GIFT OF MICHAEL REESE
ELECTEICAL PAPERS.
VOL.
II.
ELECTRICAL PAPERS
BY
OLIVER HEAVISIDE
IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL.
II.
ifieto
gorfe
MACMILLAN AND
AND LONDON
CO.
1894
[All rights reserved]
~06
CONTENTS OF VOL.
ART. 31.
II.
ON THE ELECTEOMAGNETIC WAVESUEFACE.
Scalars and Vectors.
A
l
4
Scalar Product.

4
5 5
Vector Product.
Hamilton's V.
Linear Vector Operators.
Inverse Operators.
6 6 6
7
Conjugate Property.
Theorem.

TransformationFormula.
The Equations
Plane Wave.
Index Surf ace.
of Induction.
...
7
8
3
The WaveSurface.
.....

9
11
Some
Cartesian Expansions.
16 19
19
Directions of B, H, D, and B.
Note on Linear Operators and Hamilton's Cubic.
Note on Modification of IndexEquation when
Eotational.
c
and n are
22
ART. 32.
NOTES ON NOMENCLATUEE.
NOTE NOTE
1.
Ideas,
Words, and Symbols.
23
2.
On
the Eise and Progress of Nomenclature.
25 28
ABT. 33.
ART. 34.
NOTES ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIEES.
ON THE USE OF THE BEIDGE AS AN INDUCTION
BALANCE.
33
ART. 35.
ELECTEOMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PEOPAGATION.
SECTION 25.
SECTION 26.
(SECOND HALF.)
Some Notes on
Magnetization.
close
39
The Transient State in a Eound Wire with a fitting Tube for the Eeturn Current.
44
vi
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
PAGE
SECTION 27.
The
Variable Period in a
Round Wire with
for the
a Concen
tric
Tube
at
any Distance
Return Current.
50
SECTION 28.
Some
Special Results relating to the Rise of the
Current in a Wire.
55
SECTION 29.
Oscillatory Impressed Force at one
Its
End
of a Line.
Effect.
Application to LongDistance Tele61
phony and Telegraphy.
SECTION 30.
Impedance Formulas
Tubes.

for Short Lines.
Resistance of 67
SECTION 31.
The
Influence
of
Electric
Capacity.
Impedance
71
Formulae.
SECTION 32.
The Equations
mentary.
of
Propagation along Wires.
Ele
76
of

SECTION 33.
The Equations
Selfinduction.
Propagation.

Introduction of
81
SECTION 34.
Extension of the Preceding to Include the Propagation of Current into a Wire from its Boundary.
86
SECTION 35.
The Transfer of Energy and
Energy Current.
its
Application to Wires.
91
SECTION 36.
Resistance and Selfinduction of a
Round
with
Wire with
Induction
Current
Longitudinal.
Ditto,
Longitudinal.
Their Observation and Measure97
ment.
SECTION 37.
General Theory of the Christie Balance. Differential Equation of a Branch. Balancing by means of
Reduced Copies.
SECTION 38.
102
of
Theory of the Christie as a Balance Mutual Electromagnetic Induction.
duction Balance.
Self
and
In
..
Felici's
106
SECTION 39a.
Felici's
Balance Disturbed, and the Disturbance
112
Equilibrated.
SECTION 39&.
Theory
Balance of Thick Wires, both in the Transformer Christie and Felici Arrangements.
of the
with Conducting Core.
SECTION 40.
Investigations concerning LongPreliminary Distance Telephony and Connected Matters. to
115
119
SECTION 41.
Nomenclature Scheme.
Simple
Properties of

the
Ideally Perfect Telegraph Circuit.
124
SECTION 42.
Speed Sending End
of the Current.
Effect of Resistance at the
of the Line.
ment
of
the Steady State
when both Ends
Oscillatory Establishare
shortcircuited.
128
PREECE ON 155 ART. ence of Momentum. Any Number of Distortionless Circuits radiating from a Centre. 146 SECTION 47. 37. ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITY OF OVERGROUND WIRES. True Nature of the Bridge. Abolition of Momenby tum. Complete Problem do of to it. THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.  132 SECTION 44. Effect of a Single Conducting Bridge on an Isolated Wave. SOME NOTES ON THE THEORY OF THE TELEPHONE. Reflection Equality of Impedances. and the Reason. operated upon simultaneously. VII PAGE Reservational Remarks. 36. SECTION 46. LongDistance Telephony. Two Distortionless Circuits of Different Types in Sequence. Conservation of Current at the Bridge. Reflection due to any Terminal Resistance. AND ON HYSTERESIS. Maximum Current. without any Tailing or Distortion in Reception. with Maximum Magnetic Force. 160 ART. 159 ART. Magnetic Reluctance. of Bridges. How not Nonnecessity of Leakage to remoye Distortion under Good Circumstances. The Property of the Persist 141 Cancelling of Reflection by combined Resistance and General Remarks. NOTE 4. and Energy. sistance. Equation of a Tail in a Perfectly Insulated Circuit. Effect of varying the Inductance. W. Division of a Disturbance between several Circuits. Magnetic Resistance. Tails in a Distortional Circuit.CONTENTS. ART. 137 SECTION 45. Perfectly Insulated Circuit of no Re Genesis and Development of a Tail due to Resistance. . Circuit in which the Speed of the Current and the Rate of Attenuation 151 are Variable. The Negative Tail. and Establishment of the Steady State. 39. MR. Effect of a Continuous Distribution of Resistance. etc.     165 168 NOTE 5. Persistence of Electrification. Solutions. and of Effect of any Number Uniformly Distributed Leakage. SECTION 43. H. Insulation. 38. Maximum Loss of Energy in BridgeCoil. Effect of Intermediate Resistance: Transmitted and Reflected Waves. NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE.
Viscous Fluid Analogy. The Differential Equations and Normal Solutions. Arbitrary Initial State. 172 Application of the General Equations to a Round Wire with Coaxial ReturnTube. Extension of General Theory to two Coaxial Conducting Tubes. Impressed Voltage.H. Professor Hughes' s Experiments. 204 . The Flux of Energy. of 175 Simplifications. cal Solution. 197  Note on the Investigation of SimpleHarmonic States. PART 2. 178 Magnetic Theory of Ignored Dielectric Displacement.  195 Derivation of Details from the Solution for the Total Current. ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Variations of Magnetic Theory Impressed Voltage 183 and resulting Current. Establishment of Current in a Wire.  pedance. Remarks on the Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves along Wires outside them. PART 1. of Arbitrary Functions in 201 The Conjugate Property U^. 198 PART 3. in a Dynamical System 202  Application to the General Electromagnetic Equations.  Train of Waves due to S. Also Return of no Resistance. Previous  186 Ways of treating the subject of Propagation  along Wires. 40.T1Z with Linear Connections. PAGE ART.vfii ELECTRICAL PAPERS. 181 of S. 190 192 The Effective Resistance and Inductance of Tubes.H. 203 Application to any Electromagnetic Arrangements subject to V = ZC.   168 New (Duplex) Method of Treating the Electromagnetic Equations. Remarks on the Expansion Series. Tendency to Surface Concentration. Electrical Interpretation of the Differential Equations. Practi 194 Fluctuations in the Im Effects of Quasi Resonance. Thin Return Tube Constant Resis tance. and Practical Simplification in terms of Voltage 185 V Current C. and the Penetration of Current into Wires.
and Elastic Yielding to the same without Elastic Yielding.  234 Transition from the Case of Eesistance. 219 220 Extension to a Pair of Parallel Wires. Examination for of Energy Properties. A Special Initial  212 The Effect of Longitudinal Impressed Electric Force in the Circuit. Failure to obtain Solutions in Terms of Fand (7. 235 . except when Terminal Conditions are F<7 = 0. S. 231 Transition from the Case of Eesistance. 221 Extension of the Practical System to Heterogeneous Circuits. to make a Practical Working System of V and G 218 Connections. 229 Fourier Functions. and Elastic Yielding to the same without Inertia.CONTENTS. How PART 4. Orthogonal. etc. Inertia. 215 217 Special Cases of Impressed Force. are Constants.  when the Electric Displacement 208 Coaxial Tubes with Displacement allowed for. of Initial State to suit the Expansion Terminal Conditions. L are Func though not of p. Homogeneous Circuit. Determination of Size of Normal Systems of ix PAGE V and G to express Initial State. Negligible. Terminal Arrangements. tions of z. S. Varying Resistance. Lines of Electric and Magnetic Force strictly of Conductors. of a Circuit of V and G 225 Explicit Example Bessel Functions. on account Flux in the Conductors. due to an Arbitrary Distribusubject to any Terminal Conditions.  222 The Solution tion of e. Inertia. irrespective of Form of Section Constant Speed of Propagation.ZG. State. of the Longitudinal Energy 210 Verification by Direct Integrations. or when there are no Terminals. Practical of Working System in terms of V and G admitting Terminal Conditions of the Form V. The Condenser Method. Effect of Perfect Conductivity of Parallel Straight Conductors. Effect of Energy in 207 is is Case of Coaxial Tubes when the Current Also Longitudinal. or to a Single Wire. Complete Solutions obtainable with any Terminal Arrangements provided 7?. with "Constants" varying from place to place. L 206 Complete Solutions obtainable when R.
Disturbances produced by Metal. with closefitting ReturnCurrent.   273 Inductance of a Solenoid. Equivalence of  Nonconducting Iron to Selfinduction. The Theory Characteristic Function of the Christie and its Properties. The LongCable Solution. and the Calibration of an Induetometer. Full. Special Details concerning the above. General Theory of the Christie Balance with Self and Mutual Induction all over. Inad equacy of S. with the Electric Current longitudinal. St.  254 General Remarks on the Christie considered as an Induction Balance. . 277 The Christie Balance of Resistance. 269 The Diffusion .   258 Balance of Selfinduction. PAGE On Telephony by Magnetic Circuits. The General 245 Derivation of the General Formula for the Amplitude of Current at the End remote from the Impressed Force. Venant's Solutions relating to the Torsion of Prisms applied to the Problem of Magnetic Induction in and with Metal Rods. of Quickening Effect Leakage. closefitting ReturnCurrent.Effect. of the Three 284 . Properties of the 252 Some PART 6. Effect of a Periodic Impressed Force acting at one end of a 243 Telegraph Circuit with any Terminal Conditions.  265 Some Peculiarities of Selfinduction Balances.  256 Conjugacy of Two Conductors in a Connected System. 240 Subsidence of initially Uniform Current in a Rod of Rectangular Section. Reduction Conditions of Balance to Two. with the Current Longitudinal and the Corresponding Formulae when the Induction is Longitudinal.  Influence between Distant  237 PART 5. 248 The Effective Resistance and Inductance of the Terminal 250 Arrangements.ELECTRICAL PAPERS. with Magnetic Induction ignored. Terminal Functions. Variations to represent Intermittences. 262 Remarks on the Practical Use of Induction Balances. 281 Examination of Special Cases.Sized and Reduced Copies. Solution. The Effective Resistance and Inductance pf Round Wires at a given Frequency. Magnetic and Nonmagnetic.H. and 280 Inductance. Permittance.
42. The Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves along Wires  without Distortion. of and Effect  Terminal Reflection and Absorption. .. On the Measure of the Permittance and Retardation of Closed Metallic Circuits. ESPECIALLY IN CONNECTION WITH ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC ENERGY. Telephony.. Condenser and Coil Balance.  302 PART 8.. B. (5). Kf. III. Effects of Mutual Induc. the Propagation of Signals along Wires of Low Resistance. ART.   323 On Telephone On Lines (Metallic Circuits) considered as InductionBalances.  General  294 Note on Part Conditions. ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS.. Similar Systems.  307 Properties of the Distortionless Circuit itself. (4). Vibrations.. Miscellaneous Arrangements. ART. 286 289 PART 7. 339 ON RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. relat 359 . AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. C. of 311 Effect Resistance and  Conducting  Bridges Inter mediately Inserted.   355 #'. (1). Treatment of Terminal InductionCoil and Condenser. especially in reference to LongDistance 334 APP. and consequent  Limitations of Application. xi PAGE . INDUCTANCE AND PERMITTANCE.  Approximate Method of following the Growth and the Transmission of Distorted Waves. VI. tion between the Branches. APP. Reduction of Coils in Parallel to a Single Coil. Inequalities. and 356 Impulsive Inductance and Permittance.H. General Theorem  ing to the Electric and Magnetic Energies. S. 41. L'. in the Quadrilateral. 290 The Christie Balance of Kesistance. 318 322 Conditions Regulating the Improvement of Transmission. General Nature of the Operators. .. (3). APP. of 297 Some Notes on Part Interferences due to Looped Metallic Circuits. 315 of Tails. Some Notes on Part (2).CONTENTS. 292 Impressed Voltage Property of a Linear Network. Self and Mutual 291  Induction. A. and the effective R'. Example IV.
Waves.     393 PART 2.  409 414 . Identi 384 385 Infinite Series of Reflected ties... Spherical Sheet of Radial Impressed Force. True Nature of Diffusion in Conductors. 387 Certain  Modifications made by Terminal Apparatus. Remarkable Realized Example. 371 ON ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. . 376 Waves in a Conducting Dielectric. Sinusoidal.  The Velocity of Electricity.  . ESPECIALLY IN RELATION TO THE VORTICITY OF THE IMPRESSED FORCES AND THE FORCED VIBRATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS.. Note on Part The Function of Selfinduction in the  Propagation of Waves along Wires.   Distorted Plane Waves   Effect of Impressed Force.. 361 Examples of the Forced Vibrations of Electromagnetic Systems.   Construction of the Differential Equations connected with a Spherical Sheet of Vorticity of Impressed Force. Summary of Electromagnetic Connections.    375 Plane Sheets of Impressed Force in a Nonconducting Dielectric..  396 402 403 PART 3. The Electromagnetic Theory The of Light. Beneficial Effect of SelfInduction.   Distortionless Telegraph Circuit. .  Cases easily brought to Full Realization.. 43.  390 392 393 Note A.  . How to Distortion due to the Conductivity.   363 366 367 369 InductionBalances General.xii ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and Impulsive. 406 Uniform Impressed Force in the Sphere. Spherical Electromagnetic Waves. remove the  378 379 379 381 Undistorted Plane Waves in a Conducting Dielectric. Imitation of this Effect. PART 1. of the ResistanceOperator in The Use ART.  Practical Application. Practical Problem..   NoteB.    The Simplest Spherical Waves. PAGE General Theorem of Dependence of Disturbances solely on the Curl of the Impressed Forcive.. 1. in a Conducting Dielectric. Normal Solutions. of The Resistance Operator The a Telegraph Circuit. Note C.
441 442 Alternating/ with Reflecting Barriers... Single Circular Vortex Line.  420 422  423 PART 4. The Steady Magnetic Field due to /Constant. . 436 Construction of the Operators y1 and y . 433 Sinusoidal Solution.. 435 Wave sent along a Wire. = l. 425 425 Variable State when pj .. a Case. Current in Sphere constrained to be uniform.  Second Case..      417 418 Alternating Impressed Forces.. 425  Unequal Fuller p1 and p2 General Case.     Two Coaxial Tubes. Subsiding/. Spherical "Waves (with Diffusion) in a Conducting 424  Dielectric. PART 5. m = 1.. /constant. / Constant. .  Same Case with Finite Conductivity. Circu Complex Keflexion.  443 Mathematical Preliminary. Special very Simple Case. xiii PAGE 414 wi An Electromotive Impulse. 444 447 448 449 Vanishing of External Field.= p2 . Conducting Medium. in a Thin Conducting Tube. of Impressed Force in 432 Conducting Sphere in a Nonconducting Dielectric..  438 439 Thin Metal Screens. Case of J0a = 0. 429 Effect of uniformly magnetizing a Conducting Sphere surrounded by a Nonconducting Dielectric. in 426 Special Development involving Irrational Operators.. Longitudinal Impressed E. . 440 K x = oo .M..      . . Solution with Outer Screen . A Conducting Dielectric.  m = 1.F.. Diffusion of   430 Waves from a Centre a Conducting Medium.CONTENTS. First Case. Cylindrical Electromagnetic Waves. Resistance at the Front of a Reflecting Barriers. lar Vorticity of e. Forced Vibrations. Theorems 427  The Electric Force at the Origin due iofv at r = a.
Its Effects.   Cylindrical Surface of Longitudinal /. and of F and H also 452 internally. 451 # .   473 474 (17).xiv ELECTRICAL PAPERS. 44. AND THE FORMULAE FOR PLANE WAVES. First Special Case. 470 471  Second Special Case.  468 469 469 Persistence or Subsidence of Polar Fields. 472 473  Primitive Solutions for Plane Waves.9 = 0. Calculation of Wave.  455 Filament of curl e.  s=0. = 0. Cylinder of Longitudinal curl of e in a Dielectric.. 470 Distortionless Cases.  Transformation of the Primitive Solutions Special Initial States.  Unbounded Medium.. Cylindrical Surface of Circular curl e in a Dielectric.  458 459 459 e. ART. and t.    456 457 PART 6. Vanishing  451 = of E all over. Vanishing of External Field.s = and #. and #=oo.  452 Separate Actions of the 453 454  Circular Impressed Force in ConductingTube. FourierIntegrals. .   475 476 . Vanishing of External E. PAGE Perfectly Reflecting Barrier. . 466 e Circular. Vanishing of  Conduction Current. Impressed Forces.  Jla = 0. General Solutions. a Function of Conducting Tube. Equations of the Field. Two Surfaces of curl e.. . ESPECIALLY IN REGARD TO THE DERIVATION OF SPECIAL SOLUTIONS. y= i. a Function of and*.  467 THE GENERAL SOLUTION OF MAXWELL'S ELECTROMAGNETIC EQUATIONS IN A HOMOGENEOUS ISOTROPIC MEDIUM. Effect of suddenly Starting a Filament of 460 461 Sudden Starting of e longitudinal in a Cylinder. Circuital Distributions.
 490 492 494 A Charge moving at any Speed < v.   519 . PRACTICE WAVES. LIGHTNING DISCHARGES. 49. A Charged Straight Line moving Transversely. ART.   516 517 517 . 510 Application to  511 The Motion The State of The Connecting Equations. Convection Currents.CONTENT.. a Telegraph Circuit. A Charged Plane moving in its own Plane. 50.  486 VERSUS  THEORY. Physical Inanity of ^. 4. Eolotropic Analogy. A Charged Plane moving Tranversely. Plane Wave. On the Metaphysical Nature of the Propagation of the Potentials.  496 THE MUTUAL ACTION OF A PAIR OF RATIONAL CURRENTELEMENTS. xv PAGE Arbitrary Initial States. THE PROPAGATION OF POTENTIAL. ART. 48. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES.. 505 508 General Theory of Convection Currents. AND THE ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF A MOVING CHARGE. The Propagation of Potential.. 477 478 479 POSTCRIPT. a Charged Sphere. 504  The Energy and Forces in the Case of Slow Motion. 500 ART.. 4G. CIR502 ART. PART ART.  Evaluation of FourierIntegrals. 45. THE INDUCTANCE OF UNCLOSED CONDUCTIVE CUITS... Special Tests. The Condition    513 at a Surface of Equilibrium (Footnote). Limiting Case of Motion at the Speed of Light. 3. PART PART PART 1. 2... ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS DUE TO THE MOTION OF ELECTRIFICATION THROUGH A DIELECTRIC. 483 ETC.. Theory of the Slow Motion of a Charge. Complete Solution in the Case of Steady Rectilinear Motion. ...  . Interpretation of Results. . ELECTROMAGNETIC 488 ART. 515  A Charged Straight Line moving in its own Line. 47. 514  when the Speed of Light is exceeded.
DEFLECTION OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE BY MOTION OF THE MEDIUM. Form of StressVector. . 575 INDEX. Remarks on the Translational Force Static Consideration of the Stresses. Intrinsic Magnetization 573  THE POSITION OF 4?r IN ELECTROMAGNETIC UNITS. Stresses. 51. especially on the Flux Energy. ON THE FORCES. AND FLUXES OF ENERGY IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.. 53. 548 Shorter Way of going Energy. ABT.. .   Special Kinds of Stress Formulae statically suggested. . and their Activities. STRESSES. (Abstract). Stresses. in Free Ether. 556 557 558 561 Indeterminateness..  533 539 541 The Electromagnetic Equations in a of of Moving Medium.  519 ABT. PAGE ART. Flux Establishment of Moving Medium. Stress only obtainable by Kinetic Consideration of the Circuital Equations and Storage and Flux of Energy. Preservation Stresses of Type of the Flux of Energy Formula. in a Stationary in a The Electromagnetic Flux Examination of the Energy Medium. and Application to the Surface separating two Regions. 570 Example of the above. to the Flux of 550 552 Some Remarks on Modified Hertz's Investigation relating to the Stresses. 554 Quaternionic Form of StressVector.  Remarks on Maxwell's General Stress 563 A workedout Example to exhibit the Forcives contained in Different Stresses.  568 Extension of the Kinetic Method of arriving at the to cases of Nonlinear Connection between the Electric and Magnetic Forces and the Fluxes. from the Circuital Equations and Forces.xvi ELECTRICAL PAPERS. 52. and Energy " the Measure of " True Current.  565 A Definite APPENDIX.. Outline of Author's System. and Remarks on when there is Hysteresis. irrotational 528 On and rotational. 579 .   521 of General Remarks.   524 On the Algebra and Analysis of Vectors without Quaternions. 543 Derivation of the Electric and Magnetic Stresses and Forces from the Flux of Energy..
E. the electric displaceplane wave requires that there be none. 397. or lines of parallelism of magnetic force and induction. June. p. but eolotropic as regards permeability. electric to magnetic force. ii. perpendicular to the electric force. the electric force.ELECTRICAL PAPERS. VOL. and are The magnetic force and induction are perpendicular to one another. cannot. [PhU. each with separate electromagnetic variables to which the above remarks apply. 1885. whilst the electric force. that if we consider the dielectric to be isotropic as regards capacity. parallelism of electric force and displacement. or lines of of the magnetic force. May. (c/* 2 )i.P. if c is the constant value are the three principal permeabilities. 794) that his equations of electromagnetic disturbances.] (Electricity and Magnetism. 5. the normal to the wavefront. be assumed to have any necessary relation to the principal axes of permeability. It is easily proved. ^ The wavesurface constants.. H. vol. XXXI. S. and The three principal displacement to magnetic induction. on account of the constant permeability. and it may be legitimately inferred without a formal demonstration. art. ignored wave of normal disturbance. ii. and the magnetic induction another linear function The principal axes of capacity. velocities will be (c/Xj)*. because the very existence of a In fact. parallel. of the capacity. in the general case. and /x p fj. the same general results will follow. is yet perpendicular to the magnetic induction (and force) . though not parallel to the displacement. 19.2 if we electric . only differing in the But a dielectric may be eolotropic both as regards capacity and The electric displacement is then a linear function of permeability. and the displacement being in one plane. MAXWELL showed translate capacity to permeability.. ment and the magnetic induction are both in the wavefront. A . from a consideration of the equations of induction. the electric force. lead to the There is no obscurity arising from the Fresnel form of wavesurface. vol. There are of course two rays for (in general) every direction of wavenormal. will be of the same character. and (cfi 3 )t. ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE.. on the assumption that the electric capacity varies in different directions in a crystal. The ray is also in this plane.
. and the two normal velocities are (^3)'* and (c^.. and only convertible to the former expression by long . Nearly all our equations are symmetrical with respect to capacity and so that for every equation containing some electric permeability variables there is a corresponding one to be got by exchanging electric force and magnetic force. arid the ^ wavenormal . perpendicular to the normal. If we have to rotate the plane to bring through the normal and the magnetic force through an angle it to coincide with the magnetic induction. If either be constant. And in the two rays having a common direction. In the two waves having a common wavenormal. and the electric force perpendicular to the magnetic induction. the other principal axes are the directions of induction and displacement. are eliminated. the axis of rotation being the normal itself. inductions.. i. /* or c Perhaps the most important case besides these is that in which the There principal axes of permeability are parallel to those of capacity. The magnetic force is always perpendicular to the electric displacement. Disconnecting the matter altogether from the hypothesis that light consists of electromagnetic vibrations. In any ray the electric force and the magnetic force are both perpendicular to the direction of the ray. we shall inquire into the conditions of propagation of plane electromagnetic waves in a dielectric which is eolotropic as regards both capacity and permeability. For and c 1? c 2 c 3 are the principal permeabilities and instance. In any wave (plane) the electric displacement and the magnetic induction must be always in the wavefront. And for any direction of ray there are in general two rayvelocities. ^ . This of course applies to either wave. we must rotate the plane through the normal and the electric displacement through the same in the same direction to bring it to coincide with the electric angle force.e. be parallel to the common axis of and Cj. . i. and determine the equation to the wavesurface. we have the Fresnel wavesurface. although its immediate Cartesian expansion after the exchange may be entirely different. these may be exchanged in any formula without altering its meaning. etc. the displacement of either is parallel to the induction of the other. understood) there are in general two normal velocities. if /x 15 ^ 2 of a as well as . two parallel rays having different velocities and wavefronts. leaving only capacities and permeabilities. the magnetic force of either is parallel to the electric force of the other.2 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. But they are only exceptionally perpendicular to one another. processes. are then six principal velocities instead of only three. And when the forces. there are two rays differently inclined to the normal whose rayvelocities and normal wavevelocities are different. etc. But they are only exceptionally perpendicular to one another. i.e. For any direction of the normal (to the wavefront.. for the velocity wave depends upon the capacity in the direction of displacement upon the permeability in the direction of induction.e.2 }~^ The principal sections of the wavesurface in this case are all ellipses capacities.
The investigation is thus a Cartesian one modified by certain simple abbreviated modes of expression. But should the ratio of the capacity to the permeability be the same for all the axes (/V^ = /* 2 /c 2 = line is />i 3 /c 3 ). In fact the transition from the velocityequation to the wavesurface by proper elimination would. as in the onesided Fresnelwave) and two of these ellipses always cross. the investigation is made independent of quaternions by simply defining a scalar product to be so and so. products which occur in the scalar product of two vectors. or at any rate by some kind of shorthand algebra. If to this we further add the use of the vector product of two vectors. the wavesurface reduces to a single axis. Owing to the extraordinary complexity of the investigation when written out in Cartesian form (which I began doing. thus avoiding some extremely obscure and quasimetaphysical reasoning. It is a matter of great practical importance that the notation should be such as to harmonize with Cartesian formulse. systematized. and next. the negative sign being the cause of the greatest inconvenience in transitions. . by writing only one of the three Cartesian scalar equations corresponding to the single vector equation. In fact every analyst to a certain extent adopts them first. If the ratio There is but one velocity. by writing the first only of the three This. is ellipsoid. leaving the others to be inferred . which is easily done. I therefore adopt. the method of vectors. baffle any ordinary algebraist. nearly indispensable. the third is an optic axis. as applied to Physics. 3 (instead of ellipses and circles. and we have just what is wanted in the tridimensional analytical investigations of electromagnetism. I think. with some simplification. that scalar and vector products should be defined to mean such or such combinations. giving two axes of singleray velocity. I may also add. But some of the principal results will be fully expanded in Cartesian form. which is The first quite unnecessary. unassisted by some higher method. I further think that Quaternions. with its numerous letter prefixes. and especially by the S before every scalar product. with its numerous vector magni: tudes. is I think the proper and natural way in which quaternion methods should be gradually brought in. should be established more by definition than at present . immensely increased power is given. which seems indeed the only proper method. and any an optic no particular polarization. as is often required in mixed investigaThis condition does not appear to tions. without changing notation. some abbreviated method of expression becomes desirable. owing to the great difficulty in making out the meaning and mutual connections of very complex formulae. and the same for two of the axes. and a vector product so and so. so that we can pass from one to the other readily. three sections of the following preliminary contain all we . I have long been of opinion that the sooner the much needed introduction of quaternion methods into practical mathematical investigations in Physics takes place the better.ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE. but gave up aghast). And since all our equations will be either wholly scalar or wholly vector. me to be attained by Professor Tait's notation.
. the component of A. which. .. J2 = l. may be repreLet v sented. forces. parallel to N. . =0.. if n in number.. 3.. be rectangular vectors of unit 3. Then the above equation notation saves multiplication of letters... and much lengthen the work.. k.. =o. for instance... briefly..have the ordinary algebraic quantity... . we have the general form A + B + C + D+ where A. p .. that  The negatives length.. i.... were they given later... 3. stands for the three scalar equations ... angle between them. 2 ... or.. is the scalar component of being any unit vector. We define AB thus. jk = 0. etc. k respectively... would inconveniently interrupt the argument. Its magnitude is x that of B x the cosine of the Thus. k... have also AB = BA. 3 is. lt 2... or Scalars and Vectors. its direction is.are to be understood as compounding like velocities.. (1) A v A A be the components of A referred to the axes of That A is the sum of the three vectors iA JA kA of j.. a mere magnitude . since their sum is zero... because i and i are parallel and of length unity. if i. etc. ^ = Aj.. In a scalar equation every term is a scalar. k* = l...A . (2) and call it that of A and the scalar product of the vectors and B. tiralar Product.. A A A  .... A* A3 and A or A" 1 A~ .A .. or directed magnitude.. lengths A A A parallel to j.. are perpendicular. and similarly for the other vectors. 2.. 3 and A in general. . Putting all vectors upon one side.... 2 ^ = Ak. its sign before a vector simply reverses three components. are any vectors. According to the above. Notice that We i and j. A = \A^ +JA + 1s. And = 0. =o. by the n sides of a polygon.. lt 2.. AN N 2 =l. ij because = 0. and + and But in a vector equation eve :y term stands for a vector. . A by (1) ^= N i Ai. and + and . . in the electromagnetic problem. signification. ki etc. want as regards definitions most of the rest of the preliminary consists of developments and referenceformula?. B. i.. which. . we have if j.4 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Similarly.. be the three ordinary scalar components of referred to any Aft 3 This set of three rectangular axes. (2).
the vector element of the curve. the vector product dy dz J ti \ dz dx J \dx dy The the divergence of the vector A.... by (2)........ if it be a flux.. the direction being reversed by reversing the order of the letters ...VBA... by exchanging A and B in (3). Hamilton's VThe operator may. of course with either a scalar or a vector to follow it.... . If it operate on a scalar P we have the vector "* etc. . Notice that VAB = .. since the differentiations are scalar. and A that of x that of B x the sine of the Its direction is angle between them. the rise from any point to another is expressed in (8) as the lineintegral. Its lineintegral round in its value A . Vki=j.. which will occur below. the amount The vector product (7) is the leaving the unit volume.... There are three remarkable theorems scalar product is VA relating to V.ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE...... of VPda.. Its magnitude is s 3 2) 2 .A B + XA& . VAB . system). (3) A Vrj=k.A&) + k(^ .. viz.. for.. let be any vector function of position (singlevalued... Vector Product... we negative each term. <> we whose three components are dP/dx.AJ}^ call VAB the vector product of A and B. and to B with the usual conventional relation perpendicular to between positive directions of translation and of rotation (the vine Thus. its length is the reciprocal of that of A. (8) (9) (10) Starting with P. a singlevalued scalar function of position. Vjk = i. and.. Thus A" has the same 1 5 direction as A. the scalar product of VP and da.. curl of A..... be treated as a vector.....i(AJB . along any line joining the points. the scalar product If it operate on a vector A.. Then passing from an unclosed to a closed curve.. by (3). have. We define VAB thus. of course)....
. and J5j. in a manner fully defined by (in case we want Let the developments) the following equations (not otherwise needed). /Xj. shall not alter the form of the above equations in the case of For instance. and D = c. ... If H be the magnetic force at a point.. induction will always be /xH.. is the scalar product of B and the vector element of surface f/S. got from another vector. by cyclical changes of In the indexsurface the operators are inverse to those in A The following property will occur frequently. B the induction.'th /* But when referred to any rectangular axes. ... be written down symmetrically. whose direction is defined by its unit normal.. passing from an unclosed to a closed surface. the components are those referred to the principal axes of perthe principal permeabilities. If it be isotropic as regards displacement..... we have H = /x~ 1 B........ as the volumeintegral of its divergence within the included space. we have x by solution of The rest may the figures.. and B being any vectors.. The accents belong to the inverse coefficients.. all positive.E/47r . /x 2 /x 3 being Inverse Operators.. when c and p become linear operators... *'.. c is the electric capacity . **i ri = ... and if it be isotropic as regards induction. Or. which = VvA... Conjugate Property. and B referred to any .. the closed curve is expressed in (9) as the surfaceintegral over any Bc?S surface bounded by the curve of another vector B. the wave surface. E the electric force..... not making when meability. then B=/*H. to be understood as a definite vector. are constants. the eolotropy. or scalar functions of position if it be heterogeneous. if the medium be homogeneous... (16) ... we have operator inverse to /x.. /x is the magnetic permeability c and /x are then constants. . and D the displacement. all vectors.. Finally. (11) express the relation of B to H and of D to E in a dielectric medium. /... ..6 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. (12).. Linear Vector Operators...... Then B l (12) where /* HB u .... with the identities may have any values = /x 21 etc. etc... where /x" 1 is the When referred to the principal axes. (10) expresses the surfaceintegral of any vector C over the closed surface (normal positive outward). which /x 12 negative. We H H H rectangular axes.. be the components of lt .. Since B = /xH.
.. c la> . or. where in the first line etc. The following very useful.. C VAVBC = B(CA)C(AB) . adapted from that given by and B. Therefore and A/x/*iVAB = 0...... The following important theorem will be required.. by definition of a scalar product.. etc.. A.. arid it will be found to be independent of what vectors A.. (17) A AVAB = 0. therefore For completeness a proof is inserted... Here CA . which results from the identities /x 12 = /x 91 etc. B. etc. C may be.. 7 or the scalar product of and pJB equals that of B and /*A.. k.. that VAB is perpendicular to /xA and Or is where h a scalar. being any vectors. evident on expansion. B expressed in terms of E similarly to (12) by coefficients by the principal capacities c v c 2 c 3 Theorem. B. .. . as in (13). Choose them then to be i. is TransformationFormula.. Since VAB product.... k properties before mentioned. c is . by definition of a vector perpendicular to is /y^VAB^V/iA/iB now .. j.... . merely set in brackets to separate This formula is distinctly from the vectors B and C they multiply.. another selfconjugate operator. .. It only requires writing out the full scalar products to see its truth. by the conjugate property to /*B. .ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE. Similarly. = 1.... Or to by operating by /x... j.. Now expand this quotient of two scalar products.. A and Tait. (18) and AB are scalar products. This proves (17).. /*~ = 0. giving therefore >' by the conjugate property. AB = A/z/x^B = /zA/^B. A A/xcB = /zAcB = c/xAB...... by the i.. being any vectors. /xB/x!VAB 1 0. and B VAB = 0. and is. three unit vectors parallel to Then the principal axes of /x.. Hence by introducing w~ l B/^VAB = 0. To find h.... D is c n . multiply by any third vector C (not be in the same plane as A and B)..
. And if there be impressed electric force in the dielectric..... the electric energy.. may be written in the two ways If there be electrification. 467] curlZ = cE.(20) and /z for as defined in equation (7).. if there be no electrification.... (21o) potential of the magnetic we may make a vector Z the vector p.. and The Equations of Induction. p.... .. c ... as at present.. signifies differentiation to the time..... current. the disturbance is assumed not to change direction. (22) The complete magnetic energy of any current system may...... and the magnetic energy H/xH/87r If is Maxwell's vector potential of the electric per unit volume..... . such that [vol.. or the component parallel to the normal of the actual velocity of propagation of the disturbance.. in terms of the scalar potential and electrification... forces at a point in a dielectric... equations (22).. Next. magnetic current. but only . velocity of the wavefront.. be expressed in the two ways the 2 indicating summation through all space. as we shall suppose. if the wave be a positive one.. Plane Wave.. the rate the disturbance travels along the normal.. as usual. Let then N be the vector normal of unit If v be the length. by a wellknown transformation. (21) The electric dot.... analogous to the imaginary electric current which may replace a system of intrinsic magnetization. giving < 23 > applied to H or E.... Its direction is defined by its normal.. part of will G be imaginary magnetic current. examine what the operator VV or curl becomes when. I. we have also curlA = /*H. I. then VV being the capacity and permeability operators..ELECTRICAL PAPERS. EcE/87r per unit volume. the [vol......... and curl standing Let T and G be the electric and the r = cE/47r... A current. H= Z ......... we have K=f(zvt).. E=A .. ... the real electrostatic energy... 449.. Let there be a plane wave in the medium. we have also another term to add.. and z be distance measured along the normal... Similarly.. Similarly.......... The energy is G = /uH/47r . (23)] E H being the electric and magnetic two equations of induction are />iH..
.... Then... whose length is the reciprocal of the normal velocity v. (9 to the 9) Wave front and the two sides b contribute nothing to the lineintegral..ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE.......E = c~ l VsH therefore cE = . be a vector parallel to the normal. they become E H VN dz Here... (26) The induction and the displacement are therefore necessarily in the wave front. by the definition of a vector product.. curl we find that = VN^. y is g ... and occurs on both sides. and b = dz sin 6.. the notation thus : . since the ^differentiation = dz is scalar.... and Now therefore VsE.. Let * IndexSurface... in the case of a plane wave.... (25) VNE= ^H .VsH... being perpendicular to Also the displacement is perpendicular to the magnetic force.. and a is a.. (20)..... the induction is perpendicular to the electric force...... Since its area is ab. and N.. I have changed is b . and or or other vectors... (24) applied to this. Using (23)... if /xH= (29) * [In order to secure the advantage of black letters for vectors..... ... and two sides of length b perpendicular to E and in the same plane as E and the normal N.. Apply the theorem of Version elementary rectangular area bounded by two sides parallel to E of length a. By (25) and (26) we have . in the equations of induction (19). use the theorem (17)... It is the vector of the indexsurface... 9 magnitude.. as we pass along the normal. giving us VNH= wE.. .] The original <r is now s p is r . it may be dropped. (28) .
. giving . (35) .. otherwise it had better not be done at all.. Thus........... we have by (37). care should be taken to do it properly... and the left c and the right Operate by and then again by {} +1 thus cancelling the j}" 1 giving //.... and transfer Operate by c on (37) and by denominators on the right... {(s^s)/xmc}E = /xs(s/> E)..... the theorem gives...... ..) t it may be moved inside..s)//............... .. ..... /xs = {(s//...... (33a) ... applied to (28) and (29)........... t Put in this form...... (32) Putting the value of of E given by (31) in H given by (32) in (28) first...10 ELECTRICAL PAPERS..me (37) JL = __^_ scH //..... (scs)c  (38) all np. (31) wH = V/xs/xE ..... ...... .... (340) where the bracketed quantities are scalar products..... and then the value (29)............. in thus transferring operators.............. E s/uE (s/iS)/x ............. {(scs)c7i/t*}H=es(scH).... giving and now operating by p~ l as in (39).. giving mcE = /xs(s^E)/xE(s/xs)... .. (36) and perform on them the inverse operations to those contained in the Then {}'s...w/*H = cs(scH) cH(scs)... .. . Then operators to the X** say > .... mc}c~ l lo r Here we can move c" 1 inside. are to go inside the {}...... .. be the products of the principal permeabilities and capacities.. ... on (38)...... (39) (40) (It should be noted that.. (33) (34) To and these apply the transformationformula (18).. we have ... dividing also by the scalar products on the right sides...........
to the normal.. (41) where bj and b 2 are the above .. 1 and on (40) by Sty*" 1 and the Also. By (33ft).. Put s = Ni'" 1 in any form of indexequation. tl We equation as we please... a quadratic in v giving the two velocities of the wavefront.... and so can now.... (41) and (42) are the More complex forms are created with that surprising simplest forms. Hence We 8b 1 = 0....... expression. ease which is characteristic of these operators but we do not want any When expanded. remembering that s is parallel to the normal....... This is also true of the corresponding Fresnel surface. And if we pub N# = p.. get as many forms of the indexknow that the displacement is perpendicular is the induction. the different forms look very different.. d3/xib 2 =l ... (39) and (40). are two left equivalent equations of the indexsurface. and no more... hence ... one would think they represented the same surface. sb 2 = 0.. tangentplane to the wavesurface... and we have the velocity2 equation.. we see that .. by (39) and (40).. (42) two other forms of the indexequation..ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE. which is comparatively simple in In any equation we may exchange the operators /x and c. operate on (39) by s/wr members become unity. it will be the vector of the surface which is the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin upon the are . by the conjugate property . in . l f*&c \= l. thus making p a vector parallel to the normal of length equal to the velocity.... vectors...
