
I
IdentifedNeed
assessment of, 18
defned,17
Identity of the library, 50
IFLA/UNESCO Guidelines, 67
Image of the library, 50
Indigenous Australians. See Aboriginals and
Torres Strait Islanders
Information Society, 10
Information Society and the Information
Economy, 66
Information Superhighway, 10
Information technology. See also
Technology plan. Seealsospecifcitems,
e.g. Computers
building implications, 10
checklist, 39
design considerations, 51
libraries and, 10
resource areas, 21
service implications, 10
space implications, 10
Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location
of Public Buildings, 67
Institute for Cultural Policy Studies, 67
International Federation of Library
Associations, 17, 67
Internet, 10, 12, 39, 51, 52. See also Web
pages
equipmenttoaccess,39
minimum provision, 39
J
Joint use libraries, 33
defned,35
Joint-use libraries, 15, 35
Jones, David J, 67
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005 72 [
K
Kennedy, J, 67
Koontz, Christine M, 42, 67
L
LAF. See Local Area Factor
Lane Cove Library – a part of life, 66
Layout of spaces, 50
Libraries Impact Project, 68
Libraries Working Group, 67
Library Building Consultant, 64
Library buildings
examples on web pages, 5
Library collections. See Library materials
Library Council of New South Wales, 33, 64
Library Development Grants, 33, 64
Library Development Plan, 15, 16, 32
Library Facility Siting and Location
Handbook, 42, 67
Libraryftout.See Fitout
Library materials
collection size, 21, 40
enhancing, 40
planning for, 40
proportion on loan, 22
space for, 23
Library shelving. See Shelving
Library site. See Site
Lighting, 54, 56
Loans. See Library materials - proportion on
loan
Local Area Factor, 27
defned,27
Local Environmental Plans, 16
Local Government (General) Regulation
(NSW), 19
Local Government and Shires Associations,
67
Local technology plan. See Technology plan
Location. See Site
M
Management Plans, 16
Marketing, 12, 52
McCabe, G, 67
Meeting rooms, 9
Mercer, Colin, 66, 67
Metropolitan areas. See Cities
Metropolitan Public Libraries Association,
NSW, 2
Minimumfoorarea.See Floor area -
minimum
Mobile libraries, 17, 63
Mobile Library Guidelines, 17, 21, 63, 67
Mobility, 51
MPLA. See Metropolitan Public Libraries
Association
Multicultural society
design issues, 11
services for, 11
Multi-function buildings, 34
N
Navigating the Economy of Knowledge, 67
Needs assessment. See Planning process
- needs assessment
Nesbitt, Heather, 2
NetfoorareainearlierGuidelines,20
Networking Australia’s Future, 66
New South Wales
Department of Local Government, 64, 67
Department of Planning, Infrastructure
and Natural Resources, 67
Department of Transport, 27
Department of Urban Affairs and
Planning, 67
information technology strategy, 10
Ministry for the Arts, 13, 67
Parliament, Legislative Assembly, 67
Sustainable Energy Development
Authority, 67
NFA. SeeNetfoorarea
Noise, 57
Non-print materials
space for, 23
Non-residents in benchmark calculations, 27
Normative Need
assessment, 19
defned,17
NSW.net, 10
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005 [ 73
O
Occupational health and safety, 57, 58
Older people, services for, 8
Orientation of users, 50
P
People places. See Guidelines
People with a disability
design considerations, 51
design for, 9
services for, 9
Periodicals
space for, 23
Pestell, Robert, 67
Planning. See Planning process
cultural. See Cultural planning
Planning and Design of Public Library
Buildings, 64, 65, 68
Planning committees. See Working groups
Planning groups. See Working groups
Planning process, 31
collaborative, 15, 16, 32
diagram of, 6
needs assessment, 15, 16
working groups, 32
Planning the modern library building, 67
Population forecasts
application of, 27
Population Projections 1997 to 2051, 66
Population-based benchmark. See
Benchmarks - population-based
PricewaterhouseCoopers, 68
Program, design. See Brief
Protocols for Libraries, Archives and
Information Services, 66
Public art, 12, 13
Public libraries
building funding, 32
central, 21
competition, 12
design trends, 12
developments, 7
educational role, 12
entertainment role, 12
ftout.See Fitout
functions, 7
importance of, 7
planning process. See Planning process
promotion, 12
roles, 7
service models, 15
size. See Floor area
structure, 21
trends, 7
use of, 7
Public libraries image handbook, 66
Public Libraries in New South Wales
Directory, 64
Public Libraries in New South Wales:
Directory, 67
Public Library Service: the IFLA/UNESCO
Guidelines, 67
Public Library Statistics, 64
Putnam, Robert, 68
Q
QBS, A Guide to Qualifcation Based
Selection of Architects, 68
R
RAF. See Relative Area Factor
Reading areas, 21
Refurbishment of building for library use, 45
Relative Area Factor, 22
minimum, 23
Renovation of building, 45
Resources, library. See Library materials
Reuse of building as a library, 45
Revisions in this edition, 2
Rooms. See Functional areas
Royal Australian Institute of Architects, 48.
Running costs, 62
Rural areas. See Country areas
S
A safe place to go: libraries and social
capital, 66
Safer by design, 42, 45
Safety, 45, 57, 58
PL0PLL PLACLS A gui de f or publ i c l i br ar y bui l di ngs i n New Sout h Wal es 2005 74 [
School-community libraries. See Joint-use
libraries
Section 94 contributions, 16, 33
Security, 45, 57, 58
Service-based benchmark. See Benchmarks
- service-based
Services
checklist. See Functional areas
space. See Circulation space
Shared sites. See Co-location
Shelving, 59
aisle width, 59
allowance for items on loan, 22
recommended dimensions, 59
Signage, 61
Site
matrix, 43
selection, 43
shared. See Co-location
Sivaciyan, Sevan, 66
Size of building. See Floor area
Social capital, 8
Social plans, 15, 16, 19, 27
Sound levels, 57
Spreadsheet for benchmarks, 21, 22, 27
Staff
design implications, 39
spacerequiredfor,39
Staff areas, 21
Standards Australia, 68
Standards for buildings. See Benchmarks
State Library of New South Wales
Building and Planning Advisory Service,
64
Disability Access Service, 9
Indigenous Services Librarians, 12
Multicultural Consultant, 11
Public Library Services, 64, 67
State Library of Queensland, 68
Statistics, use in needs assessment, 19
Storage, 62
Storage areas, 22
Study areas, 9, 21
Sustainable Energy Development Authority
(NSW), 67
T
Target Collection Factor, 22, 23
TCF. See Target Collection Factor
Technology plan, 37
checklist, 39
Teenagers. See Youth
Torres Strait Islanders. See Aboriginals and
Torres Strait Islanders
Towards a quality service, 40
Towards a Quality Service, 64, 66
Transport Data Centre, 27
Twenty-frst Century libraries
changing forms, changing futures, 68
U
Urban areas. See Cities
V
Ventilation. See Air-conditioning
Virtual resources
space for, 23
Volumes. See Library materials
W
Web pages
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 66
Protocols for Libraries, 66
State Library of New South Wales, 5, 9,
20, 37, 47, 64, 68
Sustainable Energy Development
Authority, 67
Working groups
role in planning, 32
role with brief, 47
Worpole, Ken, 68
Y
Young adults. See Youth
Young people. See Youth
Youth
design for, 9
services for, 9
SECOND EDITION
Prepared by consultants Heather Nesbitt Planning
in association with Bligh Voller Nield for the Library
Council Of New South Wales
www.sl.nsw.gov.au
www.atmitchell.com
PEOPLE
A GUIDE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDINGS IN NEW SOUTH WALES
PLACES
ISBN 0 7313 7156 9
Published by the Library Council Of New South Wales
Macquarie Street Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
www.sl.nsw.gov.au
www.atmitchell.com
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P LA CE S
A GUIDE FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDINGS IN NEW SOUTH WALES
SECOND EDITION

PEOPLE

Prepared by CONSULTANTS HEATHER NESBITT PLANNING IN ASSOCIATION WITH BLIGH VOLLER NIELD for the LIBRARY COUNCIL OF NEW SOUTH WALES

2005

Second Edition 2005 ISBN 0 7313 7156 9 Published by the Library Council of New South Wales Macquarie Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia www.sl.nsw.gov.au atmitchell.com © The Library Council of New South Wales, 2005 This document and supplementary material, including examples of recent library building projects in New South Wales, can be found on the State Library of New South Wales web pages at www.sl.nsw.gov.au
P&D-1854-10/2005

P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s

2005

Contents
FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SECTION 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 SECTION 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 SECTION 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 SECTION 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 INTRODUCTION: How to Use People places The Purpose of People places How People places was Developed The Structure of People places How to Use People places PUBLIC LIBRARIES: An Essential Resource for the Community Public Libraries for the Future Trends Impacting on Public Libraries Public Libraries as Places of Social Capital Ageing of the NSW Community Youth Culture New Information Technologies Our Multicultural Society Our Indigenous Community Competition and Marketing Cultural Development Changing Structure of NSW Coastal and Rural Communities Impacts of Urban Consolidation NEEDS: Planning for Your Community Planning for Your Community Collaborative Planning Needs Assessment Identified Need Normative Need Comparative Need Benchmark-Based Need PROCESS: Getting the Right Players Involved Collaborative Planning Setting up a Working Group Funding Opportunities Co-location and Joint Use Developing a Local Technology Plan Staffing Requirements Library Collection Plan Library Fitout iii iv 1 1 2 5 5 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 19 20 20 32 32 32 32 34 37 39 40 40

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2005

| 

2 7.4 5.7 6.2 6.11 6.Contents (continued) SECTION 5 5.14.15 6.2 5.3 6.5 7.3 5.1 7.5 5.9 6.14.13 6.1 6.3 7.2 6.4 6.14 6. Orientation and Functionality Accessibility and Mobility Smart Technology Marketing Ecological Sustainability Lighting Acoustics Heating and Ventilation Occupational Health and Safety Personal and Property Security Shelving Furniture and Fittings Signage Storage Asset Management Mobile Libraries FURTHER INFORMATION AND RESOURCES Library Development Grants State Library of New South Wales Contacts Specialist Planning.6 SECTION 6 6.1 6.16 SECTION 7 7.1 5.6 6. Project Manager and other Consultants DESIGN: Key Design Factors for Public Libraries Image and Identity Flexible and Multifunctional Buildings Order.4 7.12 6. Building and Architectural Advice Methodology for Developing a Service-Based Benchmark Methodology for Developing a Population-Based Benchmark References and Further Reading 42 42 45 45 46 47 48 50 50 50 50 51 51 52 53 56 57 57 57 58 59 60 61 62 62 63 64 64 64 64 64 65 66 69  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .6 INDEX PLANNING: Upfront Planning is the Key Choosing a Site for a Public Library Safer by Design Principles for Sites and Buildings New Building or Refurbishment Schedule of Public Library Functional Areas Developing a Brief Selecting the Architect.10 6.5 6.8 6.

Foreword The vital contribution of public libraries to social capital and to the educational and economic development of communities is recognised across the developed world. There has been unanimous appreciation of the soundness of its planning principles. In order to promote planning techniques and practical guidelines Heather Nesbitt and Bligh Voller Nield were commissioned to research and prepare what became the first edition of People places in 2000. up-to-date information resources.2. Since then. as do the floor space benchmarks. the principles of People places have been applied to scores of library building projects across New South Wales. The effectiveness of a sample of post-People places buildings was also assessed as part of this consultancy. Heather Nesbitt Planning and Bligh Voller Nield were appointed to carry out the review and revision. as had been the case with the original publication. Special recognition was given to People places when it was awarded a Commendation by the Royal Australian Planning Institute. Other Australian States have found the publication useful and it has also attracted some international attention as a helpful planning guide. Libraries can be fully effective for their communities only if they have the right combination of proficient staff. Support for this role has underpinned the commitment of local and State governments in New South Wales to high quality public library services. and the Library Council therefore undertook to review People places from time to time. By 2005 many library buildings planned using People places as a guide had been open long enough for an assessment to be made of the relevance and effectiveness of the planning principles. The range of issues raised and the revisions made in this edition are set out fully in section 1. There was also a need to address issues which had gained prominence in those five years or which were expected to have a major impact over the next ten to fifteen years. it shares a wealth of practical advice on the exciting but often challenging process of planning a new public library building to meet the needs of the community well into the new millennium. Belinda Hutchinson President. State Library of New South Wales P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . after a competitive selection process. It was important for the review to be based on wide consultation within the New South Wales Public Library Network. Like the previous edition. This new edition of People places was endorsed by the Library Council of New South Wales at its meeting on 24 October 2005. The consultation process has shown wide acceptance of People places. These are just a few of the many successful public library buildings constructed in New South Wales in the past five years. Independent external consultants were therefore sought and. economic and social environment. in the category ‘Plan Making and Strategies by State or Federal Governments’. Libraries operate in a dynamic technological. Six library buildings were examined in detail and their case studies are on the State Library’s website. New South Wales. but there has been extensive revision of the text to clarify issues and to extend the information provided. reliable equipment and telecommunications. The integrity of these principles remains. and well-planned buildings. Library buildings represent a major investment by local authorities. Library Council of New South Wales October 2005 Dagmar Schmidmaier AM State Librarian & Chief Executive.

Strathfield.Acknowledgements This second edition of People places. Case studies on the application of the guidelines to recently built public library buildings were also undertaken at Lithgow. like its predecessor. Councils. A site visit was also made to the Riverina Regional Library Mobile Service at Lockhart. Narooma. written submissions and feedback at workshops in Sydney. and/or provided valuable background information about their library projects were: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ashfield Municipal Council Auslib Library Consulting Baulkham Hills Shire Council Bankstown City Council Bega Valley Shire Council Bland Shire Council Bourke Shire Council Camden Council Campbelltown City Council City of Blue Mountains City of Canada Bay Council City of Lithgow Council City of Ryde Council City of Sydney Council Eurobodalla Shire Council Fairfield City Council Great Lakes Council Hornsby Shire Council Hurstville City Council Inverell Shire Council Kogarah Municipal Council Lake Macquarie City Council Lane Cove Municipal Council Leeton Shire Council • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leichhardt Municipal Council Libraries Alive! Pty Ltd Maitland City Council Marrickville Council Monaro Regional Library and Information Service Narrandera Shire Council Northern Regional Library and Information Service Randwick City Council Riverina Regional Library Rockdale City Council Singleton Shire Council Strathfield Municipal Council Sutherland Shire Council Tamworth Regional Council Temora Shire Council Tumbarumba Shire Council Upper Hunter Shire Council Wagga Wagga City Council Warringah Council Willoughby City Council Wollongong City Council v | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . In addition. Singleton and Temora. Focus groups were held at the State Library of New South Wales. Singleton Public Library and Temora Public Library. Their experience in applying the guidelines to public library building projects was invaluable. building and management of public libraries in NSW. was developed in close consultation with practitioners involved in the planning. responded to the discussion paper and draft revision. Narellan. library organisations and others who participated in the focus groups. and the cooperation of participants and of the organisations which hosted these meetings is gratefully acknowledged. Singleton and Temora. Focus groups were a key part of the consultation process. all NSW Councils and public libraries were invited to participate through faxbacks.

State Library • Kerrie Burgess. Willoughby City Library representing the Metropolitan Public Libraries Association. Bligh Voller Nield. Its members were: • Lynne Makin. Manager.The consultants for the project were Heather Nesbitt. Public Library Services. Manager. State Library (Convenor) • Cameron Morley. State Library • Dr David Jones. together with State Library personnel. Research Coordinator. Heather Nesbitt Planning and Tim Brook. A Steering Committee met and communicated regularly with the consultants. CEO/Library Manager. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 | v . Building and Advisory Services. Public Library Services. Assistant State Librarian. Director Corporate Services. Jerilderie Shire Council • Frances Sims. New South Wales (MPLA) • Kathleen Bresnahan. State Library The support and assistance of all these individuals and organisations is gratefully acknowledged. This group included representation from country and city library services and from local government. Upper Murray Regional Library Service representing the Country Public Libraries Association (CPLA) • Richard Morriss. Public Library Services. Funding and Advisory Services. Library Services Manager.

v | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .

Public libraries need to be planned and built not only to meet the needs of our community today but also for the future. Both the pitfalls and the successes are highlighted. This not only includes public librarians but also local government officers. Its focus remains on being a practical resource tool for all stakeholders involved in the planning and construction of public library buildings. can be long. People places: A guide for public library buildings in New South Wales has provided public libraries throughout NSW with an important planning tool to assist in the development of public library buildings. It is hoped that People places will help to improve and expedite the process for all stakeholders involved. This revised edition provides information on: • The importance of public libraries in our community • Future trends which impact on library design • How to determine the need and size for a new or extended library building • What issues need to be considered in planning for a new or extended library building • Establishing a process which will take the library development project from inception to completion • Designing and building a public library which meets the community needs both now and in the future People places focuses on new innovative models for library provision and the integration of modern technology into library functions and design. To ensure that it provides the type of information which is relevant to this broad range of stakeholders. 1 SECTION This second edition is the result of this revision process. evaluated and revised within five years. like any building project. This deliberate approach is in response to the strong push from stakeholders to ensure that all new and extended library buildings grasp the many opportunities available to them to provide a facility and service which is relevant to future generations. complex and difficult. But with rapid changes occurring within our communities. elected representatives. it was resolved that the document be revisited. library users and the general community. as a library development project. architects. This was considered to be an essential component of good planning and good library management.1 The Purpose of People places Since 2000. People places discusses not only issues involved in the actual design of a library but also the process required to achieve a successful library development project.Introduction: How to use People places 1. It provides information based on a number of library projects throughout NSW and discussions with stakeholders involved first-hand in these projects. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .

This edition has sought to respond to this issue. An issues paper and draft revision of People places were notified to all NSW Councils and made available on the State Library website for public comment. Country Public Libraries Association of NSW (CPLA).1 SECTION 1. In 2005. and the State Library of New South Wales. The consultation feedback focussed primarily on the need to make the benchmark methodologies simpler to understand and apply. the Library Council of New South Wales published People places. It is the product of the extensive involvement and commitment of local government and communities throughout the State and reflects their views and aspirations for the future of public libraries. it engaged consultant Heather Nesbitt in association with architects Bligh Voller Nield to evaluate and potentially revise these guidelines based on the outcomes of a consultation program with key stakeholders. this dynamic environment provides a range of opportunities for the development and enhancement of public library services and will ensure they are equipped and relevant in the new millennium. The table following summarises the revisions made. For public libraries in NSW. The project was guided by a Steering Committee comprising representatives from the Metropolitan Public Libraries Association. NSW (MPLA). no changes have been made to the methodologies used to determine the benchmark area sizes for public library buildings. The consultants also evaluated the application of the guidelines to six case study library buildings built since 2000. Already many communities are meeting the challenge and forging new models for both the physical design of public libraries and the delivery of public library services to the community. Additions to the guidelines are based on feedback from the key stakeholders and a focus on improvements to make the guidelines more user-friendly and applicable in the upcoming five to ten years. Importantly. People places is the outcome of this process and provides an updated approach to the planning and construction of public libraries. In early 2000. The case study evaluations highlighted that the benchmark methodologies have been successful in providing public library buildings which meet the vision and needs of their communities.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . a Council representative.2 How People places was developed We live in an ever-changing community in which new trends and challenges are constantly evident.