.... the other from the indexThe latter is rather the easier.12 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. This will not be wondered at when the Professor similar investigations of the Fresnel surface are referred to.... (52) = (42) bis which will assist later. (48) To find the wavesurface............. neither being constant. {(scs)/*" nc~ }~ have not found an easy proof.. 1 1 . .1 b 1 . We have also /KSe !)^!...2m(db /*.(56) . s tib 1 ) .....b 1 )42(s/xs)0b 1 c................ in his "Quaternions........1 b ) ....... of indexequation giving a corresponding form of wave by inversion of That it is operators......... da = 2(ds/zs)c~ 1 b 1 + (BftB)rfc~ 1 b 1 .... t 1 b 1 w/>i. The obvious...... but cannot be said to be very equation. 20s/>ts)(b 1 c........ (51) = (48) and get an equation in 1 r. Given * 1 1 ^ ... or shorter.. (49) = (39) to (41) to bis 8^ = 0... any form eliminate ..mdfjL' ^ 1 .......................1 b )m(b By differentiation.. and therefore b x also...... by (47).... except of course by omission of steps.. and multiplying this by 2b x gives b l ).. (50) rs=l . Eliminate s .. nor does either of them admit of much simplification.." gives two methods of finding the wavesurface . . differentiating (53). true when one of the operators c or p is a constant does not prove that it is also true when we have the inverse compound operator l 1 1 I containing both c and /z........ s the vector of the indexsurface it But being = Nv" = p#~ 2 we 1 .b 1 ) 1 1 (55) Also.. have.......... one from the velocityequation... between (48) and any one of the indexequations..... I believe the following transition from index to wave cannot be made more direct.... difficulty is of course considerably multiplied when we have the two operators to reckon with...... By (49) we have S = (s/>ts)c.. General considerations may lead us to the conclusion that the equation to the wavesurface and that to the indexsurface may be turned one into the other by the simple process of inverting the operators. it we must therefore let 8 be variable and This is not so easy as it may appear.... Tait. yet it must be admitted that this requires proof... which is not a real shortening.. turning l c into c~ l and ^ into p~ Although this will be verified later... (54) = being variable....... sr=l ....... dividing by ^. (53) Multiply by bj and use (50) then 1 1/J = (s/> sXb lC ..
.... and that da^a is the scalar product of da etc.... Thus. (57) In the last five equations it will be understood that da and db... we arrive at r/A ib 2 = 0... the corresponding H instead of (49).. to And from (62)... .... (50)....... = ............. or. with of course the same equation (51) connecting r and a..... (63) The ray corresponding to (61). or is rH = 0.. (62) h' being a constant.............. corresponding to (59) . is now thus perpendicular both to the The first half of the demonstration completed........ (60) by (49). and (52) equations. we rc^b^O..... But by (51) we also have. h =   ........... also in getting (56) from the preceding equation we have and /xs. a scalar... multiplying it by ft~ 1 b 2 make (39) become (40). 13 thus obtaining or {b 1 1 (b 1 c... giving \ in terms of cE............ Now (57) shows that the vector in the {} is perpendicular to da. where k obtain is .... This gives (59) hr^^c^a.b 1 )/xs}^s = . .. are differential vectors... ..... the variation of a. rE = 0..... .ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE.... on differentiation.... other properties.. rds with db x eliminated.. (58) Hence r and the { } vector in (57) must be parallel...... and use (50) and (51) then ..... but before giving the second half we may notice some h'.. the expression of the result of differentiating (50).. to determine the values of the scalar constants h and Multiply (59) by a.... as it amounts to exchanging /x and c and turning E into H..... we should have arrived at &'r = b2 (b 2/Mib 2 )cs............... force. of this no separate proof is needed..... is (61) The ray perpendicular to the electric Similarly.... .. Subtract (55) from (56) and halve the result ........ If we multiply this by c~ l \ and use (52).. a very important landmark.. \dc~ Equation (57) is l \ = bjC^bj = d\c l \> lt etc................ electric and to the magnetic force........... if we had started from viz.........
..b 2 = IT1 . As.... (66) ' ....... at the commencement. (67) and..... Now............. gives r explicitly in terms of terms of the former by (49). and the getting of an equation between r and s.. or from (64).......... but (61) and (63). considering two parallel rays travelling with different rayvelocities with two differently inclined wavefronts. we may obtain all sorts of scalar products containing r and b 1? and if we could put b x explicitly in terms of r..........to the waveequation. (65) we shall find h'=  ^(bjjeng. Let the direction of the ray............ when we had a single normal with two values of v the normal There should velocity...... ...... then be no difficulty. p/*H... (60) or (65) would be forms of the wavesurface From the purely mathematical point of view no direct way equation. (26) Us we must have two corresponding equations M be a unit vector defining for one raydirection.... then (64) the second form following from (54)....14 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.............. as we got the indexequation from VNH= VNE = roE.... we l shall have Tc... . What to do next is not at all obvious..... guide us at once to the second half of the transformation from the index.. (25) bis .. presents itself. (68) Now to resume the argument..... r/^ib^ Similarly m 1 ....... /*s and b 1? the latter of which is known in 1 Multiply this by fi" ^...... corresponding to (65).. and two rays differently inclined to the normal... Insert in (59)... and r w be the ray velocity........................... From (59). considered physically as well as mathematically... There was no difficulty in reaching the indexequation before.. so now we find that the corresponding forces are perpendicular to the ray. the same with h eliminated. being merely the elimination of the differentials....... according to rule in fact. by parallel reasoning... in arriving at the wavesurface equation from analogous equations which express that the ray is perpendicular to the magnetic and electric forces.... using (50) then ............... stopped at equation (63)... VMVNH= VMVNE= ....... we found the induction and the displacement to be perpendicular to the normal.... Up to equation (59) the work is plain and straightforward........ so that = wM . (69) giving  Operate on (25) and (26) by VM.......
. Similarly.. 15 Now use the formula of transformation (18)... and the two forms (77) analogous to (42)..... these give =E+ which. g l and g 2 differ from b x and b 2 merely in the and The two forms of wave (76) are in the inversion of the operators....... change from two other forms.... giving But HM = N(HM) . (74) _..ifjR 7 =r 1 (rcr !)/* l . become = E + mfi. /x~ rcg 1 = l..... if the wavesurface equation be given and we require that ... analogous to (41)...... ............... successively..... (72) H = VrcE...... we obtain = E + Vr/z VrcE.E(MN) = v and EM = 0.r(c l 1 or. rE = = rH.. = H + VrcVr/xH. ... and.... which are the required analogues of (25) and (26).. we have rg! For. Or _^ TT = r  r =g l.......... .............n~ r c = & sa y ( 75 ) since These give us the four simplest forms of equation to the wave.H(MN) = N(EM) ... Or.... = 0.. say....... Hence (70) (71) ....... by (69). using the theorem (17).. (73) The rest of the work Eliminating E and H is plain.T( = H + wc... as proved before... l Also. or the wavevelocity the normal component of the rayvelocity.... after operating by ^ and  c respectively. ~ l == c.. inverting operators and putting r for s. 1 r/>tg 2 =l..ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE........ using the transformationformula (18). i)mc 1 = /x}E mr(ft~ rcE).. operating on (74) by p~ 1 rc rg 2 = and on (75) by c (76) c" 1 !/* we get (77) a to r. rearranging..... is Also v = w(NN)..... E = Vr/*H are the analogues of (28) and (29)..
....or the wavesurface equations may be written down at once from the scalar product abbreviated expressions. This completes the first half of the process . In the important case of parallelism of the principal axes of capacity and permeability..:..... Some Cartesian Expansions. .. We t X2 2 I/ + h A*i Z2 ~l  ~ ~ ' where In (83) we Similarly the l r/x i = c's Hf*a /*3 /x's.. (78) and (65) and scg 2 =rc...... of (77) gives .. ponents of g r t ..... The following additional useful relations are easily deducible (25) and (26) we get : From ..........2 /* 3 the principal permeabilities in the three comthen have... and p v p......... the full expressions for the index... ig l given in (74).. take the axes of coordinates parallel to the common principal axes of c and /*. ........ ( ^ and from (72) and (73).. from either set. its direction is that of the transfer of energy..... as perpendicular to the electric and the magnetic forces. may exchange first the and getting the second of (76)..... This will lead us to =1 as before.. so that we can employ c v c 2 c a the principal capacities..... following equations (25) and (26).... . x y^z being the coordinates of r.. ...... taking any = g l being equation to the wave... then.. but may proceed at once to the wavesurface by the investigation (69) to (77)... On this understanding.... . for example. and the first of (78) and (79) are (63) s/*g 2 = 0..... same condition rs of the indexsurface. s . the second part would be the repetition of the already given investigation of the indexequation... as the first of (76)...... corresponding to (60) corresponding to equivalent to *P8i=> ..... whether the wave is plane or not. Also. we must impose the and eliminate r. at a point).16 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. <"> EcE = H/xH..... The vector rate of transfer of energy being VEH/4?r in general....... or the displacement and the induction are perpendicular to the normal..... (82) expressing the equality of the electric to the magnetic energy per unit volume (strictly.. when It seems a ray is solitary.. Thus..... (79) and (68).......... we do not need the preliminary investigation of the indexsurface. . reasonable... scg^O.. to define the direction of a ray. ...........
..... any rectangular axes. y. ..... = as the equation.. we cannot immediately write the full expansion of the wavesurface equation. semiaxes and The other terms give Or = (c a /^ 1 )~*.. When down of course... and (76). a... in the * and semiaxes v 31 = (c^) the sections are ellipses whose semiaxes are #21 fl 23 and v 12 plane 2. . where = (Jfc/x)a....s ) * . we have. the p and c axes are not parallel.. and in the plane #. r r He..... again. 32 and 13 # 12 In one of the principal planes two of the ellipses intersect. as another form. The first denominator in (83) gives % = (%)*  r representing an ellipse... in which. z. % .... ~ v32 where for brevity vrs = (c rfj.P... x = (Ec u y = (Ec 21 a s are the three components of a referred to x.. giving four places where the two members of the double surface unite. have semiaxes %.. y 12 = %> etc. or ra = 0.. the yu's and c's may be into n) to give a fourth form.... the ellipses an ~ ellipse.p r = 0..... z the components of r. If GJ//ZJ = c 2 //x 2 = c 3 //A 3 we have a single ellipsoidal wavesurface whose . If 15 a2 .. let R = m(i^by (74) l i). y.... ... II.. (86) R is a scalar.. y.. z \ thus H. by (86)  z = (jBc 81  from which a lt ft 2... . Proceed thus : Taking Tg l then. equation is ++=1 < .. forgetting to change 17 m exchanged (not /z x These Ci reduce to the Fresnel surface if either = c 2 = cy Let x = = /x 2 = /*3 or to find the sections in the plane y...ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE. % may be solved in terms of x.. Similarly. VOL. and and (12).... and a = m~ g 1 1 . .E... ... . 85) Now.
in the general where c^. or the directioncosines the dependence of v2 upon the capacity and = 1. supposing x.18 where. ^3 = 0. = 1+ mn(in~ I I)(TG~ I T) x2 (c22p BB + c 33 /x22  2c 23/x 23 ) + . is l expansion of Tp~ T case. The equation may be written symmetrically. y.. . take does not destroy generality.2 + za B = 0. When the of reference. exactly similar.. . If in (87) we for every c or /x write the reciprocal coefficients. /x and c axes are parallel. using the inverse /* coefficients. < fully.. solution is . as before. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. etc. Here m= The See equation (15).. that is.. = xa 1 + ya..  ^Va + .. .. as it goes out. because in (88) the axes of reference are 2. . and the rest by symmetry.. A need not be written thus. and their principal axes are those we have K+ where with a similar expression for NcN. 2 = Q.. since sy = N.}. we obtain the equation to the indexsurface . Then (88) reduces to  = o. ..... (88) in are the components of N. where in X= Nfuf + Nfu* + NM =  . and 4)}. and zx are omitted. To show ^ N arbitrary. where the coefficients of y 2 and n = c. are the inverse coefficients. ra Then. we have the velocityequation as follows. by using (15). z then to be the components of s instead of r. the unit wavenormal. 3  cf8 /4.2(JV ^ 1 W  (90) 2 2 NiNfu^ + Nf M which = =  . And. B which JVlf N N of the normal.. z2 yz. which permeability perpendicular to N.c 9 Co whilst . (89) The %=(c2 w 1 w2 + /* 3 )~^. since we get the full expansion..
. or Nfvj. is not its own conjugate. Note on Linear Operators and Hamilton's Cubic. D{ D =c 3 81 ^+ c's c 32 E2 + c33 ^ 3. may expand (45) to obtain an equation for the two directions of the induction and displacement. (June 12th. For v etc. write resulting equation gives the directions of E. the symmetrical property AcB = BcA of the scalar products. We may c then write D = cE. the equation greatly simplifies. some change of treatment is required. c //x 2 2 19 = c 3//*3 . k equated to zero gives the When the principal axes of //. and the resulting equation gives the directions of H.. For A. or w 3 = 0.. let D = cu E^ + c E + c # l 12 2 13 3. H. N= t further. and B. Thus.. and the For D lt etc. (92) the single value of the square of velocity of wavefront... and c are parallel. etc. D differences of squares of principal velocities v etc. etc. j. 1892.. as in (91). is We Thus. Jf=0 always. being then (93) where u v .. Mi + N^ = 2//u 2 reducing to one velocity v 23 If... required equation. it will be observed.... in the only differs from exchange of c 12 and c 21 . But when a linear operator.= i(c' A n t/ the determinant of the coefficients of i.. the two velocities (squared) are then + M4 + Nffi* when u2 and Nfv^ + 1.. . ..) [The reason of the ease with which the transformations concerned in the above can usually be effected is... say c. where the nine are arbitrary...ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE. D.. where the operator c' D^c'E. and . write tion for the induction directions. write c^. Di = c 13 ^+ c 2B E2 + c33 #3 . = 0. Directions of E. Take U L = 0.... since .. making CJ//AJ = c 3//x3 ... are the same and we have the same equaetc.....
are half their differences. . It assumes the utmost generality when j... instead of a unit Professor Gibbs has considerably developed the rectangular system.i + c 2 . from which. we have 0= vVvw= where the last vcc~ 1 Vvw. mVvw = cVc'vc'w ==m = c'uWvc'w '..k)E. The generalised form of (17) is got thus: Let v and be any is i.... by multiplying by a third vector uVvw u. Another : B way we must simultaneof regarding the matter If we put C2 = we see... is perpendicular to vc and we. . that D = cE = i.... e = Ji(c82 .. It may be readily seen that c.iE + c 2 .. It is conjugate to now D' that is conjugate to D.. c being any linear operator.. or as the scalar product of Ac and B.. Hamilton's cubic equation in c is obtained by observing that since (A) is an identity... ELECTRICAL PAPERS... and cE the same as EC'. way of regarding linear operators. we find . it remains an identity which . where / etc. is in c the selfconjugate operator obtained by replacing c 12 and c 21 by half their sums. and e is a certain vector whose components .. (A) or parallel to Vvcwc that is.T>\ (D) is an invariant... by the above.... theory of linear operators in his Vector Analysis.. whilst c' is the operator D'=/EVeE... = wVvw = wcc^Vvw.... is That equivalent to Professor Gibbs's is (converted to my notation). therefore.. is...... the type of a linear operator.c sl ) + Jk(c21 .... = Bc'A.%) + ij(c 13 .c12 of scalar products is ). forms assert that c~ 1 Vvw ....jE + c 3 . k stand for any three independent vectors.20 etc. as before.... . Thus... then. In the case of AcB. we may regard it either as the scalar This product of A and cB.kE = (Cj.. The conjugate property That now to A...j + c 3 .. from which we see that c'E is the same as EC.. ously change is as follows in transferring the operator from it to its conjugate.c 1 E+ D' = c'E = Cj.. w vectors.
. The others give (remembering that we are dealing m Vc'vc'w + c( Vvc'w + Vc'vw) = ?%Vvw. to where W' = ^L^vcw uVvw the cubic ra'  m(c' 'c' + m 2 2 . where come from m... But it may etc.. Operate on the the vector in and second by c 2 and subtract... m m where /is selfconjugate.c/3 = 0. . etc. c = same with c ... m v m2 member # and g with an identity). (m  m^ + m g 2 2  g*) Vvw ^(uVc'vc'w + vVc'wc'u jc'uVc'vc'w + wVc'uc'v) j + # 2 (c'uVvw + c'vVwu + c'wVuv) .m 2 c 2 Vvw. (C) m^c + m 2 c Hamilton's cubic.. This eliminates the brackets.g.m'  w/u + wV/u/v uVvw uVcvcw + vVcwcu + wVcucv uVvw = / = /n Vvw +/v Vwu +/w Vuv = game uVvw may change c with to c'.. we obtain scalar constant. and we may infer from this that 1 = m{ be easily proved that and m 2 = rti2..g. = m'. first by c . f start instead with the conjugate operator c we shall arrive at m  = 0.g is also a linear operator.. cVvw + (Vvc'w + Vc r vw) = w 2 Vvw.. served when c becomes c . where g is a For c . are the coefficients of #. which changes c' to c' #.. and g 2 in the expansion of of given by (B).c 3 Vvw = m cVvw ..... and then. putting c =/+ Ve and c f =/.. m Vw we may independently show cuVcvcw c'uVc'vc'w that uVvw uVvw uVvw m . the left 3  ^(Vc'vc'w + cVvc'w + cVc'vw) + # 2 (cVvw + Vvc'w + Vc'vw) ... Comparing coefficients we see that go out. when c is 21 changed to c g.ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVESURFACE...# 3 uVvw = cVc'vc'w where m. by exchanging c and c'. and leaves cVc'vc'w . on account of the invariantic character of m being preIn fact. 2 So we have 3 is we c . : where the which If first term on the left is mVvw.. Making this substitution in (A) and expanding. m'Vvw = c'Vcvcw. m'. So in Hamilton's cubic (C) we leaving the ra's ..# 3 Vvw.. later.Ve.
a'd + m'. cu cvcw / _! _ _ / / i / I A I _ / _ / I see . (as 158 to 160) it done above) Professor Tait's proof that the object of the investigation is to solve But the mere inversion can be done by the problem of inverting <. 173. c is one set of elementary methods. /*!. v'.VsH. (B). m = /^ ^^ + e/* e. When that done is the reciprocal of the m c of c" 1 . nr. Then._ Vab ~cVa vector d in terms of On this understanding. and /*' be the conjugates to c and /*. c thus : we may expand any d Similarly. by (A). = a'd. will be seen that that rather difficult proof is simplified '. . b'. . 1 . H = /xi VsE.V& Vc'sc'H. In this is identity the operators we see that the of c and c" 1 m may be inverted. If the passage from (A) to (C) above be compared with the corre. m'. If. .mE = c . =a . vectors. In Gibbs's language. 1.22 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. c'd is inverts <. cw. where if . b. b'd + n'. if 1'.. etc. l l by omitting altogether the inverse operations $~ and (^ g)~ and the One is led to think from auxiliary operator x especially x> perhaps. given by a /_Vbc b /_Vca ~aVbc' ~bW . We (This equivalent to Tait. by (A) and (B) that the inverts of u. . W are c' x inverts of The cubic (C) may be written cu. or c x inverts of c'u. n. we operator such that />t = />t + Ye. c W (or the reciprocal set). then. the selfconjugate /A S are the principal permeabilities of yu. c'd. a'd +b b'd +c . in last note. it be given that we see that lr d = <(r) = a.] Note on Modification of Indexequation when [Let c' and //. are Rotational. nE = ^. the reciprocal set is a'. c'v. we have r = 1'. shall have (treating c  E = c. mVvw = p! V^VfjiW = />tV//v//w.mr + c. b. cv. v. mr + n'. c'w. lr + m'.lr + b.  mH = V/s/E. v. c lu/ vc y + WC W c c ucu + vcv + wcw ') I 'J I w' are the inverts of u.) uVvw if u'. 1 and n similarly). /x 2 With this extension of meaning. sponding transition in Tait's Quaternions (3rd edition.nr. unchanged or else in the m's only or make the change in both the c's and the m's. without affecting its truth. a.1 Vs V/s/E. if a. c'. n' is the set reciprocal to m.?iE = Vc'sc'H. . so that r = ^(d) = 1'.
[The Electrician. there could not be a plane wave under the circumstances. 227 3. common .np from which two forms of indexequation corre8 (s/x'sjc" . the currentdensity.] . 1886. HOWEVER use a desirable may be that writers on electrotechnics should notation. of course. or have unfortunately an indistinct manner of expressing himself. 1886. AND SYMBOLS. provided it be kept within practical limits it is perhaps more desirable that they should adopt a common language." or "the strength of current.] XXXII. when everything is referred to the unit volume. it IDEAS. (38a) sponding to (41) are S 1 . and there was an equally common vagueness of ideas prevalent. it is equally sufficient to call it the current. for instance. Feb. (34). as more elaborate explanations are needed to identify the ideas meant to be expressed. arise as to a writer's meaning.'. Note Note Sep. "Let us call the currents (7r (72 etc. the second pair (31).. and the currentdensity is meant as a matter of course. 271.nc'~ l We obtain impossible values of the velocity for certain directions of the normal. 1. p'B (s/x's)// H me' C?B ~~ sc'H (sc's)c' . 26. It is sufficient to speak of the current in a wire (total) as " the current. It was formerly very commonly used. like to see the word "intensity. WORDS. 1885. I would. within the same practical limits. p. 4. As regards electric conduction currents." it is otherwise with the language used when speaking of the magnitudes. p.NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. p. wholly abolished. (29). (In three dimensions. and the third pair (33). For whilst the use of certain letters for certain magnitudes requires no more explanation than." as applied to the electric current.1 1 (sc's)/^" . Note 2. 23 where the first pair replace (28). NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. 311 . and E ~ s//E replace (37a). and a fairly good terminology. unless he be an ignoramus or a paradoxist. however." and when referred to unit area. at least as regards the frequently recurring magnitudes concerned which notation should not be a difficult matter to arrange.) . there is a tolerably uniform It is seldom that any doubt can usage. Then replace ?fyuH = c's(sc'H)  c / / H(sc s) (33) and (34). (32). on the other hand. Jan. NOTE 1.lap. 12. That is.
" (The permeance of a coil would be Z/47T." which may well be called simply "the induction. Corresponding to conductivity and perme .24 It is a ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Thus impermeability. on account of our already appropriating the word induction. instead of groups of words. however. their conductances may be more easy to manage than their resistances. and. word is not used in any other electrical sense." By adding. the existing terminology is extremely unsatisfactory. specific resistance may be well called resistivity. becomes almost absurd when the electrotechnical user actually goes so far as to give them quantitative expression. thirdly. the analogue of magnetic induction (noting by the way that it had better not be called the electric induction. have also the adjective "permeable." and " impermeance. Permeability referring to the unit volume. the word permeance is suggested for a mass. does not readily admit of We adaptation and extension." and specific conductance " conductivity. moreover.) It must be confessed. Induction and permeability may not be the best names. that these various words are not so good as the corresponding conductioncurrent words. Conductivity should not be used at all. ing out an analogy." we get "impermeable. though defensible enough in merely popular explanations. the reciprocal of /A. we pass to electric displacement. We have also the convenient adjectives "conductive" and "resistive. matter of considerable practical advantage to have single words names. there is considerable looseness prevailing. It is kirC that is the magnetomotive force. would stand for the longwinded " specific resistance to lines of magnetic force. the prefix "im. if.) currentdensity to the electric force." to save circumlocution. but (apart from their being understood by mathematical electricians) they are infinitely better than since the " the longwinded "number of lines of force" (meaning magnetic) and " conductivity for lines of force. sometimes wanted. But I suppose there is no chance of such an extensive change. whilst it does in the form T= \ magnetomotive force x total induction through the circuit f 47r. magnetic permeability. There is a definite magnitude called by Maxwell "the magnetic induction. and LC the induction through the circuit. When wires are in parallel." the use of which." This may be simply called the permeability. In the expression T=^LC* for the magnetic energy of current C in the coil. analogous to conductance." referring to the unit volume. theoretical but a great practical improvement to have the electric and magnetic units recast on a rational basis." It is related to the magnetic force in the same manner as The ratio p is the (B = ^H. save in pointIt has its own definite meaning. moreover. but be called the displacement)." "impermeability. Thus. 4?r does not appear. and it is fortunate that the existing conductioncurrent terminology admits of very practical adaptation " " " this way." for the reciprocal ideas. Passing to the subject of magnetic induction. But now. " Permeability. Thus we have I may here remark that it would be not only a oppositely acting 47r's. if L is its coefficient of selfinduction." however. and resistance of conductance. for Resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity. does not admit of such easy adaptation to different circumstances as conductivity.
) Displacement itself might also be replaced by another word less suggestive of bodily translation. the wanderings in the desert. like conductivity. One of the first duties that devolved upon Adam on his installation as gardener and keeper of the zoological collection was the naming of the beasts. is the charge ( + or D. This grand modern generalisation explains in the most scientific manner the fondness for calling names displayed by little children. and we have being the electric = sE. ability 25 we have "specific inductive capacity. All these things will get right in time." the being the accumulated current. and of the Elizabethan revival. over this trouble by putting it thus. measuring the electric force required to produce the unit displacement. Thus s should have a name to express the idea of . according to the end). and its reciprocal also a name (not strings and they should be readily adaptable. the displacement. although. in addition. tunate that it is not this specific capacity c (say). The history of the race is repeated in that of the individual. D E We D : elastic yielding or distortion. (Perhaps also a better word than permeability might be introduced. it harmonises well with " current. NOTE 2. displacement current the timevariation of the displacement. of the Babylonian captivity. and force. the word capacity is itself rather objectionable. or the of words). Supposing we have done this. But here it is very unforthe capacity. not that one dielectric absorbs electricity more readily than another. or or whatever it may be called. Ideas are of primary Next. potential = cE/4:7r. electric elasticity. that is the = difference of capacity of a unit cube condenser (such that charge x capacity). although. on the other hand. etc." or "dielectric constant. scientifically." besides not giving us any words for "capacious" use in bulk. as we see. And. the Egyptian sojourn. the times of the Kings.NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. ON THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF NOMENCLATURE. the fall of the Tower of Babel and its important effects on nomenclature. As for the notaimportance." I usually call it the electric capacity. Gamp was much im . got in the same manner as conductance from conductivity. of the minor prophets. it is tolerably accommodative. The importance of nomenclature was recognised in the earliest times. In the beginning was the word. and coming at once to the middle of the 19th century. there is still the trouble that capacity " gives the extremely awkward inverse incapacity. as likely to give beginners It is entirely erroneous notions as to the physical quality involved. but c/4?r. of those dreadful middle ages of monkish learning and ignorance." and the adjectives and "incapacious. tion. like conductance and resistance. may get Then the capacity in bulk is calling s (or c/4?r) the specific capacity. we find that Mrs. suitable language. but still only takes the third place. perhaps. when evolution worked backwards. It refers to the unit volume. one dielectric is more Electric displacement is an elastic phenomenon The reciprocal of s above is the yielding (electrically) than another. Passing over the patriarchal period. it is an important enough matter. of early Christianity.
so as to approximate to the resistance of a mile of iron telegraph wire. but if it does no harm.g. Mac. to wit who has many scientific representatives.s. E. this unit is. But what about those remarkable results of the Paris Congress. . I hope) for six years past to denote 10 9 c. let us consider the names of the electrical units. Harris. give it a name far as to give a name to an entirely fictitious personage Mrs. however.M. If. ampere shortened to am or amp is not nice.) The advantage is that L toms divided by K ohms gives L/E. pronounced in nearly the same way by all civilised peoples. watt is not quite so good. Speaks ing from memory. or hundredths also.M.. I have used torn myself (no offence.F. have sentimental reasons for adoption . unit itself would be most suitable for coils of a few ! A .M. Thomson did object to the 10 volt at the Paris Congress. Better make it pere . the awkward thing is that the pere is one tenth of the c. units. both 10 9 for Then use the millivolt or centivolt when speaking of the example. seconds of But it is too big a unit for little coils . How awkward it would have been if the ohm had been made 10 10 c. because the E.F. it is needless But we should never put the sentiment in the first to object to it. unit of I suppose it was because the present volt was an approximacurrent. or of electromagnetic capacity.s. and give an unpractical name to a unit on account of the sentiment. tion to the E. of cells. or even the microtom for very small coils.g. " Give it a name. Coefficient of selfinduction.g.s. " cried that esteemed lady.g. but is tolerable. This is quite a sentimental matter . bob. farad is nearly as good (but surely it was unpractical to make it a million times too big the present microfarad should be the farad) erg and dyne please me . torn.g. really practical name should be short. the ampere and the coulomb 1 Speaking entirely for myself. Coulomb may be turned into But coul.g. It seems rather unpractical for the B.s.F. and is then endurable . I beg. however. (Some reform is wanted here. of a Daniell . Committee to have selected 10 8 c. max). it be the name. is too lengthy. a very strong reason for making the practical unit much smaller. The present 112 volt would be 112 millivolts. preferably monosyllabic. Sir W. Now an additional bit of sentiment comes in to support Was not Ampere the father of electrodynamics ? us. pressed by the importance of nomenclature. Ohm and volt are admirable. they are very unpractical. in addition. instead of 10 9 This will hardly be appreciated except by those who make theoretical calculations. as the practical unit of E. units of self or mutual electromagnetic induction coefficient. of an eminent scientist. of a cell has now to be given in volts and tenths.s..M.A. The c.26 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. then it will do. : . She even went so Sairey.F. so much the better.s. Having thus fortified ourselves by quoting both ancient and modern instances. then use the millitom time. place. and not mistakable for any other scientific unit. Tom and mac (plural. that is. little used. This applies to finewire coils. The ohm and volt should be the same multiple of the c. or a part of the name. bob and dick may also at some future time. and dick are all good names for units.
force. engrained in the British nature to abbreviate. (This use of force as an abbreviation is. not its conductivity (specific conductance). names to a unit of magnetic force (intensity of).NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. whether mac. But it is necessary to momentum." and so settling the matter. but in doing so. There is an important magnitude termed the magnetic induction. nor does it much matter. But. turns of thick wire. consider what frightful names might have been given to the electrical units by the Germans. or activity. but of the physical magnitudes of which they are the units. it is in the highest degree desirable that as many as possible of the most important physical magnitudes should be known. or. the word induction has a widespread use. This is. but it is too large a It is question to discuss here except in the most superficial manner. then the kilotom or 27 tom it will come mega in useful for finewire coils. but the reciprocal of its resistance. " Resistivity" for specific resistance. The make the meaning plain. for people will This remark applies abbreviate. when a man explains something complex by saying it is caused by "induction. to make one word do for two or three.. on account of this national. I call it often simply "the induction". the misuser not being able to say exactly what he means . it is a physical magnitude it would be unobjectionable. If this vague qualitative use of induction were got rid of. quite practical names. or any other practical name." or even " " the magnetic induction being a thoroughly good name for the magnitude in question. and "conductance" for what is sometimes called the conductibility of a wire. not by a long string of words. quite distinct from the frequent positive misuse of the word force.e. in a rather vague manner. We have much to be thankful for . as I have remarked before. whether of the electric or of the magnetic field. or a short for a long word. when I mean magnetic mean the intensity of magnetic force. and also rational tendency to cut and clip. be torn. or the smallest number possible. I find myself frequently saying I and even then. in connection with transient states in general. to most of the electromagnetic magnitudes. I think.) It would be decidedly better if such a quantity as "intensity of magnetic force" had a oneword name. nothing in particular. Also. There is also the question of the names. or A name Thus. carefully avoid " " the induction (sometimes the electric discalling any other quantity placement is called the electric induction). but by a single word. which somewhat militates against "the induction. that besides being a name of a physical magnitude. not of the units. If it is called the torn. and sometimes confusion may step in. exemplified. are. or energy. then as a name for a As it is. context will generally be very careful when there are more forces than one in question. And quite right too. to take an extreme example. i. should certainly be given to a unit of this quantity. in the application of this general remark. very often. . of course. to indicate it may be force. But there is an unfortunate thing here. question whether the physical magnitude should not have a name for itself alone. and of magnetic induction.
471 . p. syntaxes. p. THE INDUCTANCE OF A CIRCUIT. then have by the showing how the Induction is related to the magnetic force specific quality of the medium at the place. its inductivity. As First. 451. Hughes speaks of the resistance of a wire.28 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. 1886. he does not . NOTES ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Now conductivity and conductance are mathematically related in the same manner (except as regards a 4?r) as inductivity and what it is naturally suggested to call Inductance. 455. word permeability. IN my note. it will of course be the mutual inductance. whose interesting letter appears in The Electrician. in a most unusual degree. inductivity. and inductance are happily connected in a manner which is at once concise and does justice to their When the mutual coefficient of induction of two real relationship. and dictionaries. = pH. p. W. We must not judge by what a man says if we have good reason to know that what he means is quite different. we must conscientiously endeavour to translate his language and ideas into those we are ourselves accustomed to use. 1886 Note 1. 510. the following appears to me to be practical. as I venture to think he has been by many. circuits is to be referred to. They have their own grammars. I remarked that whilst the conductioncurrent terminology admitted of the words resistivity and conductance being coined to make it more complete. Weber. We supra grammaticam. May 7. unsatisfactory. Note 2. The Inductance of a circuit is what is now called its coefficient of selfinduction. he is liable. when is the Induction. to be misunderstood. shall we see what is to be seen. Smith. including Mr. Fortunately the liberty of private interpretation is conserved." read in the pages of history of a monarch who was All truly great men are like that monarch. [The Electrician. But to do this The very he means. and then only. Then. Thus the quantities induction. . April 23. To be quite fair. Before that When Prof. step to the understanding of a writer is to find out what is done there cannot possibly be a clear comOne may. first would not be fair. and /x the Inductivity. or that he is talking nonsense. They cannot be judged by ordinary standards. hastily conclude that he has either revolutionised the science of induction. the terminology in the allied cases of magnetic induction and electric displacement was regards the former. No man has a more peculiar grammar than Prof. amongst other things. Hughes. and substitute Inductivity. H. NOTE first 3. and Prof. abolish the We B B H XXXIII. but require interpretation. p. ordinary significance. by taking his language in its prehension of his utterances. April 16. Hence.] NOTE " 1. or of electromagnetic capacity.
But by a study of the context we may arrive at some notion of its new meaning. by methods which enable us to see what we are doing and measuring. Hughes's papers. capacity Again. The satisfaction of getting verifications. and must be varied to suit " " inductive circumstances. is some compenI venture to think that Prof. and the other. apparently of the most revolutook great pains in translating Prof. or inductivity. for the most part into thin air. in terms of the known electromagnetic quantities. and has to be set right by a foreign impressed force. Hughes's results dozens of For consider what the discoveries. Hughes's We meaning. mention of discoveries. the quotient of its coefficient of selfinduction by its resistance. like It is a complex quantity. 29 always mean what common men. I have failed to find any departure from the known laws of electromagnetism. It is not a definite quantity. I have had myself. viz. we shall be able to approximate to Prof. mere existence of ohms. Hughes. and then asking what are their interpretations ? The discoveries I looked for vanished Owing to the I tionary kind. there is his can only find roughly what that means by putting together this. trying to imagine that I had made the same experiments in the same manner (which could not have happened).M. at new discoveries requires very accurate comparison of experiment with theory. and then. By using a strictly simple harmonic E. To get. This is practically impossible. the laws of induction in linear circuits were known. then. men of ohms. I should make a reservational remark.. volts. There may be lying latent in Prof.. and farads means ? It means that. great many things. . It. neither a true resistance nor a true induction balance. however. to a first rough approximation. sation for the disappointment felt. noting all the resistances. volts. He does not exactly define what it is to be when the accepted meaning is departed from. be taken to be proportional to the timeconstant of the wire. but it is impossible to get at them. varied to suit circumstances. Bearing these two things in mind. but which may. In saying this. in the modification made by Prof. we may exactly formulate the conditions of the false balance. and very precisely. for many years past. nor is it any quantity defining a specific quality of the wire. is not a definite quantity. depending on a conductivity. Hughes does not do himself justice in thus deceiving us. however. even in so roundabout and rough a manner.NOTES ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Hughes's language into my own. of a wire.F. but must be that. however unwittingly. It is not the coefficient of selfinduction. We can only make very rough verifications. the balance is generally of a mixed nature. and that possibly there has been also some misapprehension on his part as to what the laws of selfinduction are generally supposed to be. They became well known facts when put into common language. occasional experience with induction balances of an exact nature true balances of resistance and induction and always found them work properly. on the basis of Prof. induction between the battery and telephone branches. But. too. and farads. even before they were made. mean by the resistance of a wire only sometimes. as of a rotating coil.
the coefficient of selfinduction of two similar coils in series. rise of the current it is less strong at the centre than at the boundary. high enough. increase This will its resistance. This can be easily verified by true balances. then. exact information. is of importance. we should remove the central part of the wire that is. Here we have the current in layers. happen the sooner the greater the inductivity and the conductivity. as of the return conductor. treated as mere lines. some solutions relating to round wires. I ought also to mention that the influence of external conductors. That the capacity of wires.F. and even they. detail in The Electrician [Reprint. The most interesting of the experiments are those relating to the effect of increased diameter on what Prof. It for January 10. I have already described the pheno substantially in The Electrician . not too near one another. though in a complex manner. 1. in modifying the I have had for years in distribution of current in the transient state. it takes place according to the same laws as the propagation of magnetic force and current into cores from an enveloping coil. Hughes's balances and the difficulty of getting at exact information. if we wish to regard the wire as a mere linear circuit. Hughes terms the "inductive " own interpretation is roughly this. vol. Clearly. or reduce its timeconstant. will answer. if we use true balances. concerned. is double that of either. and then later decreases rapidly and that the decrease sets in the sooner the higher the conductivity and the higher the inductivity (or magnetic permeIf this be correct. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. weak in the middle. on the inductivity.M. or the inductivity or the section be large enough. 1885. The retardation depends on the conductivity. as It is only thin wires that can be the section is continuously increased. Very rapid short currents. during the begins on its boundary and is propagated inward.. Art. MS. menon Thus. if the speed be only great enough. My . any kind of E. 28. rather. To illustrate the falsity of Prof. timeconstant of a wire first increases with the diameter. and as we can only do to a first approximation. I described how the current starts in a wire. In fact. strong on the boundary. which it is not. or. derive. it is exactly what I should have ability) of the wires. sometimes of very great importance. the phenomenon I In The Electrician described contains in itself the above interpretation. under similar boundary conditions. he finds the comparative force of the extracurrents in two similar coils in series to be 1'74 times that of a From the context it would appear that this " comparative single coil. must be treated as solid conductors. which I have described in considerable See especially 20]. Go to an extreme case. whilst the timeconstant of the two is the same as of either. and on If the conductivity be the section. " " is the same thing as the former force of the extracurrents inductive " capacity of wires. and large retardation to inward transmission.30 etc. Now. there will be an apparent reduction in the timeconstant. As regards the manner of inward propagation. Or. and hope to publish them soon. expected and predicted. to make the central current appreciably less than the boundary current during the greater part of the time of rise of the current. regarded as a line. .
not between currents (on the distanceaction and real motion of electricity views). there is affected by it. an apparent attraction or repulsion between them. he says out that upon a close examination it will be found that all the points effects which I have described are well known to mathematicians. however. statement includes the wellknown facts as well as those which are not known. 1886. that some. according as the currents are together or opposed. It is an apparent force. and attract when they are Thus. A and of dividing it. is the above a correct summary of the many things that 2. Observe here language. or only known theoretically. and regard for accuracy compels me to point out that consequently old." " " Hughes's all . 495 "Mr. that is scarcely touched upon by The selfinduction depends upon the distribution of Prof. B C of the subject. There is another influence that is well known. well known. and what Prof. did not expect to return to the subject. influence of the form of a thin wire (a linear conductor). of inductively magnetisable matter. the other. or spreading it out in strips. of the results were There is a material difference between what I said not well known. Oppositely going currents repel when they are decreasing. in a manner which is quite definite when the magnetic properties of the matter are known. to avoid any hypercriticism. outside the current. and do so because my statements. for the most part. On p. namely. in another form. "The They became wellknown my the whole An immediate consequence of my statement is letter. one wire the return to increasing. Hughes. So are the effects of concentration of the current. diameter. this may be useful. inductivity. that is. and of its facts length. conductivity. The distribution of current is not But when currents are increasing or decreasing. It is not to be inferred that verifications of wellknown facts are of no . discoveries I looked for vanished." I did not make the statement he credits me with . both being close together. nor. facts when put into common "for the most part" as against Prof. and inductivity on the phenomena of The various relations involved form the selfinduction is well known. as well as in it. Hughes has apparently misunderstood : A I pointed out. send a current into a loop. another." and then proceeded to give my reasons for it. Hughes makes me say. I said. but between their accelerations. In another place I said that I had "failed to find any departure from the known laws of electroThis magnetism. Oliver Heaviside of The Electrician for April 30. although a minority. and that I said not a word about mathematicians in into thin air. NOTE I Prof. During the rise of the current it will be denser on the sides of the wires nearest one another than on the remote sides. This is. mechanical force on the conductors. It well may be as well that I should illustrate the difference between well known The and those that are less known. 31 As a general assistance to those who go by old methods a rising current inducing an opposite current in itself and in parallel conductors Parallel currents are said to attract or repel.NOTES ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.
know what we that depends upon circumstances. Iron. in some respects. how else can we know what we are doing. In getting verifications. place of return This is. pp. the really important part of Prof. Theory indicates in the plainest manner that the selfinduction coefficient will be a much smaller multiple of that of a similar copperwire coil than if the wires were straightened. Hughes for accurate measures of the same. Next. 440] the way the current rises in a wire. so simply are the quantities related. and pointed out exact methods. I. and the consequent approximation. then. except roughly. 1886. in my opinion. so far as I know. measurements of the precise amounts in various cases of magnetic circuits are of value. 10." later. current.. April 30. 439. if they be accompanied by the data necessary for comparisons. there is the thickdepending on size. viz. effect. this little difficulty in the way when transient currents are employed. to mere surface conduction . by ignoring minute dielectric to phenomena. Magnetic circuits are now getting quite popularly understood. 180) [Reprint. for instance. p. To be of any use. expressed in an intelligible form. I send with this a first instalment of my old core investigations applied to a round wire with the current longitudinal. it will be readily understood that I am specially interested in this effect . We therefore. I have elsewhere [The Electrician. and so exactly. and I can (in anticipation) return thanks to Prof. eminently suited for showing the thickwire effect. it is first necessary employ a correct method. by diffusion from its boundary. under certain circumstances. goes beyond what was Having been. and believing Prof. 33] shown the approximate character of Prof. actual pletely. we must are measuring and verifying. Hughes's researches to furnish experimental verifications of my views. Hughes's method of balancing. however. the next Art. is premay not. 489. p. by reason of the commercial importance of the dynamo. to render a comparison with theory possible if it be practicable. inductivity. as the mathematical difficulties are so great. conductivity. the already experimentally known. and see how near our verifica tions go? wire to results that are not well known. But there is really no practical way of carrying out the theory comHence. it is necessary to put results in terms of the quantities in the electromagnetic theory which is founded upon the wellknown facts. as it. a most remarkable example of the dependence of complex phenomena on a very small number of independent variables. . vol. 1885.] There are also intermediate matters where one can hardly be said to be either making verifications. Jan. There is. be always measuring what we want. The theory of self and mutual induction in linear circuits is almost a branch of pure matheIt furnishes matics. the selfinduction of an ironwire coil. or discoveries. by reason of its high iuductivity. [Section 26 of "Electro magnetic Induction. Hughes's researches. but something else. etc. first Coming now to correctly describe (The Electrician.32 value ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
ON THE USE OF THE BRIDGE AS AN INDUCTION BALANCE. or units. in the difficult subject of magnetic inductivity. The whole of this journal would be required to give anything like a full investigation of the various ways of using the Bridge as an induction balance. [The Electrician. and x for l/r. etc. therefore. This is the condition for a true resistance balance. and the verifications of the theory of induction in linear conductors that I have made by them are numerous. IT. an influence which is of the greatest importance on short lines. : H. only touch lightly on the subject of exact balances. of importance as a retarding factor. and a telephone for current indicator. 95]. April 30. the timeconstant of a branch. I can.E. it was postponed. ential telephone with the same object. and then dropped out of static made mind. Hughes's balance is sometimes fairly approximate. The two last are very sensitive methods. and which (of the instruments) is. I a great many experiments on selfinduction. first of all. where electroinduction is prominent. with reversals. especially as I have to remark upon faulty methods. This by simple calculations. p. xvii. 1886. with a view to ascertaining their practical values. I discarded the condenser. which paper dealt mainly with the question of the influence of the electromagnetic induction of the lines and instruments on the magnitude of the signalling currents. in the course of the experiments. but.P.] IN connection with a paper "On Electromagnets. Then. and absolutely false balances. It was my intention to write a supplementary paper giving the results and also further investigations. vol. approximate balances. VOL. I used. battery and to get results at once. having got involved. Their interpretations are as follows If the first condition is fulfilled there will be no final current in 5 when a steady impressed force is put in 6." that I wrote about six years ago [Reprint. amongst which were measurements of the inductances of various telegraph instruments. in electromagnetic Next. p. even on long lines. and used the simple Bridge. inductance (coefficient of selfinduction). 489. in a similar manner.USE OF THE BRIDGE AS AN INDUCTION BALANCE. and also the multiplying powers of the iron cores. however the impressed force in 6 vary. Prof. 33 XXXIV. 1. the conditions of a true and perfect balance. was interrupter in I 6.. Art. Put a telephone in the branch 5.. sometimes quite false. are three for in number. c . the Bridge and condenser method described by Maxwell. Thirdly. namely. I have used a differbalancing coils against standard coils. r standing for resistance.
reducing the three conditions to two. whilst preserving exactness. and other balances of this kind are certainly quite false sometimes. If. besides the steady current being zero. because it is only a balance of integral extracurrents. the third condition is satisfied. to other approximate. but they are less practically useful than Pass. which vanish when the third condition is satisfied. by making the differences of the inductances on the two sides of 5 proportional to the resistances. and then upset it by increasing the inductance of the branch 4.j (6) that is. (4) that branches 1 and 2 be of equal resistance and inductance. (1) and (2) together therefore give an approximate induction balance with a true resistance balance. we can get approximate silence by allowing mutual induction between 5 and any of the other five branches. does not influence the balance when this ratio of equality. however the impressed force in 6 vary. by fty/r. not . in addition to this. It is certain that we do get silence this way. The sensitiveness of the telephone has been greatly exaggerated. If. It is clear that we should never alter the already truly established resistance balance. similar wires wound together on the same bobbin to keep their temperatures equal. but with r3 instance. that is nine ways. for / then 4 . the integral extracurrent in 5 on making or breaking 6 is zero. if smy. in addition to (1) and (2). we need only make is. take r1 = r& and J 1= =/ 2 . and to theoretically interesting. or between 6 and any of the other five branches. let r3 = r4 . but ^ different from / 2 and / 3 from Take. but it does not follow that silence is given by exactly satisfying (6). it is of course best to keep to the legitimate and We simpler previouslydescribed method. It is also the simplest method. Practically. Altogether apart from the question of referring the sensitiveness to the human ear rather than to the telephone. and (2) satisfied. of 1 and 2. or of 3 and 4. rl =r% silence is given and = r# (3) unsatisfied. and. the extracurrent is zero at every moment during the transient state. 3. to get perfect balances. to suit equation (6). 4. will give silence. therefore. often unable to appreciate the differences of the second Thus (1) order. can therefore get silence by varying the inductance of any one or more of the four branches 1. false balances. and the balance is exact. (and (1) of course). This is . the second condition be also satisfied.fty/r. To avoid any doubt. i\ = r2 is employed So branches 1 and 2 may consist of two (whether / x = / 2 or not). Suppose we start with a true balance. it is certainly. besides by the exact ways.34 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and Z 8 = Z4 (5) the method I have generally used. 2. Now. under ordinary circumstances. The mutual induction. There are some other ways of using the Bridge as an induction balance in an exact manner. Then the second and third conditions become identical.
C standing for current. using h'newire coils. There is. That is. And sometimes it is In fact. which is Professor Hughes's method. and therefore imperfect. we go nearest to the root of the evil by generating an additional impulse in 3 or 4 themselves from the battery branch. we exaggerate the inequality of inductance between 3 and 4. just like the approximate balance of equation (6) in which no mutual induction is allowed.USE OF THE BRIDGE AS AN INDUCTION BALANCE. that mutual induction between 6 and 4 or between 6 and 3 gives silence (to my ear) with the true resistance balance. however. and differences appear between them.. . i. whilst the 6 to 4 and 6 to 3 combinations keep good. Although mutual induction between 6 and 4 or 6 and 3 gave silence. . and of the electric impulses arising in them when contact is broken in branch 6 (considering the break only for simplicity). but. we have. with true resistance balances. If the difference in the inductance of 3 and 4 be small. I do not say that it is always the worst. All the rest are bad. (7) The momentum of the current in branch 1 is If^ that in 2 is 1 2 C2 and . the larger " this difference is made. so that. I found that by increasing the resistance of the branch whose inductance was the smaller. the sound was diminished greatly. nearly true... Such a balance is condemned for scientific purposes. although it was markedly so in my experiments to test the trustworthiness of the method. But when the seven faulty methods are apparently alike. of the right amount. some reason to be given for their superiority. so that they may be carried about from one branch to another. since the disturbance in the telephone arises from the inequality of the momenta of the currents in the branches 3 and 4. It is certainly a rather remarkable thing that the one method out of these seven faulty ways which gave the very loudest sound was the 5 and 6 combination.) These approximate balances are all of the integral extracurrent only.." and sometimes it is even a very loud noise. The coil of greater inductance had apparently the higher resistance. in the steady state. there is very nearly silence on using any of the other seven ways. with the true resistance balance. when the sound to be destroyed is itself weak. I find. quite comparable with the original sound that was to be destroyed. all quite fair.. (Put test coils in 5 and 6 with long leading wires. These are only two out of the nine ways. the others get rapidly worse. the louder becomes the silence. with a false resistance balance we may approximate to silence.. however nearly there may be silence. The following is an outline of the theory of these approximate balances. 35 counting combinations. Let r^r^ = r 2r3 first . But the silences are of very different values. and the formerlymentioned method give a silence that can be felt. For.e. the experiments were not sufficiently extended to prove their general trustworthiness. in the seven faulty methods. even when the combinations 6 and 4 or 6 and 3.
So. and 5 and 6.... Hughes's numbers without a knowledge . Note.. and becomes gives approximate balance.x3 without any mutual induction.. (lla) = . Otherwise they are different. Treat the others similarly...36 so on. and is likely to ...... .become very complex.... an exact balance with makes and breaks when a ratio of equality is taken. (10) Using Jf45 we have Using M 6i we have employ a ratio of and 2 equal fixtures.. we shall find the total extracurrent in 5 on the break taking place to be . destroy the resistance balance ... As any (10a). also.... (8) So ~F WA == ^/O **^Q This was mentioned before... (10a) ) ' Thus the M JfwO+ra/r^O. of course then the formula will change. arises ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. It is 1& and f {^ + r2 + r6 (rs + r4 )/(r s + r4 + r 5 is  ) }. and the integral extracurrent that then from / 1 (7 1 . Consider the break..... .. *C 4 {r3 + r4 + r 5 + r 3r......jrj...... as well as being It is the same with practically perfect. Treating these similarly to before.. that (10) and (11) are faulty balances to improve them... 6y equal half the difference of the inductances of 3 M Either of these must and 4... ?> ? 'i } > by making use of equations and (7)... It will in this paper be understood that when I speak of false resistance balances I do not in any way refer to the thickwire phenomenon... .. (r3 + r4 )/(rs + r4 + r5 ) the fraction of this that goes through 5 is ? ? so that the integral current in 5 due to ^Cj h Gi(r* + r*) * or {( i r + ?< 2)(' 3 (7^ .1 B + 2M......{r (1) 3 r + 4 ) + 'o( + 2 + r s + r4> + r4 + r 5 + ^r^}...... .. The ) total extracurrent in 5 is r&fa + x x2 .... ^4^3+ Practically branches 1 }+rJr3 = Q . as regards M M l / M the integral extracurrent.. 6 46 system has the simplest formula.. Now let there be mutual induction between 6 and 4.... or.. of the resistances concerned........ . we cannot get definite results from Prof.. more generally. the mutual inductances being Af64 etc...fato + z4 x2 xs ) + JlfM (l + rjr3 ] + M (l + rjrj + 56 (l+r B rl )(l+rJr2}}C\^(rs + r^ + r5 + r3rJrl ) . (10) contains resistances..... 5 and 4. "l ..... (9) The theory of the make leads to the same result that is.. (12) = r^ ^i = ^> equality r^ Then these three equations become = 0. using 56 (Hughes's method) the zero integral current is when r4 (x 1 + x4 x2 x3 ) + M........... 6 (l+r3 lr 1 )(l+rJr 3 ) = .... (12a) 1..
to form say branch 3. unless they are bent round so as to make nearly closed circuits. two coils in sequence. The inductance of a circuit is a definite quantity. So long as we keep to coils we can swamp all the irregularities due to leading wires. and two or three multiples . joined at one end. and adjust I them. from its very nature. each forms so nearly a closed circuit that it can be taken as such. so that we can add and subtract inductances. inserting if necessary. was to have a number of little equal unit coils. that will depend upon the configuration of the apparatus. of known inductance and resistance. strictly speaking. we should have a set of proper standard coils. 30]. first taking care that the resistance balance did not require to be upset. The return current has to be considered. lost when we deal with short wires. So is the mutual inductance of two circuits. But this simplicity is. which. size). one of which can be turned round. different matter. It has no meaning.) This set of coils. requires the resistance balance to be upset. the coil to be measured to be in branch 4. but as regards the interpretation. and therefore easily With short wires. but of the same real [i. I should recommend 1 and 2 to be two equal wires.. i. Ratio of equality. coils in series Of course regard the matter from the point of view of getting easily interpretable results. of any convenient length. so as to vary the inductance from a minimum to a maximum.. or be different from what it would be if the wire were thin. The two effects may be mixed. unless a similar thick wire be employed to produce balance. But exact arrangement of 3 and 4 will depend on circumstances. it is a obtain considerable accuracy. and localise them definitely as "belonging to this or that part of a circuit. twisted together. with no exact measurement of the fraction of a unit. also twisted. are also required.e. The resistance balance must be upset in a perfect arrangement. or easily neutralise them.e. always use a long wire rather than a short one (experimental wire). however. Nor can there be a true balance got. when coils are connected together. of course slightly separated The at the other. but only an approximate one. or practically inductionless resistances equal. let branch 3 consist of the standard coils (of appropriate with 4 also. taken by itself. of "a The only step to this I have made (this was some years ago) in my experiments.USE OF THE BRIDGE AS AN INDUCTION BALANCE." later. to get and keep the resistance balance. If this is in branch 4. to a great extent. Also. cannot fix the inductance of a straight wire.] Speaking with diffidence. and get exact balance by allowing induction between two little ones. Balances can always be got. To use the Bridge to speedily and accurately measure the inductance coil. What I refer to here is the upsetting of the true resistance balance when there is no perceptible departure whatever from the linear theory. (The scale of this variable coil could be calibrated by (12a).. where they join the telephone wires. in or out of circuit according to plugs. . together with a coil of variable inductance. having little experience with short wires. etc. [See Section xxxviii. We of " Electromagnetic Induction. steady] resistance. mentioned in 37 my letter [p. Branches 1 and 2 Of course inductionless.
. we may employ the 64 and 63 methods without any hesitation.. 1886. it can be estimated for any particular speed of intermittences or reversals. i\ = r2 . (April 27.. which last is completely isolated by using the proper M method or the simple Bridge..... sometimes greatly so.. (2).. instead of coils... with no mutual induction.. method the conditions are But in the 1  + 2M56 (l + r3 /rj = 0..... and now the second and (18) third conditions become identical. If the branches and 3 consist of any combination of conductors and condensers... as above mentioned. on a reduced scale.. and branches 2 and 4 consist of an exactly equal combination. there will never be any current in 5 due to impressed force in 6... together with the almost permethod from the true resistance sistent departure of the 65 (Hughes's) balance.38 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... 2 + 4 may be only a copy of 1 + 3.. the 1T64 and 6S resistance balance.. .. as in the use of the simple Bridge a M M method.. led me to suspect that. Balance a very thin against a very thick wire... 2> r3 = ? 4 then the second and third are equivalent to 4 2^/33 1 + ljl y a special relation that must hold before the first The Hence the sound with a true resistance balance. so to speak.. And. is = second of these M = 0...... They will be as accurate as the simple Bridge method. for it is not a constant effect... (17) = 12 .. 1 The great exactness with which.. I have verified experimentally that the Hughes system requires a false resistance balance when.. Take Z x . free from the errors of a faulty method... Its magnitude can now be exactly measured.) methods conform to the true ratio of equality is used.. In Hughes's system the three conditions are M M M . (13) / Now take / 1^ = 1^ 3 rl =r 1+ / 2 +/ 3 +y=o .(15) .. whilst Hughes's method is inaccurate.... The exact balance (1). I have also verified that this effect is mixed with the thickwire effect. in every respect.. provided a ratio of equality be kept to.. and the is true. with induction in masses of metal allowed.. more generally. M M M .. i 3 = r4 . agreeing with the previously obtained equation Thus. necessity of a false balance to get rid of it....S.. the three conditions of a true balance are reduced to two by a ratio of equality. so that the effect occurs only on me side. short wires are used. the branch of greater inductance having apparently the greater resistance.. as before... and the choice of the methods will be purely a matter of convenience.. . (3) above is quite special.. the same thing happens in This I have verified. but not in the and the 65 64: 6B methods. That is.. when P. viz..
March May June 12. May 27. but of a collection. August 20. But it might be quite different from the magnetic field of a socalled magnetic molecule that is. July 15. 50. two things are deserving of constant remembrance. not molecular magnets. 20). p. 79. 8 (vol. XXXVL. . or intrinsicare nearly as far away as ever from a moleally magnetised. XLVL. 457. 459. August 295. XLII.. are little magnets.. 10 (vol. XXXIII. 469 XXVI. 163 XLIIL. 30. cular magnet. i. p. 17. would clearly be unsound reasoning. April 23. For it involves the assumption that a molecule has the same magnetic property as a mass. XXXV. p. XXXIXa. August 6. November 12. 1887. 27. p. p. XXXIV.. XXX1X6.) that it contained few molecules.. 281 . 128. 14. yet well to bear in mind that all our knowledge of magnetism is derived from experiments on masses. p. or the little mass. implies intrinsic magnetisation of the collection of molecules. p... . This evident magnetisation might be essentially conditioned by structure. p. First. July 23.. 18) . (SECOND HALF. p. 124 . April 1. or molecular structures. p. XL. To conclude that molecules are magnets because dividing a magnet always produces fresh magnets. 340. together with relative motions connected with the structure. and therefore certainly not possessing all the properties of a larger mass. 211. may break up a magnet into the smallest Still. having. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND PROPAGATION. this structure and relative motions conditioning that peculiar state of the medium in which they are immersed. p. January 11. what security have we that its magnetic property would not have begun to disappear. solid bodies showing magnetic properties. .. 206 XLIV. .. 143. 5 (vol. but magnets of the same nature as the original . p.. and find that they.. I do not define possessed by the molecules separately. and with its parts in relative motion. February 4. which. properties not (Of course. 39 XXXV. XLL. a molecule to be the smallest part of a substance that has all the If we got down to a mass of iron so small properties of the mass. August 24. However this be.. 19). that the molecular theory of magnetism is a speculation which it is it ALTHOUGH is We We . p. 296. too.e. August 26. XXXVIL. XXX. 316. p. p.) . 1886. XXXII. p. 17) p. p. XXIX. an isolated molecule in motion through a medium. it is difficult not to believe in view of the partial coordination of radiation and electromagnetism made by Maxwell. not of single molecules. XLV.. p. June 3.. 13. p. 390. XXXVIIL.. 1887. when existent. 14. July 1.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. October 7. XLVII. a large collection of molecules. it is generally believed that magnetism is molecular. 189 (vol. p... June 11.] December SECTION XXV. 212. p. December p. 88. 18867. May XXVII. SOME NOTES ON MAGNETISATION. p. 252 XXXI. ITS [The Electrician. XXVIJL. the field of any small magnet. June 25. and that their complete separation would not leave us without any magnetic field at all surrounding them of the kind we attribute to intrinsic That there would be magnetic disturbances round magnetisation. Section XXV. not on single molecules.. they are pieces. by reason of their connection. 1886.
on elasticity. sic vis. it either draws in the lines of induction. elastic fatigue. is negatively magnetised expose When we magnetic field inductively. when the body is still subject to the magnetic influence. and its inductivity is greater than unity . implies perfect elasticity. set. by coining a new word proAll bodies known." in fact) is greater or less than in vacuum (the universal magnetic medium) for the same magnetic force (the other factor of the magnetic energy product). and is the first approximate law on which But beyond that. is not material here. solids the case is different. and without knowing the exact connection between them and the magnetic property. as I do. Inductization in it is of the elastic or quasielastic character. especially in the case of no induced magnetisation. in which case it is a diamagnetic. in which case it is a paramagnetic. or strain is proportional to stress. keep well separated from theoretical embodiments of And next. If we admit that the act of inductization produces a structural change in a body (this includes the case of no induced magnetisation). and is as much the seat of magnetic stress and energy as the surrounding medium. can be inductized. an unmagnetised body to the action of a of unit inductivity. it is scarcely to be doubted. imperfect restitution. always accompanied by a changed structure. or. the elastic properties of the body. we have positive or negative induced magnetisation. or it wards oft' induction. permanent perfect elasticity. the force and the induction not the force and the induced magnetisation as the most significant quantities. and its inductivity at all. and there can be no intrinsic magnetisation.) But that the ether. resembling an elastic solid in some of its properties. According to whether the inductization (which is the same as "the induction. (Dissipation in space is scarcely within a measurable distance of measurement. But when we come to except of the most transient description. exposing a solid to magnetising influence is.40 desirable to ELECTRICAL PAPERS. put the matter thus. we attribute properties implying the absence of the elastic solid theory. nor in liquids. lastly. To the universal medium. hypothesis. Nor evidently can there be intrinsic magnetisation in gases. is one. which is the primary seat of the magnetic energy. or. it is clear that the language in which we describe these effects is some what imperfect. Ut tensio. and decidedly misleading in so prominently directing attention to the induced magnetisation. it may not magnetised. speaking generally. We . perfect dissipation of energy. Hooke's law. socalled vacuum. and its induc Regarding. we have imto found the theory of elasticity. may. field when it than unity. as well as the visionally. we should take into account and endeavour to utilise in theoretical reasoning on magnetism which is meant to contain the least amount of known facts. is positively magnetised inductively. that as the act of apart from hypothesis. is less is not alter the tivity is unity. by reason of their mobility.
Lodge (Nature. and structure. divB = being the magnetic force according to the equation B = /xH. or has no inductive Here we see the advantage of speaking of inductive retentiveness. if it have retentiveness. so next. a knock being sufficient to greatly upset the intrinsic magnetisation existing on first removing the magnetising force. the structural 41 on removal of the inducing force. beyond those limits. as in soft iron. a portion of the changed structure remains. the body has inductive retentiveness. or is In fact. Tumlirz has shown that quartz is inductively retentive. Dr.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND and if. Mr. where the induction and //. the body behaves like ether. and h. if true at all. the residual or intrinsic magnetisation.or diacharacter. like iron. which is nothing more than an alignment of the axes of molecules. is made into a magnet. the extraordinary feebleness of diamagnetic phenomena might be expected to be sufficient to prevent its observation. It is the danger of a too special hypothesis. March 25th. if there must be always of the same character as the inducing force. Davies. first. a structure which I believe to be.or diamagnetic. as in steel. rere they possible. para. one out of many which. we can follow up its consequences. so far. the Weber structure. and so rest on the solid ground of nature. As for the precise nature of the magnetic structure. icutral. as for instance. magnetised parallel to the inducing force. whether the body be para. within limits. only a part of the magnetic much the better. if the latter are partially verified experimentally we seem to prove its truth (as if there could be no other explanation). though. or the is ipressed magnetic force. The retentiveness may be of the most unstable nature. perfect elasticity. or of a more or less permanent But. change disappears. magnetic. That is. Dr. could explain the same phenomena. by reason of imrather than of magnetic retentiveness. and completely alter its distribution in the iron . Until lately only the magnetic metals were known to show retentiveness. the magnetic force of the intrinsic magnetisation. any solid. Though we should theoretically expect retentiveness in all solids. But if. That is. of widely diverging natures. particular structure. the inductivity. ITS PROPAGATION. it would equally serve for a water or a gas magnet. But. be any. 1886) has published some results of his experiments on the retentiveness of a great many other substances. and has become an intrinsic magnet. if y. The next thing is to predict unobserved or unobservable phenomena whose only reason may be the hypothesis itself. F the electric current. The mathematical statement of the connections between intrinsic magnetisation and the state of the magnetic field is just the same whether the magnet be iron or copper. following up an observation of his assistant. that as. as I have usually called it in previous . from its definiteness. that is If we can do without assuming any an independent question. or neutral.
take the magnetic force of the current as the magnetic force. and suppose for simplicity we have a closed solenoid with a soft iron Let F be the magnetic force of the current. If we induction B = /*F. The act of transition of elastic induction into intrinsic magnetisation. possible. in the nature of things. is (/* .1) (H . artificial and rather unnecessary quantity. Bottomley has lately experimented on some very unmagnetisable assuming pity. /x to be unity regarded from the point of view of mathematical theory. when united with the corresponding electric equations. yet it is perfectly easy to show that the inductivity of steel magnets in general is not 1. though much less than the inductivity of soft iron. Then. It is not formulated. Only one datum was required. and we may use a hard steel bar. Regarding the measure of inductivity. the the magnetic force. Prof. when a body is exposed to a strong field. as described I do not know. however. as the core of an electromagnet with nearly the same effects. magnetic force is small. core. especially in soft iron. steel. which may approximate to /*= 1. it would naturally be a matter of considerably difficulty to do it. this is an easy matter. and although is not unity. except as regards the amount. or whether such a body is. as if it were of soft iron. whether constant or variable with the time. but a large number. which is rendered far more difficult. viz. whether magnetised intrinsically or not. and we magnetise it. as it simplifies ideas as /A the objects of attention instead of The induced magnetisation. It would not be without some advantage to make h and I = fjih/^TT. . and Poisson's assumption of a linear relation between the induced magnetisation and the magnetic force is abundantly really not But go to larger forces. the intensity of magnetisation I.. assume the former of these equations. as regards induced magnetisation. only gives the product. the quantity I. that the inductivity of intrinsic magnets But we must take nature as we find her. whose rotation that are the two data measures the electric current. an extremely well as the formulae. distinct from the force of the field. verified. requires h to be given. whether any dielectric in a previous section. For. It is h and concerned in intrinsic magnetisation and its field . we should have the But in reality we have B = />t(F + h) = /xH. the oldfashioned rigid magnet is a myth. sections where it has occurred. that is. It will be understood that this system. As everyone knows nowadays.i2 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.h)/4*r. so as to completely determine transient states. we shall obtain too large an estimate of the inductivity. I and /x. has been found whose dielectric capacity is less than that of vacuum. It is a great in as well as outside the magnet. the intensity of intrinsic magnetisation. //. It is almost mathematically true. when we pass beyond the feeble forces of For all practical purposes ^ is a constant when the telegraphy. we may expect all solid dielectrics to be capable of being intrinsically electrized by electric force. if the induction were completely elastic. because it enters into all equations as an impressed force. and cannot be traced in any way by our equations. In a similar manner. in reckoning which H should be taken as This may be several times as large as F.
doubtful . on the other hand. quite different when it is large. yet whilst the force F is on. For one reason. I have been examining the matter experimentally. not alter the fact materially that the dissipation of energy in iron when it is being weakly magnetised is to be wholly ascribed to the electric currents induced in it. I have failed to observe the effect. we should naturally most expect to find it. It has nothing to do with the intrinsic magnetisation. . of considerable sensitiveness. but produced under circumstances which would render the real eddy currents of quite insensible significance. of the steel. 43 more imperfect is its inductive elasticity. This overestimate of the inductivity may be partially corrected by separately measuring h after the original easily is more intrinsic magnetisation made by magnetising force has been removed. also existent in soft iron. during the act of into be something of the kind in steel. long and generally accepted. not of But as the sensitiveness to disturbing influences mere magnitude. of course. there is a reaction on the magnetising current very closely resembling that arising from eddy currents in the steel.) involved in magnetic friction. As regards another connected matter. and the large forces . although the retentiveness may be of a very infirm nature.S. Another quantity of some importance is the ratio of the increment in the elastic induction to the increment in the magnetic force of the current. that the curve of magnetisation is. by then destroying h. however. differences of kind. we increase the sensitiveness. where. may be somewhat obscure. the possible existence of magnetic friction. owing to the infirm retentiveness. that it would be. differences appear between iron and steel. 1886. When. a straight line inclined at a definite angle to the axis of abscissae. although they are in such a direction as to keep up the induced magnetisation whilst they last. when we take off F by stopping the coilcurrent. by the way. The law is easily verified roughly. and besides. is of such importance in the theory of electromagnetism. This ratio is the same as /x when the magnetic force is small. owing to the hypothesis P. yet there does appear That is. it is likely. or slowly and continuously. that the induced explanation. when small. In soft iron. along which magnetic force is reckoned. (April 13. if we want h to be left. sufficient to partially destroy the intrinsic magnetisation. magnetisation is simply proportional to the magnetic force.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND softer the iron the ITS PROPAGATION. there is h on also. but is. the molecular agitation of the heat of the induced currents in the core. That is. if there be such an effect in steel. But this h may be considerably less than the former. at first sight. Although the results are not yet quite decisive. at the origin. should take off F by small instalments. by proper means. ductively magnetising steel by weak magnetic force. its accuracy becomes. if any. I employed a differential arrangement (differential telephone) admitting of being made. But as no hard and fast line can be drawn between one kind of iron and another. in a Its existence. is We As the last paragraph. I add this in The law. will smaller degree. that I wished to see whether it was minutely accurate. however.
from ordinary linear differential equations to a partial differential equation . I therefore start from the partial differential equation itself. one for each function circuit. in the form I give to them. the former is hampered by his that. and can employ himself in making discoveries. Though very interesting mathematically. circuits to a hollow. it seems to me more necessary for an objector to show that the laws are not those of diffusion. and packing them closely. and not to employ an arrangement giving neither one nor the other. increased. both of resistance and of induction. allowing for the fact of the This conclusion may perhaps be electric quantities being vectors. . to have true balances. the theorist sometimes labours under great disadvantages from which the pure experimentalist is free. as it is rather lengthy. and to the variation in the resistance of the experimental coil with temperature. as depending upon some hypothesis. when rapidly intermittent currents are employed. general result is that the law is very closely true in iron and steel. if we are to get results of scientific definiteness. in the best part of his time. He will also understand from the question of experimental ability. the approach of the hand to the coil The may produce an effect larger than that under examination. SECTION XXVI. it is what we arrive at immediately by the application of the laws for linear conductors to infinitely small circuits (with a tacit assumption to be presently mentioned).. as representing the specific this or that. whilst diminishing the section of. a compound of the J and its complementary function containing the logarithm. viz. Our fundamental equations are. Since. core . For whereas the latter may not be bound by theoretical requirements. in the poor work of making mere verifications. as regards the latter. We may pass continuously. For instance. the " linear " conductors Thus we may pass from linear indefinitely. being doubtful whether there is any effect that can be really traced from the law. considered very doubtful. it would occupy some space. rather than for me to prove that they are. The propagation of magnetic force and of electric current (a function of the former) in conductors takes place according to the mathematical laws of diffusion. also them. The it to a departure unverified. quite apart theoretical restrictions. and can put down numbers. by multiplying the number of. from a set of constants. without any break. it is necessary to carefully study and eliminate principal disturbances are due to eddy currents. however. to a continuous function.44 is ELECTRICAL PAPERS. THE TRANSIENT STATE IN A ROUND WIRE WITH A CLOSEFITTING TUBE FOR THE RETURN CURRENT. and that the supposed difference between iron and steel is Of course it will be understood by scientific electricians that it is necessary. This I have worked out. and is employed. from transient states in linear circuits to those in masses of metal. really standing for complex quantities. as of heat by conduction.
is that the conductor has no dielectric capacity. The present example is a comparatively elementary one.Ta 2 a2 in the tube. XXVIIL] was then longitudinal. so far as a general description of the phenomenon is concerned.a 2 ).ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. C the conduction the conductivity and the inductivity.b 2 )/r(b'2 . and in the 2 ductivity. The assumption p." I shall not The application to round wires with the enter into much detail now. k and I referred to dielectric capacity is quite unknown." in The Electrician paper on for 1884. 180.. if is the return conductor be a wire. p. if the currentdensity is F 2 in the wire. whose conductors have. [Reprint. current longitudinal was made by me in The Electrician for Jan. it is . 353. distribute the return current equally all round the wire. surrounded by a tube of outer radius and thickness b a. In the steady state. p. 45 E being the electric and magnetic forces. are concerned with a special application. wire or far away. vol. have We Test by curl =i r dr ir. Bad We are concerned with good conductors. IL. 1885. b. vol. p. H tube. Now. " y = Z AJ (nr)<>* () . We shall have (2b) H! = 2uTr. without impressed force set in. of equations (15). the distributions in the two wires are rendered unsymmetrical. The investigations are almost identical with those given in " The Induction of Currents in Cores. the current circular now it is the current that We marked my . We. where r the first is H = . I.] b. Let HI be the intensity of magnetic force in the wire. and the At the time t axis. 30. later.2*rIV(^ . and so investigate the effect of proximity. 1886. The nature of the transient state is also dependent thereon. art. when it is near. I. and H current. vol. The distribution of current in a wire in the transient state depends materially upon the position of the return conductor. the circuit being left closed. and the magnetic force circular.. p. and are thereby made difficult of treatment. 10. it will be when applied to H. 440. Let there be a wire of radius a. Now to let this steady current be " keep it up. As I entered into some detail on the method of obtaining the solutions in " Induction in Cores. the tube being supposed to be closefitting. by employing a tube. longitudinal. The direction of the magnetic force is is circular about the axis in and the current longitudinal. therefore. and renders a comparatively easy mathematical At the same time we may take the tube near the analysis possible. with the wire along its axis. both. 2 the distance of the point considered from the axis. This makes the distribution symmetrical. if both be of uniform con/(b ) and the tube or sheath be the return conductor of the wire. See also my letter of April 23. so that the extracurrent phenomena magnetic field subsides. if the currentdensity be 7 at distance r from the represented by left to itself. The magnetic force [Reprint. and therefore choose the All equations referring to this matter will be suitable coordinates.
a?) is ~ = L J i( na ) o The full solution is. (66) no magnetic force outside the tube... =  (5b) suppose that k and /x are the same in the wire as in the sheath.... n. Find the A's by the conjugate property..e....... (126) ... Differences will be brought in in the subsequent investigation with the sheath at any distance. we magnetic induction that ignore dielectric displacement... at r = 6.. is This may be tested by /xH........ Thus.. since it is electroThis gives the condition is in question. 2aT giving the current at time t anywhere...46 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. since these are connected by (5&).. (U) which are therefore known by inspection of a Table of values of the J^ function... _ .... therefore..... We and p are constants.... Jo = rfV A __ (r)rrfr  [YaV^arJnfr/^ J.. parallel to the current........ and have r dr dr JQ (nr)  is type represented........ . as its direction. #= 2 i. The actual current is the sum of an infinite series of little current distributions of the which A.. In (3b) there are two sets of constants..... does not vary. it is ... in the Fourier cylinder .. and the ris or p's.. 0.(45) Let d/dt=p. is where 2 the sign of summation.. the A's fixing the size of the normal systems.. ...... a constant. obtained by applying the SiraT JmJnr4* and the expression for the vectorpotential of the current (for its scalar magnitude A^ that is to say.. We To find the ris.. This gives us as the determinantal equation of the ris.... then n ri 2 is given in terms of p by ^TTjjikp ..... The equation of the magnetic force second of equations (15) . and need not be considered)..... function..
although only a single infinite series.. the total heat in length of wire and sheath is. This refers to the steady state. The first term of (96) is.. this should equal the spaceintegral of ^A y. continuous. total heat may be shown to be equivalent to that in (166) for the initial magnetic energy. by (106). and the same formula (106) that They are distributed continuously in the gives us the magnetic force.. In the transient state there cannot be said to be a definite inductance. 1 QPiWIVW^ff** When initial t . I should remark that it is the same formula (96) that gives us the current both in the wire and tube. using (116) This need not be written.. i. magnetic energy in length is giving the inductance of length I as <"" which may be got in other ways. . requiring then separate formulae for the wire and tube. in the wire.. and the complete variable period be included. and A  ^/ 2/ (136)  V* + r* + 262 log\ in the sheath.e. The magnetic energy being puBP/Qir per unit volume. It is at the first moment only that they are disvariable period. verify.. 2 d n*Jt(nb) To and (96). They are identical because [j!(nr) Jo rdr = {*J*(nr)rdr Jo = J6V >6). <!> the = Q.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND curl being ITS PROPAGATION. thus verifying the conservation of energy in our system. separate finite formulae. of course. Test by (126) applied to (136) to obtain (26). (initial). the most important. if p = k~ l the resistivity. as The expression in (156) for the the distribution varies with the time... In the steady state = 0.. either by (146) or I by easy direct investigation. representing . so that we may write the expression for T thus. I The dissipativity being y 2 /& per unit volume. the amount in length / of wire and sheath is. 47 now= d/dr..
to settle down to be represented by the first normal system . 387]. if the wire be of small radius compared with the outer radius of the tube. at a comparatively early stage of the subsidence. is 383. the curve to C2 is the curve of the current. . And. refer to The Electrician of Aug.v~ l and by (56). We Since . Then as the current is oppositely directed in them). . To see the nature of the rapid change. the first normal system has become In fact. Then the OC. p. where L is given by (\lb\ and E is the resistance of length / of the wire and sheath (sum of resistances. I.. but we are not concerned with them at present. Let a = \b. see that the position of the point J5 : with respect to the inner radius of the sheath determines whether the current is transferred from the wire to the sheath. there is at first a rapid change in the distribution of It tends the current (and magnetic force). L. subsiding according to the exponential law of a linear circuit. in the early part of the subsidence. showing its comparative strength from the centre of the wire to the outside of the tube. In Fig. being on the axis. On the other hand.48 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. or vice versa. If the sheath is very thin. impressed force. 2 [vol. for the value of the timeconstant of the first system. p. In fact. the normal system of slowest subsidence. curve marked J^ is the curve of the magnetic force.2 to be the outer radius of the tube. we l p~ is the timeconstant of subsidence of a normal have. to correspond. and of the first normal system. 1884 [vol. take the distance representation of the / and Jj curves. 1. Compare this with the lineartheory timeconstant L/B. 388] are shown the first four normal systems. besides a rapid subsidence. on leaving the current without far greater than the rest. there is an extremely rapid subsidence of the higher normal systems . only three or four need be considered to obtain almost a complete curve and. showing its distribution in the first up . L = M28 id. all on the same scale as regards the vertical ordinate. where is a In Fig. so that the radius of the wire extends nearly up to (72 there is transfer of the sheath current (initial) from the sheath a long way into the wire. there is a transfer of the original wirecurrent a long way into the thick sheath. from in the first normal system. a certain nearly fixed distribution. say n^b. so that the tube's depth extends from C2 nearly up to 0. system. 23. w normal system. because the value of the first nb.