Minor wording changes to service and population based benchmarks to improve understanding Co-location example provided.5 Developing a local technology plan Standard for public access internet computer increased to 1 per 3000 persons which is slightly higher than the existing NSW provision. and marketing. Minor increase in items per shelf.2.1 Public libraries as social capital Section 3. specialist genre collection Co-located and joint-use libraries will increase in popularity for Councils Section 4.3. Reviewed local technology plan space and function requirements 1 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Includes information on building implications. etc Increasing influence of technology Section 4.g. management.g.What’s New in this Edition? Issue Need to update statistical data Importance of public libraries as social capital Difficulty of applying and using population and servicebased benchmarks Section Reference Section 2 and throughout text Section 2. Increased number of optional service areas. Allows for an expected increase in computer and Internet demand in the next 5 years.4 Co-location and Joint Use Provides information on planning. e. operation. room dividers. e. soundproofing.4 Benchmarkbased need Revision Updated census data and current trends New section provided Shelving height reduced to 4 shelves rather than 5. archival storage.

4 Checklist of public library functional areas Revision Expanded recommended locational criteria Reviewed description of collections and their space requirements Added new sub-section on appointment of project manager Rewritten to provide information on BASIX and Green Star rating systems and implications for library building design. Number of shelves high reduced from 5 to 4.6 Selecting the Architect.11 Occupational Health and Safety Throughout text Included in functional and space requirements Provided link to State Records NSW Concern over safety of staff and users Section 5.1 SECTION Issue Importance of locational criteria Increase in specialist/genre collections Section Reference Section 5.13 Shelving Importance of mobile libraries Section 6.16 Mobile Libraries Expanded section and added reference/web link New section on Occupational Health and Safety No mention of occupational health and safety requirements Increasing role of libraries for archival storage and conservation Section 6.2 Safer by Design principles for sites and buildings Section 6. Little information on managing the construction process Environmentally sustainable buildings will become more important for local Councils Section 5.6 Marketing Section 6. Project Manager and Other Consultants Section 6. New section on marketing Expanded section on shelving with minor changes.12 Personal and Property Security New section with information about “Safer by Design” guidelines New section about personal safety and crime prevention.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .1 Choosing a site for a public library Section 5.7 Ecological sustainability Marketing is essential for libraries Section 6.

2 provides information on a range of potential funding approaches. Each section relates to a specific part of the overall process involved in the planning and design of a new or extended public library building. The examples of recent public library buildings on the State Library’s web pages (www. gov. including web sites.4 How to Use People places As a resource tool. stakeholders visit other recently built libraries.nsw. They want to find out how other areas have tackled similar issues that they are facing. People places is supplemented by information on the State Library of New South Wales website. this listing will become dated over time and you should ensure that you check for any later editions of the works included. If you are interested in specific issues. The examples on the web pages provide this information in a readily accessible form.1. Each section can be used independently.3 Structure of People places People places is divided into seven sections. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . They are not intended to be replicated in communities throughout the State but rather to highlight the range of approaches that can be used. and relevant contacts is provided in Section 7 for further information and research. The sections are numbered to enable quick reference to the information required.au/pls) are intended to illustrate the innovative approaches that have been used throughout NSW and how each community addresses its own particular needs. The consultations highlighted that very often. Reading the text like a story. you may want to look at the range of approaches to financing public library buildings. People places should be used to assist you in any matter involving the planning and design of public library buildings. but the projects on the web pages will help to provide a broader overview of new approaches and innovations. For example. Section 4. A list of references. This will include fact sheets on a number of recent library projects throughout the State built using People places. use the Table of Contents to find out which section has the appropriate information. Personal visits to new libraries you are interested in should certainly still be undertaken.sl. particularly codes and standards. In this instance. when planning a new library. By following each section as a step-by-step process. 1. The examples on the web pages will provide you with ideas on what other communities are doing and hopefully provide some direction on potential solutions. People places will take you through an overall process with guidance on what needs to be considered and how this should be addressed. collectively or in sequence depending on what is appropriate for the particular issues to be addressed. you can map out a work program or flow chart on what should be done to plan for this expansion of the library service. which can be explored. As with any guide. It is important to remember however that each library building and the service it provides is unique and should reflect the needs and aspirations of its community. your community may be growing rapidly and it is obvious that one or several new service points will be required in the next 20 years. 1 SECTION People places can also be used as a step-by-step guide to the planning and eventual construction of a new library building.

1 SECTION Planning and Construction of Public Library Buildings A Collaborative Planning Process NEED Identify community needs n n n n Identified need Normative need Comparative need Benchmark based need PROCESS Set up working group n n n n n n Funding Co-location and joint use Local Technology Plan Staffing Requirements Library Collection Plan Library Fitout PLANNING Set the criteria n n n n n n Site selection New building/extension/refurbishment Safer by design principles Schedule of functional areas Developing a brief Selecting an architect DESIGN Consider key design criteria n n n n n n n n Image and identity Flexibility Functionality Smart technology Ecological sustainability Environmental control Asset management Compliance standards  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .

To remain relevant in our ever-changing community.6 million visits were made in Australia and 29. Some are issues that are affecting libraries worldwide. The relevance of libraries to today’s community is evident in their high levels of use and attraction to a broad range of users from all ages and backgrounds. leisure and learning • Are effective and efficient in the delivery of services • Develop from a co-operative approach between all stakeholders to ensure that the changing needs of the community are met 2 SECTION With good planning and the allocation of adequate resources. Almost half of the New South Wales population are registered library members with many more people visiting and using public libraries than are registered members. With changing demographic and social trends. as in our modern world many systems are interrelated and connected. ever-increasing financial constraints for government and rapidly changing information technology. 99. the design and function of libraries must change to meet these and other new challenges. the benefits will be significant.2 Trends Impacting on Public Libraries In designing public infrastructure. 2005).1 Public Libraries for the Future Public libraries are one of the most well used educational. research. Some of the emerging trends which are likely to impact on the design and function of public libraries are outlined below. public libraries can and will provide value for money for the community. while others are trends that are particular to NSW. it is important to consider the changing social and demographic trends evident within the community and how these may affect the provision and delivery of services to the community. A sound initial investment will provide a library building that remains functional and viable for the future. Our future public libraries must be buildings that: • Provide a cultural hub and focal point for the community • Are functional and multipurpose accommodating a range of activities and uses • Enable access to the latest in technology in a user-friendly manner • Attract a wide range of users providing areas for relaxation. cultural and social facilities available within our community.5 visits to a local public library for every NSW resident during the year (ABS.Public Libraries: An Essential Resource for the Community 2. This equates to 4. public libraries must have a holistic view and take full advantage of the many opportunities available. A range of issues has been identified below which are likely to have an impact on the design and function of public libraries in the next 10 to 20 years.9 million visits in NSW to a local government library. By providing a public library building that is well designed and consistent with the trends identified in People places. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . It is important to monitor and identify emerging social and demographic trends continually. 2. In 2003/04.

This is called social capital and is one of the building blocks of a strong community. They may store information about local Indigenous and European heritage. So how will this trend impact on library design and function? Already older residents are major users of libraries and this trend is likely to grow as the number of older residents with significant leisure time increases. read the newspaper. It is estimated that by 2011.2. training and lifelong learning and as such are a major tool for people to increase economic opportunities. 2005) Public libraries often provide a community focal point or cultural focus. Currently in NSW. people with a disability and people from multicultural backgrounds. listen to music. 2000 and PricewaterhouseCoopers. The largest proportional increases are expected to occur in people aged over 85 years (Australian Bureau of Statistics. search the Internet and/or take part in the many activities and events held. Growth along the coastal areas of NSW is expected to be high with 30% of residents in the Great Lakes Shire expected to be aged 65 years and over by 2019.1 Public Libraries as Places of Social Capital Public libraries bring people from a range of backgrounds together to meet. They provide resources for skills development. adult education. social capital is particularly important as it helps to build bridges of support with other members of the community and promotes inclusiveness. For all users. information about community groups. 13% of residents are aged over 65 years with significant variations across the State.2. Section 7 provides references on the social value of public libraries to our communities and in particular. public libraries provide a “safe haven” where people can feel a part of the broader community (Cox et al. This important role for public libraries is supported by data from some libraries where 50% of users are non borrowers. It is strongly valued by the community and this is reflected in its high levels of visitation and usage. their importance as community meeting places.2 SECTION 2. the proportion of older residents in our community is increasing. Research highlights that social networks have value and affect the productivity and health of individuals and groups (Putnam. For more vulnerable groups such as youth. Libraries are no longer only the realm of people borrowing books but also a place where people come to sit. play computer games. 2. older people. activities targeting seniors. Access to specialist collections. 2000). one in five people in NSW (20%) will be aged over 65 years. network and potentially develop relationships with other members of the community. events and activities. For many communities. Public libraries are often a resource for social and economic regeneration. 2002). With people living longer and fewer children being born. increasing computer usage and browsing areas for casual users are examples  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . display local artworks and community art projects. and promote information about Council and government services and programs. the public library building is often the only civic building in the area which is publicly accessible to everyone and typically generates significant pride.2 Ageing of the NSW Community The ageing of populations in modern Western societies is a well-documented trend.

Importantly. Youth is generally defined as those aged 13-24 years old with the older age group often still dependents engaged in further education.sl. au/pls) highlight the efforts made by public libraries to meet the needs of youth in their new P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Education approaches have changed and the NSW Board of Studies now promotes co-operative learning. our library customers of tomorrow will be assured. major consumers of information technology. Some of the examples of library projects on the State Library web pages (www. Many Councils have formed Access Committees and/or have a Disability Action Plan which recommend actions for improving access to services for people with a disability. For libraries. These may include large print books. Designing libraries to meet the needs of our growing older population will be a major challenge in the future (see Section 6.nsw.gov. Research indicates that as age increases so does the level of disability in our community. Accessed at home or at the library.of potential trends that may be experienced. research and group interaction. It is evident that many other services can be linked to the needs of our youth and by maintaining their interest. Individual learning is not the sole approach used and youth are encouraged to interact.2. Access for older residents in retirement villages and housebound services will also need to be considered. 2001). For both older people and people with a disability. youth are interested and efficient in using new technology and have been quick to utilise the technology resources of libraries. accessible shelving and a range of other building requirements which are likely to have increased importance in the future. many libraries are meeting the information needs of youth through the provision of online school resources and web pages. discuss and develop ideas together in a co-operative and team manner. easy-to-read signage. The State Library of New South Wales has a Disability Access Service that provides specialist advice and referral for people with a disability. Overseas and in NSW. The provision of meeting rooms. noisy areas. ramped access and automatic opening doors. these design features also provide increased access for the broader community.3 Youth Culture 2 SECTION Young people are important to our community and comprise 16% of NSW residents (Australian Bureau of Statistics. This translates into demands for single level buildings (or multilevel buildings with easy to access lifts). this approach is proving popular and effective. They are significant users of public libraries. accessible toilets. For many buildings. working on joint projects with fellow students and discussing project approaches and outcomes. Specific services for older residents and people with a disability may also need to be considered. Access for people with a disability will become an increasingly important issue and legislation such as the Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act 1992 and NSW Disability Services Act 1993 are having a significant impact on how services are designed and provided. student research areas and facilities are some of the physical outcomes of this trend. and hold social attitudes that are often different from other groups in our community.4) 2. physical design issues are of major importance. specialist resources for people with a disability and a range of technology for accessing print and electronic resources. this has had a marked effect with many libraries now filled each afternoon with young people undertaking research projects.

Important references that highlight the future role of technology in our community are provided in Section 7. 2004). The network provides access to the Internet. There are many wide ranging views with digital televisions. email facilities. The fact that changing information technology will heavily impact on our lives is well documented although how it will change our lives is not so clear.gov. school. The State Library of New South Wales can also be contacted regarding specific information on designing public libraries to meet the needs of youth. is not supported by the evidence gathered for this study. “you can’t cuddle up to a computer to read a novel”. Appropriate. 2. The total number of public access computers in NSW local government public libraries rose from 711 in 1999/00 to 2083 in 2003/04 with 100% having Internet access. However. as computer and Internet access at home has increased so too has the provision and usage of computers in NSW public libraries.4 New Information Technologies The “Information Society”. 0 | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . dedicated computerised work stations for staff and additional storage for audiovisuals and CD-ROMS.sl. Total booking hours have increased threefold by 1. between affluent and poorer communities and between young people and older people.6. to date.net and the connect. As highlighted in one of the focus groups.4 million hours over the same period (State Library of New South Wales. the concerns of some commentators that the increasing use of technology for research and information will mean that public libraries should be getting smaller.nsw strategy has provided an electronic information network linking Councils and public libraries throughout NSW. it was estimated that 65% of NSW households had a computer at home and 54% of NSW households had Internet access (Australian Bureau of Statistics. selected databases and in some instances. This enables the community to access many Government electronic services free of charge regardless of their location. As highlighted in some of the case studies on the State Library web pages (www. libraries and other educational facilities however this may be restricted by workplace and educational facility policies.2 SECTION library projects. computer technology is likely to be used primarily for reference and information rather than fictional works and “reading for pleasure”. increased remote use of services. through NSW. “smart” buildings. the “Information Superhighway” and the “Information Rich versus the Information Poor” are all terms which are used to highlight the expanding role of information technology in our society. The New South Wales Government. functional and adequate space to accommodate new information technologies is now a major requirement for public libraries. Research together with feedback from library users highlights that.au/pls) public libraries have been required to provide additional space for technology such as computer training rooms. Similarly. large areas for public access catalogues. 2003). As one library manager commented “with around half of all library visits apparently not involving a loan transaction. Access varies between capital cities and rural communities.nsw. electronic commerce and so forth. Access is increasing through work. Who does know where it will take us or where the changes will ever end? In 2003.2. the library’s space for technology and other uses is at least as important as the library’s collection”.

5 and 6. 2003). Information is also available on appropriate promotional materials to encourage increased visitation and borrowing. As libraries move towards improving access and services for our multicultural community.New technologies such as self-check loans. In terms of the physical design of the library. audiovisual materials and periodicals about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Italian and Greek with Asian languages the fastest growing group (Australian Bureau of Statistics. wireless technology. Several public libraries located in communities with large indigenous populations are working to ensure that they are attractive. 2. what is important for library stakeholders. But certainly there is a need to ensure that there are prominent areas for browsing and reading multicultural resources. other design and service innovations will occur.5 provide more detailed information on how to meet these technological challenges in your library project. The main languages spoken in NSW other than English are Arabic. self-help desks.2. In summary. the impact of multiculturalism is perhaps less evident. 2003). A reference is provided in Section 7 to research undertaken for the Library Council of New South Wales on approaches to providing library services appropriate to culturally diverse communities (Cultural Perspectives. Cantonese. The increased provision of multilingual collections. as they become available. Research conducted as part of this project and for the Library Council of New South Wales indicates that many people from multicultural backgrounds like to use the library and particularly view it as a place for social contact with other residents from similar backgrounds (Cultural Perspectives. English language classes and multilingual signage are evident in many libraries in NSW. ports for laptops and wireless local area network access points together with specialist librarians to assist online users are all impacting on library design and layout. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . welcoming and relevant to all members of their community. 2001). meeting room space for social contact with people of similar backgrounds and interests. and enquiry/information desks for those needing assistance.5 Our Multicultural Society 2 SECTION Almost one in five people in NSW were born in countries where English is not the first language. In some communities in Sydney. more than half of the residents were born in non English speaking countries. with many housing specialist collections of books. quick use computers. This requires a vision and commitment to providing dedicated infrastructure that will provide the technological services needed by the community. In many communities. public libraries play an important role in the promotion of Aboriginal culture. is not what is going to happen with information technology but rather making sure that public libraries are ready and able to take full advantage of the opportunities that are presented by technology. Sections 4. services and library facilities for our multicultural community.2. 2. Currently 20% of NSW residents speak a language other than English at home.6 Our Indigenous Community Recognition and celebration of our indigenous community is an important component of Australian culture. The State Library of New South Wales Multicultural Consultant can advise on developing appropriate collections. Our multicultural community is having and will continue to have a marked effect on our libraries.

As highlighted in Section 3. education and entertainment as a significant factor likely to impact on libraries in the future. archives and information services are published by the Australian Library and Information Association for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library and Information Resource Network (ATSILIRN) (http://www. library promotions. ntu. 2. This must continue in order to facilitate the increased use of public library resources by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. videos. CD-ROMs. Seek assistance from the local Aboriginal Land Council and/or specialist Aboriginal Liaison Officers often employed by a range of Government departments or Councils.au/library/protocol. Electronic forms of communication such as the Internet. customer loyalty plans – are these things that need to be considered in our libraries of the future? Many people consider that marketing strategies are important to our future libraries and already libraries provide promotional material. Ensuring that the new library meets the needs of indigenous residents is an important issue to be addressed. DVDs and television provide people with wide ranging information which is current. hold events and use exhibitions to attract users. changing and professional displays. How people spend their leisure time is changing and how this will impact on public libraries is worthy of consideration. will libraries be able to compete and attract the number and range of users they have in the past? The delivery of education services is also changing with many institutions now providing students with options for distance and open learning. arrange book displays. topical and easy to access. Our world is rapidly changing and people are now able to access information through a range of media sources. Protocols for libraries.7 Competition and Marketing Interviews with selected Councils undertaken as part of this study identified the growing competition from other sources of information. email. In recent years.edu. So should libraries be more proactive in terms of marketing and promotion of their services to ensure that they retain their “market niche”? Should they be looking to develop marketing plans and strategies to encourage customers to use the library resources more? Advertising. consultation with users is essential and for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. this process must be culturally appropriate and meaningful. By looking at retail strategies.1.html). many public libraries have sought to improve their marketing through the adoption of various retail strategies. This has resulted in some changes to the physical design of public library buildings such as the provision of flexible floor space which can be used for a variety of activities. With access to these forms of information becoming easier in the home. courses to do and social activities to participate in.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .2 SECTION The incorporation of Aboriginal art and cultural activities into public libraries has also played a major role in encouraging indigenous users.3. courses through the Internet and various adult education programs. attractive and accessible. furniture and shelving which is moveable and changeable. Specialist advice and information is available through the Indigenous Services Librarians at the State Library of New South Wales. and exhibition/ display space which is appropriately lit. Entertainment comes in a wide variety of forms and in many communities there is a range of activities to attend.2.

Other areas in rural NSW are suffering from declining populations and a changing economic base which makes planning for library services difficult. Culture relates to the values. themed shopping areas (consistent colours. Section 6. 2005). Public libraries have very often been the beneficiary of this trend. They have sought to maintain and develop library services P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . theatre.8 Cultural Development 2 SECTION In recent years. beliefs and customs of a community and the forms through which that culture is expressed.9 Changing Structure of NSW Coastal and Rural Communities Our regional communities are changing. In these communities many services. Public transport is often poor while major centres struggle to provide a range of accessible services for residents and tourists. Inclusion of artworks not just in public libraries but also in other public buildings. such as banks and government offices. Increasing numbers of retirees are moving to these communities together with many young people. Similarly.2. have closed and have added further to the declining employment base and resident population.6 provides further information on how marketing strategies affect library building design. fittings and fixtures). 2004). Planning and Natural Resources. traditional media of art. This has provided a challenge and an opportunity for many rural communities. providing an unusual population mix. film and music are used to express our culture while our natural and built environment are further extensions of our cultural image. Councils also access grants from the Australia Council or the NSW Ministry for the Arts to employ community artists who involve the community in developing artworks or undertake “placemaking” projects in public libraries. Many coastal communities are geographically dispersed with small communities dotted amongst the inlets and beaches of the coast. For some libraries. Several Councils have adopted cultural plans. 2. The celebration of “our culture” very often has taken the form of cultural works and particularly public and community art in our buildings and public spaces. Servicing the diverse needs of these communities is a major challenge for libraries in coastal communities. and product display (featured products are displayed prominently) may all have some relevance to the design of libraries (Hennah.6. commercial developments and even the open spaces at Sydney Olympic Park highlight the importance of this trend to connecting a building with the community through culture. public art policies or have in-house cultural planners who promote the celebration of local cultural identity and the provision of public events. For many people. dance. 2.new trends such as concept stores (where a range of linked products are sold). public art policies have ensured that a proportion of the capital construction of a building be spent on art works. Coastal NSW is expected to grow at a faster rate than NSW to 2051 (NSW Department of Infrastructure. we have experienced some recognition of the importance of people’s culture to our communities. in-house cafes. Further information on cultural planning can be obtained from the NSW Ministry for the Arts and the Local Government and Shires Association with references provided in Section 7.2. cultural programs and public art in the community.