There is no occasion to write these out. so that the magnetic energy The minimum is when 2/zZ log x when x is large. to that making J = 0. But it is only after the first stage of the subsidence is over that this larger timeconstant is valid. D VOL. one steady states.a L/R . and makes the other side of the last equation be 486.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. then wire. the other for the sheath . making For the latter . Then it is the central part of the wire that is the last to get its full current. and superpose the final As these are discontinuous. If the steady state is not fully set up before the impressed force is removed. 49 We have also E = 1 Ql/3nkb' 2 . + a) 2 We have also R = WjvMl)? . we see that the central part of the wire is less useful as a conII. but the transient part of them. 55 55 TT first 10 " 090 all whilst the timeconstant of the normal system in three cases is 068 (47r^6 2 ). This is the least value of the inductance of a round when it has a very thin and closefitting sheath for the return is confined to the wire. viz. E. current.2ab 2 ). we have. or the ratio of the value of nr (nr) value makes log# = 4'65. nodes in the b/a variable is when from the ratio of the This value of x first is not much different J^nr) = normal system. is the same in both.\ = a. The maximum of L/R with x being b/a. for the wire.dfc^ and therefore Irrespective of b/a being only a little over unity. then so that the timeconstant of the first r fda* "rfTiiVS^r nearly the same as b (M log X . _ b*a*' 3fr 2 (b a* . there are two solutions. Let x = b/a. therefore L/R ='211 normal system irfjjtf. set up. In the subsidence from the steady state. TT. for the first time. the central part of the wire is the last to But the steady state has to be first get rid of its current. When b/a is only a little over unity. > 2 L/R = "009 (47r/*&& ).. To obtain the equations showing the rise of the current and of the magnetic force in the wire and the tube. P. which ultimately disappears. L = ^l. We may write the expression for L thus. with a/b = 55 ^. we have to reverse or negative the preceding solutions. is to that of the current in wire and tube on the linear theory as *27 to '21.
if y is the currentdensity at distance r from the axis. as sufficiently rapid reversals. If the sheath be thin.2 and outer 3 . the latter form being got by taking displacement.e. the distributions of current and magnetic force are independent of the dimensions. object of taking c into account. so far as conducting the current is concerned. Let there be a straight round wire of radius a v conductivity k lt and inductivity /Zj. . Immediately after the impressed force is put on. and when we widely separate the conductors it tends to be confined to a small portion only of the variable period. TUBE AT ANY DISTANCE FOR THE RETURN CURRENT. to the period. ductor than the outer part. This case of a closefitting tube is rather an extreme example of departure from the linear theory . y = cj/47r. or intermittences. SECTION XXVII. the initial (surface) wirecurrent is of greater and the initial sheathcurrent of less density than the values finally reached by keeping on the impressed force. which are then propagated inward and outward respectively. and a negative on the inside of the sheath. in the smallest possible round wire closely surrounded by the return current the phenomena are the same as in a big wire similarly surrounded. Except as regards duration. whilst if it be the sheath that is thick the reverse behaviour obtains.50 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. as the current is there the least. the return current is as close as possible and wholly envelops the wirecurrent. we shall find great changes. as in our next Section. the rate of increase of the elastic . we shall have in the conductors. there is set up a positive current on the outside of the wire. by (1&). The case considered in the last Section was an extreme one of This arose. Then. departure from the linear theory. The departure from the linear theory is then less pronounced . When. The size of the wire is then also of importance. . and in the dielectric respectively . Practically we must separate the two conductors by a thickness of dielectric. inductivity. and might be removed.. If there are short contacts. and to its completely enclosing it. surrounded by a nonconducting dielectric of specific capacity c and inductivity /x2 to radius a 2 beyond which is a tube of The conductivity k y and inductivity /* 3 inner radius a. the central part of the wire is practically inoperative. i. Let the current be longitudinal and the magnetic force circular. and to the square of the outer radius of the tube. not from mere size. but from the closeness of the return to the main conductor. except as regards the duration of the variable The retardation is proportional to the conductivity. temporarily. THE VARIABLE PERIOD IN A EOUND WIRE WITH A CONCENTRIC. we remove the tube to a distance. will appear later.
r nl = n#p\ expressing all the n's in terms of the p. This we must do by means of the boundary conditions. L. //.. and p determines the rapidity of the subsidence.. in the case of and and in the case of H^ by using. because there are no normal components in If the magnetic or the electric force were discontinuous. when multiplied by the timefactor the time t later. In subsiding. We have next to find the relations between the five A's and ^'s. These give. giving E being the electric force. and the complementary Q (nr) [For their expansions see vol. instead of 3 . These are nothing more than in the dielectric. Of course d/dt=p. in the insulator. the negative of the differential coefficient of Q (z) with respect to z is denoted by K^(z). or harmonize. respectively. Corresponding to the expressions (196) for the current. yi = ^s^o( V) + # A( V)> 7s = r = al r * "2 r to to to in the wire. in a normal system. should have electric or magnetic currentsheets. These equations (216) are got by the second and third equations (16). t pt . the negative of the differential coefficient of JQ (z) with respect to z is denoted by J^z) . . /"(/) is K function.. and. fixing the size of the normal (71)].4*17*3^ . as is usual. to make the three solutions fit one another. and in the sheath. 51 A normal system of longitudinal currentdensity may therefore be 7j represented by = ^j^o(w ir)j from = AJt(njr) + BsKt(nj). gives the state at the Fourier cylinder function. by (216). in addition. the H^ H dielectric equation. K Ohm's law. (206) n? = . functions the n's are constants showing the nature of the distributions. the surface interpretations of the ordinary equations referring to space distributions. p. equations (70) and The ^4's and H's are constants.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. at a given moment. free from impressed force. and H^ are equal at Thus HI and are equal at r = a lt and 2 2 ?' = H H 2 . we have the following for the magnetic force By : : where. each of these expressions..lirnfap. we question.. the conditions of continuity of the normal components of the electric current and of magnetic induction are not applicable. In the present case the appropriate conditions are continuity of the magnetic and of the electric force at the boundaries. 387.. . because the two forces are tangential . applying (186) to (196) we find .
. and sheath subsides when left to itself. starting with given. make use of the universal conjugate property of the equality of the mutual potential . when such J by the previous. r = a 3 ... 2 E l and E are equal at These give.. (256) Thus.. by (196). the dots represent the same fraction that appears in the numerator immediately over them. using similar expressions for the magnetic and electric forces. the substitution. at ra s This gives. .. so that it.. Now A % A A equation : ( OV n2 a2 13213 ~ 13312 _ / ( n 2 a 2/ 1 \ where. or both.. i. 2 " (4:Trn 2 /n. that the n'a are subject to the following and J2 3 are.. first.. therefore.. absolutely no magnetic force outside the tube. yet this is not To make it true. the w's are known in terms of p. have. (266) gJ 1( 8os)+l?3Jri ( 3a8) is . Now... we may stop at the first tube. r = a v and E. by putting more concentric tubes of conductors and dielectrics. every fresh boundary giving us two boundary conditions of continuity But at to connect the solution in one tube with that in the next. and we find. hence (276) is the determinantal equation of the j?'s. by (216).2 and E* are equal at and (47r/cp){^ 2 / (n 2 a 2 ) + jB 2 JST ( 2 fl 2 )} =^ 1 {^ 3 / ( % 2) + s K Q (i t 2 )}.. a. (225) and (245) give ^ 2 and 7> in terms of A v and then (236) and (256) give A z and J53 in terms of A Y Similarly we might carry the system further. insulator..... outside the first tube. determining the rates of subsidence of the possible normal systems. all the information required in order to solve the problem of finding how any initially given state of circular magnetic force and longitudinal electric force in the wire. requiring T3 = r = .. to save trouble. Ignore the dielectric displacepresent ment beyond it...2 cp l and (n^} .. Similarly.e. and then multiply each term it pt by its proper timefactor t to let subside at its proper rate. in the steady state.. put c = beyond r = 3 .. on the left side. because our tube is to be the return conductor to the wire inside it. (236. To effect the decomposition. take e = beyond exactly true in a transient state.. known in terms of r Make is arbitrary.52 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and next. may merely remark cf ^ We in passing that although the case.. there is. fixes the size of the whole normal system of electric and magnetic force.. that i when given.. merely require to decompose the initial states into normal systems of the above all We We types.
The magnetic force is circular. 53 and the mutual kinetic energy of two complete normal systems. . The question may be asked. and have purely longitudinal see. how set up a state of purely longitudinal As electric force in the tube. treating them as solids in which the current distribution varies with the time. yet the reasoning is simpler. is quite insignificant in comparison with electromagnetic on short lines. therefore. which is of such immense import ance on long lines. I. Our use of the longitudinal displacement in the dielectric. 523]. U12 = Tu We start [vol. so is fully specified by its intensity. Now. according to Joule's law. if z be measured along the axis. dielectric and sheath. p. But practical^ we do not set up currents in this way. which results from the equation of activity. = 0. by taking c into account. we may put c = at once between the wire and the sheath. if we remove the impressed force in the conductors. will then be no dielectric displacement either (unless there be impressed force in the dielectric to cause it). In fact. Then. with a given amount of electric energy in the dielectric. then. But electrostatic retardation. the impressed force to be so distributed in the conductors as to support There the current on the spot without causing difference of potential. Its equation is. it is simple enough a steady impressed force in any part of the circuit will do it (acting equally over a complete But it is not so easy as regards the dielectric.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. It requires section). at distance r from the axis. although the steady state is one of longitudinal electric force in the wire and sheath. in general. irrespective of the distribution of the original impressed force. was merely to establish a connection in time between the wire and the sheath. I may give a little bit of another investigation. and of magnetic energy in the wire. we get the proper solutions suitable for such cases where the influence of electrostatic charge is negligible. but it happens that although the results are more complex. especially as regards the influence of c. both electric and magnetic induction into consideration in this wire and sheath problem. the electrostatic retardation depends upon the normal displacement. and intermediate dielectric? regards the wire and sheath. say H. Knowing from experience in other similar cases that I have examined.. that the effect of the dielectric displacement on the wire and sheath phenomena is very minute. and in ordinary laboratory experiments with closed circuits (no condensers allowed) is usually quite insensible. and to simplify the We conditions. far greater than the tangential. that when we put c electric force. We might have done this at the beginning. the subsequent electric force will be purely longitudinal in the dielectric as well as in the conductors. for I have no intention of discussing them in the above general form. Take (In passing. sheath. . but by means of localised impressed forces. which are finally used up in heating the wire and sheath. It would be useless to write out the expressions. and the normal component is. in the dielectric there is normal or outward electric force as well as tangential or longitudinal.
2 us one equation between gives H is lt A A known. if y 1 and y 3 are the actual currentdensities at time the wire and the sheath respectively. Its value at r = a 2 equated to of that at the boundary of the wire. so. solution is The form of the normal H H= Ji(sr)(A sin + B cos)mz for the wire.( n i/^Ap)^i Ji( n i a i)( a i/ r \ by the at r first .2r) . bounded by straight lines of unit length parallel to the axis at distances a^ and r from it. The current has a longitudinal component. the value of H^ at r a r is the amount of induction through a rectangular multiplied by /* 2 portion of a plane through the axis. or the lineintegral of the vectorpotential round the rectangle . . We . equated to 3 Next we have and B 3 3 . when temporarily. To obtain this directly. now have. c = in (27 b)./K^r) = 1 . = a2 at r = a 2 Thus of (216). E A . where s 2 = . given by F= sJ (sr) (A sin + L cos)mz e pt *". y= mJ^sr^A In the dielectric and sheath the to be counted with the 7 and Jr ) K Q sm)mz Q and have 2 r) K^ functions have. establish a rigid connection between the magnetic and electric forces at r a^ and at r a 2 thus. = = #2 = . H . or retain which discard the last term when the wire or sheath is in question it and discard the previous when the dielectric is considered. or the excess of the vectorpotential at distance r over that at distance a x . shall JQ (n 2 r) = 1  %7i(v) = : K (n = log (n. . say T and y. 5 and B z The third a 2 gives us a second equation between at r lt A%. n. instead of the second of (216). and a radial e*'. = This. Therefore. Since there is no current in the insulating space.B . and the union of the three gives us (286) H^ meaning. is equation (266) over again. the magnetic force varies inversely as the distance from the axis of the wire. again. We t in . and. will bring ( 27b) down to the determinantal equation in the case of ignored dielectric displace ment.(iirfdsp + m 2 ). Now which put .54 in ELECTRICAL PAPERS. when multiplied by p. we shall have . it is the excess of the electric force at a^ over that Thus the electric force is known in the insulating space in terms at r. of course. cos .
Equate them. by taking the sheath so thin that it can be regarded as a linear conductor i. has gone out altogether . and some results of special cases will follow. f4 Premising that the wire is of radius a lt conductivity k v inductivity that the dielectric displacement outside is ignored and that the sheath for the return current is at distance 2 and is so thin that .. again. by gives us the sheath currentdensity. . and this. and consider instead the integral current. divided 27r r/ . 55 ^4 requires to be found. . = 2^r. SECTION XXVIII. or of the mutual dissipativity of a pair of normal systems. does not alter the retardation as compared with a copper sheath. so that when t = Q. can only get rid of those disagreeable customers. in the latter case. and u2 . by the volume of the sheath per unit length. . SOME SPECIAL RESULTS RELATING TO THE RISE OF THE CURRENT IN A WIRE. The result is ? /oKi) = i^iK a i)(( h/x 2//x i) lo ( a 2/ a i)  the determinantal equation in the case of a round wire of radius c^ with a return conductor in the form of a very thin concentric sheath. neglect variations of currentdensity in it. provided the difference of conductivity be allowed for. I v J <2 v2 being a pair of normal solutions. the initial The decomposition of the initial state into expressed. We may get (306) directly. u1tf^tfr/&1 Wj. . we fa. K ^ ultimately. the and functions. writing (296) which only the state may be thus.) Let a 4 be the very small thickness of the sheath. as in the last section. radius a. shall have . divided 2 4 Another expression for the by & 3 gives us the electric force at r = a2 electric force at the sheath is given by the previous method (the rectangle business). that is. which last is.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND where in . We have now got the heavy work over. by integrating the first of (296) throughout the wire. y = ^Au. easily enough. t pt . if it be thin enough. normal systems may be effected by the conjugate property of the vanishing of the mutual kinetic energy. ITS PROPAGATION. . Thus. so that a 2 and a s are equal We fr'j. (Except when the sheath and wire are in contact and of the same material. = (^/n1)2ro1 271(n1a1 ) This. and (306) results. and evaluate (286) on the supposition that a 4 is infinitely small.e. by considering that the total sheathcurrent must be the negative of the total wirecurrent. an iron sheath for the return.2 Notice that /* 3 the inductivity of the sheath itself. that is. in which we shall be materially assisted by the analogy of the eddy currents in long cores inserted in long solenoidal coils. . + p<.
Suppose. The remaining intersections will be nearly given by = J^x) 0. the inductance per unit length of uniformly distributed wirecurrent when the return current is on its surface. i. and the ratio of the external to the internal resistance. so that merely the that a 4 is the small thickness have the determinantal equa1 =( = O^/'A)" log( fl 2 /i). it variations of currentdensity in total return current may be . so that a uniform distribution of current is nearly represented by the first normal distribution. and reduces differences of currentdensity. in the limit it will be the first root of J^x) = 0. Rl and E. It is the external magnetic field that gives stability. LQ = 2/x 2 A ViT 1 . On the other hand. need be considered of the sheath. first. Their intersections show the required values of x. the linear theory is approximated to.. i. we have = 4vpikjpOi 4&l*i/Ri.. Thus. on the other wire).e. hand.56 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. in this. 2 from zero is the opposite of that of increas . the return has no resistance. decreasing LQ/^ increases the value of the first x ... thus cancelling the external can now write (306) thus magnetic field. it is not practicable to have the return sufficiently distant. .e. If is large. on account of the large value of /x 15 unless the wire be exceedingly fine.2 are the resistances per unit length of the wire and sheath respectively. ignoring the internal magnetic field. whose timeconstant is a little greater than that of the linear theory. and k its conductivity.e. abscissae x.. i. the ratios and R^jR^.(326) From (316) we see that the two important quantities are the ratio of the external to the internal inductance. Let now we ignored. Even if of copper. Draw the curves LJ^ yi = Jo(z)/Ji(x) < and */ 2 = KA)//*iK the ordinates y. The JJJl curve is something like the curve of cotangent. let the return have resistance. bringing the return closer has the same effect of rendering the first normal system widely different from representing a uniform distribution of current. The curve y2 must now be LJ^ The effect of increasing R. if the wire be of copper. Next. so small that J (x) is very little less than unity. #2 L Q is the external inductance per unit length.  We : and. the first intersection occurs with a small value of x. and ^ is the internal inductance per unit length. the inductance per unit length of surfaceciiTTent. 3 tion (306). and the return distant (compared with radius of If of iron. which stands for n^.
then the internal field is selfcontained. excepting that the constants LQ/^ and B2/E 1 have entirely different meanings. on the other the wirecurrent in subsiding is made to depart more from the uniform distribution of the linear theory. In either of these shuttingance. and so does infinite inductivity. decreasing in strength with great rapidity as we pass inward from the boundary. ITS PROPAGATION. 57 and tends to increase it up to that given Thus there (not counting the zero root of this equation). It increases the first x.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND by J^x) = ing LQ. with a wide departure from uniform distribution.t ' I  l Kjptf + {/ ( Vi)AA( Vi) } (316). or conInfinite conductivity shuts out versely. But if both the sheath and the wire have no resistance." at its boundary. say Cl} and with it the equal will rise thus to the final value G' . The physical explanation is. are identical. and the two surfacecurrents. and keep on. illustrated in " Induction in Cores. and at its For the characteristic equation of the longitudinal magnetic force in a core placed within a long solenoid. there will be no current at all. (316) is the boundary equation of the magnetic force in the core. except the dielectric current. Whilst on the one hand the rapidity of is a double effect produced. by reason of rapidly reversing the impressed force. or when we cannot get beyond the initial stage. when the current will be oppositely directed in concentric layers. let there be no current at the time = 0. C ^ 4 (1 It will give remarkably different results according as we take the resistance of the wire very small and that of the sheath great. 2 where the n^'a are the roots of equation in the wire. and that of the longitudinal current in our present case. The way the current centre. a steady impressed force. _ l\ ^n a l _ i. of such strength that the final At time t the currentdensity F at currentdensity in the wire is F distance r from the axis is given by . subsidence is increased by the resistance of the sheath. which is here ignored. what it always is in the initial stage. the return current is shut out from it. when. the current from the wire altogether. out cases the current becomes a mere surfacecurrent. The boundary equations are also identical. the retardation to the inward transmission of the current being proSimilarly. This must be marked when the wirecircuit is suddenly interrupted. if the sheath has no resistportional to the product fij^af. But when the sheath has great resistance the external field is killed by it . put on. and its . Now. making the returnresistance infinite. or the wirecurrent subsides as if Jl (x) = Q. or as we vary the ratio LJfj^. And the total current and opposite sheathcurrent. depending upon the number of turns of wire in the coil. that as the external field in the case of sheath of no resistance cannot dissipate its energy in the sheath it must go to the wire. is rises in the wire. That is.
distant one if it is iron. The curve a a shows what it really becomes. showing how the currentdensity would rise in all parts of the wire if it followed the ordinarily assumed law (so nearly true in common is Regarding them as arrivalcurves. It represents the curves of subsidence from the steady state. the curve finewire coils).e. at a corresponding distance from the axis. The case we now refer to is when the sheath has negligible resistance. HH . turn the figure upside down and look at it from behind. this we may conclude that. when a similarly varying impressed force acts in the coilcircuit (which. here reproduced]. but a very . vol. in case a detailed solution has been already arrived at in either case. and resistance. i. the current in the wire will be made to vary in identically the same manner as the magnetic force in the core. dimensions. must have only resistance in circuit with it. 6 8 10 12 14 the lineartheory hJi^ curve. 398. when very rapid reversals are sent. wire solutions.58 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. not external selfinduction as Thus. and save the trouble of independent investigation. and much more slowly in the later part. If. and near to it. then.. we adjust the constants to be equal in both cases. Refer to Fig. and when we take the constant Z = 2/>i 1 which requires a near return when the wire is of copper.. it follows that when any varying impressed force acts in the circuit of the wire and sheath. The current rises much more rapidly there in the first part From of the variable period. whereas if they be made much slower This is also verified by the separate calculation it may become weaker. I. at the boundary. however. The "arrival" curves are got by perversion and inversion. the amplitude of the boundary currentdensity will be far greater than according to the linear theory . 3 [p. we can translate our coresolutions into roundstraightwell).
say is. continuously hJi^ increasing the slowness of rise of the current. the external field. which is zero at the boundary. there being prebetween a a at the boundary and liminary retardation in all. we have to distinguish between the absolute and the relative. when a battery is put on at one end. make the current rise more slowly. therefore. The fourth curve liJi Q shows the way the current rises at the axis when the return has no resistance. We may approximate to this by using an iron wire and a closefitting copper sheath of much lower resistance. we (altering the scale) approximate as nearly as we please to the lineartheory curve. the distance to which the sheath If the wire is of iron. or a 2/a^ = 2718. 370. so that. The formulae will follow. That LJ^ HH . Between the axis and the boundary the curves are intermediate at the axis. When the sheath is most distant the current rises the most slowly. after which the current rises far more rapidly HH HH than when Z //x 1 is finite.]. For an appreciable interval of time. after which comes a rapid rise. and. It is very far more slowly than at the boundary. vol. from the value 2 to the value the effect of changing is to to h h change the axial arrivalcurve from Suppose it is a copper wire. whilst the boundarycurrent has reached a considerable fraction of its final strength. = 200. but also the most regularly. the amplitude of the coilcurrent being lowered at a low frequency. and gradually wipe out the preliminary axial retardation. Then L = 2 means Iog(a 2 /a 1 ) = 1. The curve ff ff shows how the current rises at the axis of the wire. But the important characteristic is the preliminary retardation. In fact the theory is similar to that of the submarine cable . will approximate more closely to the lineartheory curve By taking the sheath further and further away. It is easy to understand. It is have increased the magnetic energy by adding exactly the reverse. But the shape of the curve H^H^ if the horizontal (time) scale be suitably altered.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND " ITS PROPAGATION. except . when the sheath is nearest. 59 " Induction in Cores of the reaction on the coilcurrent in of the corecurrents when the impressed force is simpleharmonic. or LJ^ 0. and make the current rise nearly uniformly all over the section of the wire. removing the sheath from contact to a distance equal to 27 times the radius of the wire alters the axial arrivalcurve from h h Q to H^H^ Now this great alteration does not signify an increased departure from the linear theory (equal currentdensity over all the wire). There is preliminary retardation. We would have to be moved would be impracticably ^ great. it does so with the greatest possible departure from uniformity of distribution. compared with the boundary current. In fact. there is only infinitesimal current at the far end for a certain time. the central current is infinitesimal. I. Thus. how infinitesimally small the axial current can be. from the existence of this practically dead period. and the current rises most rapidly. The return must fit closely over the wire. when very rapid reversals are sent. a maximum at the axis. On the other hand. except at the first moment. but when at the same time there is no external magnetic field. and greatly increased at high frequencies [p.
we E = 0. and impressed E.GO in an iron wire of very ELECTRICAL PAPERS. The analogy is useful in two ways. is that of the magnetic field. by applying tangential force of uniform amount per unit area of the boundary we drag the outermost layer into motion instantly it. except on the boundary. The final state will be one of steady motion resisted by surface friction. vol. the more it is searched for. in the electromagnetic case. must leave to another Section. I we cannot get the current to rise The simpleharmonic solutions according to the linear theory. where it is numerically e.F. i. and this is done. simple nature to be generally understood and appreciated. In our fundamental equations of motion curl (e  E) = /xH. and the rapid decrease in the amplitude of these waves from the boundary inward. H = 0. or of exceedingly small radius.]. however. it enables us to readily perceive the manner of propagation of waves of current into wires when a rapidly varying impressed force acts in the circuit. as it takes place so slowly. First. the more unIt may perhaps be abolished altogether when substantial it becomes.M. Then. Thus the first effect directed perpendicularly to the axis of the wire. and is an everyday fact in one form or another . and this is propagated inward and outward through the conductor and the dielectric respec Now. The inertia. up to the centre. no electric or magnetic energy. not to the water itself in mass. so everywhere. [A general demonstration will be given later that disturbances due to impressed e or h always have curl e and curl h for sources. is magnetic current on the boundary of the wire. curl H= suppose that force e. Its rotation is zero. to bodily acting impressed force For we have to apply the force to the boundary of the water. and kept up by surface force. and at the places of its rotation. not electric current (for that requires there to be magnetic force). The have. low inductivity. H = 0. sets the next layer moving. in the first place. Thus the first effect of e is to set up. . here notice the waterpipe analogy [p. of a sufficiently on the water. to make it start into motion so that its velocity can be compared with the electric currentdensity. also. or the rate of increase of the magnetic induction. but magnetic current. by the internal friction. because any one can form an idea of this communication of motion into the mass of water from its boundary. We may. imagine e to . when it is acted upon hy a longitudinal dragging force Let the water be at rest in the first place.] be uniformly distributed throughout a wire. The current starts in the wire in the same manner as water starts into motion in a pipe. not of the electricity. and so on. which. Next. it is useful in illustrating how radically wrong the analogy really is which compares the electric current in a wire to the current of water in a pipe. and then suddenly start an impressed initial state is E = 0. we have a really good mechanical theory to work with. not by e. 384. applied to its boundary. but by its rotation.
The first effect of starting a current in a wire is the dielectric disturbance. however. directed in space by the wire. always from the source. if this what is the effect produced 1 the answer will vary question be asked I therefore greatly according to the conditions assumed to prevail. we enlarge the field of view. Magnetic current. make the conditions very comprehensive. to remember that this is only a device. The electrical tivity k v and inductivity system consists of a round wire of radius a lt conducsurrounded by an insulator of inductivity ^ . . and also the approximation to surface conduction that the great frequency of telephonic currents makes of importance. But the dielectric disturb ance travels with such great speed that we may. in dielectric displacement. of course. wherever it may be. shifting applied forces from their points of application to other points. distribute the impressed force as we please. It is well. unless the line is long. Space does not permit a detailed proof from beginning to end. The results may. When. The effect of an impressed force in one part of the circuit is assumed to be the same as if it were spread all round the circuit. ITS EFFECT. 61 lively. be tested for accuracy by their satisfying all the conditions laid down. transfer our impressed forces from wherever they may be in the circuit to any other part of the circuit. for every special arrangement has its own special distribution of electric The transfer of energy is. for purposes of calculation. and this is substantially what we do when we ignore dielectric displacement in our electromagnetic investigations. APPLICATION TO LONGDISTANCE TELEPHONY AND TELEGRAPHY. or distribute them uni formly. of course. forces of inertia. magnetic induction and Now. It would be identically the same were there no dielectric displacement. OSCILLATORY IMPRESSED FORCE AT ONE END OF A LINE. it is not permissible to shift the impressed forces in the above manner. taking into account frictional resistance. forces of elasticity. most of which I have given in the last three Sections. and allow the dielectric displacement. which we ignore in purely electromagnetic investigations relating to wires. so as to get rid of difference of potential. Given that there is an oscillatory impressed force in a circuit. regard it as affecting the wire at a given moment equally in every part of its length . energy. which is much the best plan. but only the magnetic force in question. we ignore any difference in action at different SECTION XXIX. when distances along the core. however. leads to electric current. and regard a long wire in which a current is being set up from outside as similar to a long core in a magnetising helix. we may.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. because it is a sink of energy where it can be dissipated. similar in reason and in effect to the devices employed in the statics and dynamics of supposed rigid bodies. however. completely ignoring how forces are really transmitted.
. dielectric per unit length of the line. and to the property p 2 = .(366) But as we shall only have e at one end of the line. and p stands for d/dt. Owing to f and Lf containing only even powers of p. to radius a. (396) ...og^A)}" 1 . add e place considered. (335) V where R' and 1J are certain even functions of p... and to be joined at the ends to make a closed conductive circuit.. which is connected with (356) through the equation of continuity .. Let S be the electrostatic capacity... differential equation of F'is :.. at time /. The be explained later.2/a l \ L S = 2 = v~'2 if v is S = c{2 .cos 2QI). f f by p in simpleharmonic arrangements. and specific dielectric capacity c. find V and C everywhere.. 2 X ' These make O l and distance x at time t 2 angles less than 90.. surrounded by the return of conductivity k y inoluctivity /* 3 and outer radius a y The wire and return to be each of length I.. whose structure will That of C is the same.. (356) Both (346) and (356) assume that there is no impressed force at the If there be impressed force e per unit length.. or The total current in the wire..B'Q)/(B'P + I/n = sin 2Ql/(c* n .. the dielectric.. Let be the surfacepotential of the wire... ' These are very important constants concerned.. We LQ = 2^log(a. the speed of undissipated waves through have Cfj. tan tan Let also = (UnP . given (346) and (356)..(4^)1 { (R'* + lW)i + L'n}*.. Now... connection between G and V is given by ... and that there is an impressed force F sin nt at the x = end.. to the left side of (356). Q . we shall not require to consider e elsewhere. R and L become The solution is therefore got readily enough.. Let U *. and C the wirecurrent...... ax . Then the potential V at is . at distance x from one end.. and L Q the inductance of the That is.2 . and make the necessary change in (346). ..n 2 R possessed constants.62 /x 2 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
2 cos 2QI (R* + LV}*\_~~ J = it is distance At the extreme end x 1 c ' .... L( on the return. or the reverse way. They are. or of C. x= The wavespeed is n/Q. The forms of R{ and L{ have been given by Lord Rayleigh. put f and L f constants. and one negative.. Section xxvii. If the line were But this wave is infinitely long.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND and the current ITS PROPAGATION. The amplitude of the current (half its range) is important. if we operate on (7. As the waves . Reflection at the end produces the third and least important term. The angles O l and 2 merely settle the phasedifferences.. 54].r. two positive. Separating into even and will take the form.. l 1" + g '""  2 cos only the current at the distant end that can be utilised there. or from x Q to = /.. The limiting case is wavespeed = i\ and no dissipation. for p*2 . reflected at x = l and the result is the second term. we should have only the first wave. and L on the intermediate insulator../ t travel their amplitudes diminish at a rate depending upon the magnitude of P. ..x)~\* ? pl + * .. which is the determinantal or differential equation when dielectric displacement is ignored. if g 2 where R l = steady resistance of the wire per unit length. . [p. . L f  2 ??. (436) where R{ depends on the wire. Go back to equation (286). R I4.. it is it is As clear that (416) is the equation . It must now be explained how to get E f and L f and their meanings. R( on the return L{ on the wire.. and the wavelength 2ir/Q. from which valuable information is to be drawn. They will be of the form . It is at any ro (Sn)* ryt'*) + c^ " + 2 cos 2Q(l . 63 C is _ e p* sin (nt + Qx  6l e * + + <9 2) * + e~ px sin (nt Qx0 " I 2 cos l 2 H J Each of these consists of the sum of three waves. since odd powers of p where R* and it the differential equation of the boundary magnetic they are proportional. We may write it When p is d/dt it is force... making are functions of p 2 To suit the oscillatory state.
including wire and return. and 2 depending upon the return. when we further take electrostatic induction into account we shall have the above equations (346) and (356). the impedance is wholly conditioned by the dissipation of energy.64 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the former. and q = frequency = n/'2ir. especially if the wire is of iron. Then is the impedance. becoming ultimately less. as regards the meanings. The proof arises out of the short sketch I gave in Section xxvu. of the general electrostatic investigation. though only a question of long division. The impedance is made variable it is no longer the same all along the line.r 2 inversely as the area. Let us call the ratio of the impressed force to the current in a line when the Impedance of the line. is less easy. Here fi and L are. per unit length. further. which will follow. which is a mere matter of detail. from term as Resistance. simply because the currentamplitude decreases from the place of impressed force. When.28. that is to say upon extent of conducting surface. (Put the accent on the middle e in impedance. and is then simply the resistance Rl of the line. varying is 2. in the ordinary sense. no matter how thick be.) When the flow is steady. quite complete. as we see in especial from the It? formula. in which PJ and L f are The proof of this I must the same as if there were no static charge. used there for illustration. It seems as good a very low 2 . differences of currentdensity are This is greater or less than according to the frequency. then (456) These are also Lord Rayleigh's. The proof of (466) Now. the impedance is f2 (R + Un^l. It is the only thing to be proved to make the above also postpone. later. where it is greatest. (Pi' + Lrri2)^ but with greater frequency inertia becomes sensible. The getting ot the forms of Rt. This is also sensibly the case when the frequency is electrostatic induction is ignorable the verb impede. U . 11# 3 77 =i f i _ JL + io v~ o^tioaon to< J" (446) !2'. sensible. The R it f z may of the tube depends upon its inner radius only. from resist.80 added an additional term. to the far end of the line. I shall give the formula to the last of which I have U . value of Now. the resistance and inductance of unit length of line. owing to the then large reduction in the as compared with L. At present I give their ultimate forms at very high frequencies. ^/ = (Wsg)* For the return we have 74 = m/n (466) I express R{ and R( in terms of the resistivity rather than the resistance of the wire and return because their resistances have really 2 nothing to do with it. Let p = resistivity. . excepting (466).
E. Let n be so great as to make B'/L'n small. But there is this remarkable thing about the joint action offerees of inertia and elasticity.P. VOL. take ance. so high as to bring surface conduction into play. signify the ratio of F" to 6' anywhere. extend the meaning to invented.~ pl is small.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. (In passing I will give an illustration of reduction of impedance produced by inertia. /(7 according to (41ft) may be far less than (/2' + This is clearly of great importance in connection with the future of F JW)k longdistance telegraphy ana telephony. Thus the greatest impedance of a line is what its resistance would have to be in order that in steadyflow the current should equal that arriving at the far end under the given circumstances. Also. as it will be first need only consider the which becomes on increasing the frequency. we may merely notice the A In the remainder of this form it takes at very high frequencies. It is very convenient to express impedance in ohms. The result is to increase the amplitude of the currentwaves. Thus To The theory will follow. we term under the radical sign in (41ft). if f. whilst keeping its resistance constant. If we confine the use. . Insert an iron core in them. 2 That is. To get the linear magnetic theory formulae. (* Take for R' its ultimate form H. To get the more correct formulae. but with =0. including the interior state of the wire. at least temporarily. The question arises whether we shall confine impedance according to the above definition to the place of impressed force. The impedance may be far less than in the electromagnetic theory. Finally. arid L' = L. not allowing for variations of currentdensity. II. Let an oscillatory current be kept up in a submarine cable and in the receiving coils. however. increases the amplitude up to a certain point. The solution in the case of steady impressed proper force will follow. More fully. with R and functions of d/dt. but including inertia. R' = R. and = 0. great deal may be dug out of (41ft). we have the complete magnetic formulae suitable for short lines. or extend its meaning. and show how much less the impedance is than according to the magnetic theory.) U R S=0 in (4:11) brings it to f the Equations (34ft) to (36ft) are true generally. a new word must be I therefore. whatever may be its ultimate structure. take PJ 11. increasing the inductance of the coil continuously from zero. after which it decreases. 65 where it is least. using R' and J7. It will usually be far greater than the resistance. that is. = and get the submarine cable formulae. Also the U interior state in the oscillatory case. Then we may also take Q = n/v. take L f = L the steady inductf = R. ignoring inertia. Section.
and the impedance according to the same.e. its effective resistance according to the magnetic theory. L will be a little more than 1J.ELECTRICAL PAPERS. It is of course much less at a lower frequency. of copper. or Now compare this real impedance with the resistance Rl= 2 x 500 x 10 5 x 1600/7r = 50 ohms. The resistance of the line we may take to be twice that of the wire. material. then This large increase of resistance is more than counterbalanced by the reduction of inductance. PI is made 1J. then F /(7 = 5 x exp 4^/300 ohms. and 5 therefore / = 10 ^...e.178 ohms at 500 kilom.100 to about 3.100 ohms. here take L' = L + P/jn. where exp LQ Here is defined by e* = exp x. but the more complete formula will have to be used if it be much lower.000 kilom. then large. and this is about three times the real impedance at its greatest. . But. jrQ /C = 15 x exp 6f = 1. a numeric. of the line in the steady state. a = 1 4 cm. when we reckon the impedance in ohms). by choosing the return of a proper thickness. owing to the high frequency. distance at the enormous frequency of 10. it is made 13J. if ^ is the length of the line in kilom. which is too small for our approximate formula. It is further to be noted that the wire and return need not be solid. is = 15Z To see x how it works out. and q = 10 . If it is 500 kilom. if the conductors are copper. and = 30 ohms (i.000 waves per second. say. the magnetic theory impedance. so that the lineartheory impedance is nearly 5.. we should use R' and U instead of R and L . If the line is 100 kilom. convenient when x is complex.. viz.178 ohms. ^ = 1600 and /*=!. which is rather Pl= 10 is large.500 ohms. say 16. so that the impedance is brought down from the above 5. . therefore Lln='8x27rx 10 4 = 5060. What is needed at as we see from the value of R! compared with R. got from (455) and (46&) by supposing wire and sheath of the same and 2/a = l/a 1 + l/a 2 Then the impedance is .. So the impedance is only 1. take 1 LQ = 1. i. at the distant end of the line. very high frequencies is two conducting sheets of small thickness.. of the highest conductivity and lowest inductivity . If 1.
.. .. and taking the g s term into account. We (48i) The real frequency required must be greater than this.. R and real values at frequency w/27r per second.. telephonic frequency.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND SECTION ITS PROPAGATION.. (496) We see that the simpler (486) approximately. small in copper.. Thus the first increase in the square of the impedance over that of the linear theory is J/^%2 independent of resistance. IMPEDANCE FORMULA FOR SHORT LINES. on account of the large value of /x. p the inductivity of the wire. a much lower frequency is sufficient to reduce the impedance below that of the linear theory . then. This is is we shall have R <" U and L being the steady resistance and inductance of the line per unit f the length (the latter to include L for the external medium). and g = (pn/It)*.. when the to it at some higher frequency. a very high frequency is needed in general necessary to take electrostatic induction into account in estimating the impedance. for simplicity. If the return is distant. rough idea of the frequency required to bring the impedance down to that of the linear theory by ignoring the g 3 term. Then the This is a low frequency required is about 100 waves per second. ... Thus. 67 XXX.... we shall obtain. Keeping below such a frequency. we can easily have L = 9. large in iron.. is ohm R= near enough. If the wire is of copper of a resistance of 1 10 4 we shall have. the g 2 term becomes sensible can get a being negative. But as the frequency is raised. that is. so that we see that telephonic signalling is somewhat assisted by the approximation to surface conduction. it puts a stop to the increase. RESISTANCE OF TUBES... using (486).. as a higher limit. This gives . an iron wire is not by any means so disadvan . If the wire is of iron. line. making .. then. and less than it low... equal frequency for still higher frequencies. the impedance per unit length is simply In the case of a short to make it 2 2 2 greater than the common (R + L n )% at first. let the return contribute nothing to the resistance or the inductance . using (446).. per kilom....
as well caution the reader against the false idea The increased resistance of a wire is not in any way caused or evidenced by the weakness of the current in the variable period compared with its final strength. to a first approximation. from the fact that the impedance is so easily made much less than that of the linear theory. and lowest inducNor is any great importance to be attached to the matter in tivity. as notably in the case of iron. also see that in electriclight mains with alternating currents there may easily be a reduction of impedance if the wires be thick and the returns not too close. no definite resistance. There must always be some change. a result due to the back E. though not of impedance. and it is clearly not possible to balance a wire in which the above takes place against a thin wire. at the same frequency. When. for. and then that their sum is the impedance when they are put in sequence. goes regular changes over and over again in such a manner . the best to use. which is really the We important thing. The through the same But the case of simpleharmonic impressed force distribution of current. No matter how great the inertia. though not constant. being of the highest conductivity. it will usually happen that the telephones themselves are of more importance than the line in retarding changes of current. in general. according to the ordinary formula. wherein use the value of n 2 given by (486). that of a coil so much more. The increase of impedance therefore. of course this changed distribution of current means a large increase of resistance. Thus. the central part of the wire is inoperative. there is no change of resistance. in general. Copper is. unless there be changed distribution of current. tageous. There cannot be said to be any definite resistance unless the current distribution is definite. the closer they are brought the less is the impedance. of course.68 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. as its higher resistivity and far higher inductivity would lead one to expect. I may somewhere prevalent. in a copper wire. anything of a startling nature. any case. It should be borne in mind that we are merely dealing with a correction. but it is usually negligible. a conclusion that is is easily verified. electrically speaking. however. presuming that there is large departure from the regular final distribution. Then IF + Lifi becomes is not. peculiar. in the rise of the current from zero to the steady state there is. not with the absolute value of the impedance. In passing. that must. on a short line. Now take the frequency midway between and the second frequency w^hich gives the lineartheory impedance. and how slowly it makes the current rise. On the other hand. We cannot say that the impedance of a wire is so much. to which we at present refer. compared with a copper wire of the same diameter.M. be regarded as the conductor. But it is not to be inferred that there is any advantage in using iron.F. It is a hollow tube. which is reduced. Impedances are not additive. not a solid wire. of inertia.
Or. the corresponding formulae when the return is inside it. simply. becomes I give the results as far as p 2 a very complex matter in the tube case. 2 and therefore constants when 2 are functions of p R(. By an easy extension of equation (286). change 7? x to v p l to p B /^ to /A3 a x to 2 and a to a B The change of $ign is not necessary. for. the differential equation of the total current is is the dots indicating repetition of what is above them. the second for the inner tube. and is is . L{. and ^ the inner and outer radii of the inner. exchange a^ and a and we have R . if we compare the expressions carefully. because it is involved in the substitution of for Or. For the inner tube we have where U .2 and a 3 of the outer. the current is simpleharmonic. It is not necessary to do the work separately for the two tubes. a simple matter in the case of a solid wire. and in changed sign of the whole. . the corresponding expressions for the outer tube. therefore nothing more than the inductance per unit length of the tube in steady flow. from (516) and (526). the form quoted in the last Section. Let there be two tubes. circuit of definite resistance Consider now the resistance of a tube at a given frequency. 69 moment is the same as if a true linear and inductance were substituted. . The resistance of the inner tube per unit length is where 11^ of p. This is the coefficient the steady resistance per unit length. the first correction to which depends on p 3 This may be immediately verified by the square. we shall see that they only differ in the exchange of the inner and outer radii. . E . 1&. the third for the outer. It depends materially upon whether the returncurrent be within it or outside it.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND that the total current at every ITS PROPAGATION. The division of the numerators by the denominators. and a. .offorce method. . The first term for the insulator between tubes. To obtain. (516) and (526) holding good v E^ when the return is outside the tube. This is very considerably departed from when mere rapid makes and breaks are employed.
and then thin the tube from a solid wire down to a mere skin. as regards the resistance of the tube at high frequencies. This removes a fourth part of the material from the central part of a solid wire of radius a r The return being outside. the resistance is x '01 2. and when the tube is very thin the frequency must be enormous. which. a thin tube is always a linear conductor. Thus the earth's resistance. the resistance is R{ = R. makes it become more a linear conductor. so that a much higher frequency is required to change its resistance . etc. but the percentage increase of resistance of the outer conductor will be a large multiple of that of the wire.) x 031. remains the same. is so small to a steady current.. To get them. But if the return is inside. now the correction is reduced less than three times instead of seven times.+ B^nftiraHfr) so x 503 = ^ + P^n^iraf/p. and on the outer when it is outside. it is thus depending upon the inner radius when the return is inside. This difference will be. If the return is outside it is q being the frequency. Now. use in (506) the appropriate J (x). Practically. for an obvious reason. or the correction is reduced seven times by removing only a fourth part of the material. as when the return was outside. They are f = . Suppose we fix the outer radius. Let & = Jftj. it is clear that (536) cannot be valid until the frequency is so high as to make R{ much greater than R lt which is itself very great when the tube is thin. Now. removing the central part of a wire. then. ) . for instance. consider a solid wire surrounded by a very thick tube for return . In doing so we increase the steady resistBut the highfrequency formula (536) ance as much as we please.cos x) + J^x) J (x) (TTX)%. greatly magnified when the ratio di/ctQ is large . in spite of the low conductivity. formulae when x is very large. all else being the same. If solid. as it would involve an absurdity for the resistance to be less than that in steady flow. That is to say.KI(X) = (sin x + cos x) = KQ (x) = (sin x . the steady resistance of the return will be only a small fraction of that of the wire. when the return is outside it. will be largely multiplied when the current is a periodic function of the time.70 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. of course. the '012 would be *083 . although it is only a matter of raising the frequency to make (536) or (546) applicable. But if the return is inside. when the position of the magnetic field where the primary transfer of energy takes place is considered.
in correction of the definition in Section xxix. which brings us to where ^'M*! 1' = f! fM <i) as before given. yet the exponential form of the functions does not allow us to readily perceive the nature of the change made by lengthening the line. putting the circular functions in the exponential forms. in which the same f and Lr occur. Let us now return to the more general case of Section XXIX. substitute this defini= SF. at least in general. And. There is no fixed boundary between a "short" and a into account in a particular case the circumstances which control it. IMPEDANCE FORMULAE. we must take V SECTION XXXI. and judge whether we may treat it as a short or a longline question. reduce it to where i = (sfai l)i Here therefore = ^iTfaJcflfp. need.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. the frequency were really so high as to make these highfrequency formulae applicable when the conductors are thin tubes. where Q is the charge and S the electrostatic capacity. merely remarking at present that there is a curious effect arising from the toandfro reflection of the electromagnetic waves in the dielectric. If. "long" line. for ss . Q both per unit length of wire. or making any other alteration that will cause the . To the more general formula I shall return in the following Section. As for long lines. tion. of as the surface potential of the wire. it is clear that we should. THE INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC CAPACITY. used in (50&). since 2 2 p = n . and therefore not estimate the impedance by the magnetic formulae. but by the more general of the last Section. 71 These. and similarly so we get pl = (Jw)*(l +i) Here. the amplitude of the received current may easily be greater than the steady current from the same impressed force. Although the formula (416) for the amplitude at the distant end is very compact. by reason of the high frequency. except that the inner tube was a solid wire. to take electrostatic induction into account even on a short line. it is imperative to consider electrostatic R induction. .. however. the amplitude of the current due to a simpleharmonic impressed force at one end of a line. which causes the impedance to have maxima and minima values as the speed continuously increases . and that when the period of a wave is somewhere about equal to the time taken to travel to the distant end and back.
/=(' 2 + Z'% 2 )i we have. to zero at infinite frequency.. whose "constants" are Z/.. and resistance..... Its )"* or (/* 2c. To put P* these in terms of the resistance.\ P6 . or rather (606)....72 effect of ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. and S.. by causing the magnetic formula to be sensibly departed from. put = etc...... our formula (416). it will be desirable to modify the notation.. convert (416) to the following form.... and also to entirely separate the terms depending upon resistance in the [ ] from the others. the electric charge to be no longer negligible.. .... Lf being functions of the frequency already given.. where 2PQ = SnR'.. Q 2 pi = Sn*L'... (606) Here we may repeat that Q and G' are the amplitudes of the impressed force at one end and of the current in the wire at the other end of the f double wire of length Z.... we see Vsia> where. . The least value of the velocity is (SL)~t.. and then expand the right member in an (416) in the form F" /(7 infinite series of which the first term shall be the magnetic impedance itself..... being the full steady inductance per Here L unit length. (596) the shortline impedance per unit length. + Q* = SnI. therefore. we . and h. so does v. at zero frequency. In terms of /. v is . we obtain a P4 . f and electric capacity per unit length. To go further. etc.. resistance appears in that the corresponding noresistance formula is simply / only. / and h numerics.. to the waveperiod. inductance. seeing that in the [].. Let us. becomes From this.. all divided by . I do not give more terms than are above expressed. (636) the speed corresponding to L . (616) v is a velocity. as before. the speed of undissipated waves limiting value is through the dielectric.. or the speed of un ... /.. by (376). occur. As the frequency increases..2 )~. On expanding series in which the quantities the exponentials and the cosine in (416).....Q.. whilst the others depend on the electric capacity as well as on the resistance and inductance. the . of course.. The ratio h is such that lift* is the ratio of the time a wave travelling at speed v takes to traverse the line. See equations (436) to (466). The ratio / falls from infinity at zero frequency. Let SL = v\ f f=(Bf/I/n)*..../. / being these.... .(586) Using * ..... when (L extended. owing to the complexity of the co V R R efficients of the subsequent powers of S. h = nljv.^ 6 etc.
By this toandfro reflection. 1 WMJWO +/)*+!}* /" Let us now dig something out of the above formulae.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. and raising it continuously. if only the resistance be low enough. if we introduce a simpleharmonic impressed force at one end. or only tendencies towards maxima and minima at certain frequencies. the impedance. etc. at others. then rises to a second maximum greater than the first. rises to a maximum. we introduce only a very small amount of maximum and that the range between the consecutive maxiand minimum impedance will be very large. then falls to a minimum. but easily imaginable case of no resistance. go The currentamplitude goes up to infinity. according to which the distantend impedance falls to zero when nl/v = IT. Any disturbances originating at one end travel unchanged in form . it will fall to a minimum. Now. only suited for very robust intellects. Let the wire and return be of infinite conductivity. without any dissipation of energy. we may easily conclude that. Increasing the resistance will tend to reduce the range between the maximum and minimum. shall check (636). enormously augmented by the toandfro reflections nearly timing with the impressed force. the result is rather complex in general. derive it immediately from (416) by taking 11 = 0. and so on. We have then merely wave propagation through the dielectric. but owing to reflection at the other end. at the wavespeed = (/* 2 c 2)~* which is. although the impedance can never fall to zero. If. find the following form of (416) in terms of/ and h useful later We : F /C' where = \Vv(\ +/)<{<2/v + Pl = h(W{(l +/)* *'"'' . or 27r. and. resistance. or electrical reverberation or resonance. It will be as well to commence with the unreal. starting from frequency zero. 73 The sine must be reckoned positive always. which is simply M. and falls to a second minimum greater than the first. I shall therefore be glad to receive any corrections the following may require. To dissipated waves. and the consequent coexistence of oppositely travelling waves. Here '27r/n is the waveperiod. yet. so that the real maxima and minima ultimately become false. This will explain (636). In practical cases. and then again at the first end.2 cos 2$}*. in the first place. at particular frequencies. mum up to a . if they are of any importance. next. but cannot altogether obliterate the fluctuations in the value of the impedance as the frequency continuously increases. and adjust its frequency until the waveperiod is nearly equal to the time taken by a wave to travel to the other end and back again at the speed it is clear that the amplitude of the disturbance will be r. in air. that of lightwaves. and 21 /v the time of a toandfro journey. This arithmetical digging is dreadful work. whilst the fluctuations themselves get smaller and smaller. (646) 1}*. or STT. the resistance of the line. . if we disregard the fluctuations. there being a regular increase in the impedance on the whole.
The range. then + *]J To/Co and the ratio of impedance to resistance is = JV. makes .. Then. even when the electrical data are not remote from. ^=10 3 . 4 that 1 ohm per kilom. and L unit length. of double = nl= 10 5 nlv if /j is in kilometres. but coincide with.. let us work out resemble. Z = 10. JTT.. in (646). so that R f = R. we shall have. by making use of the data That is.and deducing the values of n and /. and TT. let the conductors be sheets. And if Ql = JTT.. The above data of/= 1.. . first assuming a given value of fi. what comes to As the same thing.... stronger than the steady current. this matter has no particular concern with variations of currentdensity in the conductors. v = 30ohms . that/= 1 means Then..21^' = 28 L Q ohms . the following results . R . Also. or To show this... that QI = TT. is very great.. But let 6Z = j7r.2i [ o o ' 8284ir + " 8284T  2? = 60 ' 6 ^o ohms . and Ql = JTT.. n= 10 3 . we shall have and find the ratio of slightly greater ohms.. some results numerically. (665) (656). it will be seen. both per resistance. making the r /a = 478 received current 35 per cent. greater than the steady current. let /=!. then varying Z. the dielectric inductance. /<7 F and that the impedance is if Ql = ITT.. = 10 2 /z . by the second of and... conductor). by (646). : =1. o o impedance to resistance to be 63/85.. etc. we shall find = 435 ohms. have been chosen in order to get near the first maximum and minimum of impedance.. when (666) is enforced. or. what may occur in practice. received current is 42 per cent. the amplitude of the (666). in the case to which (666) to (686) refer.74 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. or the amplitude of current is only 3/4 of the steady current. (676) is The ratio of the distantend 606 x 10 9 ~1T~ impedance to the resistance 9 _606 x 1 Q _ 202 _ 202 = nl 107* ~285' therefore . r /a = iV. Then.R=10 (resistance per cm. the amplitude of the received current may be made far greater than the strength of the steady current from the same impressed force. Let us next see how these Remember data resemble practical data in respect to resistance. we find that h = 285. the steady f = LQ very nearly. JTT.  * than the resistance. Whilst.. ignore them altogether.
A all round. The L = 100 case is extravagant. . with the l^s halved . n=l&. : =1. 1 ohm per kilom. the factor by which the magnetic impedance is multiplied being Even when h is not small the /terms in (626) may be negli(amh)/h. ^ = 8568. suppose h = y gible. The ultimate effect of electrostatic retardation. use the above figures. with the l^a multiplied by f consideration of the above figures will show that there must be.. then (sin h) /h = 3 x '3272 = 9816. very high resistance of 100 ohms per kilom. through a long range . from what it would be were only magnetic induction concerned. two 2 quantities only are concerned. . down to 10/2?r on 10. Ql = JTT. and weakening of others. Z = 10. and if both /and h are small. =100. to meet the ()/ i?r . 10 /2. the frequenNext. : E=IW. from the magnetic impedance. the quantity nl/v has a value onefourth of that assumed in the above . with the same and jL and same frequency. / and h. = Similarly. It will be remembered that good reproduction of human speech is not a mere question of getting the lower tones transmitted well. or (IV / L'n) and nl/v. it is readily seen that the first form of (636) applies. hence. 10 ohms per kilom. / 1 = 85. The formula (625) is the most useful if we wish to see readily to what extent the magnetic formula is departed from.r on 10 kilom. In this. is to kill the upper tones. T\j ohm cies are rather low. For example. L =10. per kilom. n = 10 2 . Lastly. the preservation of the latter is required for good articulation. these cases the amplitude of received current is 42 per cent. 5 Now.. this /i = i means nl l = 10 5 or the high frequency of 10 /2?r on a 4 line of one kilom. R = W. always provided the / terms are still negligible. and convert human speech into amplitude mere murmuring.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND Tin's is ITS PROPAGATION. Then. requiring such a very distant return current (therefore very low electric capacity). in telephony. Next. but will cease to be true t . In all L =10. but that there must be special reinforcement of certain tones. . but also the upper tones. and in the Ql = JTT case. and the lengths great. the currentamplitude will be threefourths of the steady current. showing a reduction of 2 per cent. This may easily be the case when the line is short. in all cases. when the line is long enough. greater than the steady current. the above values of ^ require to be quartered. and /small.. and the first form of (636) apply. / 1 . a good deal of this reinforcement of current strength sometimes .000 kilom. n=W\ / 1 = 85. : =1. and so on. 3 ?t = 10 = 856.case. In the next case. not merely that the electrostatic influence tends to increase the R . 75 an excessively low resistance.
will make an appreciable. THE EQUATIONS OF PROPAGATION ALONG WIRES. ultimately. and /= 1 on 10 kiloms. which resembles the real one more or less in those features we wish to study. rather an obvious nature... at # = 0... Remembering that Maxwell's is the only complete scheme in existence that will work. of course. that the difference between theory and empiricism is only one of degree. So . and the first form of But / becomes 100 on 100 kiloms. Thus. was to work down from a system exactly fulfilling the conditions involved in Maxwell's scheme. that this formula should have so wide a range of validity... educational point of view. this impedance tends to be and. according to which. In another place (Phil.000 kilom. though not large. the advantage of greater intelligibility to those who have not studied Maxwell's scheme in its complete form . and L= 10... under such or such conditions. whilst it is of such a greatly simplified nature that its solution is. 1886. = A>v = 30 L ohms. Section xxix. even when the word theory is used in its highest sense.. from an .... and . w e can see the degree of approximation when a change is made. in comparison with This remark.... In the following I adopt the reverse plan of rising from the first rough representation of fact up to the more complete.. which we regard as essential. however. which (636) applies. conveys a lesson that is not always remembered .. per kilom. the more natural plan. In the above we have always referred to the distantend impedance. It is remarkable.. Whenever the solution of a socalled physical problem has been obtained. by the formula preceding (416). will make a large difference and cause the first (636) formula to fail. owing to the n in / getting smaller and smaller. quite elementary. such or such effects must happen.000 on 1.. difference and /= 10. but more easily worked.  impressed force. and later) the method adopted by me in establishing the equations of Fand C. This plan has. ELEMENTARY. ." Thus. in the justused example. what has really been done has been to solve another problem.. Mag.76 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. which is of that of the real problem.. there is some advantage r in this also. Aug. if the resistance is 10 ohms we shall have the /= T JT / on the line of 1 kilom. terms are negligible.. besides being. SECTION XXXII. (706) the dielectric be L is usually a small number. to simpler systems nearly equivalent. we have far. represented by The term impedance is of course strictly applicable at the seat of As the frequency is raised.. But at the seat of impressed force there is a large increase of current on account of the "charge. as the line is lengthened. by if ^o/^o air.
Stop the extension of the universe somewhere . and if its state be known at a given moment. Let a wire be surrounded by a nonconductor of heat. and be either invariable or known to vary in some definite manner. and is the same all the way between. an indistinctly defined quantity. a constant. Or. as he arrived at results which are. This naturally brings us to the subject of the equations of propagation. under certain conditions. But if this be imagined to be all done./ unit length. nearly correct. whose investigation is a very curious chapter in the history of electricity. if its laws be fully known. Even using the modern equivalent and potential. called electroscopic force. and the universe made a machine. Up to a certain point there is a resemblance between the flow of heat and the electric conduction current. within wide limits. for they are merely the instruments used in attempts to formulate facts in a more or less complete manner. in the permanent impress they make on the future course of events). The ratio R of the fall of temperature per unit length. but after that a wide dissimilarity. and is constant (at the same temperature). to the current. 77 applied to legitimate deductions from laws which are known to be very true indeed. it is difficult to see how it can be indefinite at any later time. The current. for the good and evil worked by a soul in this life live for ever. current is the electrical resistance. But Kis. For a given temperature appears to involve a definite V . and Fthe potential at a certain place. and is. and V the temperature there. current in the wire.) a complete manner. It is quite possible to imagine the solution of the general problem of the universe. The law which Ohm discovered and correctly applied to steady conMake C the electric duction currents in wires is similar to this. more or less. there is not a perfect parallel between the temperature the potential V. C will be proportional to the rate of decrease of Or alon the wire. we shall in all probability get into a vicious circle of reasoning. I believe. is the "resistance" per . is proportional The ratio of the fall of potential to the to their difference of potential. as developed by Fourier. There does not seem to be anything against it except its possible infinite extent. from which there is no All that would be done would be the formulation of facts in escape. by entirely erroneous reasoning. Ohm followed the theory of the conduction of heat in wires. or in the development of a human soul (which is certainly immortal.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND is ITS PROPAGATION. let the heat it contains be indestructible when in the wire. no one would be a bit the wiser as to the reason why of it. the current is proportional to the difference of temperature between any two sections. The first to solve a problem in the propagation of signals was Ohm. in imagination . If C is the heatcurrent across a given section. then. even in the minutest particulars in the history of nations or of animalcule. (Even if we ask what we mean by the reason why. in Ohm's memoir. and be in a state of steady flow along it. which is the same all the way between any two sections. V if be length measured along the wire.
say t But isr. and so must accumulate in a given portion of the wire if the current entering at one end exceeds that leaving at the other. have We mb] (nb) where on the left appear the elementary relations. when the initial state of temperature along the wire is known. returning to the conduction of heat. then. and the quantities in the system of the latter are quite distinct. per unit length. physical state of the conductor at the place considered. Now. or that the temperaturegradient changes as we If the current entering a given portion of the pass along the wire. it must accumulate. whereas The real parallel is between the tempotential has no such meaning. Sir W. this we may and the former equation between C and the variation of eliminate C and obtain the characteristic equation of the temperature. The quantity q is the amount of electricity in the unit length. the temperature is a function of j. and is proportional to F". both in electrostatics and electromagnetism. and on the right the resultant characteristic equation of V. their ratio S being the capacity With the same formal relations we arrive. as a constant. we have the equation of continuity. the capacity for heat per unit length of wire. independent of the temperature. generation later. now of the potential. applied this theory to electricity in a manner which is substantially equivalent to supposing that electricity (when prevented from leaving the wire) flows like heat. by difference of potential. at the same characteristic equation. which. suppose that the heatcurrent is not uniform. or slope. under the influence of given conditions of temperature and supply of heat at its ends. here regarded. but having a quite different physical significance. in the same way as heat by difference of temperature. wire at one end be greater than that leaving it at the other. being the time. . and q the quantity of heat in the unit length. for simplicity of reasoning. so that electricity diffuses itself along a wire.78 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. perature gradient. This makes the equation of continuity become is where S Between F. Between the times of Ohm and Thomson great advances had been made Ohm A in electrical science. Applying this to the unit length of wire. of course. since the heat cannot escape laterally. and the potential slope. enables us to find how it changes as time goes on. Thomson arrived at a system which is formally the same.
and of the characteristic equation. This is exceedingly difficult to understand. however. if the current is uniformly distributed across the section. ence. as water. therefore. or of magnetic induction. this is not true. But it is assumed that the electric force is entirely due to difference of potential. comparing the electric current to the motion of a fluid. 79 Here C is the current in the wire. whose two coatings are the surface of the wire and that of some external conductor. and their interpretation. The meaning of the equation of continuity is now. But in any case. which serves as the return conductor. which requires that its This makes resistance must be very small. made in the next Section. What difference this will make in the manner of the propagation will depend upon the relative magnitude of the electric force of inertia and of the charge. and its size and shape. and The necessary change will be materially upon the length of the line. denserlaw with Ohm's law of the conduction current. So far there is little change. definitely the potential at the surface of the wire. and it must be the potential all over its section at a given distance x.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. But S is the electrostatic capacity per unit length of the condenser formed by the dielectric outside the wire. that when the current entering a given length of wire on one side is greater than that leaving it on the other. At present we may only remark that electrostatic induction is most important on long submarine cables. first step towards getting out of the wire into the dielectric. making a corresponding change in the characteristic equation. q being the charge on the wire per unit length. has become a definitely known quantity dependHere is the ing on the nature of the dielectric. In the wire. The line We . and the outer conductor. where it makes the surfacecharge. that are of the V V greatest importance. on the hypothesis. this should also be taken into account in the Ohm's law equation. the dielectric. from being in Ohm's theory a hypothetical quantity depending upon the nature of the conducting wire. The equation q = SF is the electrostatic law expressing the relation between the charge of a condenser and its potentialdifferr its potential. and It is assumed that at the outer conductor. its size and shape. (Of course it is the equations which give rise to it. As. which is supported by experiments with condensers and conductors. Now. This is entirely removed in a beautifully simple manner in Maxwell's theory. the excess is employed in increasing the charge of the condenser formed by the given length of wire. to be followed up later. Thus S. theoretically nothing. there being then also the electric force of inertia. accumulate on the boundary of the wire. when the current is changing in strength. It can. that the equation of continuity is of the kind supposed. and that the (715) equations are those to be used for them for general purposes. whether electricity accumulates in the wire or only on its boundary. and V the electrostatic potential. is quite immaterial as regards the form of the equation of continuity. such fluid must be incompressible. as the first approximate representation of the facts of the case. for instance. as regards the accumulation difficulty. E its resistance per unit length.) unite the conThere is very little hypothesis in this system.
and be incompressible. which can only be removed by an equal reverse current. It is therefore well to dispense with the fluid behind the scenes. The current goes right through the condenser. their miraculous powers of attracting and repelling one another. further. integral of the magnetic force round a wire measures the current in it. The back force of the displacement can now act. either in conductors alone or in dielectrics alone. impressed forces in dielectric. a fact that cannot be too often repeated. one wonders why it does not take the place of the commonly used twofluid hypothesis. merely as a working hypothesis. the timeintegral of the current is not a quantity of any physical significance . There is no difference between a current in a conductor or in a dielectric . they are numerically denser.80 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and accumunowhere. or partly in one and partly in the other. I am no believer in this fluid. A fluid has But the mass. though there is great difference in the effect produced. But when one has obtained an accurate idea of the facts it has to hang together. or anything of that kind. in a dielectric. which is recoverable. All currents are closed. one is struck with the extremely rational behaviour of the Maxwell fluid. Eemove the battery. of combining together and of separating. momentum and kinetic energy. and measure the amount of discontinuity of the elastic displacement. and of their absurd and wholly incomprehensible behaviour. Maxwell made this the universal definition of electric current anywhere. and when in motion. They are located at the places of. one thinks of the greatly superior simplicity of the manner in which it hangs the facts together (it is remarkably good in advanced electrostatics. But it cannot continue. these really belong to the magnetic field. according to the nature of the matter.as a function of the magnetic field. But when one thinks of the old fluids (of surprising vitality). If we must have a fluid to assist (keep it well in the background). which is in fact what we generally make observations upon. Put a condenser in circuit with a conductor and battery. When. on account of the back force of the displacement . . the electric displacement.). etc. becoming the electric energy. which will cause the displacement to subside when it is permitted by the removal of the cause that produced it. on the other hand. until it is impressed upon people that the electric current is a function of the magnetic field. it has served its purpose. but in a dielectric it is a very important quantity. and energy is wasted . the energy which would be wasted were it conducting is stored In a temporarily. and all the rest of that nonsense. facts of electromagnetism decidedly negative the idea that the electric current ^<?r se has momentum or energy. Its only utility is to hang facts together. when this equals the impressed force of the battery. and that is all. there is equilibrium. In a conductor heat is the universal result of electric current. conductor. and discharges the conAs for the positive and negative charges. the electricity in motion through the wire being a pure hypothesis. equal to the total displacement through the condenser. and nothing more. The electric displacement involves a back electric force. late then this fluid must be everywhere. and leave the circuit closed.
When we put an impressed.F. and c is a quantity occurring in Weber's hypothesis. or to return may be a parallel wire. and this energy is . cannot = wire.M. F .F." The Electrician. The quantity V is the back E. tions. in these first approxima V V to round wires. June 25. Of course the proper change must then SECTION XXXIII. which is \Vq per unit length of wire the back forces act. VOL. of the condenser. / its length.E. remains the same. all along the return. p.P. thus removing the restriction that the return has no resistance. According to J. in which there is a precisely equal variation in the current.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. obviously.F. the velocity with which two particles of electricity H. We may. force in the wire we send current across the dielectric as well as round the conducting circuit. per unit length. It is. not one only. 81 Returning to the wire. The timeintegral of this dielectric current q is q. there is left the electric energy of the displacement. of course. INTRODUCTION OF SELFINDUCTION. on account of inertia. The next step to a correct formulation of the laws of propagation along wires is. to take account of the electric force of inertia This appears to have been first in the expression of Ohm's law. where e is the wire. The dielectric current ceases as soon as the back force of the elastic displacement supplies that difference of potential which is appropriate to the distribution of impressed force (which difference of potential depends entirely on the conductivity conditions). The equation the charge per unit length. The equation of continuity means that when the current entering a unit length of wire on one side is greater than that leaving it on the other. 1886.M. We can now make some easy extensions of the system (71J). R must be the sum of the resistances of the wire and return. But V cannot be the potential of the S. and is of s is X length measured along 2 ds* where r is the resistance of the wire in electrostatic units. unless we agree to include a part of the E. On removing the impressed force. with a dielectric between. where a is its radius. however. The symmetricallyarranged returns. be made in the value of S. used up as heat in the conductors. THE EQUATIONS OF PROPAGATION. J. 138) this was his system. given by q = SV. discharge the dielectric. Thomson attempted by Kirchhoff in 1857. definitely the E. however. ("Electrical Theories. which is the total displacement outward per unit length of wire. n. because call the difference of potential (although that is not exactly true. of the displacement. of inertia in V). the excess goes across the dielectric to the outer conductor.M. We need not restrict ourselves. Let e = Xsinns. It is important to remember that there are two conductors. y = log(//ft).
The / should be a 2 the resistance of the return. such as the establishment of the equations independently of such a very special hypothesis as Weber's . in interpretation. in order that the electrostatic repulsion and the electroattraction may balance. a 2 distance of return. per unit length of the dielectric only.82 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. dafl"&ij dt Clearly this should reduce to (716) by ignoring the last term. last correction may. a far smaller This quantity than I and the 8 should be 2. It is clear that there is described the system (716) of the last section. since e Then ignore the first equation altogether. 53]. This The change of units estimate of the inductance is. and V are proportional. also in the estimation of L. room for considerable improvement here in several ways. and that on the right the resultant equation of V. . [vol. of course. Having observed that Maxwell. in his treatise. or close to it. Therefore (Sy)' 1 should This is clearly be the capacity per unit length. with no allowance for selfinduction. and is the velocity of light. with the addition that That is. 1876). or {Slog (//a)}" 1 wrong. Turn s into our variable x. we get this result in our previous notation. converting the system (716) to the following : _ dx == dt dt' left side The equations on the show the elementary relations. Here r/l is the resistance per unit length. p. however. to modernise it in accordance with Maxwell's ideas. LQ is the inductance with unit inductivity . Mag. Making it. too low. units. magnetic As it stands. which is numerically equal to the ratio of the electromagnetic and electrostatic units. But. I can make neither head nor tail of it. take V as the variable... August. in the second equation . I (in ignorance of Kirchhoff's investigation) made the necessary change of bringing in the electric force of inertia (Phil. be merely required by a change of . . and knowing this system to be quite inapplicable to short lines. ' &r_j_dv_ + ^d^r r/Sly #W There fore = XS. . by extensive alterations. makes it doubtful whether L or some multiple of it was meant. Turn into e. if the dielectric is air. what will come to the must move X same thing. or. I. but Notice that L S is the reciprocal of the it is clearly a wrong estimate. square of a velocity. and. it may be converted to something intelligible. a x radius of wire.
strictly speaking. which could be explained by the combined action of the electrostatic and electro magnetic induction. That is. that the discharge of a condenser through a coil is of an oscillatory character. and L 2 for the return. or dF/dx. the integration is very easily . Heaviside. W. not L Q) should be used in a first approximation. ITS first PKOPAGATION. more or less. rather singularly. where L is the inductance of the circuit per unit length. just as is the steady resistance. say L for the dielectric. it is satisfactory to know that more exhaustive investigation shows that L. under certain circumstances. 2 length. just as I was investigating it. is It is also 2/xH' /87r. It had been given by Sir W." had very early practical experience of submarine cables. because it is not to be supposed that Maxwell was fully acquainted with the whole of the consequences of his important scheme. L l for the wire. when they were coiled up on board ship. as described in the last section. and the 'summation extends over the region of As is a space belonging to the unit length. C its velocity. impossible to have the Faradaylaw of induction true in all parts of the conductors without some departure from the steady distributions. the author of a suggestive little book on "Electrical Accumulation and Conduction.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND The force. my brother. When freed from practical complications. As it is. then \LC' is its kinetic energy.LC. however. The magnetic energy per unit length 2 2 H is H effected. ceasing. L consists of three parts. their determination is very easy by the squareofforce method. A. and I described the theory in the paper I have mentioned. Mr. as they were submerged. if ^LC the magnetic force. Mr. Webb. L is calculated on the hypothesis that the currentdensity has always the steady distribution. simple function of C and of the distance from the axis. The waterpipe analogy Let L be the mass of the fluid per unit is. called my attention to certain effects observed on telegraph lines. In case of symmetry about an axis. To equation of electric the electric force V is added the electric force of inertia . though it is scarcely possible that he was unacquainted with it . causing electrical oscillations which made the pointers of the old alphabetical indicators jump several steps instead of one. LC its momentum. LC the force that must be applied to increase it. but it is a singular circumstance that this very remarkable and instructive phenomenon should not be so much as mentioned in the whole of Maxwell's treatise (first edition). Their expressions will vary according to the size and shape of the conductors and their distance apart. according to Maxwell's system of coefficients of electromagnetic induction. I lay stress on the word simple. and worked down to the simplest form. because it is so simple a deduction from his equations. if for no other reason. simple enough. due to .LC than of that due to the potential. 83 difference from (716) is only in the and in the characteristic equation of V. Thomson in 1853. the matter reduced to this.  LC the force of . R In connection with this matter 1 may mention that. It is far more difficult to obtain a satisfying mental representation electrical oscillations in of the electric force of inertia .
and also in setting up the magnetic When the condenser is wholly discharged. But when H changes. continuing until the condenser is again charged in the same sense as at first. LC is the generalised momentum corresponding to C as a generalised velocity. but no current. The discharge cannot take place without setting up a magnetic field. with no magnetic field. in any circuit. as carrying it out more fully into detail.any hypothesis as to the mechanism concerned. This is the course of a complete oscillation. the smaller inequalities (smaller as regards length of line over which they extend) being wiped out rapidly. so that we may begin again and have a reverse current. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. But if the resistance be of or above a certain amount. the oscillations cease. and the discharge is completed in a single current which does not reverse itself. there is in the first place only the potential energy of the displacement in the condenser. or its total discharge. as we find by Eemark. that. however. the ends of the lines be insulated.LC appropriate to C as a generalised velocity. disconnected from. This is by the simple principles of dynamics. in general. for instance. reckoned as an electric force . in a nonoscillatory manner. to the amount //. we have simple diffusion of the static If. in the characteristic equation of reducing it to that of (715). when a change is made which involves a redistribution of electric displacement. but the full theory is usually very difficult to follow in The socalled " false discharge " of a submarine cable is. if we start with a charge. the electric force of inertia. there is no force of inertia. state of charge will settle down to be a uniform distribution. an electric force. the larger more slowly . If.LC the force of reaction that is. magnetic field keeps the current going. which. we take L = 0. 2 \LC' is the magnetic energy per unit length. proportional in intensity to the current at any moment. in (72&).H 2 /47r per unit volume. A mental representation of many of the phenomena connected with electrical oscillations is also very simply got by the use of the fluid analogy. easily comprehensible by the last paragraph. and be regarded as the kinetic energy of some kind of motion in the magnetic field. the inertia of the energy. howdetail. When steady. depending on the capacity of the condenser and the inductance of the coil. It is. however. of course. and with it (7. and of the opposite sign. The magnetic energy must be definitely localised in space. and . so that the original electrical energy is employed in heating the wire. Similar effects take place. everything is now as when we started. any initial charge. is per unit length. In the discharge of a condenser through a coil. certainly wrong. and it will continue until the whole energy of the magnetic field is restored to the condenser (less the part wasted in the wire) in the form of the energy of the negative displacement there produced. is since these are rigidly connected (in our first approximation) there necessarily a force of inertia.84 reaction. ever. LC the generalised externally applied force. the law being that similar distributions subside V . Except that the charge is smaller.
however. to a certain extent. its final value when the current has reached the steady state 1 Thus. But it was only the dielectric oscillations. coming to a very short line. 85 similarly. and thoroughly characteristic of a vigorous and youthful nation. The enthusiasm Mr. as has been reported. The length of the line is an important factor. and being continuously reflected at the ends. Edison discovered a new force. When both terms on the right side of the characteristic equation are counted. How is it. It will divide into two. we take JR of Fin (72b). The immense rapidity of the dielectric vibrations is one reason why they are unobservable. the potential at any point in the wire is regarded as a constant. divide the initial state into two distinct states We A It is customary to ignore it altogether in formulation. when we shall have large differences of potential. viz. Or. being carried forward as a wave. remains undiminished.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. immensely rapid dielectric oscillations. more simply. and the current in the wire rises nearly in accordance with the magnetic theory. propagation takes place by a mixture of diffusion and wavetransfer. Of course the magnetic energy is then far more important than the electric. especially when suddenly interrupted. every time a signal is made. stances. unless indeed it be really true. As there is no waste in the wire. On the other hand. As a general rule.. so that the manner of variation of the current at the distant end approximates to what it would be in the case of mere diffusion. that the renowned inventor has kept the new force concealed on his person ever since. Wave characteristics get rapidly wiped out in the transmission of signals on a very long submarine cable. it is to be presumed . according to the simple magnetic theory. due to toandfro reflection. a circuit is displayed by his followers in investigating its properties was most edifying. in reality spreads out or diffuses itself. it may be asked. Sometimes. that in the rise of the current in a short wire. except indirectly. electric and magnetic. this oscillatory phenomenon is unobservable. wave sent from one end of the line which would. travel unchanged in form. regarding the matter as one in which magnetic induction alone is concerned. were there no resistance. they become prominent. but it is none the state. set up a charge at a single point of the line. But into details of this kind we must not be tempted to enter at present. it is clear that the total energy of any initial can definitely travelling in the manner of waves in opposite directions. and be reflected over and over again at the ends. as well as. we have an entirely different order of events. there are. the immediate object being to lay the foundations for a more general theory. d' 2 F . = Q in the characteristic equation If. which will go on travelling backwards and forwards for ever. as we have e dV dC and . but in times which are proportional to the squares of the lengths concerned. before the steady state is reached. on the other hand. and under peculiar circumless existent.
certainly get as far as To some extent we make progress in the boundary of the wire. Thomson's We duction and the dielectric current. it becomes the real potential variation. in the more general theory. we have merely to distribute the impressed force so as to do away with the potential variation. whilst the limits between which the vibration occurs continuously approach one another . with 2L/E as time constant. the total impressed force in the circuit. Section xxxii. the current will rise thus Supposing then to exist started. we can proceed to the simplest manner of extending them to include the phenomena attending the propagation of current into the conductors from the dielectric. and the value of dVjdx must be and so long as it is kept on. we find that although the current oscillations become so insignificant on shortening the line that the wellknown last formula becomes valid. so far as dependent on the first differential coefficient of the current with respect to the time. as is implied in the specifications of the magnetic . on subsidence of the vibrations. though not according to the S. making the potential at any one spot rapidly vibrate between a higher and a lower limit. just as the electric field is fixed by the potentialdifference of the two wires at a the single quantity V t given distance. is really the mean value of the real rapidly vibrating potential variation. Having now got the elementary relations established. the vibration. on the whole. But the magnetic machinery does not move in rigid connection with the wirecurrent. [See vol. when the conduction current is Further progress is made (Section xxxni. the e potential variation dF/dx must be constant.86 if e is ELECTRICAL PAPERS. from the very moment e is we seek the interpretation. yet the potential oscillations When variable period. law. the wirecurrent. first step to getting out of the wire into the dielectric occurs in theory. L. at whose termination. introducing the electric force of inertia and the magnetic energy. in the above rudimentary theory is taken to be the actual potential variation. remain in full force during the potential travels to and fro at the velocity (LS)~*. and : I the length. A wave of details. subsiding according to the : The quantity e/l. but in such a manner that its mean value is the final value. EXTENSION OF THE PRECEDING TO INCLUDE THE PROPAGATION OF CURRENT INTO A WIRE FROM ITS BOUNDARY. only at x = 0.] To get rid of this vibration. at every point of the circuit and during the whole variable period. SECTION XXXIV. adopting (same Section) Maxwell's idea of the continuity of the conSir The W.) in discontinuous itself. H. which exponential law. assuming the magnetic field to be fixed by the single quantity C. pp. e/'l. 57 and 132 for practically.