Again. which seeks to reduce the spread of the Sydney region by making greater use of new and existing areas. the impact of urban consolidation is currently being experienced in many libraries as the demand for study space and reading areas grows. Rural and coastal NSW has developed many innovative solutions to their changing communities and are seeking to ensure that libraries remain relevant to the needs of their residents. Urban consolidation has been the major housing thrust of the New South Wales Government in recent years with both established and fringe areas targeted for multi unit dwellings.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . By linking technology to libraries. road infrastructure and public utilities is to increase housing densities in strategic locations throughout the Greater Sydney. It is also considered that multi unit housing. Information technology is also seen as the communication link that may free up various service sectors and enable them to locate outside the Sydney region. these communities will increase the technological resources of the area and provide opportunities for new growth industries. particularly for our increasing numbers of older residents and singles. Central Coast. 2004).2 SECTION with limited financial resources coupled together with plans for new sources of economic development. is more consistent with trends towards smaller household sizes. Particularly in areas with concentrations of unit development. It considers that the most effective way to utilise existing resources such as public transport. Information technology is seen as a major resource that can provide residents with resources and education to develop and staff new industries.10 Impacts of Urban Consolidation The New South Wales Government has adopted a policy of compact cities. An estimated 23. such as units and townhouses. So will this trend increase as urban consolidation continues? It is expected that some 70% of new housing development will occur in established areas of Sydney in the next 25 years with 30% in new communities in Sydney’s south west and north west.000 new homes are required each year to house Sydney’s expected population growth over the next 25-30 years with the majority expected to be multi unit housing (NSW Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources. 2.2. Illawarra and Hunter regions. the availability of space for home study or leisure is limited and it appears that residents are opting to use the library instead.

the allocation of resources for any public facility and/or service. through its Social Plan. For example. the greatest issue is the service provided and how it meets the needs of the surrounding community. should be addressed. Needs assessment is used extensively as a planning tool. For public libraries. You may try to avoid it. Council may have identified. Finally. there may be an opportunity to provide a joint TAFE/public library service that would increase the resources. and for local government the provision of any type of public building must relate closely to the local community – its needs. The library service could meet this challenge by developing technology programs and services that link to local employment providers and skills training. in terms of books.Needs: Planning for your Community 3. Section 3 primarily focuses on how to undertake a needs assessment for your community. It also involves many stakeholders with particular interests and ideas. It has a strong basis in community consultation. technology. as it is a political process. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . particularly those who are unemployed. joint developments with other activities and increasingly. The library service. library web sites and home access services. available to all in the community. staff and buildings. So how do you determine what type of library service your community needs and how best these services can be delivered to the community? People Places recommends: • A collaborative planning process that involves all stakeholders in determining how to prepare an overall development plan for library services • A needs assessment planning method to determine why the community wants or needs a new/changed library service. demands and aspirations. The Section also outlines the importance of collaborative planning and how it should be used to determine an overall plan for library services or a Library Development Plan for the community. It involves a range of issues. The building is really only one of several service models through which a library service can be delivered. the need is even greater to have a sound planning approach and assessment tools in place to ensure that the process is well organised and informed. but politics plays a significant role in library development projects. This will enable you to gather the right sort of information to show why changes are needed to library services and/or buildings. specialised services for housebound. that the needs of young people. is delivered through a diversity of service models including mobile libraries. However. In another area. schools and TAFE students. for which tradeoffs and compromises may need to be made. in many communities. is an inherently political process. The process is more fully explained in Section 4 Process – Getting the Right Players Involved and particularly Section 4.1 Planning for Your Community Every community is unique. particularly for community services and social planning. 3 SECTION The library service needs to fit into the bigger picture of what is happening in the community and how the many opportunities available can be harnessed to add value to the library service provided. It will also help you to monitor the changing needs of the community and how this may affect the provision of library services. socio-demographic indicators and comparison to other communities/service models. it is essential to recognise that the development of public libraries and in fact.1 Collaborative Planning is the Key to Public Library Development.

For many. Collaborative planning is based on involving a range of stakeholders in the planning process. this is collaborative planning. “team approach”. Collaborative planning should be used to develop a Library Development Plan for one and/or all of the libraries in the service area. the real distinction lies between needs and wants and the concern that provision is only based on the articulated wants of professional officers or a small  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . In short. including local areas.3 SECTION 3. In the consultation program used to develop People Places. 3. “whole of Council” and “whole of community” were terms many librarians used to describe the planning process used for a new/expanded library building.2 Collaborative Planning Planning is part of good management and occurs at a range of levels in all organisations. A collaborative plan should include: • Identification of the various stakeholders to be involved • Type of information to be gathered and/or issues to be addressed • Consultation approaches to be used for gathering this information • Integration of this information into a Library Development Plan This approach will ensure that the Library Development Plan is linked to other plans that local government is responsible for such as: • Management Plan: provides an overall direction for the Council over a 5 year cycle • Social Plan: outlines the needs of the community and identifies actions Council will pursue to address these needs. It seeks out those who have a stake or interest in the potential outcomes and ensures that their ideas and issues are addressed in the planning process.3 Needs Assessment So why does this community need a new library building or changed library service? This question often becomes the basic issue for many librarians as they try to prepare a Library Development Plan. Public libraries already undertake planning functions as part of their responsibilities to Council. However. particularly local government. tourism development committee and the Department of Health. the whole local government area (LGA) or even on a regional basis. It can be done for communities of varying sizes. • Cultural Plan: identifies the culture of a community and recommends strategies for promoting and strengthening cultural identity and activities • Local Environmental Plan: provides the legislative framework for the allocation of specific land uses throughout the community • Annual Budget: allocates funds from Council finances to specific projects and works for the upcoming financial year • Section 94 Contributions Plan and Planning Agreements: provides the legal basis on which contributions are sought from local development towards the cost of additional public infrastructure needed as a result of this development It may also result in links to other plans developed by agencies such as the local economic development board. it is how these plans are developed and linked which is important in ensuring the right outcomes for the public library service. university or technical and further education college. The implementation of the Social Plan must be reported in Council’s Management Plan.

Feedback from the consultation program used in developing People Places highlighted that many local Councils and librarians rely heavily on comparing themselves with other communities of similar size and characteristics. If service provision through a mobile library is being considered. Be sure to check this out first before establishing your work program. It is likely that other sections of Council and/or other local agencies may be collecting the same information or using processes through which you could gather useful information. community groups and Council officers. They know that it works (see Section 3. A range of consultation techniques may be used to gather this information and ensure that the extent and type of need is fully understood (see Section 3. The advantage in using comparative need is that stakeholders can see the outcomes for themselves. provision per capita. needs determined in this way should be checked against reality to ensure that they are consistent with the qualitative information gained in determining Identified Need (see Section 3. you will have a resource of valuable information that will enable more effective collaborative planning. this tool provides two different approaches for determining the actual floor area of a public library.3). It is also often referred to as qualitative information. This will provide Council with some flexibility in determining the required size of a library and enable a more local assessment of what best meets community needs. People Places provides a suite of four different tools for assessing need. Therefore.1). By using both methodologies. It is well known however. • Normative Need: based on socio-demographic information and recognised statistical indicators about library usage. etc.3. a target range floor area for a new library will be provided. They often visit these library services and seek to provide service models similar to these communities. • Benchmark-Based Need: using specific tools related to the services provided by public libraries and the population served by a library. This information should be used with the other needs assessment tools discussed in this Section.3. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . These tools are outlined in more detail below with specific information on how to use them and what resources are available. By using all of these tools. There may be a high level of community debate involved in determining whether the community really needs and not just wants a new library building.3. practitioners and consumers. 3 SECTION The four assessment tools are: • Identified Need: expressed by stakeholders such as library staff. • Comparative Need: based on comparing service provision with other communities with similar socio-demographic characteristics. You should assess the need for and size of library required using all of the four tools outlined below. 1991) (see Section 3. reference should be made to the International Federation of Library Associations Mobile Library Guidelines (Pestell. It reflects what needs are expressed by service providers. Information collected by each tool will provide a more complete analysis of what type of services need to be provided which can then be translated into the actual design and functional floor areas required in a new/expanded library facility.4). given that it is generally accepted that need is both relative and socially defined.3. that statistical or quantitative data can be changed around to show a very different picture depending on what is used.vocal minority in the community.2).

you need to provide participants with information. • What will the information be used for? Only collect information that you can use and don’t be caught in the trap of collecting information just for the sake of it. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. It is important to remember that those consulted should reflect the range of different groups in the community.g. • Who is to be consulted? Think of which stakeholders need to be consulted and how this can best occur. The important  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . To get informed comment.e. and ideas users have on how to increase use. At the very least. shopping centre survey or survey at a community event. a thank you letter and invitation to a special Council event. precinct committees and social planning projects.1 Identified Need This tool determines the need expressed by service providers. before starting any consultation it is essential to ask yourself: • What is the aim of the consultation process.3.3 SECTION 3. what other activities/services they would like in the library. Don’t ask initial vague questions like “What do you think about building a new library?” or “Do you want a new library?” without some opportunity to develop a discussion around the issue. and very often Council may have in place several consultation processes which you may be able to participate in. Too much information can be as big a problem as too little. Choose the most appropriate technique for each group. For example. You may provide a light lunch/refreshments. These include regular surveys of ratepayers. what information am I trying to get? It is essential to work out very clearly why you are using this tool and what type of information you want to get. it is important to remember that those involved need to gain something out of the process. However. or a free book reservation at the library. There is a range of consultation techniques which can be used. older residents. young people. community meetings. practitioners and consumers about library services and/or a new library building. do a phone survey. If you want to get the views of young people. visit them at school or a local youth centre. Young people might feel more rewarded by gift vouchers for the local bookshop. e. Determine what are the physical problems with the current library. There are a range of consultation techniques which can be used such as: – Discussion papers inviting comments – Individual questionnaires and interviews – Focus group meetings with specific groups. etc – Community meetings – Phone-ins • What do participants get out of the process? As consultation occurs regularly in the community around a range of issues. if you want broad community views. they should receive a written report about what came out of the process. Or you might be able to organise a special presentation by a local sportsperson or celebrity as a thank you for their involvement. staff. i.

All councils in NSW are now required to prepare a Social Plan to comply with the Local Government (General) Regulation 1999. residents from multicultural backgrounds. It is important however.issue however is to ensure that you really use this information which has been given to you. shopping and recreational patterns of the community • Transport patterns and issues • Location and size of particular target groups. You should use these documents to inform the library planning process and gather statistical information which identifies issues of importance to library planning such as: • Size and distribution of population • Future population growth • Work. etc • Location of other services. This is typically undertaken by Council’s Community Services section and includes a community profile and statistical data about the local government area (LGA). Other information may also be available through planning documents from Council’s Environmental Planning section. this statistical data should help to highlight the particular needs of different communities and how the existing library/service point meets those needs.2 Normative Need This tool uses socio-demographic information and recognised statistical indicators to assist in determining the need for additional library facilities. child care centres. etc 3 SECTION Statistical indicators highlighting the use of library services in the LGA should also be collected to inform this data. This will help to identify the extent of need and issues relating to existing library service points. e. distribution and characteristics of library members • Number and distribution of non resident members • Gross floor area of each service point • Distance between and transport availability for each service point • Number of visits per service point • Circulation per service point • Size of collection/library materials per service point • Opening hours per service point • Existing and future plans for libraries in adjoining local government areas Together. children. Always let participants know what the information is to be used for and how they might be able to further participate in the process. employment.g. young people. to choose the data which you think is the most useful to provide realistic information in order to identify service needs. seniors’ centres. English language skills. etc • Size and distribution of important indicators such as household income. Some of this data may already be available as part of the regular statistics collected by the State Library of New South Wales and/or benchmarking data used to encourage best practice. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. older residents.6. enabling the development of an individual service point/library profile. The data may also be related to the community profile data collected above. Useful data to collect may include: • Size. residents with disability. There are lots of resources available outlining consultation techniques with some of these listed in Section 7.3. 3.g. e.

the problems they addressed and the resultant services they have provided. but this tool provides an opportunity to use the models already adopted and working in other communities. This tool is particularly useful for the broad range of stakeholders involved in library development projects. the communities they serve. However. It illustrates the standards of provision considered reasonable in other communities and will enable stakeholders to compare their community needs with what others have provided. However. This may be particularly useful for areas undergoing major population growth. experience from other library services located in areas which have experienced major growth. The size of these new libraries. You should collect this information and develop a picture of what other similar communities are providing. comparative need can be used to compare the levels of service provision which exist within the LGA. comparative analysis does help to identify need based on trends outside the local area and to highlight what has worked in other communities. visits to other communities that have recently built new facilities will encourage informed discussion.3 Comparative Need To some extent. This does not mean that all communities should replicate each other. It is important to note that a library of this size is only likely to accommodate a collection of 0 | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . They are the service-based benchmark and the population-based benchmark which are outlined below together with relevant examples to explain how they should be used in practice. when considering the need for a new library. it may be considered equitable to provide libraries of similar size when servicing communities with similar needs in the one LGA or region.sl. Consideration should also be given to the minimum recommended size for a public library building of 139 sq m gross floor area (State Library of New South Wales. Equally. together with other examples you know of. 24).au/pls) provide information on the planning and building of a range of public libraries throughout NSW. will be invaluable information for developing communities. Use these examples. as one tool to comparatively evaluate the need for and size of library buildings required in your community. for remote communities. can be used to compare with existing service provision in your community. information from other areas on how new library buildings are providing for increased technology will be invaluable to local Councillors and community representatives.nsw. For example. They have not been changed from those published in the first edition of People Places in 2000. The examples shown on the State Library of New South Wales web pages (www. gov. These two methodologies should be used together to provide a range of sizes for a new/expanded library building.3. In these cases.3 SECTION 3.4 Benchmark-Based Need These benchmarks are considered by the Library Council of New South Wales to provide minimum area sizes for public library buildings in NSW. the range of services provided and innovative approaches they may have used.3. 3. in reality this does not often occur with communities rarely being the same. 1995 p. People Places provides two methodologies that should be used to set the parameters for determining the need for and resultant size of a new or expanded library building. For example.

The process derives from a simple concept . scanners. Working examples of the service-based benchmark and population-based benchmark applied to four sample library building projects are provided at the end of each methodology. 20 periodicals.4 provides additional information on the methodology and space standards used for this benchmark. non print material.xls. These requirements are then translated into a floor area for each functional area and used cumulatively to determine the size requirement of the proposed library.sl. digital and virtual resources and the base for library building size) 2.nsw. Section 7. Each service has an identifiable spatial requirement and to a large extent all of the services are interrelated. vending machines. offices. For remote and/or isolated communities they may be an important service but typically the service points are temporary and access is often limited to a few hours per week per location. (service desk. 1991) and at www.au.400 books. etc) P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . storage.au/pls/policies/build/docs/benchmarks. A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates both the population-based benchmark and service-based benchmark based on the data you provide for your library building project is available at www. The remaining half of this net area (i. It is particularly important for rural areas with declining or small populations. resources and staff work area. The methodology defines six broad types of library space and allows a projection of future needs and provides a way to translate resulting service assumptions into spatial requirements. fax machines. there are various other models used such as area/district libraries.mobilelibraries.e. Resource areas. photocopiers. work areas. By comparing the outcomes of both methodologies it is evident that the calculated gross floor areas utilising the two methods vary. 200 audio visual items and two OPACs. The benchmarks can be applied to each of these service structures. etc) 4. to give greater weight to the service-based benchmark which focuses on providing a range of quality library services consistent with the needs of the community. The discrepancy generated by the two methodologies is not an error and in reality provide some flexibility for the determination of the floor space required for a proposed library building.gov. volumes. Collection area. (catalogues. More detailed information on mobile libraries is available in the International Federation of Library Associations’ Mobile Library Guidelines (Pestell. staff work room.4. It is important to note that mobile libraries are not taken into account when assessing the catchment area of a public library building. tables and chairs) 3. 3 SECTION The model of one central library with several branch libraries is used as the traditional service structure for many public libraries throughout NSW.com. (meeting areas. study carrels. (books. Staff areas. However. Reading and study areas. borrowing.that library space needs are based on a level of service provision requiring a range of materials and functional areas necessary to serve the community adequately. 58 sq m) would need to be available for reading/study area. Service-Based Benchmark This method is used to determine the required size of the library based on the future collection size of the library and the type and range of services and core functions that the proposed library building will incorporate. The six areas are as follows: 1.

5. 4. or gross floor area. Equally. it is important to determine the proportion of the projected collection in the library at one time. which can be modified according to the library’s rate of acquisitions and discards. reference holdings) will be affected substantially while other parts will be affected less dramatically. The Target Collection Factor (TCF) and the Relative Area Factor (RAF) are multiplied together to produce the actual size. Comparative statistics and published data can be used to suggest a minimum collection size.au/pls/policies/build/docs/ benchmarks. and needs. expressed more simply as: GFA = TCF x RAF  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . (toilets. The Gross Floor Area (GFA) is the Target Collection Factor (TCF) multiplied by the Relative Area Factor (RAF). 3. (storytelling. some libraries anticipate that digital resources and the technology required to access these resources will slow the rate of growth in traditional collections or even reduce the quantities that will be needed in those traditional collections. It is important that the projected collection size (Target Collection Factor -TCF) takes account of future population and likely service requirements. The key to this step is an understanding of local needs. while the remainder is on loan. The figures used in the tables below assume an aisle width between shelves of 1500 mm and that each shelf unit is 4 shelves high. As with the projection of the library’s service population. For simplicity. The library’s service emphases may also have an effect on collection size. it is most effective to make these projections over a 10 year period based on an understanding of the community’s library service patterns. Other libraries anticipate little effect. A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates the service-based benchmark based on the data you provide for your library building project is available at www. Many libraries allow for only 65-75% of the projected collection to be on the shelf at one time and each library service should assess its own future needs. Still others anticipate that some parts of the collection (periodicals. family history. the functional areas (2. Service-Based Benchmark Calculations Section 7. multipurpose rooms. of the library. Additional service areas.nsw.gov. priorities. The functional areas for each service are based on studies of existing libraries and architectural ‘circulation’ standards and assume a recommended minimum service provision plus optional additional service areas. etc) 6. maintenance areas. For instance. store rooms. Amenities and storage areas. & 6 in the types of library spaces) are all based on a percentage of the projected collection size (Target Collection Factor -TCF) and together are called the Relative Area Factor (RAF).3 SECTION 5.sl. etc) The benchmark uses the overall size of the collection area as a base which is considered to have a direct impact on the areas required for the other library services.4 provides additional information on the methodology used to derive this benchmark. Each library will also need to assess the impact of the growing availability of information by way of virtual and digital resources and the technology required to access them.xls.

e. amenities or meeting rooms may also be accommodated elsewhere. Ensure that the collection size will accommodate future trends and changes in service requirements and that an allowance is made for material out on loan. The core minimum Relative Area Factor (RAF) for most libraries will be 200% (i. Refer to Section 4. Your assessment may vary. and you can use your own estimates. Calculating the Target Collection Factor Area Books on shelves (number of volumes) Periodicals (number of titles) Non-print material (tapes. In our examples we have assumed that between 30% and 35% of the collection is on loan at any given time. In an extended or co-located library facility some functions such as foyer. Add these figures together to get the Target Collection Factor (TCF). P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . By adding these additional figures together you will get the Total Relative Area Factor (RAF). of Items Less % on Loan Space Standard Your Calculation 3 SECTION 100 books per 1 sq m 10 titles per 1 sq m 100 recordings per 1 sq m 1 terminal to 5 sq m Target Collection Factor – TCF Step 2 Refer to the table below showing Functional Areas and delete the areas of services that are not to be provided in your library. and that 65% to 70% will be on the shelves. There may also be additional services or functions provided in the library not in this list in which case a comparative assessment should be made.7 for guidance on projected collection size. CD-ROM’s. the process outlined above involves the following steps. DVD’s etc) Virtual and digital resources (number of public terminals) Total No. CD’s videos.In brief. the storage areas in Optional Additional Service Areas should be added to the areas allowed for these additional services as they are not factored into Staff Areas storage in part 4 of the table. the total of the five associated functional areas are equal to the Target Collection Factor area). It should be noted that in the table below. calculate the space requirement for each part of the collection and add them together. Step 1 To determine the size of the collection to be accommodated in the library. display.