.2 be its inner and outer radii.F. AB EF+dF/dx=L or drfdx = L$+EF. between the longitudinal electric force at the inner and outer boundaries of the dielectric tube. in the figure be a rectangle in a plane through the axis of the tubes. and the E. in the first place. p : and p 2 their resistivities. But if and are the longitudinal electric forces in AB and DC.. the E. is the rate of decrease of the induction with the time. and the intensity of force is 2C/r at distance r from the common axis of the . let the line consist of two concentric tubes. another expression for the E. The lines of magnetic force are directed upward through the paper. and therefore from C to A B D = fl 2 C D These currents are not precisely equal under all circumstances.. in which direction x is in the measured. a.M. let T l and F 2 be the longitudinal currentdensities at the boundaries of the conductors. or .. per unit length of line. but are so outer tube. so far as it depends upon the magnetic field in the dielectric... 2 be the inductivity of the dielectric. tubes.. To fix ideas..M. and the K..ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND 2 . (736) Next..W=dV\dx. ABCD E V W F length.. if any. 87 energy by %LC' like that of the electric energy by J*ST L and S being the inductance and the electric capacity. and a 3 the outer radius of the outer.. (746) =e ^ e 2 .M. and LQ the inductance of the dielectric per unit length of line.. nearly equal that we can ignore the longitudinal current in the dielectric in comthen the current C in parison with them the inner necessitates the same current C in the outer tube. in them. and e lt e z the impressed forces. in the inner tube. and simplify the nature of the magnetic field. Hence C... and and the radial forces in BC and AD. ITS PROPAGATION..L C. of inertia in the circuit in the order of the letters.. both of unit Let ABCD common AB CD r Let the current be from to length. separated by a dielectric nonconducting tube. Let and a. and therefore if e E F=p T l l p^e.the inner radius of the inner rtj Find the connection tube. Then..F.M.. as well as being pretty comprehensive.. E F+ VV. Thus e is the impressed force in the circuit per unit . in the circuit is and CD are of unit W. I believe the following to be the most elementary method possible. by Ohm's law.F. In going further. of inertia. on the outer being on the inner and boundary of the dielectric. of the condenser.. The dielectric is to occupy our attention mainly.. 2 .F. . But as Now.. The total induction through the rectangle is therefore if /j.
.. the length of a wire must be a very large multiple of its diameter before the influence of the electric charge becomes When it does become sensible.. irrespective of how it is divided between the inner outer conductor.. If this be imagined to be done. by contrast. (766) require to find the forms of 1% and J2'.... This change in strength of the current in passing along the line. but it is unnecessary to write them at present. . We know We of the current is allowed for. for we join on the dielectric current to that in the conductors.. the current is of a different sensible. But in a section of the line which. they may be obtained by elimination.. done for purposes of simplification.. and we put we the equation (756) becomes wherein R" e is edF/dx = R"C=L C + R {C+I%C. though long compared with the diameter of the wire.88 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the other for the outer conductor. and making the current quite longitudinal.  dC/dx = dq/dt = SF.. The determination of R'{ and B% is thus made a magnetic problem.. e is supposed to be longitudinal.. amounts to ignoring the small radial component of the current in the This is only conductors..... . It is. q = SF.. know. .. how R C to be known. that they are R^ + L^d/dt) and R% + L 2 (d/dt). the current changes insensibly.. Section xxx.. Representing these connections thus.. with the total currents in them. therefore. the third of (786). then. under all ordinary circumstances. clear. Also. have supposed and R" to find them. (786) which should be compared with (716) and (726). (776) known.. The question is. further. which. when only the first derivative R'{ We . making it become Now We now require to connect I\ and F 2 the currentdensities at the boundaries of the conductors. and does not involve any physical assumption in contradiction of the continuity of the current.. The complete scheme will therefore be... As for the equations of Fand of C. that we shall come exceedingly near the truth in the investigation of the function R'{ we altogether disregard the if. we know that.. where the first big fraction represents R" for the inner . f () dF/dx = R"C... one for the inner.. strength in different parts of the line during the setting up of a steady current. Now. even when the change is very great between the currentstrength in that section and in another. that in steadyflow they must be R^ and 2 the steady resistances of the conductors. may be called distant from the first.. See equation (506). by means of the equation of continuity. and the length. is short compared with its length. of which I have already given the solution. use (746) in (736).
F(7.lirpfap + ra^. which is jir/l. in strictness. where j is any integer. represents a system. thus. in In variable states it becomes a complex steadyflow. 89 The separation of these conductor. (786) are too great to be lightly We have now the means of fully investigating the transmission of disturbances along the line. p is. p being always negative in an electromagnetic problem.e. or (7=0. if we change the connection between s l and p abovegiven to V s* = . etc. when the line is insulated at both ends. * pt is the timefactor showing how it subsides. The first is. and also always negative in an electrostatic problem. shortwhilst . The second. The quantity s that appears in the expression for R" is given by V V /Xj being the inductivity and ^ the conductivity of the inner conductor. a mere resistance. Now. Now the simplest form of terminal condition possible is F=0 at both ends of the line. 2. Then F = ^sinOVz//). is the energycurrent. but the change made is usually very insignificant. i. 3.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. be denoted by m. when its term must be paired with a companion to make a real oscillatorily subsiding system. circuits. a constant thus. perhaps. be cleared of fractions to obtain the rational differential equation. for. There are four other cases in which we can work similarly viz. Only the first few/s are of much importance. the effect of which is fully determinable. 1. First. is But the advantages of the form sacrificed to formal accuracy. or negative with an imaginary part. Both the ratio of to C and their product are important quantities.. operator of great importance in the theoretical treatment. because the differential equation of the apparatus itself is one between and C. into even and odd differential coefficients. and the second R" for the outer. It may. the electrical variables being J^and C. The system is a practical working one . we are enabled to submit the line to any terminal conditions arising from the attachment of apparatus.. we shall be able to take the radial component of current in the conductors into account . concerning which more in the next Section. Let the factor of x. as well pointed out that the first equation (786) should. when we are dealing with a normal system of subsidence. as regards the small radial component of current in the conductors. In the meantime I will briefly indicate the nature of the changes made when we go further towards a complete representation of Maxwell's electric and magnetic connections. satisfying the condition of vanishing at both ends. including the retardation to inward transmission from the dielectric into the conductors as well as the effects of the electrostatic charge. whilst in a combined electrostatic and magnetic case it is either negative and real. be of principal utility in the periodic applications. when it is .
so that no energy can the line.. . Z. as well as physical. and return to the /^and C system of representation. we may make a further refinement.. however. clearly. and be placed at a sufficient distance from one another. V becomes ^_. This. and therefore also electric displacement and current and magnetic force. which is C. so that there is no waste in them. and we require to fall back upon the preceding. /7QM (796) showing wave propagation with velocity v.. in reckoning R" and R'l in the same way. VC finite at But if we join on terminal apparatus. thus one or both ends. although the dielectric is still shut in by them. We cannot do this in terms of F. when the equation of constants . and L only. the tubes are not conHere. howf ever. for we must have continuity of the tangential electric force. to a first approximation. so that we may regard R" and R% as known by the preceding and we can therefore go beyond the approximate method of Even if we bring the representation founded upon R. which produces considerable mathematical simplifications. instead of an approximate. The advantage of dealing with concentric tubes is due to the circularity of the lines of magnetic force. V happen making in the last case. the system breaks down... But we may do it in terms of the electric and magnetic forces. and then obtain a full representation But even in this of Maxwell's connections. each conductor making a closed In all except the last case.90 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. leave these refinements to take care of themselves. which there must really be. S. we keep to the five cases mentioned. But to go further. by taking the longitudinal current in the dielectric into account.. it is assumed that there is no magnetic disturbance outside the outer conducting tube or inside the inner. the quantity VG vanishes at both ends of or C being zero at these places. . we have merely to give changed values to the . and insulated at either end and shortcircuited at the other when the line is closed upon itself. But if the two conductors be parallel solid wires or tubes (not concentric)... circuit without interposed resistances. centric. is clear: that the full L will have for its minimum value. ... or =^ow j . either Nor can this enter or leave the line (dielectric and two conductors). the determination of R" and R% will present great difficulties. such that SL Q v~ where v is the speed of propagation of undissipated disturbances through the This follows by regarding the conductors as infinitely condielectric. ducting.. inadequate to express the electric energy. outside the outer tube and inside the inner. whilst R is unchanged.. which necessitates with the current electric force. however.. conductors so close that there is considerable disturbance from the assumed state. we should still. which we have previously considered negligible in comparison But if S and Z.. having some minute disturbing effect on the current in the conductors. etc. Suppose. We may. = 2 approached with very rapid oscillations. two cases. when the line has no ends. the lines of magnetic force in and close round the conductors will be very nearly circles.
to his views concerning the very foundation of It may be things. the proper and rational course is to substitute continuously distributed leakage for the large number of separate leaks . by reason of the high inductivity. distributed it must be allowed for in the lineequations. or reciprocal of the insulation resistance.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. When the sage sits down to write an elementary work he naturally devotes Chapter I. then. Matter and Energy. we can do it by lowering the insulationresistance as far as is practicable. the magnetic retardation is so great. There are only two Things going. although in the steady state it is the leakage alone that thus But as regards retardation. V But when the leakage is widely representable as a resistance merely. as is most easily seen by considering the converse. dCjdx = Kr+Sr. the leakagecurrent. if it be We . which is the quotient of by the resistance of the leak. Prof. who may be well advised to " skip the Latin. " " this be done. especially in the case of iron wires. in each of which the former equations hold good whilst at the place of the leak there is continuity of J^and discontinuity of C. which amounts to the same thing as substituting a continuous curve for a large number of short straight lines joined together so as to closely resemble the curve. ITS APPLICATION ENERGYCURRENT. we have the line divided into two sections. viz. we wish increase the clearness of definition of currentchanges at the distant end of a line on which electrostatic retardation is important. THE TRANSFER OF ENERGY AND TO WIRES. But Chapter i. and of KV. The making of the necessary changes is. questioned whether this is to the advantage of the learner. where the fresh quantity K is SECTION XXXV. If require to change the form of the equation of continuity. to If." as the old dame used to say to her If pupils when they came to a polysyllable. the true current leaving the line is the sum of the former SP] the condensercurrent. might be expected from its author. .. and begin at Chapter n. operates. as they present themselves to his matured intellect. however. both of which cooperate to make the current in the line vary along its length. Tait's is such an excellent Properties of Matter scientific is work as metaphysics. the current arriving at the leak on the one side exceeding that leaving it on the other by the current in the leak itself. per unit length of line. 91 go a long distance in the direction required. The equation of continuity becomes (SOb) the conductance. there be a leakagefault on an otherwise perfectly insulated line. the subsidence of the previously setup steady state to zero when the impressed force is removed. in which. quite an elementary matter in comparison with those connected with magnetic retardation. The setting up of the permanent state is greatly facilitated by leakage. their effects are opposed. ^That is. Even in the case of leakage over the surface of the insulators of a suspended wire. The effect of leakage has not been allowed for in the preceding.
wholly or in part. as well as the seat and amount of dissipation of energy. even when we put the statement in such a form that the energy seems to lose its thinginess. or mv which is the amount of work the particle can do Where the energy came from is against resistance in coming to rest. In the elementand velocity v. Thus. we may clearly understand that the transfer of kinetic energy is from one of the colliding bodies to the other through the forces of elasticity brought into play. though what the potential energy may be. we are not able to decide. but of a unit volume. we merely multiply this equation by we set free the m F = T. by calling it the transfer of the power of doing work. It is much more difficult in the case of gravity. to be generally diffused by the most The transfer from place to place can be. by which means Maxwell endeavoured to account for gravitation. F. therefore need only form the equation of activity to find the transferofenergy vector. continuous action through space is involved. thus making potential energy an intermediary. Whenever the dynamical connections are known. and. the transfer of energy can be found. As the stone falls to the ground. and be transferred through space by definite paths through stresses in the medium. getting Fv = 2 energy T. measure. or to give a fixed individuality to any definite quantity of energy. it will be found (like Fv to be impossible. We take Maxwell's equations and endeavour to immediately = T from F=mv). it acquires kinetic energy truly . imprisoned energy. traced so far as quantity and time are concerned . acting on a particle of mass is measured by the rate of acceleration of momentum. In a case of impact. or F=mv. In general. and it stands to reason that the transfer of energy is to be got by forming the equation of activity. not of the system as a whole. or the energy of gravitation must be in space generally. in the admirable electromagnetic scheme framed by Maxwell. and if energy moves continuously. and the kinetic and potential energies (or magnetic and electric) are definitely located. mw . considered as However this be.92 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and whether it is not itself kinetic. Nothing Things. else is a thing at all . No other is possible in a dynamical system. to obtain the equation of activity. subject to a certain reservation. so to speak. They will not work in the manner proposed. Of course impressed forces are subject to the energy definition. Now. all the rest are Moonshine. as its indestructibility seems to imply. after transfer of energy from the sun ages ago. but it does not seem possible to definitely follow the motion of an atom of energy. we have only to frame the equations of motion of a continuous system of forces. ary case of a force. here left unspecified. in great varied paths. it must receive its energy from the surrounding medium . followed by long storage underground and convection to the stove or furnace. the transfer of energy is a fact well known to all. But if But we form the equation of activity . the rate of increase of the kinetic the velocity. or partly kinetic.
is perpendicular to both the electric and the magnetic forces there. Trans. but it does not follow strictly that the socalled electromagnetic force is the force really acting per unit volume. 1885) with the result of producing important simplificaand bringing to immediate view useful analogies which are in Maxwell's equations hidden from sight by the intervention of his This done. and the door is open. entering and leaving a given space. 377. besides the obviously suggested superposed closed circulation is without dissipabe the vector energycurrent density. there may be any amount of circulation of energy in closed paths going on (as pointed out in another manner by Prof. 21. led me to remodel Maxwell's equations in some important particulars. able from the two crossconnections of electric force and magnetic tions. provided transfer. and that dissipated within it. 1884). If you look there you can make sure. electric and magnetic. magnetic force Fv = f. we can unhesitatingly conclude from the properties of the magnetic field of magnets that the mechanical force on a complete closed circuit supporting a current is the sum of the electromagnetic forces per unit volume (vectorproduct of current and induction). as in the commencing Sections of this Article (Jan. is a similar doubt in the electromagnetic case in question. 1885) [p. June 21. It is like If a person is in a room at one moment. and in other cases.] in the case of conductors. Feb. and by laborious transformations evolve the expression for the vector transfer. are prevented from looking there. (Electrician. the irresistible conBut he might have clusion is that he has left the room by the door.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. vol.. with distinct exhibition of what are to be regarded as impressed forces. provided this tion of energy. in the transferofenergy case. current. The existence of is W. 1884) [p. 449. product of the intensities of the two forces and the sine of their included angle. vol.gone the next moment. for any system of forces might be superadded which cancel when summed up round a closed There circuit.. But if you got under the table. electric and magnetic. Or. J. Thomson). say have no convergence anywhere. I. I also followed this method in the first place (The Electrician.] Knowing the electric field and the magnetic field everywhere. if W w w . But the roundabout nature of the process to obtain what ought to follow immediately from the equations of motion. (Phil. then there is clearly a doubt whether the person left the room by the door or got under the table hurriedly. this. not Its amount per unit area equals the counting impressed forces. J. and electric current. Poynting for a homogeneous isotropic medium In my independent investigation of this matter. But I mentioned that there is a reservation to be made. and applicable without change to heterogeneous and heterotropic media. 93 we may consider the energy. and we find that he is. So. Thus. the equation of activity is at once derivvectorpotential. This was first done by Prof. according to the abovementioned rule. in a manner analogous to without roundabout work. the The vector transfer at any place transfer of energy becomes known. we may add to it another vector. I.
by introducing w. departure. the circles being centred on this axis. 1885). Its consideration may seem quite useless. we may cancel it by introducing the auxiliary w. the resultant transfer being got by superposing the regular flux and the closed circulation. and confine our attention to the undisturbed. according to alone. not existing by itself. we are sometimes led to the circuital flux of energy. a magnet be placed in the field of an electrified body or.g. as they practically are. besides the regular firstmentioned transfer from the battery to the wire. uniformly superficially electrified. 434]. I think. uniformly magnetised body. There is yet another kind of closed circulation. and ceasing when the useful transfer ceases. nature of the transfer in a useful problem. we may reduce it to It is clear. possible. wire. only arise from what seems to be a misconception on his part as to the nature of the electric field in the vicinity of a wire supporting electric A general current.. p. in Section n. more simply. February 12. This difference of a quadrant can. There is no waste of energy . there described. But when If the battery does not work there is no transfer of energy. then. or electrification. when w = 0. with a slight departure from the vertical. i. the flux of energy caused by the coexistence of the two fields. through the dielectric usually. if we like. in considering the the regular undisturbed transfer. but there does not appear to be any present means of finding and how it is to be expressed. it does. The lines of electric force are nearly perpendicular to the wire. very nearly parallel to it. for instance. in the case of a spherical whether it is real. electric and magnetic.94 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. or any stationary electric field. Here again. What is the use of it? entirely through the air or other dielectric. that it is of advantage to entirely ignore the useless transfer. .e. for instance. is entirely circuital. before I recognised the great physical importance of the slight To It causes the convergence of energy into the wire. holds a different view. representing the transfer as nearly perpendicular to a wire. Poynting. we close a conductive circuit containing a battery. a closed circulation due to the coexistence of the stationary electric field and the magnetic field of the wirecurrent. but set going by impressed forces causing a W useful transfer of energy. The departure from perpendicularity is usually so small that I have sometimes spoken of them as being perpendicular to it. there is. as Prof. on the other hand (Royal Society. L. E.. description of the transfer along a straight wire was given It takes place. If. Suppose there is also impressed electric force in the dielectric. with a slight slope towards the wire. in the vicinity of the [vol. in fact. Let. it takes place in circles in parallel planes perpendicular to the axis of magnetisaThis circuital flux is tion. hence let a magnet be itself electrified. why should there not be this circuital flux ? But. by the fact that. But it is forced upon us in quite another way. . Transactions. what harm does it do ? And if the medium is really strained by coexistent electric and magnetic stresses. we set up a useful transfer from the battery to all parts of the wire. On the other hand.
As regards the total energycurrent. which is Q at one end and V^ at the other. in the steady state. is the lineintegral of the electric force across the dielectric. The density of the energycurrent therefore varies inversely as the square of the This does not continue indefinitely. The total activity of the source is eC. where the line is left. Poynting should therefore. But if we distribute the impressed force uniformly throughout the circuit. its strength falls to E and fall R The A F . the transfer of energy will be perpendicular to the wire outward. and that it is only under quite exceptional circumstances anything but a small Prof. is the lineintegral ( f 4?r) of the magnetic force round either wire. is the (e V^C is wasted in J? at AC. and so does the intensity of magnetic force. which has no existence in the steady state) to be dissipated in the wire. or Q C. V. ceasing when the steady state is reached . In the vicinity of the wire the radial electric force varies inversely as the distance. unless 1 have greatly misunderstood him.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND estimate the ITS PROPAGATION. the magnetic energy travelling back V again (assisted by temporary longitudinal electric force. and CD are the two wires. of which What is left. if the wire be long. and the fall of potential from beginning to end be V^V^\ the tangential component is then (F" ^)f/. owing to the impressed force at any then. make his tubes of fraction. is not practically realisable. I think. no difference of potential and no transfer of energy. if distance approximately. displacement stick nearly straight up as they travel along the wire. on stopping the impressed force the transfer will be perpendicular to the wire inward. on startplace being just sufficient to support the current there ing the impressed force. V V$ . But this case. Thus. enormously shortened in with their distance apart. in a straight wire. the return be a parallel wire the middle distance is the place of minimum density of the energycurrent. D . AB resistances force e. (7. 95 amount of departure. It is clear at once that the tangential is an exceedingly small fraction of the normal component of electric force. factor. for simplicity to its return beginning of the line. on the other hand. energycurrent By regular waste into the at BD. entering the line. is F. if / be the On the other hand. and the wires. and. the product of the fall of One potential from one wire to the other into the current in each. we may compare the normal and Let there be a steady current tangential components of electric force. The other. the fall of potential from the wire length of wire. this is FU. instead of having them nearly horizontal. in the former of which alone is the impressed lt of potential from to C is from B to is V^ and at any intermediate distance is V. in the plane of the two wires. joined through terminal length compared In the figure. though imaginable. so that there shall be. at any distance from the of no resistance.
with no leakage..... being the ..VC) = K^ + (R is l + R... or otherwise disposed of.....e.. 2 + Tv ...... This is in steadyflow......... everywhere. there to be wasted. and third terms on the right side. The rate of decrease of VG as we travel along the line is the waste per unit length... Its further transfer belongs to another science.. ~ R l and R2 being the resistances of the wires per unit length. (856) and L2 are constants depending upon the frequency........ we have the equation of continuity making where KV' 1 . (FC) = K^ + aSF^ + dt L dx ctt C 2 ) + ECFC.. dx so that F. The curved lines and arrows perpendicular to them show lines of electric force and the direction of the energyflux at a certain place... (J2 .... in order to show the convergence of energy upon the wires.. to be wasted in frictional heatgeneration Eft2 therein. and E = R(C+L{C. function of the time.. . and the equation of electric force .. the fourth term...H. Tl and T2 the magnetic energies in the two wires.. so is the current.. after entering the And. wires. (836) Here we account for the leakageheat.... represents the energy entering the first wire per second.. the last term.... per unit length of line.. where R{. we have the equation of continuity V. etc. terminal arrangement entered. state is not steady..... EG. and for the increase of magnetic energy in the dielectric by the first... . represents the tangential electric force. for the increase of electric energy.... (736) bis.. as well as that of the lines of flux of energy to the horizontal. i. The energyflux is now perpendicular to the current. Thus..... But if there be leakage. (826) But when the the wasteheat per second due to the leakageresistance.. F=R' C+L 2 2 C. E F FC=Q if Cj..FC... LJ(.2 }C\ . the inclination of the lines of force to the perpendicular being greatly exaggerated... If the impressed force is a S.. Jft.. ctx ... (806) bis.96 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. ... electric force at its boundary reckoned the same way as E. second... (846) are the dissipativities..... ceasing when the axes are reached. and being the tangential energy entering the second wire per second.
P. and drop the accents are the in (856).ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. On the [p. R . Let be the steady resistance per unit length of round wire of radius f its effective resistance to sinuconductivity k. and Let also soidal currents of frequency q njlir. the halving arising from the mean value of the square of a sinusoidal function being half the square of its But in no other case is there anything of the nature of a amplitude. if the magnetic retardation to inward transmission is small. 6' being the amplitude of the current . and continuously. is for L'.H. simply.42. WITH INDUCTION LONGITUDINAL. SECTION XXXVI. and it therefore happens that in some practically realisable cases we require the fully developed formulae which are equivalent to (445).3U4V The law as is (1+ / (1 5.E. we may employ the formulae (445) to estimate the effective resistance and inductance. When the effective resistance to sinusoidal currents is not much greater than the steady resistance. . so that the series as far as is necessary to ensure accuracy. U/L decreases VOL. we may ignore it altogether. but are always convergent. H. the frequency mean dissipativities and magnetic energies in the wires. what the L of the wire becomes at Same denominator (888) as in (875). But in intermediate cases. 64]. although. inductivity //. Here L = J/x. other hand. when 97 is reducing to the steady resistances and inductances In this S. as the frequency increases. R'jR increases continuously. definite resistance. case infinitely low. n. THEIR OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT.18V ?2 Z / (8U) may be continued written is of formation of the terms is plainly shown. The corresponding formula the frequency q. DITTO. neither pair of formulae is suitable. R (865) Then the formula required for R f is * *2 z 4. a . RESISTANCE AND SELFINDUCTION OF A ROUND WIRE WITH CURRENT LONGITUDINAL. But so far quite sufficient up to z= 10. we may employ the simple formulae (455). when it is a considerable multiple of the steady resistance.
and there will be only a slight increase in the effective resistance. ^*~ 1 =1600.. 6 7 201 ....... 4 B.. the last equation.... of resistivity 10... 2 = 8 gives 2 instead of 2274...... = 500 makes 3=10 and B'/B = 2'51. q = 5QQ will only make = y.. in diameter.......1 and abscissa z. =4 gives R'jR = 1*41... p. by comparison with the table. equation (36).... Here / is Also p. 214 227 239 251 2 126 148 168 8 9 3 4 5 .. To obtain similar results in copper....... 364..... 102 108 RjB.. or the wire to be 1 in. we require the radius to be four fjJc times as great.. Thus makes L'n]R = 2234 instead of 221.... whose ordinate is R!\R . .... In the case of the iron 10. the effect. R'IR.. But if it be of the same diameter.. then. when z= fairly well represent the resistance. (906) [Reprint. Probably z = 20 would make (896) or <?=2500....part of its former value... The following z... (896) makes gives 2234 instead of 2507.. .. .. In the present notation the veryhighfrequency formulae are R' = L'n = R(&yt . the length of the core and coil... 3 = 50.98 ELECTRICAL PAPERS..] I. ... data give us z = q/5I..... and inductivity 100... making to be Jg.. from J to 10 : i 1 . If the wire be exposed to sinusoidal variations of longitudinal magnetic force by insertion within a long solenoidal coil.. are the values of R'jR for values of z z.. much less than the real value......... when small. on the coil current.G.. having turns of wire per N unit length... .. is convex to the axis of abscissae up to about 2 = 2J. we shall be able to see how large z must be before these are sensibly true..W... .. with /*=!. gives... and then concave later. Each unit of z Then q 50 makes R'jR = 1 08 ... ... (896) 2=10 and..). which is what the correct formula q=W (886........... is the same as if the resistance of the coilcircuit were increased by the amount lR( given by t as it nearly does the inductance wire above mentioned. 369.. but not so much as it makes Rf too small.. Take... L' too big........... or th effective resistance 2J the times the steady.... On the other hand. ... vol. by (866)...000.. 185 The curve.. and is the steady inductance...... will make the effective resistance five times the steady. Let us take the case of an iron wire of oneeighth of an inch in radius These (about No. 10 . means 50 vibrations per second. due to the core only. z = q/5Q.... per unit of its length..... Using (896)...
[Vol. I.. being only a portion of the L of the circuit it was merged in the expression for the tangent of the phasedifference. changed the notation to this formula : L( L^ Same denominator as in (916)...] (I have slightly suit present convenience. ^' = i... They are ^ (956) The value 2=10 is scarcely large enough for their applicability.000 (946) the extra resistance is 243 microhms multiplied by the length of the core. At this particular frequency the amplitude of the magnetic force oscillations at the axis of the core is only onefourteenth of the When it is the current that is longitudinal. 622^ = 243... 16. When the effect is large. and the next one. we have [vol. taking z= 10 in (916) and Or. The old y equals the new 16^2 ..... p.. a coil. (926). In one respect the reaction of metal in the magnetic field on a coilcurrent is far simpler than the reaction on itself when it contains the If we have a sinusoidal current in impressed force in its own circuit.... making E{ too big.) I did not give any separately developed expression for the L{ corresponding to LI . . it is also desirable to have the highfrequency formulae corresponding to (916) and (926). and by the square of the number of windings per unit length.e. currentdensity at the axis that is only Now. with a little (916) and (886) are the same.. 17.. and L{ too small. the mean rate of generation of heat in the core is /'C7 ... as cores may be so easily taken thicker.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. the same iron wire above described.. using have.... equation (36). although the t latter is nearly correct. 369 to 374. .. i...... use the formula 364.... development.. and that same.... and show the law of formation of the terms. subject to > . Notice that the numerators in those of (926) and (876) are the At the frequency 500......... ^ = 225^ . amplitude at the boundary... it is the its boundary value... pp.. (966) R! = L{n = "2'23L l n instead of (936). per unit of its length....... 99 If (7 be the amplitude of the coilcurrent. Thus (956) give (same iron wire).. (936) N*... which I now give.. we ^'=188J>..] Exhibiting now L{ by itself...
the " thickwire effect. it is quite likely that I should have put down all anomalous results to the false balances. impressed force of good working strength. the complete mixing up of resistance and induction effects. For the heat in the coil per second is \RG$." causing a true change in resistance and inductance In fact.. results. by the way. p. In Prof.e. Slow intermittences give widely erroneous results. 440 . varying the inductance to the required amount by means of a coil of variable inductance. 33. according to the sinusoidal theory. we should separate inductance from resistance. and had not already worked out the theory of the phenomenon of approximation to surface conduction [first general description in vol. Of course. p. L. is also elementary. xxxiv. that a correct method of balancing is presumed. is a loud sound. II. without any necessarily greater than R. convenient little machine giving a strictly sinusoidal intermittences. So far is elementary.. 30. is a thing to be desired.100 e ELECTRICAL PAPERS. vol. where Er and however. R f is \R. we resistance . either a true resistance or a true induction balance. appeal to abstrusities. C the current. similar things. and also of sides 3 and 4 (allowing us to wind wires 1 and 2 together. and requiring us merely to equalise the resistances and the inductances of sides 3 and 4. 30]. to be got I should observe. i. and so remove the source of error due to temperature inequality which is so annoying in fine work).. been already familiar with real changes in resistance and inductance.] of using a ratio of equality. Hence. in my experiments on cores and [vol. know that the new state is also sinusoidal. Art. Hughes's researches. Perhaps the simplest way is that I described [vol. n. without interruptions. and we then require to use based upon the changed distribution of current. due And hidden away in the mixture was what I termed to false balances. and the total heat per second is As the latter includes the heat externally generated. of course. Art. and waste energy there. but it was difficult to keep it going uniformly.'Gl. subject to have some other values. p. ensuring independence of the mutual induction of sides 1 and 2. But to do so It cannot be done with quantitatively and accurately is another matter. breaks down when it is the wire itself in which f the change from R to R takes place. This. But this simple reasoning. reasoning To observe these changes qualitatively is easy enough. R and L the steady and inductance of the circuit and we. 30]. by putting metal in its magnetic field. being the sinusoidal impressed force. which led him to such re markable conclusions. II. if I had not. reducing the three conditions to two. But we may employ very rapid intermittences with an approximation to the theoretical I have obtained the best results with a microphonic contact.. the method of balancing was not such as to ensure. on which these effects in a wire with the current longitudinal depend. making the changes in resistance U A and induction much too minimum Here. induce currents in it. that R' must be greater than R. con . the silence the best large. p. which does not apply. save exceptionally. adjustable from zero up to very high frequencies.
now we shall have perfect silences. Hughes's method.]. I found that the calibration could be expeditiously effected 1886. and so secure a balance.].. and its coils be joined in The only essential peculiarity of the inductometer is the sequence. dividing the scale into intervals representing equal amounts of inductance. ferent from the beforementioned false balances. Using any of these methods. But if in the of the experimental wire. Mag. vol. The oddlynamed Sonometer will do just as well. . as in all similar cases. (Phil. the experimental arrangement. xxxiv. 1886) . Lord Rayleigh has also adopted this method of separating induction from resistance. seem to approve somewhat of Prof. with its extraordinary complications in theoretical interpretation (very dubious at the best. making M M R V=ZG R them sinusoidal.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AN# ITS'P^OtAXrA'TlON. if of suitable size. Z is not reducible to the equation form of + L(d/dt). we must not apply the sinusoidal theory to the interpretation. May 27. the departure of the nearest approach to a balance from a true balance being little or great. II. we completely eliminate the false balances . This method of equal ratio was adopted by Prof. But they are quite difappear to have false balances. exact in its separation of resistance and I have since found that there inductance. as before remarked. whenever the side 4 [in figure. way it is joined and used. varies his induction by a flexible coil. The difference is great when a coil with a big core is compared with a coil without a core . containing with the two constants and L. are no other ways than these. like the method of equal ratio. at a moderate rate of intermittence. 33. however. it is not possible to make the currents vary in the same manner in the sides 3 and 4. since for the measurement of induction. one of which is respect to the other. owing to the reduction of Z to " the required form. thus varying the inductance from a movable with minimum to a it maximum is an arrangement which I now call an Inductometer. We and correctly interpret changes in resistance and inductance.) with a condenser. and can therefore equalise a coil in side 3 (presuming that the equalratio method is employed).. in which. there is the or 63 M method I described [vol. we cannot balance merely by resistance and selfinduction. Dec. he. independent of the manner of variation of the currents. But if it be wished to employ mutual induction between two branches to obtain a balance. If we want to have true balances when there is departure from coilequivalence. That is. except the duplications which arise from the exchange of the source of electricity and the current indicator. with simple interpretation. is equivalent to a coil. 101 sisting of two coils joined in sequence. which is. Then we can have silences. the two "constants are functions of the frequency. as they indicate true results. which I hardly like. indeed. however. and of varying the inductance. Lord Kayleigh does. p. Hughes in his later researches (Royal Society. owing to intermittences not being sinusoidal). IL. as the manner of variation of the current in side 4 differs little or much from that of the current in its oughttobe equivalent side 3. Art. and. we must specialise the currents.
the latter two being parts of the former. with the additional property that the electromagnetic conditions prevailing in it are stationary. numbered from 1 to 6 in the figure. . Quadrilateral The batterycurrent goes joining B x to B 2 and 6 is the batterywire. A Let us generalise the Christie thus Let the sole characteristics of a branch be that the current entering it at one end equals that leaving it at the other. independent of the time. all six branches may be any complex combinations of conductors and condensers satisfying these conditions. The has the four sides. or the Wheatstone. for example. 3.102 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. let branch 3 consist of a long telegraphic circuit. parallelogram. This will suppress the farrago. without any addition. a condenser may be inserted. It seems to be a nearly universal rule for words. quadrangle. whose + poles are all connected : . But it has become usual to speak of the differential arrangement as a whole as the Bridge . which is absurd. across two others. all S. SECTION XXXVII. just as telegraphers speak of the Morse. and the bridge. I propose to simply call it the Christie. quadrilateral. As an example of a complex combination. so that the branch becomes quite definite. and pans asinorum. 1. B 2 C. meaning the Thus we can refer to the Christie. H. 4. balance. The bridgewire is 5. quadrilateral. when the bridgewire is free from current. up or down . 2. . which is the useful property. and then we have the four sides of the bridge. and finally cause us to talk nonsense. according to their Thus the Bridge is the conductor which bridges original signification. A. Quadrilateral is the latest fashion. GENERAL THEORY OF THE CHRISTIE BALANCE. except under special circumstances. Christie's differential the names bridge. Thus. united by six conductors. BALANCING BY MEANS OF REDUCED COPIES. . Some of it crosses the bridge. which have been used. There are objections to . It is not easy to find a good name for Mr. used correctly in the first place. But there are six conductors concerned so we should not call the differential arrangement itself the quadrilateral. The communication between the two ends of a branch need not be conductive at all . It has four sides. from to C by the two distinct routes ABjC and AB 2 C. In the usual form of the Christie we have four points. lozenge. to gradually change their meaning. arrangement. symbolised by the two parallel lines starting from 3 and ending at Y3 where they are connected through terminal apparatus. Bj. the apparatus taken as a whole. truly. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF A BRANCH. This branch then consists of a long series of small condensers.
function of Now let sides 1. the presence of other conductors. 3. junctions. so far as the current from 6 is concerned. or be induced in it by external causes. except as regards inequalities arising from impressed forces in other branches than 6. from 3 to C. When the branch is a mere resistance R. or of no current in the bridgewire due to current in 6. First. for more than four points will be in question. then where . where C is the current (at the ends). simply. 2 etc. one another in every respect. 2. then Z=R. 103 fundamental property of a branch. or be shunted by a mere resistance. and that leaving it. concerned. for example. remove the original restriction. the potentials at Bj and B 2 must be always equal. 4. p . then . the telegraphic line comes under our definition. and p stands for d/dt. Let us now inquire into the general condition of a balance. enters the quadrilateral at and leaves at C. B I} B 2 C. There is together by one wire. = Z 3 4. but independently of one another. and electrical constants.poles by the other wire. and the also conductive connection (by leakage) between the two wires. When it is a coil. balance.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. There is also But. This does not mean that each side of the quadrilateral must be equivalent to a coil. and which may arise from impressed force in 6 itself. the fall of potential from end to end. or through a condenser. taken as resistances. independent of all other conductors. Then there are six points. Z=(K+Sp)\ These are merely the simplest cases. provided it be Observe that this does not exclude stationary in its properties. then Z=(Sp)~ l where Sis the capacity. p. which is most simply got by connecting the middles of 1 and 2. ZCZV Fi = F2 . . Z is a. as regards the selfinduction balance in the extended sense. indeed. Thus we can have electrostatic and electromagnetic induction in all six branches. except in being connected at A. the positive direction of current be from left to right in and suppose we know their differential equations V^ = Zv V^Zfiy etc. with which we are not concerned. We may. between which and the line in branch 3 there is mutual induction. and and K =F Z. are equal. as the electromagnetic induction all along the line. Therefore To have a or. When it is a condenser.. which. but then it will no longer be the Christie. and a slight enlargement of the theory is required. Suppose. If the condenser have also conductance K. Under these circumstances it is always possible to write the differential equation of a branch in the form V=ZC. current entering the line from B x to 3. therefore. there is mutual induction of the electrostatic kind between branches 1 and 2. In general. but merely that the four sides are independent of A V L is the inductance of the coil. and Z a differential operator in which time is the independent variable. providing this does not disturb our .
The theory of a balance of self and mutual electromagnetic induction propose to give by a different and very simple method in the next Section. in order to ensure a perfect balance.. It is clear. as it were . one).. branches. As another example. At present. as by giving zero values to some of the constants concerned. and so on. but in no particular proportion. Then. inductance in sides 2 and 4 be s times the corresponding inductance in artificial . a resistance for a resistance. but a reduced copy of the line AB 1 C.. or when they can be simply balanced. 1 The general Starting with sides and 3 man with all organs complete.... (3c) which is the condition required.. in my paper or equivalent to " On the Use (2).. say s times the corresponding resistance in sides 1 and 3. if B l and B 2 be corresponding points.. let us inquire how to balance telegraph lines of different types.. in the first place. not s times. we take Z=E + Lp (as when each side we obtain the three conditions given is a coil.. and we obtain three similar conditions. when one branch is too complex to be balanced by simpler arrangements in other power of p. (3c). of the Bridge as an Induction Balance. we have merely to make side 2 an exact copy of side 1. c^Cy we get a2 =c4 . a condenser for a condenser.. in connection with the above generalised selfinduction balance. first simply qualitatively. balance...104 But. so that. But it is needless to multiply examples here. If .. We have only to find the forms of the four Z*s. and we get ZJ^Z^.. make 2 and 4 copies of them.. This is like constructing an : fullsized copies. but is still a great extension upon the balance by I A means of principle is this arbitrary. expand and equate to zero separately the coefficient of every It does not follow that a balance is possible in a particular but our results will always tell us how to make it possible... Imagine the and C joined by bridge. Eliminate the currents by crossmultiplication... The disturbances produced in these by the current from 6 must be equal in similar parts hence. But we can also get a true balance when the " line " AB 2 C is not a fullIt is not the most general sized. make every resistance in sides 2 and 4 any multiple. equation case. Make every condenser in sides 2 and 4 have. Art.wire to be removed . using these in (Ic). on expansion... of course. that if we choose sides 1 and 3 quite arbitrarily. then we have points two identical arrangements.. So. equations (1). but s~ l times the capacity of the And... 33]. and 4 an exact copy of side 3. their potentials will be always equal.. take Z = (K + Sp) ~ l (shunted condensers).. (3) [vol.. thus. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. xxxiv.. the coefficient of every power of p must vanish. It has to be identically satisfied. IL. lastly. p. make every corresponding condenser in sides 1 and 3. so that no current will pass in the bridgewire when they are connected.
ml .... but is sufficient for our purpose. Then. Take (4e)  cosmx. if we may . and (7c).. then the values of Z ml are identical for the two 4. it must also be allowed for... say. all per unit length. instead of the former V= 0.. w Now. and 4. additionally.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND sides ITS PROPAGATION.....B).. It is inductance..(8. . in the first place let Now electrical constants K R We Z V=ZC let V= there.. s being any numeric. and there will be a true balance.. s times those in a second. C m A m . this equation connects (4c) and (5c) when x = L Using it... by (5c). But at the pressed forces in the line. if there be apparatus at the distant end of the line. in addition.. whilst the total capacity SI and total leakageconductance Kl in the second line are s times those in the first. adjust the constants of lines 3 = s. so. as before. If these lines be in branches 3 and so that or.. require the form of in at its beginning.. subject to no imstanding for djdt as before. . make 4 YJY . and /^the line. LJL 2 = s . L the the leakageconductance. the potentials at corresponding points will be equal. so that the bridgewire may connect any pair of them.) This is the From the form of 2 we see that if the total required.. This done... This will depend somewhat upon the terminal conditions at the distant end. just / = w / 3 3 4 4 . if coils condensers are used. AB 2 C is made a reduced (or enlarged) copy of AB T C. so that 10 . and are arbitrary so far.. and so on. A B t B/A=tznml. (K2 + S2p)/(K1 + Sl p)=s. without causing any disturbance. which gives. 105 1 and 3. so that at the x . (7c) =Q end... and. that is. (5c) (6c) p These are general.... But tan ml + mYj(R + Lp) / m instead of (8c). by having. resistance El and total inductance LI in one line be... we therefore have lines.. by (4c).. ratio jRj/jRj is s or.. end x = l we have V= imposed. we have. and by four the resistance. and not by any means the most general way of representation of a telegraph Let C be the current.. S the electrostatic capacity. we shall arrive at balance by making sides 1 and 2 resistances whose be used. That is. a telegraph line be defined by its length I. potentialdifference at distance x from its beginning... (5c). Let V YC\)e the equation of the terminal apparatus......
we must have at least one other telegraph line. it is inde pendent of the manner of variation of the current.specify this peculiar kind of balance. in addition. far more general . the periodic or S. Further.106 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Z. or double wires. of course. Then merely two conditions are 2 = n 2 where n/'2ir is the frequency. generally speaking. required. useless. but this is quite immaterial as regards balancing by means of a reduced copy. we see that as there are six branches there are twenty one inductances. . namely. It observed that the equalities in the first line of (lie) make side 2 a reduced copy of side 1. it is. viz. in another respect. which is. Referring to the same figure (in which we may ignore the extensions of branches 3 and 4 to Y 3 and Y 4 ). Now. of the quadrilateral be a telegraph line. six self and fifteen mutual.that is. in which a and b contain the frequency. a = and b . In certain cases precisely the same form of Z as that above used will be valid. THEORY OF THE CHRISTIE AS A BALANCE OF SELF AND MUTUAL ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. Whilst. whilst the equalisation of the two lines of (He) makes the scale of reduction the same. Y \ ("") Q 4 4 / $3/3 is 3/3 F4 we now have lines 1 The will be difference from the former case that in sides 2 and 4 reduced copies of the terminal apparatus of and 3. in side 4.2 Z3 which will reduce it to the form a + bp. to be got by putting p in Z^Z . say side 3. Z . and. line. when applied to the Christie. so that AB 2 C is made a reduced copy of ABjC. sides 1 and 2 may be electrical line. The balance by means of reduced copies is also exact. or imitation But. but is only a special case of the former. either 1 and 2. or 3 and 4. arrangements of a quite different type. although the result may be an arrangement which is not the Christie. If one of the four sides. only a special case of (3c). and that those in the second line make side 4 a reduced copy of 3. balance. AB AB SECTION XXXVIII. the C and balance of C by making the latter a reduced copy of the 2 X former is. notice that only two of the sides. the very simplest.. . I believe. when the currents are undulatory. for it will be observed that any pair of corresponding points may be joined by the bridgewire. investigation of the conditions of balance when all six branches of the Christie have self and mutual induction. I now give a simple. The balance expressed by equation (3c) is exact. so that if the other two are also to be telegraph lines they must be looped. But there is always. As promised in the last Section. can be single wires with return through earth. supposing each side of the quadrilateral to be a telegraph conditions of balance by this kind of reduced copies are the full O 'o "~ **2 2 ~ J 1 ~v'T 1 ~v~ 9 * r/. FELICI'S INDUCTION BALANCE. however.H.
CB )J' ] 1 l 2 1 . 3.m36 p}CJ' { (E 3 + E. provided there be no . which is the sum of the products of the real currents into the resistances. G 3 and G'6 left to right in sides Y . positive directions of the cyclical 1. m m . This gives us (m. ' (1 g 6) where p stands for d/dt. ITS PROPAGATION. C3 and C6 be the currents that are taken as independent. viz.M. which. etc. each of which is a combination of those of the branches separately.F. and then equate to zero separately the coefficients of the powers of p. by equating the taken round the circuit. But Cl = x Cg. We obtain circuits ABjB 2 A current in E. 3. and 4. and 13 CBgBjC due to the same. let Gj. three self and three mutual. E. in 5. 4 or 5. or the rate of decrease of the induction through the circuit.M.m l6 p)C6 ^ m l3 )p} C. m6 and 13 w 36 61 be the inductances. in the two on the assumption that there is no the bridgewire. of induction in a circuit. Thus.) + (m.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND This looks formidable.M. . Thus. to the E. We have to find what relations must exist amongst the resistances and the inductances in order that there may never be any current in the bridgewire.F. m 1 induction through ABjB 2 A = the induction through due to unit current in this circuit.R (C6 . . makes ' + m lB )p} C'1 = (5a . . 2. if the positive direction be from left in 6. of the three circuits. and let them exist in the three circuits B 2 A. + m l3 + m l6 )fi4  m^ = (m + m 3 3l . + which have to be identically satisfied. substituted. 107 But since there are only three independent currents possible there can really be only six independent inductances concerned. let m v 3 mutual. which requires Cl = C3 and this we do them by writing down the equations of and CB^C .. self and Next. CB 2 B 1 C. with righthanded circulation when positive.C' ). AB CA y . . p(m 3 C3 + ro 81 Ci + m 63 <7 = R3 C3 .F supporting current. Thus. Y other three real currents G 2 G 4 and C5 are given by . = (R. . and AB 2 X Then the (via branch 6). 2. which harmonises with the currents C\. Eliminate the currents by crossmultiplication. from right to and down B.R4 (C6 . m m impressed forces in 1. pim^ + ml5 C3 + m1Q C6 = E C .
If the Christie consists of short wires. and make branches 5 arid 6 perfectly conjugate under all circumstances. the whole * [Not given in his treatise. as I pointed out before [vol. so that. on ultimate expansion of results we shall come to the We We same end. due to steady impressed forces. of measuring the inexceptional. Hence it is quite possible that (14c) may be useful in certain experiments. First the resistance balance . because the inductances themselves are meaningless. which are not nearly closed in themselves. they will express could not. This applies both when the steady distribution of current in a network of conductors is considered.108 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. equations ( 1 4c) and the way they In general. which are the conditions required. however. p. and also when the branches are not treated as mere resistances. as either of these factors entirely distinct solutions. viz. Under these circumstances. found any particular advantage in Maxwell's method of cycles. where Z takes the place of R. ductance of a wire a few inches long. work by reducing the number of inductances from 21 to 6. from which alone can Even if we have the full equations in accurate deductions be made. 34. next the vanishing of integral extracurrent due to putting on a steady impressed force in branch 6 . At the same time it is to be remarked that such cases are quite I would not think. generally assume no more than ( 1 4c) do. be applicable. and the third condition to wipe out all trace of current. the theory of the balance expressed in terms of the self and mutual inductances of the different branches becomes meaningless. If we use the first and third of (14c) in the second. the equation of a branch may be represented by V=ZC. IL.* It has seemed to me to often lead to very roundabout ways of doing simple work. any one of the inductances to vanish. 37]. then. provided the branches be independent. from what I have seen of it. we have in general two second factor vanish. an advantage which is nonexistent in a problem greatly simplify the preliminary relating to steady states. Fleming in the Phil. it becomes and. but transient states are considered. as it would produce an absurdity. for instance. in which case (14c) would. the resistance in the But in our present problem there is such a large elementary case. of course. at least in part. if I could get a long wire and swamp the terminal connections. as I remarked before. number of inductances that there is a real advantage in using the above method. the consideration of the amount of induction passing through an open circuit. I have not are established are useful in another respect. equations (14c) are the conditions of a balance. but described by Dr. may If the vanish. But. Still. as in the original application . in which such short wires are used that terminal connections become not insignificant. terms of the twentyone inductances of the branches.. for example. Mag. Art. ] .
that let sides 1 and 2 be equal. they are given by //<! When \ all = = ms = ///. "V. if it be the first factor that vanishes. between which there is mutual induction. besides the resistance whilst all the Z's are finite. . etc. the two conditions M M M . and can therefore localise inductances in and between the branches. or coils of wire. . L^ = L2 . We = (L. Then all except L4 LQ and 46 are zero. We require to expand the six wi's.. full Z ^4 conditions. /i m !3 = " ^5 + (^13 ~ ^14 " ^15 " ^23 + ^24 + ^25 + ^53 ~ ^54) Here L stands for the inductance of a branch.M25 . 109 may be written Lvt ft = Xt. M M . shall have R expressing the in (14f).. . = (l +JKJS )M4A Hence (19c). \ ^ we now take R^ = A2 J . .M^).Lt)Mw ) = If    is. equivalently.) =: Wl/l itl a ills\ \ 'Tilsto /IS* ' \ m we ( ^ whilst. .M12 Zrj + L3 + L4 + Lr + 2(M45 M34 . L6 + L2 + L + 2(Jf62 + ^64 + ^34)1 ). ml3 = 0. 7?4 ). In the use of these. with careful attention to the assumed positive directions of both the cyclical and the real currents. and get l R^L + M^)=M^R The third condition is or L. As another example.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND set of conditions ITS PROPAGATION. .. As an example of a very simple case.. we shall of course equate to zero all negligible inductances. let coils be put in branches 4 and 6. for insertion in (14c). but without the need of measuring 7? 3 (or.L2 L3 + (L. These are got by inspection of the figure. . w6 = mm = we Z4 + 2M64 Z 4 M^. giving m =0. balances. and let the other four branches be doublewound or of negligible inductance. let all the M' s be zero except and 12 3 shall then have. l ra 3 =Z4 m16 = 0. of two coils to the L of one of them in terms gives us the ratio of the of the ratio of two resistances. . or Their full expressions will vary according to circumstances.LJMu + (LB .(19c) nugatory. many coils in sequence..L. Z 5 + L 2 + 2(Jtfu . with a resistance balance.l W8 (16c) Both and (17 c) are included Suppose now that we make the branches long wires. the twentyone inductances are counted. Insert these in the second of (14c). and for the mutual inductance of two branches.
or in terms of the inductance of a coil. If the of the two circuits is nil. and automatic intermitter. Vol. Art. the use of the telephone science is a real pleasure. Compared with is The balance and also of the resistance of the the galvanometer. we reduce the three obvious enough in the that induction between the least interfere with this property is wires 1 and 2 close together. none of which methods has the merits of Felici's balance. M We . giving a steady tone.. separated. 536. and may be made very In fact. Felici's balance is unique. 34 . There are many ways of doing it. It is made amusing.110 ELECTRICAL PAPEKS. preferably twisted. II. and between 3 and 4. presuming that the pair 1. It is. as good as any (certainly better than many) for the particular purpose. We and also doing away with interferences from induction and 2 and the rest. We also do away with the necessity of keeping coils 3 and 4 widely separated from one another. two circuits. of great utility. It is then doubly unique. and should be used whensensitive. II. which is very different from dodging about to find the value of should also of the coils is fixed. between 1 M M M independent of the selfinductions of the four coils. To exhibit its merits fully. Maxwell. there is no current explains itself. 101] calibrated once for all. Passing to a connected matter. but we also see sides 1 and 2. This is secured of coils 1 and 2 is cancelled by the when the of coils 3 and 4. perhaps. as we have only to give particular values to the timeconstant of the condenser a series of values with a common difference and get silence at once by moving the pointer to a series of particular places. M against M but to know the Mu should be both variable and lz Coils 3 and 4 may be the coils of an inductometer [vol. 4. and it is difficult to imagine anything better. Suppose it done by Maxwell's condenser method (using a telephone. The figure electromagnetic induction. etc. For it allows us to have the equal R . the timeconstant when the known. p. and the result wound on a bobbin. we should use a telephone ever possible.. in terms of the capacity of a condenser. ensure the equality of the wires at all times. does not in the selfinduction balance Whilst remarkable. But if we want not merely to balance value of the Mu of a given pair of coils. and then this double wire may be doubled on itself. that may be made the basis of the science of It is very simple and obvious. Z 3 = Z4 This is conditions (14c) to Z absence of mutual induction . in the secondary on making or breaking the primary. of course). doing away with the troublesome source of error arising from the disturbance of the resistance balance from temperature changes. describes the wellknown mutual induction balance with which Felici made such instructive experiments. which occur when 1 and 2 are = R.. 2 is wellremoved from the pair 3.
to make the other pair. in Lastly. but mutual induction. increasing or decreasing it. II. later]. or it should be carefully If the departure from divided). in sensitive arrangements. viz.. in a very great measure. currents. difficult. as to which see Maxwell's treatise.. although very perfect silences. we cannot get telephone balances. Then the galvanometer is indispensable. is required. as before described. But if there is metal about the coils 1 and 2 (of course there should be none. for various purposes). currents to disturb . double it on itself and Wind two side by side to then double again. of resistance. But if the metal be iron. when balancing one set of F. etc. for several reasons. Use nonconducting iron [vol. that there is no appreciable waste of energy in finely divided iron when the range of the magnetic force is moderate. make one pair of coils (1 and 2). currents and reactions against another set. The temperature error is then under constant observation.. and we know at once when the resistance . like those when there are no F. ceases when there are F. one whose needle will not move till all the current due to a make has passed. meter is not to measure self induction. HI measure the L of each coil by itself. in the first place. different sizes. of course we the steady must not remove the iron and measure something else than what we want to know. Apart from the question of measurement. and as we are not able to trace the variations of resistance. according Here we have another proof to that there mentioned. of iron in the field on the to position. and so The theory is comforth. we may. the independence pairs. M We M e. Besides the experiments referred to. Thereis wanted. Felici's balance is highly instructive. but only two. but Felici's balance has still its peculiar merits left. we may give up the telephone and use a suitable galvanometer. I cannot recommend it. balance is serious.g.. to which we should add that the telephone should always be used if possible. Perhaps the easiest way is to take a long wire. Hughes's magical experiments with coins. two equal Next. about the inductometer. and no iron. considerable accuracy in adjustment of the coils.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. and it is well to previously adjust But the present use of the inductothe coils to have equal L and R. Of course we have increased sensitiveness by the closeness of the wires. so that scientific interpretation of results is effects. and then move if it can. As regards Felici's balance when employed for observing differential M M . 36. and we want to measure in presence of the iron (not finely divided). Art. giving four equal wires. Prof. are not always obtainable. be interfered with by unknown temperature variations. lose the advantage of the telephone. and the others in the same manner. But it is far better not to use four coils. we immediately measure and 12 have the full advantages of Felici's balance. or very little. with 1 and 2 made permanently equal. 3 and 4 the coils of the fore make 1 and 2 the coils whose If within range (it is well to have inductometers of inductometer. plex. coils 3 and 4 in the equalsided se//induction balance. and it is not practicable to remove the metal. the balance is useful for studying the influence of two coils. similarly placed.
FELICI'S BALANCE DISTURBED. and its effect can be perfectly balanced by a suitable increase or decrease of the (mutual inductance) of the inductometer coils. to be axes coincident. the disturber is a nonconducting iron If it be inserted bullet. of either or both pairs of coils according to its position with respect to them. Suppose. 2 other The simplest action is coils of any kind. This is mainly because it increases in either coil. separate from one another. the bullet will cause their But if the increased by placing it anywhere on the axis. If the two coils have their the L of the coil in which it is inserted. currents) is upset. If the coils be wound parallel on the same bobbin.112 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. If the disturber be a nonconducting core (round cylinder). results Here the L of each coil is little altered. for example. It acts to increase or decrease that caused by nonconducting iron. By pushing it in towards the axis a position is reached. bullet be brought between the coils laterally. it increases their M. when it is pushed through both greatest increase of which are themselves brought as close together as possible. the result is a decreased M. ending finally on the axis with being greater than causes the M M M M M M the normal amount. and the key by an automatic intermitter. to a considerable distance. Referring to the last figure. and the decrease of from the lateral diversion of the magnetic induction by the bullet from its normal distribution. SECTION XXXIXa. let 3 and 4 be the coils of an inductometer. and coils. M M First. so as to be. between the numerals 1 and 2 in the figure. both in general reasoning and in calculations. the increase is much If the whole space surrounding the coils be embedded in iron greater. the is. is then multiplied about four times when the coils are about of the shape shown. 2. for instance. in which imagine the galvanometer to be replaced by a telephone. or near it. with internal aperture about J the diameter of the coils. of course. when the core itself is several times as long as the depth of the coils. and is brought into the field of the coils 1. AND THE DISTURBANCE EQUILIBRATED. as in the figure. Interpretation is also an easier matter. The effective inductivity of the nonconducting iron is considerably M M M . after which further approach to the axis of minimum to increase. let of one pair of coils beingus start with a perfect balance due to the of the other pair. and 1. we shall approach the maximum possible. balance of coils 3 and 4 (apart from F. and consider the nature of the cancelled by the effects produced by the presence of metal in or near either pair of coils.
currents. equally well to the selfinduction balance. then it must be found out why not.nnp " 2== Z Z (Z 6 /99/\ lt/r9 M*v% H 9 H. II. On the other hand.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND less ITS PROPAGATION. very finely divided) brass Dia(or presumably any other nonmagnetic metal) does nothing. If the disturber be nonmagnetic. The substitution of a bundle of iron wires reduces this minimum sound. Using no silence is possible. owing to the F. Bottomley's manganesesteel of nearly unit inductivity.P. currents should be made less than in copper.tnlVJ. 113 than that of solid iron. are circuits.E. at least I suppose that this is the way it might be popularly explained. we have a secondary current due to the action on the secondary circuit of the current induced in the disturber by the primary current . the silence) is sensibly the old value which gave silence before its introduction. From alVJ. magnetic effects are insensible. The above remarks apply. it is and e is the impressed force in the primary. but only by very fine division of iron are the F. currents. on account of the comparatively low conducIf this be not so.e. it is brought to comparative insignificance . missing. To obtain an idea of the disturbance in the secondary circuit due to a conducting mass. then.. so as to render the variations in the magnetic induction strictly proportional to them. nonconducting (i. otherwise no perfect will be. in which the F. there is usually increased also. Changing the of the inductometer to suit this. currents are so much stronger in iron. V (21c) M where 12 Z=R + Lp. Again.F. If the disturber be not too of the inductometer which gives the least sound (instead of big. let it be a simple linear circuit. currents should be. for the most part. Then the equations of E. these. If it be magnetic. except that iron always increases the L of a coil. Here being supposed to be properly adjusted to be zero. M M M 0= Z2 C2 + M23pC3 . the minimum sound is still far louder than with an equally large nonmagnetic disturbing mass To (metallic) because the F. and no doubt are.M. It is the effect of the conductivity (in mass) of the disturbing matter that makes the interpretation of results troublesome. F. although there is a more or less distinctly marked minimum sound for a particular value of M. So far is very simple. VOL. variations balance is possible with nonconducting iron. far weaker than in copper. and when the wires are very fine. this an exception is Prof. and 3 to the tertiary. the F. if the iron be independently magnetised so intensely as to reduce the effective inductivity sufficiently. tivity. It remembered that the range of the magnetic force must be moderate. currents rendered of insensible effect. . which counterbalances the freedom from solid iron. and call it the Let the suffixes l and 2 refer to the primary and secondary tertiary. as I pointed out in 1884. of course.
(28c) becomes where Z is that of either the primary or secondary circuit. impressed the secondary current would be of amplitude 2 /2RLl per unit impressed force. M 3l .114 is ELECTRICAL PAPERS. From these. and in the same phase with it. (22c) becomes. In this case. Let R = Ln. /9Q/. Then those of the tertiary. which condition is readily reached approximately. the coefficient of e must vanish. v But m is very small compared with L. supposed to be Let the suffix 4 relate to this fourth exactly like coils 1 and 2. . M M^ is also missing. so C*^ Let the impressed force be sinusoidal . of the tertiary and primary into the varies as the product of the It is therefore made greatest by making of the tertiary and secondary. now m then p 2 = . and = r + Ip. let the resistance and inductance of the primary and also of the secondary M M R circuit. because of the distance between (28c) is the euation of (72 where ^ is the determinant of the coefficients in coef equation For a balance.\ tlt " transformer" are coincident If the coils of each and M 41 = . Then (21c) become Here. Now seek the conditions of balance by means of a fourth linear circuit placed between coils 3 and 4 in the figure. r and / equal. force.3f42 and equal. The secondary current therefore the secondary current's equation.w 2 making . (m*n/2EL)(r + I n )~^ per unit If the tertiary could have no resistance. m circuit. besides lv the two disturbers. the M' s being small. if z m the former M IB or 3f23 . and. Then /9A (2< v 2 2 2 gives the secondary current in amplitude. . This gives (27c). and L be and putting the disturber in their centre. coils 1 and 2 in the figure coincident (practically) by doublewinding. and phase.
though different at every moment. or by inducto We F F . to suit the instantaneous value of the dissipativity does not agree precisely with the sinusoidal R'. though not so long as to require the For simplicity. that one of the two parallel imagine 3 4 lines leading to either is the wire under test. is yet precisely that of the other wire (or any constant multiple of it). ratio be one of equality. which may be mere resistances. This brings me to the subject of balancing rods against one another. first let the consideration of electrostatic capacity. have to make side 3 an electrical full sized copy of side 4. we want to balance an iron wire against a copper wire. in accordance with the description of how to make copies Next. disadvantage. II. which represents a mean value . make the resistances of the two returns equal. if a wire be so thick that the effect of diffusion is sensible. but the sinusoidal R' has important recommendations which outweigh this . of the current. in which. and to be shortcircuits. Perhaps the best way to define the resistance is by Joule's EC'2 In the sinusoidal case a mean value is taken. either in the Christie or in the Felici differential arrangements. therefore. now. For definiteness. p. it cannot be balanced in the Christie against a fine wire. Suppose. but requires another thick wire in which the diffusion effect also I refer to true balances. B... when the current in them is longitudinal. According to this heatgeneration formula. thin and concentric. 37]. ii.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. TRANSFORMER WITH CONDUCTING CORE. H5 be a We do not need to balance the disturber in one pair of coils by means it of a precise copy of in the other pair. when placed in long solenoids . the resistance of the one wire. according to SECTION XXXIX6. by proper distance of returns. 104]. First. Let the iron wire be in side 3. BOTH IN THE CHRISTIE AND FELICI ARRANGEMENTS. make the inductances due to the magnetic field in the space between wires and returns equal. whilst the other is a return tube. and to the similar question of balancing thick wires in the Christie. As I pointed out before [vol. so that sides 1 and 2 in the Christie are any precisely equal admissible arrangements. there always is a definite resistance at a particular moment. the copper wire in side 4. p. similarly placed. the wires being straight and long. It may reduced copy. but what it may be will This definition of the resistance require elaborate calculation to find. (29c). independent of the manner of variation occurs. [vol. THEORY OF THE BALANCE or THICK WIRES.
.. however. fd/R. [vol. yet there will be one practical difficulty As is very easily shown by sliding a coil along an iron in the way.. n... inductivity may Fixing thus the relative diameters... by properly choosing the lengths. we make /3 =/4 so that the balance is given by L is R Z .. current in the wires. Although this balance is true. ^3 ' .. (31c) where / is the operator given by SC ) \( is its the inductance other than that due to the wire itself.... . First.... third condition. k the conOr..... ... express the full conditions by adding to (33c) this . require to be equal. meters in sequence with sides 3 and 4..... when they are mere = 3 . If Z is V\C operator.. whilst Jc for copper is about six times the value for iron. .116 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... the quotient of the ductivity. if they be thick ..(33c) V * where the additional resistances that r3 and r4 are for the 4. n.. But we require to make them balance during rapid variations of any For instance. x length).... for instance. viz.. we may have the resistances in any proportion . In a similar manner. p. or other Of course Zl and Z% may be and 2..... the rest is easy.. keeping.. a very short impulse will cause a mere surface kind. Z=L p + Rf. the p... if the iron has inductivity 100. . the copper wire must This is indishave a radius of about four times that of the iron. The full balance is secured by a and still the wires must balance.. and c the radius of a wire... we see that if we take S3 c3 timeconstants equal. that of copper being 1.. Thus. These two conditions will give balance to infinitely slow variations of current.. that the timeconstants of diffusion shall be equal. (34c) where / 3 and 14 are the lengths of the two wires. R l and resistances. Using this form of = s4 c4 that is. in appreciable strength. that is. the proper pensable. make the diffusion balance... we may the resistances of sides 1 In virtue of the equality of the diffusion timeconstants. their steady inductances (yx. So we have merely to examine the form of the Z of a straight 104]... The following will be more satisfactory as a demonstration. their steady resistances Next.... This timeconstant is /xforc 2 where p is the inductivity.. and can be satisfied with wires of all sorts of sizes and lengths. 63]. : R2 may be in sides 3 and two returnsheaths. and in our general equation of steady resistance.. to obviate the necessity of having wires of very different lengths.... There is now left only the wires themselves to be equalised... Q . by the resistance per unit length (or any multiple that we find convenient of this quotient). ratio of diameters. then Z^Z^ Z^Z^ is the condition of balance [vol. This is wire... as.
not counting the parts due to cores ... C2 must vanish. as well. Here the form of Z for the circuit of the solenoid is Z=R + L p + Lpf~\ Q .... the other of copper... L QV L 02 the total inductances.... first.... as per (32c)... balance two rods.. (36 C ) ^4 0i will complete the balance. due to the cores .. L that due to the core itself when the field is steady. Next. must vanish. M m F e = R^ + LolpC1 + = R2 C2 + L02pC2 + The first M pC + F^L^ + MC M^ Q 2 +f~ p(l1 + F~ p(L2 C2 + MCJ +f~ 1p(l 2 C2 2) l l terms on the right are the KM..ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. The second equation then gives M + MFand l + mf.. the total mutual inductance.. in (32c).. L v L v and those parts of the inductances..... the evil is cured..... Lastly... as . not counting the parts due to cores .. self and mutual...e... if and / are the two coreoperators.....F..... the inductivity often varies from place to place. and I the length of the As for Z that is adjustible ad lib.. (40c) So the diffusion timeconstants of the cores must be equal..... M= m. The equations of E.. and l lt 1% the same for the second pair. when each pair of coils consists of long making two primaries and two secondaries. (37c) the solenoid... so far as depends on the cores....... To have a balance. against one if N . the two following terms taken negatively the KM. let it be required to balance a long iron against a long copper rod in long magnetising solenoids forming sides 3 and 4.. nearly. due to the magnetic field everywhere except in the core... one of iron. To ^3 ^ = ^3 = ^3 = L L Z 2 ... is The value of L (i.... where R is and /as before. M = Q. Let Rv R2 be the total resistances of the primary and the secondary circuits .... and the last two taken negatively those due to the cores. M ... .... as before said.F... another in Felici's arrangement. The only failure will be due to want of homogeneity.. L the total inductance ditto.. this being done.F.. further. Then... of the first pair of coils. (35c) the total resistance (as ordinarily understood) of the circuit of the solenoid. L3 or 4) is number of turns per unit length... properly connected together..........'S of induction not counting cores... and the steady mutual inductance of one pair be cancelled by that of the other pair of coils.M. 117 But if wire or rod.... in the primary and secondary are then. coaxial solenoids.. (39c) So or the mutual inductance of the circuits due causes than the cores... balance the iron against the copper we therefore require.. to other F=f..'S used in the solenoid circuits against their resistance. or the iron rod should be onefourth the radius of the copper ........ and Clt C2 the primary and secondary currents..l = .. the wire be made homogeneous.... the equality of timeconstants of diffusion.
it equals value of z is onefifth of the frequency. The first approximation to is unity (when very slow variations take place). radius.... Nothing must be substituted. which may be used in (44c).... the If of 10 cm.. we have A=Bn = (2z)l .. ' 2 2 2 2 2 2 J From these...... M .. Now if the solenoids be of small depth.000.... In an iron rod of only 1 cm. (45c) at once..... IL. when the equations are given by the first lines. But it is very easy with iron cores. then....n 2 and . B = Q.. It may be written thus F : F~ l = ABp... twenty times the frequency.... p A and B are constants. (41c) where N N lt former of length The are the turns per unit length in the two coils of a transthe same for the two transformers.. without excessive frequency... by elimination....... p.118 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... to make simpler formulae suit.) The latter part is capable of external balancing... (When not counting cores is spoken of... A and B are positive functions of p whose initial A = l. 2 )>1 = K2 C2 + F~ lp(L 2 C2 + MCJ.. depends on the rest of the system.. The balancing of the former part requires the value of . 99].. to be condition (39c) of course makes the primary equation independent 2 It is then the same as if the secondary coils were removed.. Let z = 7rc 2 kfjin. if this is 10 or over [see vol.. (46c) approximately.. and also Q provided of the secondary.. thus confining ourselves to one transformer..... =1/10... and /i=100. /........ With large values of z we have + I 2 n) 2 . In (38c) we have merely to ignore the /terms. ] ' ' (toti which only differ from the equations when cores are nonconducting by the introduction of F. Then (42c) become e = R& + (L& + MC )Bn + Ap^C.. This leads us to show the modification made in the equation of a transformer by the conductivity of its core. We have then ficant.. . we have e S + L S ~ l LI showing the effective resistance and inductance of the primary as modified by the secondary and conducting core. When the impressed force is sinusoidal... it is not meant that air must be substituted.. and there be no L externally........ + MC \\ = R C + (L C + MCJBn* + Ap(L C + MCJ. when 2 2 2 2 ' values are . L ol and L02 become insignithe cores fill the coils. radius. (43c) 2 .
however. Although there is more to be said on the subject of induction balances. at sufficiently high frequencies. and the current in the primary to be the same as if its resistance were increased by the amount The core need not be solid. so that the rest is then negligible. And gives the secondary current. It is. from the general property that a secondary circuit. which is perfectly correct when suitably interpreted. appears to contradict a former statement . But all telegraph circuits are not submarine cables. If we wish to be accurate. Preece is much to be congratulated upon having assisted at the experiments upon which (so he tells us) Sir W. and m. Mr. I believe. PRELIMINARY TO INVESTIGATIONS CONCERNING LONGDISTANCE TELEPHONY AND CONNECTED MATTERS. But the theory of the eminent scientist does not resemble very closely that of the eminent practician. SECTION XL. but further examination will show that they may be reconciled. Preece was in arguing from the particular to the general. In a sense. even if they were. can predict beforehand what these should lead to ultimately. we must go the other way to work. Sir W. since the We A It should. and of signalling an account of some of the investigations to follow. be remagnetisation does not penetrate deep. when . if it be granted. 119 l lt L v L2 and M. yet when that due to the core actually becomes negligible. divided by (2z)l. I put the matter on the shelf now. Thomson's theory of the submarine cable is a splendid thing. and especially as regards the rapidity with which electrical waves were sent into them. they would behave very differently according to the way they were worked. or tends to bring L 2 C2 + MC\ to zero. and everywhere the same. cylinder will do as well. His paper on the subject marks a distinct step in the development of electrical theory. and branch out from the . and should therefore be allowed for. The mistake made by Mr. The coefficients of p giving the ratio of the currents at every moment. he should therefore have an unusually complete knowledge of it. membered that although at low frequencies it is the core that contributes the greater part of the inductance. for one thing and. in (47c) and (48c) tend to zero. on account of the pressure of a load of matter that has come back to me under rather curious circumstances. a generally admitted fact that the laws of Nature are immutable. This gives the primary current. the rest becomes relatively important. In the present Section I shall take a brief survey of the question of longdistance telephony and in general. This conclusion. is that all circuits whatsoever always behave in exactly the same manner. A consequence of this fact. it is its prospects. Thomson based his theory.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND if ITS PROPAGATION. shuts out induction. . become / 2.
circumstances. Now. we shall never know the most general theory of anything in Nature . and keeping within bounds In any case. which wholly ignores But suppose we inertia. and if the attenuation could be the same for all frequencies. copying the essential features of the real. when reduced to its simplest elements. take different forms. which may be most conveniently reckoned per unit length of circuit viz. electric variables. and work with that. shorten the cable continuously. finding out in special cases whether a more limited theory will not be sufficient. but they will not be utilisable at the distant end. there would be no distortion. inductance. according to the relative values of these four constants it is conceivable. works as a substituted approximate theory. the current and the inductance settle the magnetic field. the influence of inertia in altering the shape of received signals becomes small. the potentialdifference and the current. that the want of omniscience prevents the literal carrying out of this process .120 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. ignoring all interferences. the boundaries of the general theory are not accordingly. and leakageconductance. Mere attenuation. by the eminent engineer. and at the same time raise the frequency. in a certain way. the attenuation is so great. that the results of the theory. This can be realised. not the real but a simpler one.. Now the distortion and the The attenuation. In the case of an Atlantic cable it is only possible (at present) to get a small number of waves through per second. to answer a possible objection. but the lesser does not include the greater. which is. very nearly. as will appear later. taking all these things into account. unlimited themselves. if not carried too far. Thomson. so as to constitute a complete dynamical system. there are only a very few waves per second. be it remembered. please per second. the greater is the distortion of arbitrary waves . The potentialdifference and the permittance settle the electric field. are intimately connected. the current and resistance settle the dissipation of energy in. permittance. would not do any harm. because. though different things. This distortion is a rather important matter. and this is why the cabletheory of Sir W. and next it increases so fast with the frequency. but we may at least take the general theor}7 so far as it is known. its resistance. general to the particular. Now a telegraph circuit. still has no less than four electrical constants. more rapidly the attenuation varies with the frequency. or electrostatic These connect together the two capacity. and carrying this further. will. first. I should think. This is usually the case in Now when . Inertia becomes more and more important the theory which ignores it will not suffice . under different The greater includes the lesser. we at length arrive at a state of things in which the old cabletheory gives results which have no resemblance whatever to the real. and the leakageconductance and potentialdifference that without the wires. . It is true. and some corrections due to the diffusion of current in the wires in time. as our knowledge of Nature only extends through a limited part of a much greater possible range. thus leading to a most prodigious distortion in the shape of irregular waves Of course we may send as many waves as we as they travel along.
in my opinion that good telephony is equation. There is a critical value of the inductance for minimum attenuationratio. with very high The speed of the current is never proportional to the frequencies.. they may be advantageously raised higher. to be the speed of But if the dielectric be solid. of which little may be due to the circuit. and v the speed of waves which are not. know that human speech admits of an extraordinary amount of distortion (never mind the attenuation) before it becomes quite unThe "perfect articulation. Hang your wires wider apart. according to circumstances to be later explained L being the inductance and the resistance per unit length. be distinguished. which is (LS)~t. there must be some unelectricity. and that at the same time the speed of the waves tends to approximate to the speed of light. I see no legitimate existent due to other causes. and how to prevent it. H. etc. besides this. Increasing the inductance is another way of improving things.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. The longer the circuit. down to the low frequencies also." possible through a circuit whose electrostatic timeconstant." certainty about what this speed is. What the limiting distance of long distance telephony may be. and I shall give my reasons for this conclusion. There is the transmitter. You can then telephone further. however. viz. telephony.." etc. or are only slightly dissipated. the receiver. without alter We We . I think. besides the telephone line. Within the limits of approximately constant attenuation the dis tortion This is what is wanted in telephony. avoided. attenuation tends to constancy as the frequency is raised. carrying it out to an impracticable extent. Preece. which is the only speed which " can. with similar attenuation and distortion. Lowering the resistance is perhaps the most important thing of all. due to toandfro reflections. W. and includes too many unknown data. tortion is permissible clearly must depend upon what is already Even if that be fixed. And. way of fixing its amount by theoretical principles . for obvious reasons. as I have before proved. the matter is too " involved. if S be the permittance per unit length. 121 It is always partly the case. who can tell 1 must find out by trial. to be good. be said.. and it may be true. even in a restricted sense. and several transformations between the speaker and the What additional amount of dislistener. as I This is to be have before explained. we could make the amplitude of sinusoidal currents received at the distant end of an Atlantic cable greater than the greatest possible steady current from the same impressed force an unbelievable result. including personal But this is certain. I the length. is small. or to a speed of the same order of magnitude. for the very high frequencies. The resulting attenuation may be an enlargement. By this method. mean really a large amount of distortion. is several times as big as the recent estimate of Mr. square of the length of the line. the product of the total resistance into the total permittance. the wider apart they should be . and practically is I have shown that the sometimes. Other means I will mention later." "even different voices could recognisable. It is from L = Rlftv to L = Rljv. except in so far as the resistance of the wire increases. R . I shall explain its laws.
the current that is reversed. The attenuation is increased. giving shocks to the ether. copper covering practically decides the greatest resistance of the wire . passing the earth. and potentialdifference unchanged . very nearly. be the leakageconductance. arising from violent motions of large quantities of matter. refraction. I refer to the statement that excellent results have been obtained in Here the longdistance telephony with coppercovered steel wires. by dissipation of energy in the wires. and gradual attenuation There is the as they travel. This is an old subject with me. lower the resistance the most. we should magnify this effect. We A earth's crust. and perpendicular to it. . This has <"* reflection. or. It is to such long waves that I attribute the magnetic disturbances that come from the sun occasionally. which is parallel to the wire. When we have little distortion. determining the rate of attenuation. we get into the regions of radiation. also see most. though. The dielectric should be the central object of attention. what current penetrates into the steel lowers the resistance and increases the inductance.K Lv zi**>t if ] accelerate signalling. and. One megohm per mile or less instead of hundreds or thousands would vastly The attenuationfactor is now t. we could make the distortion quite small. and 8 the permittance per unit length. the first cancelled. when it is annulled. and increase the inductance the But it is too complex a matter for hasty decision. in But there the act of reflection. the second doubled. when the potentialdifference is reversed by reflection. which is great. There is some experimental evidence in favour of increasing the inductance (apart from lessening the permittance) . telegraph lines. The attenuationratio per unit length 2 this being the ratio of the transmitted to the is represented by e^/ ^ original intensity of the wave. the wires The waves are waves subsidiary. electric disturbance and the magnetic disturbance keeping time with it. . but not the current. and in the act of reflection the former is Also reflection by insulation. but the distortion is reduced. and simultaneously show themselves all over the world . as this will allow the current to penetrate more readily.122 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. These waves are subject to This is when the insulation is perfect. in all save wavelength. and causing the On such a wave passage from the sun of waves of enormous length. etc. Clearly. Of these the simplest cases are reflection by shortcircuiting. there are immediately induced currents in the sea. are many other cases I have investigated. current may be regarded as a ray of light (dark. owing to want of sufficient information. An I have also examined leakage.. of light. the latter doubled. I do not wish to magnify its importance. ing the permittance or the resistance. But to return to the circuit. absorption. according to laws I shall give. Atlantic cable is worked under the worst conditions (electrical) possible with high insulation. it would seem that a bundle of softiron wires with a covering of copper is the thing. that the iron sheathing of a cable may be beneficial. electrically speaking. there is the greatest possible distortion. of course). and both perpendicular to the transfer of tube of energyenergy. etc.