3 SECTION Functional Area 1. Reading and Study Areas Meeting Areas Study Areas Browsing. AV Room Bookshop. Display. Lobby. etc Vending machines. Amenities Foyer. Bank Services Storage Area for Archival Materials/ Conservation Mobile Library Services Area Central or Regional Work Area Central or Regional Community Offices Other (add your own assessment) Total Relative Area Factor (i. photocopiers. Local and Family History Multipurpose. telephones 4. etc Plant equipment. Resource Areas Catalogues. restrooms. Staff Areas Service Desk Staff Work Area Storage 5.e Core RAF plus optional areas) 5-10% 5-10% 5-10% 10-15% 20-25% 10-15% 10-20% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Total Relative Area Factor – RAF  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Coffee Shop Toy library Community Services. maintenance Quick Area Guide Base Area 100% Your Calculation 10% 15% 5% 10% 5% 15% 15% 5% 10% 5% 5% Core Relative Area Factor 200% 6. corridors. Information 3. Optional Additional Service Areas Children’s Storytelling Area Young Adult Area Specialist Genre Collection Area Specialist Room. etc Toilets. storage. Collection Area Books and volumes on shelves Periodicals Non-print material Virtual and digital resources 2. Training.

7) + (150/10) + (1.500 people.800/100) + (5 x 5) = 238 + 15 + 18 + 25 = 296 = 240% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% + Children’s Area 10% + Multipurpose Room 25% + Mobile Service Area 5%) = 296 x 240% = 710 3 SECTION RAF GFA Therefore this benchmark allows for a branch library with a gross floor area of 710 sq m 2. 5. The result is the total Gross Floor Area for the library.000 books with 65% on shelf. Projected collection of 84. Branch Library with a projected catchment of 15.500 recordings and 16 public access computer terminals.000/100 x 0.Step 3 Multiply the Target Collection Factor (TCF) by the Total Relative Area Factor (RAF). The following examples apply the service-based benchmark methodology to four different library building projects.000 residents in the entire LGA.000/100 x 0.65) + (250/10) + (5. Central library with 29. Projected Collection: 34.000 books with 70% on shelf. Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF) TCF = (84.000 projected residents in its local catchment. a projected non resident workforce of 1000 people and a projected 50. Examples 1. Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF) TCF = (34. 1. 250 periodicals.500/100) + (16 x 5) = 546 + 25 + 55 + 80 = 706 = 270% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% + Children’s Area 10% + Youth Area 10% + AV Area 20% + Family History 15% + Mobile 5% + Regional Areas 10%) = 706 x 270% = 1906 RAF GFA Therefore this benchmark allows for a central library with a gross floor area of 1906 sq m P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . 150 periodicals.800 recordings and 5 public access computer terminals.

Projected collection of 96. Area/District library with 43.7) + (450/10) + (3. Expansion of an existing Central Library to meet the needs of a future local population of 33. 300 periodicals.000 recordings and 30 public access computers for each Area/District library.000 people and a regional population of 46.000. Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF) TCF = (105.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .000 projected residents in its local catchment and 160.000/100 x 0.000/100) + (30 x 5) = 735 + 30 + 40 + 150 =955 = 235% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource/staff/amenities 100% + Children’s Area 5% + Central Work Area 5% + Central Offices 5% + Multipurpose Room 20%) = 955 x 235% = 2244 RAF GFA Therefore this benchmark allows for an Area/District library with a gross floor area of 2244 sq m 4.000/100 x 0. The central library functions are split equally between four area/district libraries.000 projected residents in the entire region.000 recordings and 15 public access computers.000/100) + (15 x 5) = 672 + 45 + 30 + 75 = 822 = 225% (Collection 100% + Reading/resource areas/staff area/ amenities 100% + Audiovisual Room 20 % + Children’s Area 5%) = 822 x 225% = 1850 = 1850 minus 770 (existing floor area) RAF GFA GFA of Extension = 1080 sq m Therefore the benchmark allows for a library extension with a gross floor area of 1080 sq m and total library gross floor area of 1850 sq m.000 books with 70% on shelf.3 SECTION 3.7) + (300/10) + (4. 3. 450 periodicals. Gross Floor Area (GFA) = Target Collection Factor (TCF) X Relative Area Factor (RAF) TCF = (96. Projected collection of 105. 4. The existing Central Library has a GFA of 770 sq m.000 books with 70% on shelf.

Many of these employees may not be residents of the LGA and therefore not accounted for in the resident population data.2 Where GFA = Gross floor area LAF = Local Area Factor which is the projected local resident and non resident workforce served. a library located in a major city centre or commercial area is likely to be used by employees working in the area. These projections should be sourced through the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The Gross Floor Area (GFA) is calculated by adding the Local Area Factor (LAF) and the Central Area Factor (CAF). A building benchmark spreadsheet which automatically calculates the population-based benchmark based on the data you provide for your library building project is available at www. Information is also required on the distribution of the population and the number of people who are served by each library service point. expressed more simply as: GFA = (LAF + CAF) x 1. Future population projections over a 10 year period are particularly important to ensure that the library building project meets the future needs of the community. For example.Population-based Benchmark The population-based benchmark assumes that users primarily use their closest library and this defines the library catchment.gov. Both data sets are derived from information collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as part of the Population and Housing Census (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001).5 provides detailed information on the methodology used to develop this benchmark. Section 7.sl. you need the current and future population data for your community.5 provides additional information on the methodology used to derive this benchmark. divided by 1000 and multiplied by the building area factor shown in the table overleaf 3 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .nsw. To apply the benchmark. and adding 20% for circulation and services space. Population-Based Benchmark Calculations Section 7. To calculate the area of a library using this benchmark the calculation has to include an area component for the Local Area served and a component for its function as a Central library where applicable. Consideration should also be given to the future size and distribution of the non resident workforce and its projected use of library facilities. annual population estimates and future population projections at 5 yearly intervals.au/pls/policies/build/docs/ benchmarks. This benchmark is based on the size of the future population who are likely to use/ or have access to a new/expanded library. This includes accurate population statistics from the most recent Population and Housing Census. This information may be available in Council’s Social Plan. strategy documents available from Council’s Environmental Planning unit and/or the NSW Department of Planning.xls. Information may also be available from Journey to Work data held by the NSW Department of Transport’s Transport Data Centre and the Australian Bureau of Statistics Working Population Profile.

2 = building circulation/services allowance of 20% Building Area Factors Projected Population Served Less than 10. A central library.000 20.000 Net Building Area Factor per 1000 population 42 sq m 42 sq m 39 sq m 35 sq m 31 sq m 28 sq m * In communities where the projected population is less than 2.000 More than 100.001 – 20. divided by 1000 and multiplied by the building area factor shown in the table below 1. To determine the Gross Floor Area  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . that is its own local catchment. the LGA or regional population.3 SECTION CAF = Central Area Factor is 15% of the product of the projected LGA or regional population. which typically provides the main library service for an LGA or region. a Local Area Factor (LAF) and Central Area Factor (CAF) are determined as outlined below: Step 1 Calculate the projected population (including the non resident workforce where it is considered to have a significant impact on library services) for the central library.750 persons. use the recommended minimum size for a public library of 139 sq m gross.001 – 65.000 65.001 – 100. Step 3 A central library also requires additional floorspace for central library functions (Central Area Factor or CAF). Step 4 Using this population figure.000 35.001 – 35. multiply the relevant building area factor (as shown in the table above) by the population divided by 1000.000* 10. i. This is the Local Area Factor for a central library or LAF. To calculate the gross floor area of a central library using the population-based benchmark. multiply the relevant building area factor (as shown in the table above) by the population divided by 1000. Step 2 Based on the population above. To determine this. calculate the projected total population for the central library’s total catchment area. a total net floor area for the central library is determined. In communities where the population is declining use the existing population served. Step 5 By adding together the Local Area Factor (LAF) and Central Area Factor (CAF). The Central Area Factor or CAF is 15% of this calculation.e. requires additional area for its large collection and range of specialist services.

For example.000 people and 50.e. area/district library and library extension are provided below. If determining the size of an extension only to an existing building.500 people Gross Floor Area Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1. Four examples of calculations for a central library.2 = 1433 x 1. Therefore.000/1000 x 35 x 0.1. calculate 20% of the net floor area as a building circulation allowance and add this to the net floor area. Follow the same steps as outlined above excluding Steps 3. only the Local Area Factor (LAF) is required. a projected non resident workforce of 1.2 = [(15.000 projected residents in the entire LGA i.2 = [(30. Therefore include Steps 1 through to 5 but in Step 4.2 = 1720 Therefore the benchmark allows for a central library with a gross floor area of 1720 sq m P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .500/1000 x 42) + (no central area factor)] x 1. Therefore. Examples 1.(GFA). The method outlined above can also be used to determine the size of a branch or area/district library. Central library with 29. branch library. use this benchmark as a guide only and in conjunction with other tools outlined in Section 3.15)] x 1.2 = 781 Therefore the benchmark allows for a branch library with a gross floor area of 781 sq m 2. if the existing library has toilets and amenities that will be retained to service the new extension. the calculation will be GFA = (LAF + CAF) x 1. For example. 4 area/district libraries will each require 25% of CAF.2 = (1170 + 263) x 1.2 = (15. its total service area Gross Floor Area Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.15)] x 1.5 x 42) x 1.2 = 651 x 1. A branch library typically services a smaller population catchment than its central library and does not have the specialist services provided by the central library. 3 SECTION An area/district library is typically a combination of both central and branch library functions and may require all or a proportion of the Central Area Factor (CAF) to be added to the calculation. determine how much of CAF is distributed to each library.000 projected residents in its local catchment. this building circulation allowance may be less than 20%. Remember. an allowance of only 10% may be allowed. Branch Library with a projected catchment of 15.000/1000 x 39) + (50.2 = [(30 x 39) + (50 x 35 x 0. 4 and 5. Seek specialist advice to determine the building circulation allowance where an extension is involved.

e.25)] x 1.1] .3 SECTION 3. Gross Floor Area Gross Floor Area = (Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1. the building circulation allowance has been reduced to 10%.000.2 = [(43 x 35) + (160 x 28 x 0.000/1000 x 28 x 0.15) x1.1] – 770 = [(1287 + 242) x 1.15 x 0.000/1000 x 35) + (160. The existing Central Library has a GFA of 770 sq m.770 = 912 Therefore the benchmark allows for a library extension with a gross floor area of 912 sq m and total library gross floor area of 1682 sq m.15 x 0. Gross Floor Area = [(Local Area Factor or LAF + Central Area Factor or CAF) x 1.25)] x 1.000/1000 x 39) + (46. its total service area. Area/District library with 43.000 people and a projected regional population of 46.2 = [(43. The central library functions are split equally between four area libraries. 0 | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .2 = 1673 x 1.000 projected residents in the entire region i.2 = (1505 + 168) x 1. foyer and other amenities are well-located and will be maintained to service the new extension.000/1000 x 35 x 0. As the existing toilets.2 = 2008 Therefore the benchmark allows for an area library with a gross floor area of 2008 sq m 4. Expansion of an existing Central Library to meet the needs of a future local population of 33.770 = 1682 .1] – Existing Gross Floor Area Gross Floor Area = [(33.000 projected residents in its local catchment and 160.

How much of this 168 sq m will be part of the Library’s benchmarked 1906 sq m? Library floor area as a percentage of total floor area of proposed facility = 1906/ (1906 + 750) x 100 = 1906/2656 x 100 = 72% Library portion of shared spaces = 0. toilets and plant) have a gross floor area of 168 sq m. co-located with the library. Then apply this percentage to the shared space – the resulting floor area can be counted as part of the library. meeting spaces. such as foyers. is a Council art gallery with a gross floor area of 750 sq m. will vary from one situation to another. first work out the total library floor area (the benchmarked area.Example of Determining the Size of a New Co-Located Library With co-located libraries. To calculate the library’s share. plant rooms and toilets. including potentially shared areas. including any potentially shared areas) as a percentage of the total floor area of the combined facility. In the same building. In this example the proposed shared areas (foyer. Let’s assume we are planning a library with a benchmarked gross floor area of 1906 sq m. also including potentially shared areas. shared areas. The following example shows how this works.72 x 168 = 121 sq m 3 SECTION Library components Benchmarked floor area for Library Library portion of shared spaces Library excluding shared spaces 1906 sq m 121 sq m 1785 sq m P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .

This will ensure appropriate and satisfying outcomes for all involved. Information Technology and Community Services. Initial work should focus on the role of the working group and the issues to be addressed. In some cases initial working groups involved in the planning of a library project may become smaller project management groups when the library project is actually being built.4 SECTION Process: Getting the Right Players Involved 4. Planning in isolation without incorporating the views and opportunities identified by other stakeholders will not provide the more successful outcomes evident in collaboratively developed projects. The formation of a working group also ensures that the Library Development Plan is incorporated into a range of Council’s strategic and management plans. financing of the development must be considered. The working group may need to change over the life of the project with different stakeholders involved as the process proceeds. Whether the service is to be located in a new. When considering the provision of library services or preparing a Library Development Plan (see Section 3.3 Funding Opportunities Like all public buildings. the cost and ability to fund the construction and operation of a new/ extended public library is one of the main concerns of local government. 4. Planning. may also be developed through this framework.2. providing an integrated and co-ordinated approach. extended or refurbished building.2 Setting up a Working Group A working group is an established organisational framework used by local government to work collaboratively on specific issues. A Project Manager may also be appointed to deal with the day to day issues and to liaise between the builder and architect.1 Collaborative Planning As outlined in Sections 3. Getting the right stakeholders involved and addressing the issues that need to be considered will ensure the success of your project. Engineering. Opportunities for strategic alliances with other sections of Council.2). the Library Manager and key library staff. 4. People Places recommends a collaborative planning process which involves all stakeholders in determining how to prepare an overall development plan for library services. The following Sections provide information on the collaborative planning process and what issues should be addressed prior to determining the detailed design of any library building project. a working group should be formed to address the various issues involved and advise Council on actions to be taken. particularly related to technology and finance. officers from Finance. including professional fees  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Consideration should be given to the following cost components of a library development project (see also Section 6): • Land • Building costs whether construction or refurbishment. involvement of all stakeholders in the planning process is essential. Council Directors. Based on feedback from the consultation process used for People Places.1 and 3. and community representatives. Very often working groups may include Councillors. This working group should comprise stakeholders who can contribute constructively to the process and provide a range of specialist advice.

Recent changes to the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 also enable funds to be collected for facilities to be shared between adjoining local government areas. Section 4. Most require a contribution from Council as part of the project and typically focus on capital expenditure P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Technical and Further Education services may be interested in pooling funds with Council for a joint library service for TAFE students and the broader community.• • • • • • • Fitout including equipment. shelving. etc Removal of collection. Very often buildings may be shared but with separate areas for each service. For example. furniture and equipment Temporary relocation of library service for extensions or rebuild on existing site Site costs including engineering works and utilities Car parking and landscaping Operational costs including short and long term maintenance Staffing 4 SECTION In practice. The requirements for these programs often change and it is important to constantly review the funding sources available. • Co-located Libraries: to provide flexibility and improved user access. For any of these options it is important to ensure that the quality of service provided is not diminished or threatened and that there are benefits/improvements for the provider and user. Many other State and Federal government agencies also operate grant schemes which provide funding for specific projects. many public libraries are co-locating with other Council services such as community centres. furniture.1). arts centres. youth facilities and one stop shop services. Other examples may share the site only or be located on adjacent sites.4 outlines more fully the issues to be addressed in co-located projects. • Grant Programs: the Library Council of New South Wales annually administers the Library Development Grants program (see Section 7. Contributions are reliant on adoption of a Section 94 Contributions Plan for the area experiencing growth and you need to work closely with the Environmental Planning section to ensure that library provision is considered in this plan. The types of co-located libraries vary enormously and the opportunity exists for very innovative and successful projects. • Joint-use libraries: this approach involves the development of a shared public library service between two or more distinct service providers with funding provided by both local government and the other service provider. there are many sources available to fund a library development project with local government developing many interesting funding models. funding is being sourced from different authorities and the development of detailed agreements on the joint use library service must be undertaken. In both cases. These include: • Section 94 Contributions and Planning Agreements: Local government areas experiencing significant population change as a result of new development are able to require contributions from developers towards the cost of providing community facilities such as libraries. Funds from this program have been used to assist in the development of many new/refurbished library buildings throughout New South Wales. providing central access for users to a range of services.

Examples of this type of approach include land swaps for more appropriate property. community arts and cultural development. lease of redundant buildings. etc. technology and specialist staff. When considering any of these approaches it is important to have specialist advice and the working group framework will facilitate the investigation of various funding options (see Section 4. These models typically provide a “community hub” or “community precinct” acting as a strong focal point for community activities and identity. Information on grant schemes is available from the web sites of individual government departments and the State Library of New South Wales. services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. refurbishing existing Council or non Council buildings. 4.4 Co-location and Joint Use Prior to determining the need for and size of a library development project. sale of Council operational assets to fund a new library. These funding programs may provide funding opportunities for multi function buildings.3. These and many other funding approaches have been used to fund library development projects. In NSW. community arts centres. co-location and joint use developments with public libraries have included the following uses: • Art galleries. it is essential to consider the opportunities provided through new and innovative service models such as co-location and joint use. As outlined in Section 4. and services in remote communities. • Commercial Development Opportunities: local government has the capacity to utilise its resources for community benefit. development of commercial spaces for lease as part of the library project. specialist equipment for people with a disability. these models provide a new approach to the funding of public library developments while also facilitating opportunities to add value to any proposal. The approach is extensively used in Australia and overseas and has recently been supported by the NSW Parliament Legislative Assembly (2004) Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings.4 SECTION or short term consultancy/contract staff projects.2). theatres and exhibition areas • Community centres • Community Technology Centres (CTCs) • Libraries for Technical and Further Education (TAFE) • University access centres • Police stations • Community health centres • Home and community care centres • Rural fire service • State emergency services • Early childhood health centres • Post offices • Museums • Recreation and leisure centres  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . This may involve utilising existing resources more effectively or in a more commercial manner to achieve financial returns.

i. Potential benefits of all models include: • Sharing of resources such as staff. In considering any co-located or joint use library however. co-located libraries have been developed with other government services such as community health centres. Co-located libraries typically bring together other Councilrelated services such as the Council Chambers/offices. e. More recently. specialist expertise in technology together with equipment • Reducing worker isolation and encouraging more co-ordinated service delivery. • Meet the individual performance standards required by the governing bodies and 4 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . space and equipment • Encouraging wider public use by providing access to a range of services at one facility. The following objectives have been developed to guide library development projects considering co-location and joint use. these strategies may not be sufficient to support the project. the one stop shop concept • Improving the cost effectiveness of the service provided while also enhancing service quality • Reducing duplication of resources • Rationalisation of property portfolios • Providing specialist facilities and services.g. There are many examples in NSW of co-located libraries.• Shopping centres • Public school libraries • Council administration centres The differences between these models are outlined below: • Co-located libraries are defined as multiple buildings and/or services provided on one site or on separate adjacent sites. arts centres. employment services or community technology centres. The service is shared with pooled funding provided by both agencies to cover the capital and recurrent costs of the service. a joint use library may be developed between a local government authority and the NSW Department of Education and Training for a library serving both high school students and the broader community. • Joint-use libraries are defined as libraries where two or more distinct library service providers serve their client group in the same building. There are few examples of joint-use libraries in NSW. in separate buildings or a combination of both. They may be located in one building. home and community care centres. The objective of any co-located or joint use library is to: • Provide an integrated and improved level of service. both collectively and as individual services. Strategies to overcome these disadvantages may be developed but. the governance of which is cooperatively arranged between the separate authorities. the potential disadvantages also need to be addressed. For example. The library service however is only funded by local government and operates as a separate service. youth facilities and/or one stop shop services. community centres. in some cases. than would occur through stand alone facilities.e. They are based on consultation with stakeholders involved in existing projects and also reflect the NSW Parliament Legislative Assembly (2004) Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings and a submission by the State Library of New South Wales to this inquiry.

or be working towards. cleaning and security. developing common goals and be willing to make financial and operational commitments to achieve these goals. Where a facility is to be shared with other users soundproofing and acoustics are very important. with problems in design and management rendering a project inoperable. This may impact on the facility design. Without this commitment. car parking. Other factors to be considered are: • Motivation: those involved in such a project must be willing partners committed to working in partnership. • Common Design and Management Goals: it is important for all services to agree on the design and management options for the project. Protocols for implementing these responsibilities also need to be identified together with  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . This should include both capital and recurrent costs where appropriate. co-operation and sharing throughout the life of the project. separate local area networks will be required to ensure that confidential data cannot be accessed through a shared system. a licensed child care centre cannot share space with other services. negotiations can be meaningless and time. If the project involves leasing space to a commercial café. outdoor play area. Common goals.4 SECTION authorities involved. due to NSW Childcare Regulations 2004. Equally. kitchen and toilet amenities must be totally independent. If the opportunity exists to develop a co-located or joint use library the following elements should be addressed: • Consultation with key stakeholders in the planning process – it is essential that the key agencies involved in any co-located or joint use library are involved in the siting and design process for the project. joint school/community libraries have found it difficult to attract adult users. For example. the improved service outcomes may be of greater importance to all those involved. However. this is where many projects have failed. some facilities which involve older residents and youth sharing space have experienced problems. It is essential that co-location and jointuse libraries are not based on potential financial benefits only. • Facility management – an agreement must be prepared detailing the responsibilities of each service/organisation including building maintenance. The sharing of common goals is possibly one of the most critical factors in ensuring a successful project. • Service Compatibility: the image. The project should not result in any users feeling that the new project is uncomfortable or undesirable. Discussions on management arrangements should also be formally agreed to at this stage as this may impact on the site requirements and/or building design. All services should have. and • Where possible. operating structure and users of the services involved need to be compatible.consuming. • Financial Implications: all services must fully understand their financial obligations towards the project. In practice. It may become evident during the negotiations that the project may not deliver major financial savings when compared to a stand alone facility. Each service needs to be fully aware of its management responsibilities and that the staff involved are committed to these agreements. The entry to the centre. For example. This may be time-consuming but it is essential to have written agreements to cover each aspect of the project. when planning computer technology requirements for a co-located library. Equally. development of joint management arrangements and significant benefits evident to all services are essential components of a viable project. bookshop or other private use information from commercial retailers/leasing agents on viability and design implications should be sought. provide a more economic use of services and resources.

promotional material. In addition. with many councils actively involved in improving the information available both 4 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Council’s Property officers and/or an appointed project manager would typically be responsible for these arrangements and should be involved in the project planning. website and advertising can be delivered through a joint project.processes for dispute resolution. As outlined in Section 2. a memorandum of understanding to confirm how the co-located or joint use facility and/or site will operate should be prepared including procedures and responsibilities for termination of any services. staffing and programming need to be determined. • Marketing – importantly. Equally. it is important in the initial planning of a library building project to identify how technology is likely to be used. the facility/site should be viewed as a “one-stop shop” and can be marketed in this manner. • Construction agreement – this will be required primarily where non Council services are involved in the project. To meet this challenge. The board/committee should meet regularly to discuss the management and operation of the facility. Developing a Technology Plan is recommended as an appropriate tool to ensure that the technological needs of our future libraries will be met at the local level. Council’s Property officers typically are responsible for these arrangements and should be involved in the project planning. you should discuss the potential benefits and disadvantages with other libraries that have developed similar projects. Information technology is very important to local government.5 Developing a Local Technology Plan The pace of changing technology is being felt in public libraries in New South Wales. In preparing either an overall or Local Technology Plan. etc. Issues such as hours of operation. it is important to include relevant stakeholders in the development process. who is responsible for locking the building. This can then be used as input into the design brief (see Section 5.2.5 Developing a Brief). The aim is to provide a coordinated service which may require new staff agreements and/or changed work programs. e. To the community. these projects provide an opportunity for joint marketing and promotion. signage. function and management can be directly attributed to new technologies and this is likely to increase at an even more rapid rate in the future. This Plan would then link to an individual Local Technology Plan for each public library facility or service point.4. 4. Changes in library design. An overall Technology Plan should be prepared at an LGA or regional level as a strategy document for the integrated development of technology services in public libraries. You may also contact the State Library of New South Wales for information about other projects. the issue for public library buildings is really not what is going to change but how can these changes be accommodated over the long term. • Facility operation – a joint mission statement is required to confirm agreement between services about the role and function of the facility and the services provided. information days. This agreement should also include the establishment of a board/committee of management comprising representatives from each user group. who to ring for building maintenance. Combined open days. Council’s Environmental Planning section should be consulted regarding potential statutory zoning issues and the development approval process. When considering any co-located or joint use library service.g.

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in-house and to the public via computer technology and online services. The need to involve library staff and other Council staff, particularly officers responsible for Council’s Information Technology, is imperative. Analysis of the need for public access computers in the Local Technology Plan can be based on the needs assessment approach outlined in Section 3.3. Information on the use of computers at home and the Internet within the local area, the LGA and other comparative communities is available in the Census of Population and Housing (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001). Information on existing computer use in public libraries is also available from the Public Library Statistics, State Library of New South Wales. Councils may also have data on use of online materials, non loans visits and email requests for library assistance. Analysis of this data and the trends reflected can be used to inform the Local Technology Plan. The following checklist provides direction for developing a Local Technology Plan but the needs and issues for each community will be different. Obviously, an overall Technology Plan deals with many broader issues and goals and will be more complex. A Local Technology Plan must be linked to the overall plan but looks at technology provision that relates to the actual design and function of a library building. A Technology Plan for a Central Library is likely to be more complex than that for a Branch or Area Library. All plans should have short and long term goals and be linked to appropriate levels of capital and recurrent funding, i.e. acquisition of computers, staff to run computer courses and develop online services, etc. Opportunities exist to gain funding for technology through other government resourcing programs, partnerships with other agencies, etc. Some libraries have developed their technology services by using opportunities available outside the traditional library funding sources. For example, Community Technology Centres (CTCs) and universities have co-located additional computer resources with public libraries. To ensure that public libraries provide public and staff access to the most up-to-date technology, allowances should also be made for the constant upgrading of equipment. The Local Technology Plan will have significant implications for library layout and design. Traditional customer flows in particular will change as a result of the introduction of more technology to public libraries. The provision of self-checking equipment will significantly reduce the amount of traffic at the circulation desk while dispersed OPACs may reduce the area traditionally required for information. Many libraries are also providing quick access Internet computers for people who want limited access online information. Often these are provided at standing-only work stations. Online resources such as journals and newspapers may reduce the amount of space traditionally required to store these materials while staff may also be freed up from traditional activities behind the circulation desk to be out in the library addressing user needs and/or resourcing online requests. As a result, staff work space is likely to be reallocated to other areas and the potential for “hot-desking” (where different staff temporarily use the same work space) is already evident in the public areas of several libraries. 

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Checklist for a Local Technology Plan • Computerised and online library systems: for circulation including scanners/printers and self-checking equipment for borrowing; acquisitions; and cataloguing including Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) terminals. • Computerised and online Community Information Systems: for community information, Council meeting minutes and other Council public information • Terminal work stations for staff: provision is often based on one dedicated work station per full-time staff member • Public access computers: all public libraries should provide a minimum of one personal computer for public access to the Internet per 3,000 residents or part thereof. Many public libraries in NSW already achieve this level of provision with the existing provision rate for NSW at one per 4,000 residents. The recommended standard allows for the expected continuing growth in computer and Internet usage. Where the library serves less than 20,000 residents, at least three personal computers with Internet access are required. Additional public access computers should be provided with current software, linked printing facility, scanner and associated equipment. Consideration may be given to providing public access computers for computer games particularly in the children’s and/or youth areas. Increases in provision should be incorporated into the Technology Plan based on this guideline, community needs and the range of services to be provided by the library, such as public Internet courses, services for a large student population and local business developments. Appropriate furniture and equipment to access all technology resources within the new library should be provided for all users, particularly for people with a disability. • Telephone system: capacity to deal with a number of different lines, cordless and headset options and other new facilities. • Provision for personal laptops and wireless technology: provision should be made for the public to use their own personal computers in the library. Ports for laptops should be provided throughout the library together with provision for wireless technology. • Security systems: which interface with the library management system, e.g. radio frequency identification technology (RFID) • Fax machine and scanner: for both staff and public use • Photocopier: colour and black/white copiers • Audiovisual equipment: CD player, DVD player, overhead projector and other resource equipment should be provided based on the needs of community and services to be provided 4.6 Staffing Requirements

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When planning for a new/extended library building, provision should be made for staffing requirements based on the new library design. Research highlights the importance of welltrained staff in a library and the high value placed on this service component by users. In addition to qualified librarians, library technicians and assistants, specialist library staff may also be required to meet the service needs identified in Section 3 Needs:Planning for Your Community. The number of service points within a new library building has a direct impact on staffing requirements. This should be a major consideration when designing the internal layout of a new library building. If a new library building is being planned, you should determine the required staff numbers and

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skills mix based on: • Internal layout and function of the building • Existing levels of provision in the community • Potential of a joint venture project to increase non library staff within a building and thereby reduce worker isolation and increase personal safety • Comparison with similar new library projects in other communities • Guidelines provided in Towards a quality service (Australian Library and Information Association, 1990) The consideration of staffing needs is essential and one of the criteria used to assess Library Development Grant applications. 4.7 Library Collection Plan An equally important component of a library development project is the provision of an improved library collection. As outlined in Section 3 Needs; Planning for Your Community, the service provided by a public library is the most critical for users. This means the size and quality of the collection available and the provision of well-trained staff to ensure that these resources are accessible and useful. The library building is merely the service model through which service delivery occurs. Therefore, it is essential that plans be made to upgrade the library collection as part of a new building project. The community will expect something new and different. In some cases, an expanded collection will be required if you are adding a new library to the existing number of service points in the community. Where a new project replaces an existing facility this may mean increasing the collection slightly. Statistical indicators such as the number of library resources per head of population may be used to determine how many new resources need to be added. Recent acquisition costs per item will translate this information into a budget item for your library development project. Opportunities also exist to provide specific areas for special genre collections. For example, the new library may have a specific area for gardening with the book and audiovisual collection located in one area with comfortable chairs, tables and display cabinets. Equally, a community language collection may also be located around tables for group learning and information boards. It is important to remember that the library collection not only includes books, but an onsite and off-site electronic collection, audiovisual materials, magazines, periodicals and other resources. 

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4.8 Library Fitout

Library fitout is equally important and will be a major component of any library budget. Experience suggests that library furniture and equipment should be attractive, comfortable, robust and durable with limited maintenance requirements. The following checklist outlines some of the items that may be costed in the fitout of a new/extended library: • Shelving for different book collections • Specialist shelving for audio visual materials, magazines and periodicals • Study carrels, group tables and chairs • Lounges and comfortable chairs for the browsing area • Specific furniture for the children’s and youth areas • Specific furniture for specialist genre collections, e.g. study tables for business collection • Specialist storage and conservation resources for archival material • Craft and activity tables • Computer hardware and software • Workstations and office furniture • Signage • Circulation desk, including self-service checkouts • Information and other service desks • Public art • Fire-resistant book return chute • Audiovisual equipment • Meeting room equipment, i.e. tables, chairs, whiteboard, kitchen equipment • Staff amenities equipment • Security system • Photocopiers, fax machine and other resource equipment • Carpet/floor covering • Window treatment, i.e. blinds, curtains, etc • Telephones • Compact shelving and other storage facilities • Change machine • Noticeboards • Display cabinets • Trolleys • Lockers

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It is important for the architect’s budget to include not only the total cost of the library building but also all built-in fittings and furniture. The Library’s budget must therefore make provision for all these items, which could account for 10% of the total cost of the library project. However, it is normal practice for the librarian to prepare a full list of all these requirements at the building design stage so that the architect can be consulted on furniture design and an agreed list of items budgeted by the local authority.

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location” applies equally to public libraries as with any activity that needs to be accessible to a broad range of users. children and parents with prams • Walking distance from public transport which is typically 400-500 metres with minimal gradient • Access to convenient and safe car parking with priority for people with a disability. From this base. parents with prams. several sites may be chosen and assessed in terms of their suitability. The process of siting a new/extended public library needs to address key criteria which are essential to the successful location of a public library. location of schools and higher education facilities. as a minimum. Site Criteria for a Public Library • Main street or shopping area location • Highly visible location particularly from the shopping area • Street frontage with library on ground floor and not hidden from the road by trees or another building • High level of personal and property safety as outlined in Safer by Design requirements (see Section 5. issues of resident and non resident characteristics. local councils are now looking at the value of retaining major public infrastructure to attract shoppers and visitors in City Centres. location in a main shopping area and potential for expansion remaining as relevant today as they were in the late 1800’s. • Accessible for community buses. private developers are often interested in accommodating a public library in a new shopping centre development as it attracts large volumes of visitors who may also shop after visiting the library. older residents.5 SECTION Planning: Upfront Planning is the Key 5. location. the general location of a new/extended library is very much based on the needs of the community. Equally. However. particularly for older residents. mobile libraries. Following this analysis. population growth projections. all of the following 12 locational criteria be considered in determining the most appropriate site for a public library. a broad area or suburb will be identified in which a new/expanded library is required. In many communities. A detailed methodology is presented in Section 3 and should be read in conjunction with this Section. staff and night-time users. shopping and recreation patterns. and future developments are some of the factors that may be considered as part of this analysis. transport patterns.1 Choosing a Site for a Public Library That old real estate adage “location. A needs assessment should be undertaken to determine where the new/extended library is required and what type of services will meet the community needs.2) • Fully accessible for people with limited mobility • Close to and/or accessible from local schools and educational facilities • Potential for an outdoor area to be attached to the library • Priority pedestrian access which is safe and attractive. deliveries and other vehicles • Site able to accommodate future expansion of the library if required  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . People Places recommends that. As outlined in Section 3 Needs – Planning for Your Community. Christine Koontz’s Library facility siting and location handbook (1997) highlights that little has changed over the years with factors such as high visibility.

Site A. the stakeholders may consider that a location with adequate parking is more important than being located right in the shopping centre. In all cases. 3 for its criteria weighting and 3 for the site score or 3 x 3 = 9). 1 for its criteria weighting and 3 for its site score or 3 x 1 = 3). fictional site locations and a score has been developed as an example of how to use a locational matrix to assist in the site selection process. Using this methodology.e. Research strongly supports that location is a major factor for library users and a well-located library is essential to achieve increased utilisation. Also. 5 SECTION In the table overleaf. • Site A is on a side street in a shopping centre • Site B is located right on the main street • Site C is behind the Council administration building. which has ample on-site parking would receive 9 points (i. located right in the shopping centre. As shown in the following table. within the City’s cultural precinct. as a minimum. As shown in the table below. to engage an independent consultant to undertake an assessment of potential sites. Simply give one point to each site that meets the locational criteria provided above. to address the locational criteria provided in this Guide.g.e. This methodology may not be needed if the locational criteria can be easily applied to the sites available. For example. etc. Poor locations for public libraries can result in public monies being wasted. In this example. parking is given a weighting of 3 points while shopping centre location has a weighting of 1 point.To determine which site is best from a locational viewpoint. making the choice of the most appropriate site a difficult or contentious issue. political processes and other issues may influence the preferred location of a public library. It may be appropriate at this stage. not on flood prone land. You might even decide to weight the criteria yourself between 1 and 3 depending on their importance. would receive 3 points (i. Site B. e. it is essential. a simple or weighted matrix can be used as an evaluation tool. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Ask each stakeholder to give a score of between 1 and 3 for how well each site meets the criteria. a more detailed approach could be used if you want to further distinguish between the sites and/or include the views of other stakeholders. the site with the highest total score is the most suitable for a public library. facilitate the process and prepare reports. You may add other locational criteria which are important to your specific community.

5 SECTION Example of Locational Matrix for Identified Public Library Sites Locational Criteria Main street or shopping centre location Highly visible location Ground floor and street frontage High levels of personal and property safety Fully accessible Accessible from local schools Potential for outdoor space Priority pedestrian access Walk to public transport Convenient and safe parking Accessible for all vehicles Future expansion OVERALL SCORE Weighting (optional) 1 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 Site A 2 (1x2) 3 (3x1) 6 (3x2) 3 (3x1) 6 (3x2) 2 (2x1) 1 (1x1) 6 (3x2) 2 (1x2) 9 (3x3) 3 (3x1) 4 (2x2) 47 Site B 3 (1x3) 9 (3x3) 9 (3x3) 9 (3x3) 9 (3x3) 4 (2x2) 2 (1x2) 9 (3x3) 3 (1x3) 6 (3x2) 3 (3x1) 2 (2x1) 68 Site C 1 (1x1) 6 (3x2) 9 (3x3) 3 (3x1) 9 (3x3) 6 (2x3) 3 (1x3) 3 (3x1) 1 (1x1) 9 (3x3) 9 (3x3) 6 (2x3) 65  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .

the NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning prepared the guidelines Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) to assess the appropriateness of proposed developments to provide a safe. 2001). the suitability of the building as a library can have a substantial impact on the initial capital cost. Issues to consider are: • Provision for mechanical and electrical services in existing buildings particularly those with heritage significance. • Territorial reinforcement – areas that are well-maintained. crime free environment. Private areas need to have well-defined. repair of vandalism and the refurbishment of old equipment/furniture. This equally needs to be applied to communal private areas as outlined earlier. storage areas. • Flexibility. etc. and can have a substantial impact on the future development of the library and future services to be provided. mowing. car park. Prepared in conjunction with the NSW Police.3). It is recommended that these design principles be applied as part of the planning process for the proposed library site (see Section 5. The use of physical barriers (eg fencing. removal of graffiti. locked doors) and symbolic barriers (eg landscaping) are important in access control. Public areas need to clearly define their intended use and encourage community activity.5.3 New Building or Refurbishment The choice of site may also be influenced by the possibility of reusing or adapting an existing building.nsw. street and public places. effective lighting of public places and landscaping which does not provide areas for people to hide or entrap victims. many Councils assess all development applications using these guidelines (NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. Typically public areas need to be overviewed by others with clear sightlines from private to public areas. have a feeling of “ownership” and are well-used reduce opportunities for criminal activity. The prospect of utilising a refurbished building rather than a new facility may at first appear to be a more cost-effective option.1) and library building (see Section 5.police. adaptability and expansion capability for future modifications P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .2 Safer by Design Principles for Sites and Buildings In many communities throughout Australia and indeed overseas. This applies to both public and communal private areas. 5. In response to public concerns. However. garbage collection area.au /community_issues/crime_prevention/safer_by_ design. More information on the specific assessment criteria can be obtained from Council’s Environmental Planning section and at: www. 5 SECTION The “Safer by Design” guidelines have adopted the following design principles: • Surveillance – natural and technical surveillance are important and focus on ensuring that people can see what people are doing. This is equally important for entries to individual apartments and communal resident areas. • Access control – public places need to be clear in their definition of where people can and cannot go and to define private property boundaries. the end costs and running costs.gov. • Space management – areas need to be attractive and well-maintained with regular removal of waste. well-lit entries with safety provisions incorporated into windows/courtyards fronting public area. many people have strongly voiced their concerns regarding perceived and real lack of personal safety in the home. e.g.

Maintenance and running costs Cabling to accommodate local technology plan requirements Floor loading able to hold significant collection weights Access particularly for people with a disability or limited mobility 5. There may be other specific functional areas required in your library building project which have emerged from analysis of the community’s needs and benchmark needs standards (see Section 3 Needs – Planning for your Community). gardening Activity Areas • Children’s activity area • Computer games area • Young adult area • Family history service area • Informal reading and browsing area • Newspaper and periodical area • Study areas including separate group rooms • Theatre/lecture room/auditorium • Outdoor area/courtyard • Public art Technology Areas • OPACs • Public access computers. scanners. televisions for DVDs  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . its size and possible location within the library will vary from building to building depending on the type of services the library provides and the needs of the local community. Community Languages and Indigenous collections) • Large print collection • Children’s collection • Young adult collection • Audiovisual collection • Special genre collection. Each area.g. fax machine and other equipment • Audiovisual areas including listening posts.4 Schedule of Public Library Functional Areas This schedule provides a guide to the type of functional areas that may be included in a public library. business. The following functional areas should be considered when planning and designing a public library building: Collection • Reference collection • Fiction collection • Non fiction collection • Specialist collections (Local Studies. photocopiers. e. computer games.5 SECTION • • • • • Fire upgrades and compliance with the Building Code of Australia.

mobile library service. To facilitate this. Now it is more important than ever to engage a range of specialists to optimise the design of a public library. it is imperative for library staff to be involved in all stages of the planning and brief development and direct liaison should be established between the planning and design teams and library staff. This can be documented or established through focus groups and community meetings (see Section 4). Once established. However. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . It should establish the desired philosophy. the examples of recent public library buildings on the State Library of New South Wales web site (www. At the outset it is important to focus on the bigger picture and set clear and achievable targets in the form of a mission statement. There is no substitute for first hand experience of other libraries as working models.gov.5 Developing a Brief 5 SECTION The process of writing a brief for the new/extended library will grow out of the needs analysis and will evolve through the planning process.nsw. Library buildings are becoming more and more technically complex with many issues to be considered.sl. etc) • Stack areas and other storage facilities • Storage area for archival materials • Staff room and staff toilets and showers • Public lockers/storage • Cleaners’ storage • Loading and delivery area • Change machines and public telephone area 5.au/pls) and the experience of professionals in their particular fields can be valuable for the working group.Service Areas • Reference/Information desk • Children’s desk • Circulation desk/self checking area • Community information/display • Community services • Entry foyer • Exhibition and display area • Refreshment area/coffee shop/vending machines • Banking services Ancillary Areas • Kitchen facilities • Public toilets including baby change and/or parents room • Staff work room • Librarians’ offices • Specialist work areas (including home library service. the working group should also closely assess the spatial requirements within the library and develop a finely tuned schedule of functions and services to be accommodated within the building. ideals and aspirations of all stakeholders involved with the library. Key design issues should be discussed with priorities set and included within the briefing document (see Section 6). The brief is much more than just the allocation of space within the building.

In almost all cases there will be a need to call for some form of tender for professional services.5 SECTION In writing a brief for the design team for a new/extended library the following issues should be clearly set out: • Project background • Project aims and objectives • Project budget and timeframe • Procurement methods • Project organisation structure • Proposed scope of services for the architect and consultants • Form of consultancy contract • Schedule of functional areas (see Section 5. Project Manager and other Consultants The selection of an architect is obviously a key element in the planning and design of a library. Selection criteria for assessment include: • Recent relevant experience • Professional skills of nominated staff • Ability and willingness to communicate effectively • Proven design capability • Resource availability • Technical capability • An understanding of the project • Management practices and methodologies • Quality and completeness of information supplied with the submission • Cost effectiveness and value for money • Quality assurance • Professional indemnity insurance Also important to the process is the appointment of a project manager to manage the construction process.6 Selecting the Architect. on budget and consistent with the overall vision and plan for the facility. a tender process.4) 5. There are a number of ways of entering into a selection process such as open or limited design competition. This is an equally critical component of a successful library building project. such as a Council engineer. calling for expressions of interest or choosing an architect outright based on experience and reputation. Further advice can be sought from professional institutions such as the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) who publish a wide range of documentation such as competition procedure and qualification based assessment of architectural practices. The project manager may be from within Council. to ensure that the planned facility is completed on time. The role of the project manager is to administer the building contract on site and provide the formal channel of communication and liaison between library staff and the building contractor/architect. Each method can have advantages and pitfalls but in all cases it is imperative that the working group is confident they have engaged a professional with whom they can work collaboratively.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Local Councils will have a policy and procedure for calling of tenders and the appointment of consultants. or an external consultant/architect.

may be less costly than an inhouse appointee who lacks the skills.Councils must assess whether an in-house appointee has sufficient skills. though this option obviously offers a cost saving. The alternative is an external appointee who will be a further consultant cost to the project. Within the building industry. The latter option can provide benefits because it is possible to source a project manager who has specific previous experience and skills with public libraries. experience and time to undertake the process. which costs money. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . and time to follow the job through thoroughly. these types of skills are called “value adding” and in the long run utilising a professional project manager. and in the administration of building contracts. 5 SECTION Project managers can also assist in the sourcing and costing of fitout which may be in addition to the works covered in the building contract.

The following issues should be considered: • Non load-bearing walls or demountable partitions can be removed or relocated within the building with minimal disruption to the building structure and services. light fittings and power circuits. Gridded false ceilings will allow for various layouts of air. layout and service requirements change so rapidly that flexibility must be designed and built into a new building. It must relate to the people it serves in an inviting. A simply laid out library where the relationship and access between spaces is clear and logical will be easier to use and therefore more frequented. Skirting trunking with power and data cabling along all walls optimises the potential locations for computers and electronic equipment. This does not necessarily mean 0 | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . 6. • When planning for future extensions it is important to identify specific locations as part of the design process. A library should be expressive of its community. Allowance should be made for sufficient space on site for the construction of a later stage and if building upward the structure should be designed to accommodate the extra loading. Importantly. or perhaps colour coding or art works can also provide a means of orientation in larger buildings. Unobstructed sightlines and visual markers. creating an image and identity for your library does not need to be expensive.6 SECTION Design: Key Design Factors for Public Libraries 6.8). Clear routes of travel assist in creating legibility and promote a sense of orientation. Primarily it is about developing an agreed vision for your library facility and then using this image to build a service and facility that the community knows and values. Equally the set out of the shelving should be clear and logical. non institutional and welcoming way.a place where groups and individuals will meet.3 Order. both in terms of the service it provides and the impression it creates.2 Flexible and Multifunctional Buildings Design. Orientation and Functionality A simple plan is invariably a good plan. discuss.1 Image and Identity Libraries are a focal point for the community . • Provision can be made for future subdivision or subletting of the space 6. listen and learn. It is rarely possible to set aside space for all future uses but an approach to the design that allows flexibility and adaptability will enable future Library Managers to optimise the use of the space. • The reticulation of mechanical and electrical services should be planned to accommodate change. This makes things easier to find and prevents disruption between areas and functions. population growth and future service requirements may require additional space or provision for expansion that must be accommodated as part of the conceptual and building design. Flexibility is maximised when there is a high level of general lighting throughout the space (see Section 6. In assessing the needs and service provision for a community (see Section 3). • The position and type of lighting has a direct impact on the potential for relocation of shelving systems. The library building also serves an important civic function.conditioning grilles.

• Communication: provide clear external and internal signage.4 Accessibility and Mobility A library must be open and accessible to the whole community. The spaces and objects designed must respond primarily to their function and to user requirements. motorised scooters. This means designing a building that promotes equality for young and old. readers’ desks and carrels must cater for wheelchair users. etc • Furniture and equipment: should be comfortable and fully accessible. • Mobility: aisle widths and corridors must accommodate wheelchairs. lift controls. tactile indicators and hearing loops. etc. without steps or obstacles. The debate on whether further technological advances will increase or decrease space requirements in public libraries will continue over the years. door furniture. A library must work. 6. door widths. the equipment and the tasks to be carried out. Australian Standard 1428: General requirements for access. • Car parking: provide specially marked car parking spaces for people with a disability close to the entry. toilets.2. prams. The following issues all require attention: • Layout: a single level library is desirable although a well-located lift does suffice in multi level buildings. and designed in accordance with building regulations and standards for ramps. Electronic sliding doors are preferable and the provision of lobbies and air locks should be considered in terms of the internal climate and external wind conditions. • Floor coverings: provide non slip surfaces. people with prams and people with a disability (see Section 2. i. • Access and approach: the entry and all parts of the library should be barrier free. The best way to ensure this is through detailed research with the library staff to gain an understanding of the function. Internet and audiovisual facilities is creating a service requirement within libraries. must be highly visible. easy to find and easy to open for all users.the shelving should be regimented but it should allow a systematic sequencing and an ordered location of book types. • Shelving: provide shelving at the appropriate height and reach for all users.5 Smart Technology Information technology has a major impact on the shape and form of public libraries and in the ways we are now using them.5).e. 6. • Standards: comply with the Building Code of Australia. 6 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . It is not enough to rely on signage. It must function adequately. but it is evident already that the demand for access and training on computer.1). The way technology is integrated into the building should be developed as part of a Technology Plan which will determine the level of usage and the type of services to be provided (see Section 4. Order comes through clarity and good design. and other applicable codes and standards. Counter height at service desks. the first point of contact with the library. AS 1735: Lifts and Escalators. • Entry: the front door.

Case studies undertaken for this project included examples of. These strategies focus on ensuring that all the resources of the library can be more readily seen by users and that they are actively encouraged to use them. The technology base in the library can provide valuable localised information specifically focused on the community. the availability of information becomes more and more international and inherently broader based. Libraries may well require document or multimedia production facilities such as printers. It cannot be assumed everyone will have the equipment at home or that they will be in a position to pay. 6. no doubt. not less space. a library needs appropriate space. Libraries can provide space for personal interaction. Some space related issues are outlined below: • The rate of change with technology means that more people will require access to up-todate technology. There may be audiovisual equipment. The rapid changes and developments we have seen in the information technology industry will. continue and the design of your library will need to be flexible and adaptable enough to accommodate the changes and to respond to the service demands. All are legitimate uses and activities in a library. • Libraries could well provide rooms suitable for IT training services. • More and more people are working from home and working in smaller business environments. Strategies include: • Signage • Product placement • Promotional displays • Ambience • Customer flow For the physical design of the library these strategies may require: • Provision of separate quiet areas and noisy areas with both attracting different types of users for different types of library activities. • Digital information is unlikely to replace hard copy entirely and in the foreseeable future there may well be dual systems requiring more. – vibrant colours on the outside of the building to ensure that the library is strongly  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Quiet areas are typically used by students and older people for research and study. All these additional services require allocated space. local culture and local heritage. • Consideration of internal and external colour schemes to create ambience or themes. youth and families. particularly Internet access. or indeed that they have the time or expertise to locate and package the information in a meaningful way. Noisy areas are more likely to be used for group activities and by children. • As the use of technology increases. many libraries are using retail strategies to increase visits and borrowings. scanners. Particularly in urban areas. etc as well as audiovisual facilities. meetings and seminars. toys and group activities such as children’s story time or author talks. copiers.6 SECTION One thing is certain – online information services through the Internet will increasingly be at the core of a library’s information and reference services and to cater adequately for future demand.6 Marketing To ensure that the community can use the resources of the library effectively. • Information that is accessed digitally will often require reproduction in hard copy format. some people just want a quiet calm area – an oasis in the city.

The tool applies to both individual dwellings and multi dwelling developments and assesses energy use and efficiency.g. new book displays and library events information. Promotional displays and quick reference products should be placed in areas of high customer flows to ensure maximum exposure. legal information. the face-out displays.13 discusses shelving in more detail but it is evident that shelving should be not just to store books but importantly for promotion. etc. 6. Further information on marketing strategies which can be used in public libraries is available from your Public Library Services Consultant. which are two of the most relevant ratings tools. – internal colours reflecting a more natural environment for the facility. Many libraries are moving towards the creation of “living room” spaces to create a more welcoming and relaxed ambience.identified within what may already be a visually busy retail shopping strip. e. Fundamentally. public and commercial buildings. 6 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Relevant publications are also referenced in Section 7. As is evident in many retail book stores. particularly windows. Residential buildings are required to meet energy use/efficiency targets which apply both to controlling solar heat gain in summer with the aim of reducing the automatic adoption of air-conditioning.g. These are outlined below: • BASIX – this is the legislative ratings tool that is now applied by building codes to residential buildings in NSW. appropriate shelving for large format books and children’s picture books are important. • Green Star – this is a non legislative commercial office design certification which identifies projects that have demonstrated a commitment to sustainability by designing a building which has the potential to achieve the highest environmental performance. bright colours for the children’s and youth areas. The latter aims to minimise heat loss because this will lead to a reduction in the heating input required and hence total energy use.7 Ecological Sustainability Ecological sustainability. the ways that the community can minimise its environmental footprint upon the earth - what was five years ago a fringe phenomenon - has become a mainstream environmental movement which is now supported by legislation.g. green furnishings and wood finishes. e. in winter. promote genre collections. Section 6. – warm internal colours to create a softer image rather than the more traditional image of a book warehouse. The legislation. which does not currently affect library buildings. • Consideration of customer flows to ensure that areas of heavy usage are well-located and large enough to minimise disruption of other activities.g. e. • Creative design and use of shelving to display new books. health information. Green Star is officially certified by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA). and the reduction of heat loss through building elements. is exemplified by BASIX and Green Star. e.g. is a cultural shift which is becoming more prevalent in residential.6. – contrasting internal colours to highlight particular areas. the “green agenda”. self-check areas and OPACs. or to link to a particular community issue/theme. e.

Natural ventilation of parts of the library can be achieved by the provision of opening vents or windows. or in a low performance mode. while maintaining security to provide fresh air ventilation – an operating system that is either automated. However. and public  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . the following must be considered at the briefing and design stage: – a zoned air-conditioning system that can be turned off manually in specific areas – opening windows. vents. In air-conditioning terms the inclusion of “fresh air cycle” design is called mixed mode. the design should aim to minimise the use of energy from non renewable resources. Alternatively natural ventilation can be provided by mechanical means utilising the air-conditioning ducts to pump fresh temperate air from outside with the air-conditioning system either fully turned off. In summary. Wherever possible it should consider local sources of renewable energy such as solar.6 SECTION To be eligible for a Green Star – Office Design Certification a project must: • Achieve a minimum score of 45 points • Achieve a minimum predicted rating of 4 stars using the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating (ABGR) for the base building design • Not be built on land of high ecological value. geothermal and wind. In the design of a mixed mode system that can operate in fresh air mode. In this case the air-conditioning system would be turned off. The following are key issues: • Natural Ventilation and Energy Use: in most localities in New South Wales the range of external conditions will require public library buildings to be air conditioned for the comfort of users and for the conservation of library materials. but their agenda is something that library briefing and design teams should review and adopt where appropriate. or fully explained to the buildings users – the library staff. it is quite likely that during spring and autumn there will be periods when areas of the library could be naturally ventilated. and/or doors that can be opened. • Natural Lighting: A greater provision of natural light in the building is targeted in the green building agenda for the following reasons: – more natural light means less artificial lighting which results in lower energy use (and costs) – greater natural light leads generally to better comfort conditions within the building both for the staff. Green Star rates the following areas in commercial buildings: • Management • Indoor environmental quality • Energy • Transport • Water • Materials • Land use and ecology • Emissions Neither BASIX nor Green Star directly apply to library buildings.

such as natural wool products. instead of fibreglass wool • Recycling of Materials: Many offices and public buildings have joined the green agenda by the introduction of recycling systems. Low volatile organic compounds (VOC) backings. – Energy efficient mechanical systems. which will cause discomfort to users. in particular solar access and summer shade. the design should aim to work with the natural climate factors. • A Holistic Approach: Many of the areas discussed above are interrelated as sustainable P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . 6 SECTION • Minimal Use of Resources: To reduce the ecological footprint the building makes on the earth. – Energy efficient lighting. with areas zoned to facilitate areas not in use to be switched off. The procurement of a new library building is an opportunity to introduce non passive recycling systems. – Passive recycling of glass bottles and plastics. The following are issues to consider: – PVC product use (wiring and vinyl) is being reduced. and energy sources. Linoleum (a natural product) is now often specified instead of vinyl – Carpet with green credentials. and of renewable plantation timbers. – Reductions of non recyclable waste through purchasing regimes. with areas zoned to enable them to be switched off when not in use. rather than the use of non renewable rainforest timbers. which can be 100% recycled at the end of their life – Low VOC paints to walls contribute to a healthy building because they don’t emit noxious fumes – Use plantation. but natural lighting provision to libraries should be designed with care to avoid the following: – the creation of glare. Recycling systems exist in both passive and non passive forms. renewable timbers – Utilise less medium density fibreboard (MDF) due to noxious formaldehyde glues utilized in production – Be aware of the embedded energy associated with the recommended materials – Insulation with “green” products are available. and for landscape irrigation. – Roof mounted solar collectors – energy saving by the reclamation of the sun’s energy. the selection of building and finishing materials should be undertaken to maximise the use of ecologically sound materials. Consideration should be given to the following: – Passive recycling of paper and cardboard. and – solar heat gain which will cause a rise in air-conditioning energy costs Ultimately. The benefits of natural lighting are obvious.– more natural light contributes to a feeling of well-being amongst staff and the public and makes a significant contribution to the prevention of the “sick building syndrome” which is found in old buildings with poor natural lighting and which are wholly air conditioned with poor mechanical systems. Many commercial and public buildings have already embraced passive recycling systems. and may affect the stock. – Rainwater reclamation can be used as “grey water” in toilet systems.

6 SECTION design principles and must be embodied in a holistic response of the building to its environment. The benefits of natural lighting are referred to in Section 6. and to provide the building users with a “feel good” ambience by connecting the inside space to the outside. However the following issues are important: • Lighting should illuminate all shelf areas evenly.seda. It is far more beneficial to protect windows from solar heat gain by the provision of external sun shades rather than the provision of tinted glass. Recommended lighting standards for libraries are provided in Australian Standard 1680: Interior lighting. It is difficult to lay down general standards of lighting since it is to some degree a subjective issue and relates to the specific building design. but may pose other problems such as glare.8 Lighting The lighting design in a library has a huge impact not only on the functionality of the space but also on the feel or ambience in the library.nsw. Consideration must be given to the location of computer terminals and type of computer displays to be provided. The purpose of windows and roof lights is therefore to supplement artificial lighting. Many local councils have policies and procedures relating to ecological sustainability and further design guidance is provided by the Environment Design Guide (Australian Council of Building Design Professionals) and various publications by the New South Wales Sustainable Energy Development Authority (www. Lighting design is as much about the quality of light as it is about the appropriate level of light. It is not realistic to expect natural lighting to provide one hundred percent of the illumination in a public library. particularly relating to computer screens. to provide for views from the outside advertising the interior of the library. easily maintained and easily cleaned). 6. • Coloured or feature lighting adds to the visual impact of the building after dark • Many libraries also experience problems with reflected glare on computer screens from windows and other nearby light sources.au).7 Ecological Sustainability. with no variations of light and dark areas • Ceiling and wall surfaces should be light reflecting rather than light absorbing • Ensure that lighting and shelving are carefully related so that readers are not standing in their own light • Light fittings should be accessible (not too high. Windows of excessive size and number can create serious problems of heat gain and light control and in reducing the useable wall area for shelving stock.gov. additional localised task lighting may well be required at locations such as study desks and reading chairs. are highlighted using higher intensity lamps or spotlights. In some cases. A public library is used when its readers  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Exterior lighting is required for advertising and security. Problems of glare and direct sunlight can be reduced by the use of solar film and external sun shades. Grants may also be available from government agencies for energy saving initiatives in a public building project. The aim is to create a degree of control and flexibility between daylight and artificial lighting. • Check that focal points in the library such as displays and service points. One of the greatest failures with lighting a public library is in having artificial lighting of insufficient intensity and uneven distribution.

the changes in the ways that people use libraries have meant a growing need for noisy as well as quiet areas. the control of the internal climate within libraries located in NSW to achieve comfort levels for staff and users and optimum temperature and humidity levels for the material collection. Rising energy costs. plus a temperate climate during spring and autumn have led to the design of mixed mode systems that can be turned off at times. and a more prominent ecological sustainability agenda. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . For further information refer to the Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard 2107: Design sound levels for building interiors. Where necessary. Many people at the extremes of childhood and old age and with varying degrees of mobility will pass in and out of the building.7 Ecological Sustainability. There is also now a widespread expectation among users that public buildings will be air conditioned. 6. which is either pumped through the building or provided merely by opening windows and vents. Stair treads should be of a good depth. and at different levels. This can be assisted by the provision of separately controllable air-conditioning zones which can operate at different times. radiant heaters and evaporative coolers. but should be compared with the cost of electrical equipment. The capital costs of full air-conditioning may seem high. will generally require air-conditioning. and their safety must be considered in the planning and design of the building.9 Acoustics 6 SECTION In recent years. The following issues require attention: • Stairs should be designed so that there are no openings between the treads or at the sides of staircases through which a small child could fall. or no air-conditioning at all.find it convenient. acoustic treatment of walls and ceilings can assist in attaining comfortable sound levels. or supplemented with temperate external air. The ratio of these areas depends on the community and the type of services to be provided. which is required to produce a less efficient substitute such as fans. Reference should also be made to the Building Code of Australia and Australian Standard 1668: Air-conditioning and ventilation in buildings 6. but careful planning can ensure correct placement of compatible functions. 6.11 Occupational Health and Safety Libraries must be designed for an anticipated large scale use.10 Heating and Ventilation As discussed in Section 6. study and reference areas can remain quiet while the vigour and activity associated with a contemporary library can continue without being disruptive. Exterior security lights on a time switch or on photovoltaic sensors will probably be necessary and will certainly discourage vandalism. In this way. to allow the building to operate with a mixture of natural ventilation. which in many areas means evening and after-dark use. The library should be visually accessible and appealing from the street to promote use of the library and to ensure the safety and security of users. Operating costs of air-conditioning and the equivalent number of heaters and fans are comparable but other factors such as environmental sustainability and full life cycle costs should be examined.

inappropriate furniture and sharp edges. The buildings. To counter the possibility of vandalism. becomes intrusive and can affect the friendliness of the library. additional security measures such as surveillance cameras and distress alarms should be considered where: • Library is used for customer service activities such as rates payments or other uses involving the handling of money • A lone staff person operates a facility Libraries may suffer some vandalism and abuse. Electronic surveillance. good positioning of the circulation desk and the avoidance of blind spots. Reference to Council’s risk assessment policy during the planning and construction stages of the library building project is recommended. such as exposed cabling. For multipurpose facilities. These issues similarly apply for staff areas with additional consideration given to: • Appropriate work areas with desk heights and chairs suitable for minimising work-related injuries • Trolleys for movement of books and equipment within the library. Glazed areas such as glass doors and large glazed areas should be fitted with transom bars or other horizontal markings clearly visible at waist height. users. 6. However. Good security can be designed into the library from the outset through clear sightlines. the building and the collection. need to be avoided. although sometimes necessary. Balcony railings must be of sufficient height to prevent a person from accidentally tipping over the top. Refer to Australian Standard 1288: Glass in buildings. Floors with highly polished floor surfaces should be avoided because of the danger of slipping. business owners) and passing pedestrian and vehicular traffic • Reduce the amount of blank walls which are attractive for graffiti and/or use building materials which are difficult to graffiti  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . fittings and contents of libraries are very valuable. Potential trip hazards. although probably less than other unattended public buildings.6 SECTION • • • • finished in a non slip material and with edges well-defined visually. Refer to the Building Code of Australia. and senseless vandalism will cause considerable expensive damage. Refer to the Building Code of Australia. some precautions can be taken: • Design the building so that there are no concealed corners with windows (particularly louvres or sliding windows) which can be broken or forced • Provide night security lighting on a time-switch • Provide alarms connected to any windows or doors that can be forced • Locate in an area where there is good passive surveillance from adjoining land uses (eg residents.12 Personal and Property Security An appropriate level of security is now required in all public libraries to ensure the safety of staff. trolleys for chair and table storage have proven to be successful.

• All library shelving manufacturers offer a range of accessories. which enable their basic shelf units to be adapted to store or display other library materials.au/community_issues/ crime_prevention/safer_by_ design. this dimension can be reduced to 100 mm if the bottom shelf is mounted at an angle so that the books are tilted back 10-20 degrees from the vertical. supervision and ease of access. the clear space between facing shelves). This could also be applied to all shelves below eye level. 6. The recommended height in the adult library is 1600mm. In most contemporary public libraries. slide-out reference shelves are useful although they can cause obstruction in the aisles.Exits from the library must be limited and controlled to avoid illegal removal of library materials. although manufacturers will also supply 600 mm and 1200 mm shelves as standard. is one of the most important features of their library visit.police. modular. In the children’s area the recommended height is 1300 mm. A lower height for freestanding shelving will facilitate sightlines.gov. There is an increasing trend towards shelving with no top canopy which increases the visual openness of the collection area. It impacts directly on the collections and services of the library and for users. The following issues need to be addressed when installing and design shelving: • Shelving can be attached to the wall but is generally freestanding. Alternatively. Any necessary fire exits must be designed so that they cannot be used for other than the designated purpose. In this way the spines of the books will be better lit and easier to read. and ‘dressed’ with end panels and canopies to enhance the appearance and to assist users in locating types of resources. CD and CD-ROM storage. Non standard sizes can be specially manufactured but at an additional cost and longer delivery times. adjustable bookends and signage. • In reference collections. These accessories include magazine display racks. to pass comfortably behind people standing and browsing. • Shelving on metal casters can improve the flexibility of use of the collection space and enable collection areas to be easily expanded or contracted depending on use. including those with disabilities. Similarly the exterior of the building should be designed with clear lines of sight around the building. The shelving can be colour coded. appropriate light levels and designed to avoid blind spots. • It is preferable for the lowest shelf to be about 300 mm from the floor for ease of access.13 Shelving The provision of appropriate and well-designed shelving is one of the most important components of a library building. • 900 mm is the usual width for shelves. Good shelving will result in higher levels of resources on loan.e.2. although this will reduce the number of shelves that can be accommodated. poster rails.nsw. • Aisles between bays of shelves must be generous enough to suit all users. The preferred alternative is a work 6 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . audiovisual kit shelves. The minimum aisle width between shelves is 1500 mm (i. Standard steel library shelving must comply with Australian Standard 2273: Steel library shelving. although a maximum of 1550 mm is acceptable. newspaper displays. As outlined in Section 5. DVD storage. and must have rounded corners. detailed Safer by Design guidelines are available through Council’s Environmental Planning section and www. adjustable steel shelving is a standard item although there may be times when custom-built shelving is required.

furniture and fittings should be robust. main circulation areas. for the stack. Compact storage floor loading requirements vary from one installation to another. Compact shelving is mounted on rails allowing the shelves to be moved to provide access. Reference should also be made to AS1170. 6. In various guises these are able to display face-out books. successfully maximise the storage that can be provided. Space is saved due to the elimination of permanent access aisles. • Display inserts which convert standard shelving into display shelving. its capacity and the nature of the materials stored. for instance. The standard steel shelf can be dressed up in various ways to make the display more attractive. etc • Office furniture and work stations • Tables and chairs • Display units • Signage 0 | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . • The use of permanently attached clear perspex A4 card holders on end panels to provide easily changeable displays. It can however.6 SECTION bench at the end of each reference aisle or centred within the reference section with some benches at a suitable height for wheelchair users. etc. whether wall mounted or freestanding • Bench fittings in workrooms • Built-in cupboards for stationery. As the library’s layout may change it is wise to construct all library floors with the same loading to promote flexibility. durable and comfortable.14 Furniture and Fittings Above all. and carry aisle signage. cleaners. Changes worth considering are: • More face-out shelving which is often judiciously located near the main entrance. or signage relating to changing events. • Face-out display of magazine racks. DVDs. The selection of furniture should fit with the overall philosophies governing flexibility. depending on the type of shelving system. or at the entry to aisles • Small shelving display units added to the ends of shelving aisles. It is normal practice for the architect’s budget to include not only the total cost of the library building but also all built-in fittings. and should be selected with the characteristics of the library users in mind. but is considerably higher than normal floor loadings. Considerable change has occurred in the way that public libraries present themselves which includes the presentation of collections. image. and the floor loading required to support them is considerably higher than normal office floor loadings. and talking books is very attractive. A structural engineer in consultation with the librarian must assess floor loadings. CDs. attractive. Shelves filled with books are exceptionally heavy. including the following: • Shelving for stock. functionality and sustainability. Compact shelving is not appropriate for general public access library collection shelving.

• Floor surfaces should be hard wearing. sometimes illuminated. Some important points are listed below: • Staff will invariably stand at the desk for extended periods of time and a carpeted. • Collection signage – large signs visible from a distance allow library users to take in at a glance the various sections. • A modular system can provide flexibility for later change or extension. “what’s on in the library”. The circulation or loans desk and the reference and service desks are some of the most important items of furniture in a library and invariably one of the more difficult items to get right. sprung timber flooring or anti-fatigue matting is more forgiving on the legs.The design and selection of furniture and fittings is very important and some of the following issues require specific attention: • Modular or systems furniture has some advantage over custom built items such as greater flexibility and reduced cost. painting and repairs. 6. Consider accessibility and comfort for wheelchair users. The systems are generally designed to be reassembled in a number of configurations and often accommodate power and data cable management. • The cost and maintenance of all items should be considered particularly in reference to cleaning. • Correct desk height and counter height are crucial and should cater for all users. • Provide general and task lighting on dimmer switches for control. 6 SECTION P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . comfortable and non slip. especially for metal shelving units. Illuminated emergency exit signs are a legal requirement in all buildings. • The colour and texture of all furniture and fittings has an immediate impact on the overall design and should therefore be integrated into an overall concept. Signage is important in libraries especially larger ones. • Shelf signage – sliding shelf guide systems are also available from suppliers and these are designed to indicate the subject content of each shelf as distinct from each bay. • Aisle signage – bays of shelving in public areas will require flexible guiding to indicate the contents.14. children and library staff. • The future availability of stock should be considered in terms of replacement and addition of items. Some commercial library signage systems are marketed for this purpose. • Clear sightlines can optimise staff efficiency and assist in general security. Signage falls into a number of categories: • Street signposting – directional signs indicating the library location from neighbouring streets.1 Signage Library signage is often neglected and unplanned and it is necessary that sufficient funds be allocated within the cost estimates. out of reach of vandalism. if a successful outcome is to be achieved. • Changeable signs – showing the layout of a large library. The library staff must have the greatest input into the design of these items. opening hours. • Exterior identification – large lettering on the exterior walls near the entrance. collections and service desks. etc. because many people will not be used to library layouts and may be confused by a wide range of books and other materials on the library shelves. • Door and directional signage – various permanent sign plates to offices or departments will be required.

au.g. maintenance and asset managers and to review the developing design. including their wording and design. As shown in the case studies undertaken for this project storage areas and specific types of storage equipment are often required for: • Children’s and youth activities – either located within the children’s activity area or within close proximity to it. large cupboards are required to store craft supplies. water and storage is also desirable. To do this it is advisable to refer to council’s property. and department stores and bookshops may be worth visiting for ideas in good professional signage. toys and display boards. resources. Effective asset management requires the inclusion of these costs together with scheduled long term maintenance costs of a building. Information on specialist archival storage is available from State Records New South Wales on www. in relation to the long term asset management policies and strategies developed by the building owners. individual lockable storage cupboards may be required for group equipment. heritage items.  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . art collections. at key stages. • Staff work areas – storage cupboards and shelving in staff areas for stationery.gov.13) together with storage for specialist council collections. • Multipurpose rooms – typically need adjoining store room for chairs.records. etc.6 SECTION All library guides and signs. A wet area with a sink. It is these recurrent costs which are often of major concern to Councils as they represent fixed costs which are usually not covered by other outside funding sources.nsw.14.2 Storage Storage areas are essential within a public library with each activity and service likely to generate the demand for storage. resources. • Archives and conservation – provision for compact shelving may be necessary (see Section 6. 6. audiovisual equipment and meeting room equipment. If the room is to be used regularly by community groups. tables. should be prepared by the architect and librarian in close consultation.15 Asset Management The ongoing running costs of a building are important considerations in the overall provision of a facility. The ongoing costs of a building may include: • Regular building maintenance • Scheduled maintenance • Fire protection • Cleaning • Security • Air-conditioning • Graffiti removal/property maintenance due to vandalism • Building insurance • Utilities • Updating of the fitout • Technology and equipment replacement It will be necessary to prepare long term and short term budget forecasts. e. files and equipment • Storage of users bags – coin operated lockers for library users to store excess bags • Cleaners room – shelving and cupboards for cleaning materials and equipment 6.

000 books. It provides valuable information on key contacts. • It can provide an effective interim service in developing areas where the population does not yet justify a permanent site or a permanent site cannot yet be identified because development plans are not far enough advanced. The rate of depreciation is high. as are establishment and operating costs.6. In areas of low population density or to cater for specific users (such as rural schools. • Stocks are typically small since the largest vehicle will only carry about 7. • It can at best offer a one day a week service at any one location. • International Federation of Library Associations’ Mobile Library Guidelines (Pestell. • It can effectively fill a gap between libraries and an isolated pocket of population for which a permanent building would be uneconomic. Disadvantages • A mobile library is not a cheap alternative to permanent buildings.16 Mobile Libraries In NSW mobile libraries play an important role in the delivery of library services to isolated and/or remote communities. especially for the less mobile such as young children and older residents. convenient service. retirement villages.com. online services for mobile libraries together with support information for occupational health and safety issues and examples of mobiles in other communities. There are pros and cons for such a service as follows: 6 SECTION Advantages • A mobile library provides a close-at-hand. 1991) P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  .au which has been developed in conjunction with mobile library services throughout Australia.mobilelibraries. reference should be made to: • www. etc) a mobile library service may be considered. setting up a mobile library service. For information on establishing a mobile library.

6.3.gov. 1990) • Public Library Statistics.sl. the Library Council of New South Wales recommends to the Minister for the Arts the allocation of Library Development Grants to local government authorities for specific library projects.nsw.3 Specialist Planning. The State Library of New South Wales also publishes Public Libraries in New South Wales: Directory which is available at all NSW public libraries.gov. Visit the State Library Web site www. Objectives and Standards for Public Libraries in Australia (Australian Library and Information Association. The Service also maintains a current list of architectural firms that have worked on library development projects throughout NSW. 1995) • Towards a Quality Service: Goals. extended or refurbished buildings are one of the eligible categories. published by the State Library of New South Wales (annual) • Comparative Information on NSW Local Government Councils (New South Wales Department of Local Government.3.4 and 6. improved supervision through better sight lines.1 Library Development Grants Each year. The aim of the grant scheme is to improve the quality of library services available throughout NSW and new. and an increased sense of openness and legibility (see Sections 6.au/pls to find specific contact names and phone numbers.6).sl. It is based on the premise that the overall size of the library will be influenced by the total materials collection. The Building and Planning Advisory Service can be contacted at the State Library.2 State Library of New South Wales Contacts The State Library of New South Wales provides a wealth of specialist resource information and support for all stakeholders involved in the planning and building of a public library. annual)  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . The space standards have been adjusted slightly in this edition to reflect the general lowering of shelving bays from 5 to 4 shelves which provides for greater accessibility to resources. electronic resources and access and further space allocated for additional services. Building and Architectural Advice The State Library of New South Wales has a consultancy service to advise on library building projects. This directory has a detailed list of the State Library services and specialist staff who can help you with specific information. 7. 2000) • The Planning and Design of Public Library Buildings. Information on the Library Development Grants is available on the State Library of New South Wales web pages at www.4 Methodology for Developing a Service-Based Benchmark The service-based benchmark outlined in Section 3.nsw. 7. revised edition (State Library of New South Wales. Information contained in the following documents was also used to develop the benchmark: • People Places: A guide for public library buildings in New South Wales.4 is derived from research carried out by the consultancy team into the relative areas within existing public libraries. 1st edition (State Library of New South Wales.7 SECTION Further Information and Resources 7.au/pls 7.

Also.5 Methodology for Developing a Population-based Benchmark 7 SECTION The population-based benchmark outlined in Section 3. Different rates are provided for both a branch library and the local and central component of a central library. An extra factor of 20% is used in the formulae for conversion of the net floor area to gross floor area. This standard provides a range of population sizes or catchments that in turn generate a recommended floorspace rate per 1000 residents. Rather it is purely a mathematical factor to be used in the formula derived for the population based benchmark and provides an allowance for central area functions as an addition to the usual size of a branch library. 7. the floorspace rates used for determining a central library are basically the same as the branch library. It must be emphasised that the use of 15% has no exact mathematical relationship to the building rates used in the 1995 guidelines.4 remains unchanged from People Places 2000. In fact.4. i. toilets. corridors. it should not be used as an exact measure of the floorspace required for central area functions of a central library. 5400 mm This configuration gives a module of 14. 15% of the branch floorspace rate for the central library component has been adopted as a reasonable factor to be used. the benchmark was derived from the standards set out in The Planning and Design of Public Library Buildings (State Library of New South Wales. This allows for foyer. P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . This figure may be varied with more detailed examination of the specific circumstances. the consultants for People Places assessed the average variation in size of the central library using only the branch library building rates.e.3. or where extensions to existing libraries are involved. 1995). When determining the size of the central library two different population sizes are used – a local catchment and local government area/regional catchment. This approach provides some flexibility for Councils and encourages an informed local response based on the range of information collected. lobby. Using several test scenarios and the mathematical relationship identified above.49 sq m containing on average 1440 volumes which equates to approximately 100 volumes per square metre of floor area. As outlined in Section 3. By using both measures a size range for the new/extended building can be determined. The floorspace rates used for the local component of a central library is two thirds of the equivalent branch floorspace rate while the central component is one third the equivalent branch floorspace rate. the population-based benchmark should be used in conjunction with the service-based benchmark to provide the range of sizes for a new/extended public library. Originally. plant equipment and maintenance areas.3. This percentage is considered reasonable and is based on the efficiency rates and the average allocation of useable space within a public building of this type. By using the service-based benchmark and the population based benchmark there are two approaches to estimating the size required for a new/extended library. rest rooms. To simplify these tables and the calculations required to determine the benchmark size for a new/extended library.The space allocation for the materials collection is based on: • Shelving an average of 30 volumes per shelf with a standard shelf being 900 mm long • Bays of shelving spaced at 1500 mm clear width between aisles • Bays 4 shelves high and ranging to 6 shelves long. for example where foyers or other spaces are shared with other facilities.

Canberra. ageing. Cox.edu. Public libraries image handbook. Sevan. Available at www. Australian social trends: regional population. Guldberg. St Leonards. Sydney. CLIB 01 . includes Working Population Profile]. Networking Australia’s future: the final report. Culturally diverse communities and the public library: a review of NSW public library multicultural services. objectives and standards for public libraries in Australia. Media and Sport 2003.gov. Eva et al 2000.ntu.au Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001. Sydney and State Library of New South Wales. London: Stationery Office.6 References and Further Reading Australian Bureau of Statistics. [computer file. 1996 Broadband Services Expert Group 1995. Canberra Australian Council of Building Design Professionals. House of Commons. uk/global/publications/archive_2003/framework_future. Environment design guide.culture. Household use of information technology Australia.nsw. Culture. (ABS Catalogue no 8561. learning and information in the next decade. Sharyn. the social role and economic benefit of a public library.html Briggs. au/pls/publications/pdf/safe_place.pdf Great Britain. [publication with quarterly update service]. University of Technology. (ABS Catalogue no.co. Department of Culture. Allen and Unwin Hennah. Archives and Information Services.au/pls/ publications /pdf/multicultural2004. Canberra.au/library/protocol. Available at http://www.7 SECTION 7. NSW. Canberra Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005.sl. The Cultural planning handbook: an essential Australian guide. A safe place to go: libraries and social capital.abs. Library Council of New South Wales. 2005.nsw.Census in your library. Web site at http://www.gov. Protocols for libraries. Research report.gov.0). Australian Library and Information Association 1995.pdf Grogan.pdf Cultural Perspectives Pty Ltd 2003.gov. Available at www.uk/pa/ cm200405/cmselect/cmcumeds/81/81i. Available at http://www. David and Mercer. Lane Cove Library – a part of life.the-stationery-office. Public libraries Australia 2003-2004.parliament. Framework for the future libraries. State Library of Victoria and Australian Retailers Institute Victoria  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . Melbourne. 8146. Towards a quality service: goals.sl. Australian Government Publishing Service Building Code of Australia [Latest edition]. Canberra Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003. Library Council of New South Wales in association with Lane Cove Council. Australian Library and Information Association 1990. Kevin. Canberra Australian Bureau of Statistics 2002. http://www.0). Colin 1995. Hans and Sivaciyan.html Great Britain. Public libraries. Media and Sport Committee 2005.

C.au Pestell. Colin 1996. [Prepared for the Libraries Working Group by Colin Mercer with Margaret Smith for the Australian Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy].or/VII/s8/proj/publ97. Libraries Working Group of the Cultural Ministers’ Council New South Wales Department of Local Government. Sydney NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning 2001. ‘People Places: public library buildings for the new millennium’. ‘Critical issues in public library planning: the New South Wales experience’. Planning the modern library building. J 2003. Conn. discussion paper.gov. New South Wales. NSW State and regional population projections 2001 -2051. parliament.au and search for 5304 report NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority. Westport. Griffith University. August 2004 Koontz. ‘Inquiry into the joint use and co-location of public buildings: information paper prepared by the State Library of New South Wales’. Second Cultural Accord 2002 -2005 McCabe. 2004. Westport. 2004. Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings. David J. South Brisbane. Brisbane. 2001. Sydney. Crime prevention and the assessment of development applications. Connecticut Mercer. Mobile library guidelines. David J. The Hague. (Professional Report no 28). Comparative information on NSW local government councils. Greenwood Press Local Government and Shires Associations 2002. Griffith University Mercer. Web site at http://www. Available at www. pp. Navigating the economy of knowledge. State Library of New South Wales Public Library Services. 1995. Christine M. November 2004.81-89 Jones. http://www. Australian library journal. 2001. guidelines under 79c of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. [Annual] New South Wales Department of Planning. Cultural planning guidelines for local government NSW Parliament Legislative Assembly 2004. Sydney New South Wales Department of Planning. G and Kennedy. 375-382 7 SECTION Jones. Robert 1991. Sydney NSW Ministry for the Arts 2004. nsw. Infrastructure and Natural Resources 2004. Prepared for the Libraries Working Group of the Cultural Ministers’ Council by the Institute for Cultural Policy Studies.gov. 2020 vision: towards the libraries of the future: a strategic agenda and policy framework for Australia’s state and public libraries. Library facility siting and location handbook. Australasian public libraries and information services vol 14 no 3 September pp. David J. vol 53 no 4.ifla. Infrastructure and Natural Resources 2004.pdf (English full text) Jones.The public library service: the IFLA/UNESCO guidelines for development. Sydney P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . Planning a better future: Metropolitan Strategy. 1997.nsw. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions Public libraries in New South Wales: directory [annual].

recommended design sound levels and reverberation times for building interiors AS2273: Steel library shelving State Library of New South Wales 1995. http://www. Public Library Services web pages.vic.gov. for the Laser Foundation.uk  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 .au/about/information/publications/policies_reports/ plu_lbc.buildingfutures. changing futures. Public library statistics 2003/04. QBS: A guide to Qualification Based Selection of architects. Ken 2004.html Royal Australian Institute of Architects 1996. Sydney Standards Australia. Revised edition. New York. A full text of the report is available at http://www. Libraries Impact Project.slq. Sydney State Library of New South Wales 2000. London.7 SECTION Putnam. AS1680: Interior lighting AS1735: Lifts and escalators AS2107: Acoustics.gov. The planning and design of public library buildings.sl. 2000. People places: a guide for public library buildings in New South Wales.qld. Available at www.nsw.org. Sydney State Library of New South Wales. Libraries/building/communities: the vital contribution of Victoria’s public libraries – a research report for the Library Board of Victoria and the Victorian Public Library Network. Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community.bl. 21st century libraries: changing forms.html Worpole.uk/about/cooperation/laser-pubs. Available in full at http://www. Available at www. slv.gov. au/pls State Library of Queensland 1997. Various standards including: AS1288: Glass in buildings AS1428: General requirements for access AS1668: The use of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning in buildings.au/serv/publib/policy/guidelines State Library of Victoria 2005. Brisbane. Guidelines and standards for Queensland public libraries. Melbourne: State Library of Victoria. 2nd edition. Robert D. Simon and Schuster PricewaterhouseCoopers 2004. Sydney State Library of New South Wales 2004.

31 population-based. Sharyn. 11 protocols for library resources. 51 Acoustics. 12. 20 defined. 17 Benchmarks. See Circulation space Benchmark-Based Need assessment. 64. 47 preparation. See Australian Library and Information Association Amenities. 66 Australian Standards. 58. 46. 41 local authority. 20 population-based . See Library materials Balance area. See Library materials Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community. 27. 65 service-based. 27 2005 |  P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s .populationbased Central Area Factor. 51. 16 Building and Planning Advisory Service. 11 Access Committees. 47 Briggs. 29 Areas of the library. 56. 27 Bligh Voller Nield Architects. 9 Accessibility. 40. 17. See Mobile libraries Books. 68 Branch libraries. 20. See Public art Artworks. See Older people Air-conditioning. See Benchmarks .examples. 67 Australian Library and Information Association. 64 spreadsheet. See Library materials Australia Council.examples. 66 Budget fitout. 64 Building Area Factors. 28 Building Code of Australia. 62 ATSILIRN. 48 Area libraries. See Floor area C CAF. 59 ALIA. See Public art Assessment of needs. 57 Aisle width. 21. public. 21 population-based benchmark and. 66 Australian Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy.calculating. 47 working group and. 51. See Library buildings: examples on web pages Catchment. 50 Aged. 2 Bookmobiles. 22 Architects selection. See Grants for buildings Building size. 66 Australian Council of Building Design Professionals. 29 Brief community involvement. 31 service-based . 66 Building grants. 31 population-based . 57. 68 AV materials. 66 Broadband Services Expert Group.Index 2020 Vision. 21 population-based benchmark and. See Central Area Factor Case studies. 25 service-based . 12 Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders library design and. See Functional areas Art.needs assessment Asset management. See Planning process . 31 population-based . 22. 12 services for. 67 B A Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library and Information Resource Network. 54. 13 Australian Bureau of Statistics.methodology.methodology. 60 Budgets fitout. 31 co-location. See Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library and Information Resource Network Audiovisual materials. 57 Adaptability. 59. 48 selection criteria. 57. 58.

23 Disability Action Plans. 53 Equipment. 33. 67 Department of Transport (NSW). See Computers. 48 Desks. Fitout. 22 space for. 66 Collections. 67 Cultural Planning Handbook. 34 Community consultation. 51. 14 CLIB 01. 10 Internet access . 2 Cox. 66 D Demographic trends. libraries in. 8 use in needs assessment. 58 Environmental issues. 53 Environment Design Guide. Library Building Consultant Consultation during planning. 18 techniques. 45 Extension. 20 defined. 39 connect. 10 Consultants. 29 E Ecological issues. Eva. 13 trends. 2 Circulation space. 9 Disabled people. See Architects. 66 Cultural planning. See Consultation during planning Compact shelving. 60 Comparative Information on NSW Local Government Councils. 18 Costs. See Country Public Libraries Association of NSW Crime Prevention and the Assessment of Development Applications. 27 Design brief. 43 Existing buildings. 67 Department of Planning (NSW). 67 Comparative Need assessment. 19 Department of Local Government (NSW). 35 Colour scheme. 64. 27 allowance for. 16. See People with a disability District libraries. 34 defined. 17 Computers. Information Technology ESD. running. 47 site matrix. 61 Digital resources included in assessment. 28 Central libraries. 9 Disability Services Act (NSW). consolidation of. 9 Disability Discrimination Act (Cwlth). See Desks Country areas information technology and. 13 Country Public Libraries Association of NSW. 16 methods. reuse. 13 Cultural Ministers’ Council. 21 additional floor area.nsw. 16 0 | Cultural planning guidelines for local government.minimum provision. 50 P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . See Brief Design team selection. Design Team. 53 Ecologically Sustainable Development. 64. 21 population-based benchmark and. provision for. 66 CPLA. 67 Cultural Perspectives Pty Ltd. 62 Counters. 31 building projects. See Library materials Co-location. 67 Cultural development. 5. 13. 67 Cultural Accord. 65 Cities. 66 Environmental Health and Safety.defined. 57. 65 Changes in this edition. 66 Culturally diverse communities and the public library. 28 component in population-based benchmark. See Ecologically Sustainable Development Examples benchmark calculations. 61 Commercial developments.

66 House of Commons. 67 Institute for Cultural Policy Studies. 32 Furniture. Kevin. 17. 17 Identity of the library. 67 P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . 35 Jones. See Population forecasts Framework for the Future. See Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders Information Society. 1 role. 1 structure. 5 purpose. 66 Gross floor area. 39. 60 budget. 67 International Federation of Library Associations. 41. Hans. See Circulation space Guidelines arrangement. See Fitout H I Hennah. 33 defined. 28 service-based benchmark. 15. 39 minimum provision. 66 Functional areas checklist. 10 resource areas. 66 Information Superhighway. 39 J Joint use libraries. 50 Floor area minimum. See also Web pages equipment to access.F Fitout. 51. 46. 21 service implications. 12. 52. 66 Griffith University. David J. 31 Floor loading for shelves. 35 Joint-use libraries. 47 Funding for library buildings. 60 Forecasts. 50 Indigenous Australians. 10 Inquiry into the Joint Use and Co-Location of Public Buildings. 20 Grossing factor. 40 design. 10 Information Society and the Information Economy. See Fitout Flexibility. 2 consultation for. See also Technology plan. 2. 5 changes in this edition. Culture. See also specific items.g. 39 design considerations. 66 G GFA. 5 use of. e. 33. See Gross floor area Grants for library buildings. Media and Sport. 67 Internet. 5 Guidelines and Standards for Queensland Public Libraries. 67 Grogan. 67 Image of the library. 61 Fittings. 64 Great Britain Department of Culture. 10 space implications. 18 defined. 22 in current Guidelines. 20 population-based benchmark. 10 checklist. 21 shared. 68 Guldberg. 10. 50 IFLA/UNESCO Guidelines. David. Media and Sport Committee. 51 libraries and. Computers building implications. 60 checklist. 66 Identified Need assessment of. 10 Information technology.

See Cities Metropolitan Public Libraries Association. 20 Networking Australia’s Future. Infrastructure and Natural Resources. 12. 40 planning for. 19 Local Government and Shires Associations. 67 NFA. 19 defined. 67 Navigating the Economy of Knowledge. 63 Mobile Library Guidelines. 16 Marketing. 67 LAF. 17. 56 Loans. 40 enhancing. 11 Multi-function buildings. 9 Mercer. 42. J. 17 NSW. 10 Ministry for the Arts. 57 Non-print materials space for. 64 Library Development Plan. See Net floor area Noise. 50 Libraries Impact Project. See Site Lighting. 67 Library Building Consultant. See Fitout Library materials collection size. 34 N M Management Plans. 67 Department of Planning. 2 Minimum floor area. 67 Mobility. 27 Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. 2 Net floor area in earlier Guidelines. 68 Libraries Working Group. 64 Library Development Grants. See Shelving Library site. 66 Layout of spaces. 40 proportion on loan.K L Kennedy. 11 services for. 64 Library buildings examples on web pages. Christine M. 32 Library Facility Siting and Location Handbook. 33. See Technology plan Location. See Planning process .proportion on loan Local Area Factor. See Floor area minimum Mobile libraries. 42. 67 Sustainable Energy Development Authority.net. See Site Meeting rooms. Heather. 67 information technology strategy. 17. 23 Non-residents in benchmark calculations. 67 Local technology plan. See Library materials . 15. 67 Koontz. 27 Local Environmental Plans. 33. See Metropolitan Public Libraries Association Multicultural society design issues. NSW. 51 MPLA. 16 Local Government (General) Regulation (NSW). 22 space for. 64. 66. See Library materials Library Council of New South Wales. Legislative Assembly. 67 Department of Transport. G. 67 Parliament. 16. 66 New South Wales Department of Local Government. 5 Library collections. Colin. 10  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . 67 Metropolitan areas. 13.needs assessment Nesbitt. See Local Area Factor Lane Cove Library – a part of life. 21. 21. 27 Normative Need assessment. 23 Library shelving. 67 Library fitout. 67 Needs assessment. 27 defined. 54. 63. 52 McCabe.

7 planning process. 6 needs assessment. See Benchmarks . 67 Population forecasts application of. See Relative Area Factor Reading areas. 68 Planning committees. 9 services for. See Working groups Planning groups. 66 Safer by design. 12 entertainment role. 65. Robert. 12 roles. 68 RAF. 62 Rural areas. 7 Public libraries image handbook. 68 Q R QBS. See Country areas S A safe place to go: libraries and social capital. 58 P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 |  . 21 Refurbishment of building for library use. 66 Population-based benchmark. See Brief Protocols for Libraries. Running costs. 45. 22 minimum. See Planning process promotion. 12 developments. 8 Orientation of users. services for. 9 Periodicals space for. 66 Public art. 45 Safety. See Working groups Planning process. 7 importance of. 50 People places. See Functional areas Royal Australian Institute of Architects. 42. 45 Resources. 67 Public Library Service: the IFLA/UNESCO Guidelines. 23 Pestell. 68 Program. 15 size.population-based PricewaterhouseCoopers. 66 Public Libraries in New South Wales Directory. 15. 64. See Library materials Reuse of building as a library. See Floor area structure. 51 design for. 64 Putnam. 32 diagram of. 67 Planning. 2 Rooms. 58 Older people. 16 working groups. 57. 32 central. A Guide to Qualification Based Selection of Architects. 21 competition. design. 7 educational role. 12 design trends. 13 Public libraries building funding. 48. 23 Renovation of building. 12. See Cultural planning Planning and Design of Public Library Buildings. 12 fitout. 27 Population Projections 1997 to 2051.O P Occupational health and safety. Robert. 45 Relative Area Factor. library. 64 Public Libraries in New South Wales: Directory. See Planning process cultural. 31 collaborative. 7 use of. 67 Public Library Statistics. 15. 21 trends. See Guidelines People with a disability design considerations. Archives and Information Services. See Fitout functions. 45 Revisions in this edition. 32 Planning the modern library building. 16. 7 service models. 57.

57. 9 Indigenous Services Librarians. 67 Working groups role in planning. See Benchmarks State Library of New South Wales Building and Planning Advisory Service. 9 services for. 58 Service-based benchmark. 66 Size of building. 19. 5. See Air-conditioning Virtual resources space for. 68 Statistics. See Co-location Shelving. 32 role with brief. 64. 37. 22. 43 selection.service-based Services checklist. 9. 59 allowance for items on loan. 19 Storage. Ken. See Target Collection Factor Technology plan. 15. 23 TCF. 66 State Library of New South Wales. 20. See Joint-use libraries Section 94 contributions. 45. 37 checklist. 27 Sound levels. 27 Staff design implications. See Youth Young people. 27 Twenty-first Century libraries changing forms. See Cities Ventilation. 67 T Target Collection Factor. 40 Towards a Quality Service. See Functional areas space. See Youth Torres Strait Islanders. 61 Site matrix. 11 Public Library Services. use in needs assessment. 68 U V Urban areas. 59 Signage. changing futures. 64. 47.School-community libraries. See Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders Towards a quality service. 9  | P E O P L E P L AC E S A g u i d e f o r p u b l i c l i b ra r y b u i l d i n g s i n N e w S o u t h Wa l e s 2005 . 8 Social plans. 66 Protocols for Libraries. See Circulation space Shared sites. 16. 39 Staff areas. 23 Volumes. 39 Teenagers. 12 Multicultural Consultant. 57 Spreadsheet for benchmarks. 64. 68 Sustainable Energy Development Authority. See Benchmarks . 22 Study areas. Sevan. 67 State Library of Queensland. See Co-location Sivaciyan. 62 Storage areas. 16. 66 Transport Data Centre. See Floor area Social capital. 68 Y Young adults. See Youth Youth design for. 68 Standards for buildings. 59 aisle width. 39 space required for. 21 Standards Australia. 22 recommended dimensions. 21 Sustainable Energy Development Authority (NSW). 22. 47 Worpole. 9. 33 Security. 21. 64 Disability Access Service. See Library materials W Web pages Australian Bureau of Statistics. 43 shared.

nsw.com .sl.atmitchell.ISBN 0 7313 7156 9 Published by the Library Council Of New South Wales Macquarie Street Sydney NSW 2000.gov.au www. Australia www.

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