The receiver must have resistance Lv and zero All waves arriving are then wholly absorbed. and partly reached. The half electric. that allows us to approximate to the ideal state. increase the leakage as far as is consistent with other things. The change in the permittance must also But I shall show that we can have practical approxibe allowed for. subject to V ~ ax then. this is also quite easy. Another remarkable property is that if the receiving coil be fixed in size and shape. the dissipation is half in the wire. but assisting to diminish the distortion. and C solutions with V K= jR This perfect system would require very great leakage in an Atlantic cable. = 0. Similarly. One way is with my nonconducting iron. to make the transmitted waves agree with the impressed force. Are there really any hopes for Without any desire to be over sanguine. I think Atlantic telegraphy ? we may expect great advances in the future. It will raise the inductance greatly. Let etc. half outside. the distortion is annihilated (save corrections for increased resistances. The current . which I have referred to more than once. the resistance or reducing the permittance (obvious ways of increasing speed). the complete solution consists of two oppositely travelling trains of waves. of which we need only write one . The phenomena formally resemble transmitted. without reducing . Use this to cover the conductor. and increase the inductance greatly. mations to almost negligible distortion in telephony. 123 Make E/L = K/S. Change the sign of v in a negative wave. and so greatly diminish the attenuawhilst the insulationresistance will be lowered. (or else zero). have also examined the question of apparatus.). somewhat increastion ing the attenuation. . We and maximum effect. to prevent interference. and the nature of the reflected. where f(x) energy is is the state 7=f(xvt)ewhen / = 0. if possible. and that reduction of I it is the RjL that is most important. and led me to a theoretically perfect arrangement. half magnetic. No distortion. I shall show that these things may be fairly approximated to in telephonj'. and The solution is so simple I may as well give it now. whilst its resistance varies. inductance. . We must stop the In the perfect system reflection.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. an insulator impregnated with plenty of irondust. C be the potentialdifference and current at distance x. and absorbed waves. Lv should be the resistance there. when this unique state of things solutions with is not satisfied. between 0. atlL is C=F/Lv. thus. with equality of timeconstants as described. Then there is the matter of bridges. It should be understood that in the perfect system we have nothing to do with what the frequency may be. and cause too much attenuation but this perfect state may be aimed at. whilst in telephony it is the high frequency more perfect. Thus. There is a perfect correspondence of properties. then this same Lv is the resistance that makes the cannot imagine anything magnetic force of the coil a maximum. which the increased inductance does.
the tail goes backwards at In time. that I used in the last Section. even when the The effect of diffusion in the wires resistance is of the proper amount. the nucleus. usually referred to distortion as the change There is residual in the shape of the curve of current at a single spot. THE IDEALLY PERFECT TELEGRAPH CIRCUIT. in several " To explain the word " permittance I may remark that in stating my views in 1885 communications to this journal on the subject of a systematic and convenient electrical nomenclature based upon the explicit recognition of the three fluxes. have a curved front. . conductioncurrent. second case it is the potentialdifference of the reflected wave that is Now let there be both a resistance inserted and a conducting reversed. and of calculating arrivalcurves of various kinds. those due to the insertion of resistance in the main circuit. if the line be long enough. except that the potentialdifference and the current change places. in the ing formula.) reflection due to the selfinduction of the receiver. SECTION XLI. will find their place. perhaps more practical. which would continue abrupt. diminishes so as to come to be a part of I The I will give the equation of the It is then all tail. but very easy to follow. and thus mitigate that perfection which only I shall also describe graphical methods of following exists on paper. proposing several new words." must be the capacity of something or other. is to make a wave with an abrupt front. magnetic induction. (But I have. " displacement than to use elastance. Thus if R^ be an inserted resistance. nucleus and tail. and whilst the nucleus goes forward at speed v. the progress of waves. in the above. have also examined the changes made when the state is not perfect. but a bridge of conductance K^ . result is that a wave throws out a long slender tail behind it . but certainly duller. Now let there be no resistance inserted. then the substitution of t for Jff 1 and S for L gives us the correspondIn the first case the reflected current is reversed. described." for the reciprocal of electrostatic The following shows the scheme so far as it is at present capacity.124 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. bridge. and electric displacement. when there is no leakage and no resistance in the line (l+RJSLv)' 1 is the ratio of transmitted to incident wave. and the rest is This explains the perfect system above transmitted unchanged. K . as of permitting disI did not then go further in connection with the flux placement. Part of the original wave is absorbed in the bridge. some of which have found partial acceptance. the tail itself. which this speed. It is the mixing up of these tails that causes arbitrary waves to be distorted as they travel from beginning to end of the line. and choose R^L = KJS then the reflected wave is abolished. Other matters. if space allow. the submarine cable and oscillatory . changes shape as it progresses. developed : remarked upon the unadaptable character of the word "capacity. SIMPLE PROPERTIES OF NOMENCLATURE SCHEME. I It . approximate only.
or sometimes It is not necessary to exclude inductive action on gmtseinductance. FORCE.. R and K.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FLUX.. } gi %%. thirdly. ConductionCurrent { ITS PROPAGATION. inductance.. or arrangement reducible to a condenser.. **>* . is * [The two blanks were filled up later by the words Reluctance and Reluctivity or Reluctancy." now used. As established be the resistance. { IntS (Magnetic. We have the following fundamental equations of connection . The im2 2 2 pedance is always reducible to (R + L n )l. Impedance is at present known by various names that seem The impedance (which. need not be mispronounced) of a coil is the ratio of the coil used amplitude of the impressed force to that of the current. we avoid confusion with any other sort of elasticity . : for resistance. in sequence with a condenser. 125 FORCE/FLUX. The same definition obviously applies in any case that admits of reduction to one circuit (even though parts of it may be multiple)... which is real. to permanent employment." or "magnetic resistance... other circuits.. Electric  Why elastivity ? Maxwell called the reciprocal of the permittance of a unit cube "the electric elasticity. we first get rid of the qualifying adjective . Electric.. permittance Now let R. (U) p Observe that the spacevariation of C is related to standing for d/dt.. (7. it is very desirable to confine its use to the meaning in connection with Joule's law.. so that we can translate solutions in an obvious manner by ex V in V changing V and a manner... L and S.g. any number of coils in sequence.. . where R is the effective resistance.. in sequence with any number in parallel (to be regarded as one).. FLUX/FORCE. is related the same manner (formally) as the spacevariation of to (7. next. A impeding may be called an impeder. L. although the heat corresponding to R may be partly in for them. " Resistance to rest of the scheme. from impede. and. S and and leakageconductance per unit length of a circuit and let V and C be the potentialdifference (an awkward term) and current at distance x. one case in which the four constants are all finite that is characterised by such extreme simplicity that it is desirable to begin To fix ideas." By making it simply elastivity.. lines of force. in There the circuit may be the common pair of parallel wires... express the ratio of force to flux in the very important case of sinusoidal current.. derived to be founded upon entirely false ideas.] . which are reciprocally related. e. there is Impedance. K . will not do for Besides the above.. and L the effective inductance. we produce harmony with the There are now only two gaps.
...F. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. if/() be the state when Shift the wave bodily a distance vt to the right. on coincidence... st if J/ =u~ Since (4e?) is the equation of undissipated waves. and we obtain the state at time t.. The energy is then all electric. and yet are immensely more com which may plex in results.. quantity Lv. r t r=f(xvt)c' is (5d) the complete expression of the positive wave. if the waves be so shaped as to fit. doubled and C is annulled. The forces are perpendicular. Q moving at speed v is equivalent to a current Qv. Thus. But if the electrifications be opposite. of the magnetic force round either wire. When oppositely travelling waves meet. 30 earthquadrants per second) and L is a convenient numeric.. and attenuate it t = 0. The corresponding current is C=P /Lv = SvF'. with constant speed v.. done before v is . the complete solution of (3d) consists of such waves attenuated as they progress at the rate s (logarithmic). their ratio is the important lineintegral electric ( r 4?r) and magnetic V H G are similarly signed.F. Fis annulled and G is doubled. change the in every part of the wave. But it is not "ohmic" or "joulic" resistV is the lineintegral ance the current and E. The equation virtually three. especially as it casts a flood of light upon all the other cases..M. the impedance.. it is convenient to reckon Lv in ohms. and (7 is the Since F"is an E. their elements E and The product VG is the energycurrent.. as was 30 ohms. Let s.126 with it. on coincidence. is Thus. in air. the direction of the current is the direction of motion of the wave .. and is LStf = l .. whilst if it be negative. r (Qd) To express a negative wave... and In a positive wave V V . . regarded as vectors... and so are and are perpendicular]. and the resultant C the sum of the two C"s. [i.. of the electric force across the dielectric from wire to wire. then. The second form of (6d) says that a charge sign of v in (5d) and (6d). .. and in a negative are oppositely signed. when it has its greatest value (speed of light.e. which is equivalent. (2d) The number of circuitconstants now fixing of the fourth constant. of is now V owing to the or. whose solution consists of two oppositely travelling arbitrary waves. if the electrification be positive.M. L = 20 is a common value (copper suspended wires) in this case our "resistance" is 600 ohms. be simpler in appearance. are perpendicular. the resultant Vis the sum wave of the two Fs. from 1 to ~". the current is against the motion of the wave. Thus. .
and have a resistance Lv A V A at B. which at once separate. the full solution is . . and on arrival at B... . without impressed force. Insert an impressed force e at A momentarily... Should the disturbance be given arbitrarily. the other negative. the total dissipativity is C*) .. the division into the positive wave V^ and the negative . the two is then all magnetic.. however. wave F 2 is effected thus : Notice that is T^^F+LvC). Hence is then V=LvC. for outside them per unit length of circuit......e.. 2 (Id) so that the total energy per unit length always S(F?+F*)=L(C? + Similarly. what is left will be at onceattenuating This being true for every momentary impressed force.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND The energy ITS PROPAGATION... but only C. KF . so to speak. The electricity is all gobbled up at once. At present only one case the simplest will be noticed... given all disturbances on arrival at the circuit in any state of electrification and current. Similarly. equal but oppositely signed What happens when disturbances reach the end of the circuit depends upon the nature of the terminal connections there.. no C t at a given moment..LC^^ F = ^(FLvC) .. 127 On emergence. The electric energy is \SV'2 per unit length of circuit. see that if it be put on at time t = 0. if = there be a resistance Lv at the end (where z 0) it imposes the ... save in the attenuation that is always going on. it is wholly cleared in the time l/v at the most. let the circuit be shortcircuited at A. we absorbed. producing V= e This will travel towards B at speed v. The dissipativity in the wires is EC 2 and 2 These are also equal.LvC.. (Sd) always Similarly the total energycurrent is always snce If. say. so that are absorbed immediately. The terminal condition But this is the property of a positive wave. Now. Thus. Let there be a resistance of amount Lv at the distant end B of the circuit. through unit distance. and kept steadily on thereafter. which at once separate.. waves are unaltered.. V and C any functions of x. and the magnetic energy is %LC'2 From this. through unit distance anywhere. by (Qd) and the second of (2d).. one positive. we see that the electric and magnetic energies are equal in a solitary wave.. which is the condition property of a negative wave... i. the same reason.. all waves travelling towards B are immediately absorbed on reaching B. the same is true for the currentwaves i. as it goes.. I being the length of the circuit.. V F V If initially there be no F. with this immediately breaks into two equally big waves. the result is two waves. SV^V^ ..... either positive or negative.e.
which requires R = '5 ohm per kilom. in our example.000 kilom. but a good deal is allowable. The insulationresistance should be so that again we can work further. the current is is F/Lv. and therefore = 6. which times the beforeassumed value of Lv.128 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. it must be 3.. no doubt the permissible attenuation could be much greater. times the time of a journey from A to B. example waves. 1 . as before. OSCILLATORY ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STEADY STATE WHEN BOTH ENDS ARE SHORTCIRCUITED. After that. Thus the steady state at a given instantly assumed the moment the wavefront reaches it. it is not quite so slow as the inversesquare of the length. to supply the waste in the part of the wave that has passed the spot under consideraThe current tion. 36 megohm resistance of . the current at B varies in the same way at a time l/v later.000 ohms. and to increase the energy at the front of the wave. l/v must tortion. resistance of the corresponding part is (Lv) But if it be not arbitrary it should be '72 megohm per kilom. the resistance of the circuit. But to make the electrostatic timeconstant *05 second. then we may approximate to the distortionless transmission without attending to the exactlyrequired leakage. but only waves of high frequency that are in question. 1887.000 kilom. example . the attenuation. On reaching B. yet. Although the speed of the current is not quite so fast as the square of the length of the line. 569) assures us has been proved by recent . there is still transfer of energy going on there. This is lower than that of any telephone line yet erected. with the same attenuation. value five may have any we be '02 second.000 30 Rt such that the current is onethirtieth part of the full steady current with perfect insulation. it there is no disbecomes a question of suitable instruments. If e please. viz. the product of the any portion of the circuit (wires) into the insulation2 In the 6. is given by (I2d). which e vary in any manner at A. v Lv . and the circuit much longer. With proper instruments. SPEED OF THE CURRENT. EFFECT OF RESISTANCE SECTION XLII. June 17. then the received current is is 5 150 Lv 90. Again. It If we want it to be *1 second. be 3. at 1 ohm per kilom. p. from x = point is to x = vt.. in the 3.000 kilometres. on the other hand. if we raise the insulation we lessen We bring on distortion. as a writer in a contemporary (Electrical Review. The electrostatic timeconstant of the circuit is The attenuation is RSPJ*. in As per kilom. and zero beyond. r V ^ Lv p e MlLv Rl W>lLv v TM * T"~* ^ Lv /I 9/7\ \L*JU>I If we let El.000 kilom.(Ud) or. AT THE SENDING END OF THE LINE.
of which the charges are a feature only. yet it allows us to obtain a very fair idea of what happens when there is distortion. More comprehensively. in the circuit. to be perfect In the distortionless system this penetration is assumed and instantaneous. which is the cause of the mathematical difficulties. together. oscillatory establishment of the steady state in a wellinsulated When we speak of a charge travelling along a wire at speed v. Is it possible to conceive that the current. but what we may call a scienticulistic mean (whatever that may mean). whose elementary properties were discussed in the last Section. and make the speed of the current altogether independent of the length of the line. VOL.E. there is every reason to expect that the speed will be constant. will let it . parallel to one another. and so on.g. I . kilometres. apart from this. and the positive charge on the one accompanied by its complementary negative charge on the other (corrections The two charges parallel wires. we make any isolated disturbance travel on without spreading out behind. But by a proper adjustment of the leakage so as to abolish the tailing.D. multiplying by 9/10 in every 50 kilometres. to 729 in the third. H. say. is the manner in which it brings the speed of the current into full Another and very important thing is this. sending anyshaped waves into the circuit. is ductors.P. culations. not an arithmetic mean. Q. But. we shall probably come as near to the truth as the present state of electromagnetic science will allow us to go. although the state of things supposed to exist in the distortionless system is rather an ideal one. and where it has to stop. II. a great and striking thing about the distortionless system. when it first sets out to go. into which it also penetrates to a greater due to move or less extent. is moving along at speed v. When the leakage is not so adjusted as to remove the distortion altogether. Arid. it There are two conshould be always remembered what this implies. in the setting up of the final state. In the last Section was considered the uniquely simple case of a shortcircuit at A. preordained from time immemorial. owing to the almost necessary employment of Fourier or other transcendental series to express results. However. travelling undistorted. etc. Now. nor yet a harmonic mean. the beginning of the circuit. say. in the space between the wires. there is some & priori evidence to be submitted. if we strike a sort of mean. so that the resistance and the inductance are strictly constants and. knows where it is going. due to a steady impressed force. so that it can Of course not. e. that it goes just as fast as the laws of Nature. whether the line be long or short. without laborious caldistinct view.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. where any impressed force is placed. solutions become difficult of interpretation.E. we are enabled to follow with ease the whole course of events. adjust its speed (scienticulistic speed) accordingly? it is infinitely more probable that the current has no choice at all in the matter. In travelling it attenuates by loss of energy in the conductors and by to 900 in the first 50 leakage in such a way that if it attenuate from 1.000 it will attenuate to 810 in the second. 129 researches. are ignored here). and if the circuit be so constructed that the conditions prevailing are constant. by the ratio RjL being made equal to K/S. how long a journey it has to make.. . the whole electromagnetic field.. to Edinburgh.
and a negative wave \e to the left. will therefore be the value of e to be time (I .. which is equivalent.. to be distant end . guess may be easily justified.. interferences will result whenever the resistance at A has not the value Lv. and the current there is V/Lv. and. vided there be a resistance Lv at B or. if there be a resistance Lv there to absorb it. Now the closer the seat of e is shifted towards A. . which is that required to go from x l to A. is T t Now make ^ = 0. F and the current to match to be V^ILv. . But if there be a resistance at A of any other amount than Lv... Thus the circuit travelling behaves towards e as a resistance 2Lv.. Now.. by the union of the positive and the reflected (also positive) wave. there will be no interference with the positive wave... however e may vary. The current at B y. and completely absorbed on arrival at the B by a terminal resistance of amount Lv. But if the place of e be shifted along the circuit from A. when the negative wave arrives at A. half to the right. the or insert an infinite resistance at A. at A causes the potentialdifference insertion of a resistance there. The transmission to the distant end. the current at A corresponding to (16rf) is and (as will be explained in the Section on Reflections) the wave is got by multiplying by /> where .. Keeping at present entirely to simple cases. which will go on to B and be absorbed there.... half to the left. with uniform attenuation. reflected and we shall verif} (15^). they will be coincident original positive wave . is also evident.. When put on. there will be a reflected wave from A. and the attenuation are as before. In general. if we insert a resistance Lv at A we can make a safe guess that the current will be just halved.... Now. show that J^at x at time t due to e =f(t) any function of t. the line itself behaves just as if it were a resistance That is. influence the magnitude of the waves leaving A. the more closely will the familiar follow the and when e is at A itself..130 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. which will run after the original positive wave. and back again. Imagine f to be at distance x from A. the result is to send a l positive wave ^e to the right.. CB = i(e/Lv)w*^. proLv. both at speed and attenuating similarly.x^/v earlier.. the current at A is then e/Lv. and so make every signal at B have a double or familiar following it after an interval of time 2^/v. Of course this complete absorption at B of all waves arriving there is independent of But these will materially the nature of the terminal arrangements at A. (IQd) taken at a given moment being that at x v at the in front. the circuit This be continued indefinitely beyond B unchanged in its properties.. Q due to an impressed force e. at A. because when there is a shortcircuit there. That the current is zero when we insulate..
Thus.. There is the usual attenuation. and the value of = e~ Ji 11 ".. of the waves form a geometrical series. it is wholly reflected with reversal of electrification.. On this view of the matter.. ... Now B is K 3 ' In the meantime the first wave V^ at speed v. moving towards B.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. We must have V= at B. 131 The most simple case after these of complete absorption at B. . the final state is the sum of them all. so as to exchange wires. that the day has gone by for any such fanciful explanation to be taken seriously. IL . is a copy of F" only smaller to the extent produced by the T 2 This wave reaches B when t . the state of the circuit is given by the sum of J7! and 2 so far as 2 has reached..... however. for the battery at A does not know what is going on at B. and round the circuit one way. and this requires every disturbance arriving The same thing hapat B to be at once reversed and sent back again.. As.. This an infinite series of reflected waves. Thus we have a copy of 2 going from B to A. positive . coming into existence one after the other the state at any moment is expressed by the sum of the waves Since the sizes already existent ... F"4 given by which ... therefore. and also those of the . to pass through one another when they come to Thus one charge goes round the shortcircuit. F . Perhaps.31 /v.. there is no reversal of current by reflection at a shortcircuit. with complete absorption.. On arrival of F"2 at A it is attenuated to .. It need scarcely be said. or any resistance at A. just on arrival is ep. goes round and round the other way. we see that the current is doubled at B from what it would be were the circuit to be continued beyond B.. the reflected wave is to be superimposed upon the incident wave. if p The reflected wave F"2 now begins.. positive and negative. which is the attenuation in the circuit.. and then there multiplication by p commences the reflected wave. going on. just opposite. F4 = is ep*.. which always travel together. from t = l/v to t = 2l/v. or the critical resistance The is now Lv were inserted in place of the continuation. process of setting up the permanent state due to a steady this First the positive wave : e at A the complete solution were there no reflection at B reached by F"x in the time l/v.e** . or shortcircuit. the easiest way to follow events is to imagine the two charges.ep 2 and reflection then produces a positive wave which travels towards A is still P F . pens at the shortcircuit at A. whilst the other.. however. Since the current in a negative wave (from B to A) is of the opposite sign to the electrification. and by F\ alone in the rest.. we may imagine the effect of a terminal resistance Lv to be simply to bring the charges to rest against friction. is perhaps If a charge be then that in which we shortcircuit at both A and B. (23d) And so on.. This is if x<vt which would be t at B.
waves V lt come to and the negative come to sum of (24c?) and (256?) expresses the final J^of the circuit. and differently timed at different but the jumps are too small to be perceived. More strictly. the currentincrements are all positive. The positive negative waves. which is its final value. since the current is got by dividing bv Lv in a positive wave and . but cannot there is no substantial difference in the general results. When there is distortion there is difference in detail. instead of a rise. they are easily summed. so that the final current is small.132 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. The solution (24d). and the potentialdifference to have its final value from the first moment. EFFECT MAXIMUM CURRENT. This is the explanation I have before given of how it comes about that there is no sign of oscillation in any purely electromagnetic formulae. the final current is the excess of (24d) over (25d). Now if the time l/v of a journey be exceedingly small. If. of the final current. RESERVATIONAL REMARKS. the current will appear to rise continuously.. the excursions getting smaller and smaller as time goes on. which is in reality its mean value during the oscillatory period. which is then difficult to follow . it is a process of rising up to the final state of current. etc. e.. But we cannot expect to be able to formularise the results simply when the circuit is of an irregular type. by so that the divided by Lv. then. (25d) is what we may at once get by considering the differential equation of the steady state and its solution to satisfy the terminal conditions. INSULATION. by little jumps. But our solution gives us the whole history of the establishment of this final state.at any spot oscillates about its final value. such as are universally employed when such short circuits are in question that the current seems to have the same strength (when no leakage) everywhere. REFLECTION DUE TO ANY TERMINAL RESISTANCE. make or break a circuit without a similar action in general. being alternately above and below it. though this mean value is assumed (in electromagnetic But if the resistance in circuit be formulae) to be the actual value.g. It is really rising places. great. presence imposes the condition P l =B . we have an oscillatory settling down of the current. OF VARYING THE IN If there be a resistance 7? x at the end B of a distortionless circuit. We SECTION XLIII. And. a laboratory circuit. DUCTANCE. whilst the potentialdifference . and allows us to readily follow the oscillatory phenomenon into minute detail. though they get smaller and smaller. so that there may be thousands of journeys performed in getting up to say 99 per cent. Notice that whilst it is a process of settling down to the final state of electrification. AND ESTABLISHMENT OF THE STEADY STATE. its r C at B permanently. And the electrification at any spot is really (unless the vibrations are specially checked) vibrating about its mean value. and too rapidly executed.Lv in a negative.
1. shortcircuit.. The wave is therefore . after reflection at B. where towards A.. and p l . similarly. and so on. at the near end A. according as the reflecting resistance is greater or less than the critical. (26d) This ratio is posigiving the reflected in terms of the incident wave.. produced by the reflection. be replaced by another charge moving B a IL If there be complete insulation at both ends. when JK l = 0. On arrival at B tive we have reflected to introduce the transforming factor p v above defined. but none is partial absorption and loss of energy whenever l whatever in the two extreme cases. in the latter of electrificaThe three most striking cases are tion. insulation. there is no ". There is finite. rzI^ . and There is first the positive wave e the impressed force. with. ' may be of the same or of the opposite kind.. of course. due. making p l = . which are the sum of V^ V^ the potentialdifferences in corresponding portions of the incident and reflected waves. and negative if it be less than the critical Lv. In a similar manner. x the distance. and the critical resistance of complete absorption. if there be a resistance the transforming factor is . On it is transformed into a third charge moving towards arrival at B. t the time.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND there be a ITS PROPAGATION. which A . + 1.. A /t> . if the ends be shortcircuited . p = e~ other attenuation than this due to the circuit and. the former case there is reversal of current. oo or Lv. we find the nature of the reflected wave from B by applying the above terminal condition to the actual V and C. There is the usual attenuation p in each journey. as mentioned in the last Section. which is the extreme distance reached by the wave at time t after starting. The complete history of the establishment of the steady state due to is now expressible in terms of the three a steady impressed force at constants p. 133 wave travelling towards B. which latter is rendered visible by shifting the seat of e towards B. besides causing a reversal of either the electrification or the current. The loss of energy is accounted for by the Jouleheat in the terminal resistance. The solution (2Sd) applies to all values of x less than vt. or zero. In tive if K l be greater. to the union of the initial posiwave of half strength and of the positive wave which is the reflection of the initial negative wave of half strength. at a certain If there be given an isolated charge moving towards it will. E E time. to represent the full connections. but in all other cases it has to be remembered that the act of reflection attenuates. and of Clf C2 the Thus we have currents in these portions. From these we find = (R l Lv)(R l + LvY^ Pl say. i.e.
in the above extremes.. be readily admitted by all who are dissatisfied with official views on the The important thing is to let in subject of the speed of the current. of the formula itself is not child's play. negative from B to The final state of (33d). expresses the final state of current.. from B to A. then in another period represent the sum of And the getting (28d) and (29d). The region over which On FO extends grows at a uniform rate with the time.. ad inf. they do not really represent the state of things existent when we actually terminate a long circuit of two parallel wires by a thick crosswire (the shortcircuit) or leave the ends disconnected in the air. as it The positive waves and are otherwise similar... which is also possessed by an infinite number of other kinds of series. the daylight on a subject which it was difficult to believe could ever be freed from mathematical complications. 7^ = solution.. Every theory that ever was made is more or less a paper theory . V& etc.. has its disadvantages. very closely represent reality (when pursued into numerical detail) through a wide range.134 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. The justification for making the constants of the circuit independent of its . extremely difficult. There is a rather important remark to be made concerning the two and ll l = co at the end of the line. the importance of a full study of the distortionless system will. Considering this.. The analysis of the formula into its finite representatives.. A A Lv.. and also the fact that a large number of other cases besides the above can be fully solved by common algebra (with a little commonsense added).^'. is trying work. unnecessary to proceed further.... B arrival of at we must introduce the transforming factor 2 obtain the third wave.. (33d) Fis therefore expressed by the sum of (32d) and In all the positive waves the current is from to B. from to A. which is F A /> to This reaches B at time t = 31 /v when th^ fourth wave commences.. Similarly the sum of the negative waves is 1 Wl^WlpVo). and yet go quite wrong at extremes. of comprehensiveness. we must simplify Now a theory may the real conditions to make a theory workable. and so on. and in the hence the excess of (32d) over (33d). so that during one period of time it shall represent (28d). I think.. The solution of the above problem by means of Fourierseries is expresses the whole history of the variable But this exceedingly remarkable property period by a single formula. divided by . have the common Their sum is therefore Fv would only produce repetiratio p 2p l p . which is to be found by introducing the transforming factor p 1 thus t . which is to be superimposed on the former wave to obtain the real state during the second journey. Although described as shortcircuiting and insulation. It is tions... It .
If the transfer of energy between the circuit and the terminal apparatus (of any kind) be of sensible amount. Now our theory says that when the circuit is insulated at B. involving a loss of energy and attenuation. circuit. then nature as the termination is approached. as may be seen at once on thinking of that the length is But if we terminate the changed nature of the electromagnetic field as the termination is reached. be confined to the shortest piece of the circuit imaginable.0. near and at the termination. which become so important themselves when the terminal resistance is . the influence of this resistance on the course of events must be much greater than that due to the changed nature of the circuit near its end. There is a similar want of correspondence between the theory and reality when we make a real short. The theory. The general principle that may be recognised is this. Again. to be correct. which we have supposed to be represented by l Now the question may suggest itself Since this failure is due to the assumption that the permittance and inductance continue constants right up to the termination. therefore swamp the terminal corrections. be brought sufficiently close together. so far as the potentialdifference at the termination is concerned. may there not also be a failure when l For if the terminal reasoning will show that this is not to be expected. if ever. the old state of things is restored. This is to make the element of length have the same properties as a great length. at the termination as it is far away from it. nor anything like permittance. It is scarcely necessary to remark that effects of this kind have no place in the theory. in the theory. the same.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND length is ITS PROPAGATION. The doubling of the potentialdifference is obviously due to there being a double charge with the same assumed But the permittance is not the same. there may be a spark or disruptive discharge there when a charge arrives. R : R We quite negligible. which may. the potentialdifference is doubled and the current annulled. it is no longer true that the permittance and the inductance per unit length are constants. The theory therefore wholly fails to represent the case of insulation. if the ends of the circuit. every charge arriving there is at once sent back again unchanged and that during the period of reflection. mentioned) in most theories in mathe . In the same connection it may be remarked that when we are following the history of an isolated charge. and this assumption being made in all is finite 1 The following cases. supposed insulated. resistance (although it may be small) be equal to that of a considerable length of the circuit. But should it be we fail to represent matters correctly at and near the termination. must wholly change its nature. we may wholly disregard the fact that the circuit changes its insensible. an enormous multiple of the distance the circuit somewhere. Similar assumptions are made (though seldom. for when the reflected wave gets away from the termination. j#5 between the wires. though there does not seem to be any reason to suppose that this will affect matters elsewhere . we should really spread it over a length which is several times as big as the distance between the two wires.
Example. the greater L should If L could be made large enough. but with a retardation of This is not the electrostatic retardation.200 kilometres at 2 ohms per kilom. be. An element of volume. is needed. the smaller is the value of L needed to get the maximum current . we = 80. or the critical resistance should equal We the resistance of the circuit (without leakage). of copper. shorter the circuit.136 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. L 40 is wanted. and inversely proportional to the speed of the current. For simplicity. will be given later). without altering the resistance. vary y to make the current a maximum. etc. with little attenuation The We .Rl Lv = (//%*. Or the resistance may be reduced.constant Sl 2 is now l/v itself. must be large enough to contain such an immense number of molecules as to impart to it the properties of the mass. If J ohm per kilom. Lv should be 1. the result is the same as if the circuit were a mere resistance A is a small multiple of the true resistance. with v practically = 30 ohms 2. let us examine the effect of varying the constants. the more leakage less attenuation there is. see. of course . the less leakage is needed to prevent distortion. This is much too great. and the longer the circuit. and the greater is the attenuation.) The re ceived current therefore CB = e (2718 Rl)~\ when no (35d) must Thus whose value resistance at and if there be resistance of amount zLv. we shall have the same property y = 1 to get maximum current. The inductance must be require L artificially increased. proportional to the first power of the length. if we are to have so little attenuation as above on a circuit of that length. It then also equals the If the resistance at insulationresistance (KI)' 1 be any constant multiple of Lv. L = 20. > (Ud) if y = RlfLv. for instance. that is r. it amount I/k merely means the interval of time that elapses between sending and receiving. by inspection of (34d). we shall (But should the resistance at . quite another thing.. The current at B is then CB = (elLv)t. the value of the electrostatic time. the circuit could be of any length we pleased. as formerly understood. The lower the resistance of the circuit. The value of that at e moment should be A taken in the formula at a given at the time l/v earlier. divide the right side of (35d) by (1 +z) to obtain the current at B. Now. permittance. If 1 ohm per kilom. require y = l. matical physics. but solely by increasing L (remembering that Lv = (L/S)l). inductance. A A have y 2 (fi Q /fll)+y = is It which it is unnecessary to discuss. and inductance. that without varying either the resistance or the permittance. Returning now to the study of the properties of the circuit. and let there be none at A. we . If it be an aircircuit. insert the critical resistance at B. we could make Atlantic fastspeed telegraphy possible.400. where the impressed force is.. with the to be resistance of the circuit kept constant. But singularly enough. whereas electrostatic retardation. with abolition of the leakage. is Neither is it the speed of the current . and the The higher the resistance. be kept constant. (the formulae for permittance.
GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TAIL DUE TO SISTANCE.. for instance. and if there be an absorbing resistance inserted at the other termination B. which may have any value. we know what happens. it is not is eI/(H + I). a constant. the possible secondary of the transformer. same type as the first one. reciprocals of the impedances of the various circuits is the effective divided by the effective impedance (say /) impedance to V^. This obviously leads to the working of any number of distortionless Call the wires circuits in parallel by a common impressed force at A. EQUATION OF A TAIL IN A PERFECTLY INSULATED CIRCUIT. RADIATING FROM A CENTRE. ANY NUMBER OF DISTORTIONLESS CIRCUITS SECTION XLIV. Join of a circuit the right and the left wires. the values of p and Lv. so that the total current is In practice. attenuating to T p and V^pfLv on arrival V . we require to use different values of p and Lv. EFFECT OF INTERMEDIATE KESISTANCE: TRANSMITTED AND REFLECTED WAVES. F .ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND and This distortion. at every moment. 137 But the speed of the current would be very low. . Suppose. so that the the circuit to Q also know how the potentialdifference current there is Q jLv. all the right wires to one terminal A p and all the left wires to another. and we on it. and of the same length. is the total current. then. the value of e/(2tQ + I). F V We atB. RESISTANCE. should be strictly proportional to an impressed In order that Q force e in the branch joining the two common terminals A lf A 2 of the circuits. it is necessary that it should be a mere resistance. Next. as the description is fully equivalent. viz. I shall ITS PROPAGATION. merely for distinction. provided every circuit has its proper absorbing resistance at the The reciprocal of the sum of the distant end. in the circuit of whose primary a microphone is placed. V V F . distant end B of any circuit is the current entering it at A at the time I do the attenuationfactor p of the circuit. EFFECT OF A CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTION PERFECTLY INSULATED CIRCUIT OF NO REOF RESISTANCE. merely changing. OPERATED UPON SIMULTANEOUSLY. Let it be Q . and to fully realise this simplicity. multiplied by not write out the equations. l/v earlier. is joined across the common terminals of the circuits. A 2 and then maintain a difference of potential F between A l and A 2 Then. If there be a second distortionless circuit starting from A. if That is. if the circuit be not of the necessary. Finally the total current divides amongst the The current at the circuits in the inverse ratio of their impedances. as above described. MQ added to the previous effective impedance to V^ is the impedance to e . we simultaneously maintain the same difference of potential know what happens on it. and current are transmitted. we know that the impedance of is Lv. return to in connection with the sinusoidal solution. If the ends of the two conductors of a distortionless circuit at its termination at A be caused to have a difference of potential varying in any manner with the time.
90 per cent. of inserting any resistance r intermediately. Let Fp F"2 Fg be the potentialdifferences in corresponding portions of the incident. half reflected. This should be put half in each wire. if r be infinite. As we have. in its motion. viz.f per is accounted for by the Jouleheat in the resistance. then half the energy is wasted in the resistance. one cause of further distortion will be the inductance of the receiving telephone. the magneticforce variations. At the distant end. transmitted. at a certain moment. V These are the full connections. we see that there must be terminal distortion. That is. if added to the sum of the energies in the reflected and transmitted waves. wave remainder is reflected. and the incident wave is consequently half transmitted.1 ! per cent. From them. transmitted. After this example of a complex arrangement of circuits admitting of Examine the effect simple treatment. <r = J. Particularly notice that as this incident loss). so that. . of the incident wave be reflected. let us return to a single circuit. which loss. There is no transmitted wave Half is transmitted and half reflected when r = 2Lv. . or F" will not vary as it should for the accurate transmission of speech. Even if the circuits be distortionless.138 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. r = '2Lv o. then r = f Lv. at r itself. making and the loss = \SV?. when the intermediate resistance is twice the critical. be reflected and cent. reflected. which This is rC. There are several causes of distortion here. and transmitted waves. 1 by (37d). the is an important property. wards r. where let be the Then we have actual potentialdifference on the left side of r. we require r = /w Lv. they are coincident. and since a wave of unit length takes v~ l second to pass. to prevent Let there be a wave travelling from left to right tointerferences. if the circuit consist of a pair of equal wires. and 99 per If 10 per cent. Every element of electrification in the arriving at the resistance is split into two (without any one part oFj (in terms of potentialdifference) is transmitted. There is always a loss of energy by this division of the charge. rCy/v is the loss of energy per unit length of the incident wave. second . makes up the energy per unit length in the incident. and an additional and very important one will be the mechanical troubles that will prevent the disc from copying accurately. Another expression for the loss of energy is given by we see that if There is the greatest possible loss of energy when r = 2Lv.
139 further is increased. so there is an endr of it. . the circuit. with the initial waves \e to the follow the whole course of events right.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND As the resistance is it ITS PROPAGATION. put on.the attenuation due to each resistance. and any resistance the absorbing resistance at an intermediate point C. attenuates to P s = ep l ap. the attenuation of the transmitted wave. whilst reducing r in the same ratio. and the attenuation due to it becomes. the transmitted wave gets smaller. Let an isolated disturbance go from A to B. to the circuit between two consecutive resistances. starting now know the factors o. for each of which the attenuation 1 **^ j n a section of is known (i. where <r is given by (37d). we fall back upon the case already considered of total reflection without reversal of electrification or loss of energy.2 = eop on arrival at B. thus keeping In the limit the resistance l becomes uniformly distributed in stant. /^ = tr length a^) . so that in passing through the n is attenuated to /xr circuit. we have a very simple result when any to B. pointing oppositely in space. have the circuit divided into sections. by which So. as before. that is. But the effect of a great number of equal intermediate resistances Let p l be the attenuation due equidistantly situated is of importance. R ^ <r" = (1 + R^Lm}. with n= oo . we have A r at A T 7 ^ F'9 SL{ = e at A becomes Fj = ep l on arriving at C. find the effect due to a steady impressed force inserted anywhere in the circuit (half in each For we wire. as nothing new would be e is when first and . If it be initially F" it becomes Vtfp one section further on. then p? p. and so on. the attenuation in the circuit due to itself only. If these passed. n sections make up the whole circuit.n . If and at B. and we also intermediate resistance. F F . ^(Pi ") 2 a ^ter another section is .\e to the left. waves are sent from Suppose e acts at A. but in the it is A wave is by p^ The transmitted wave reflected (multiplied at C is ^3 = cpjcr. and when infinite. difference at B in terms of that at is the sum of two oppositely travelling first section of the circuit waves. and Then that p v p 2 are the attenuations in the two sections AC and CB. to avoid interferences). which A F second section there is but one wave. The last equation therefore gives the potentialIn the at the time l/v earlier. becoming Vtf"a* after passing n sections. R . we can contained therein. or from B to A. and o. But it is no part until we arrive (asymptotically) at the steady state. we also know the factors of the terminal resistances (/t> and p l of the last transforming We Section) . Given a distortionless circuit with any terminal resistances and any intermediate resistances at different places. On arrival absorbed. Now let the sum of the inserted resistances be nr = l Increase n conindefinitely. by (37d). The = ep l (l .e.o).. where it is absorbed.and 1 <r for any we express how a wave divides there. are also able to solve by algebra alone the following problem. and the current is their difference divided by Lv . of my intention to enter into the details.
if originally represented by F" a. bridges. viz. etc. VtfLto through the same distance a. V in the time t the right. Introduce anywhere a resistance r this will .cr. that From if this K /L=K wires.140 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. All the preceding results therefore apply. circuit of Thus. so that. of course. and throw back the fraction The result is that the original isolated charge. that is.a. at present I may observe that owing to the relative simplicity produced by the absence of attenuation. since it obeys the law E/L from a real distortionless circuit is that there is no attenuation at all. during which it has moved through the distance x to the resistance per unit length be E.. the nucleus travelling forward at speed v and attenuating in the manner described the tail stretching out the other way at speed v. the very small distance a. = K/S. along. and therefore moving entirely to the right at that particular moment. the resistance of the wires in a real circuit. but purely surfaceconduction. by the additional leakage to compensate the additional resistance of the Observe the presence of the (as will be shown later). penetration of the electromagnetic field into the conductors. Next let there (37c?)). be accompanied by uniformly distributed such that Rl the ) leakageconductance of total amount lt l /S attenuation due to both E^ and K^ together is expressed by the square For what we do is to make the circuit distortionless again. if = x/v. the electricity slips along like greased lightning. or any waves are transmitted. this we may conclude certainly uniformly distributed resistance E^ in addition to the original El. sistance I will notice later . as it travels 1 . remembering that />=!. that is. imagined to have no resistance. If these isolated resistances be packed together very closely. purely plane waves of light (very long waves practically) travelling through a perfectly nonconducting dielectric. The only difference circuit. They are merely guided through space in a definite manner by the conductors. imagine an isolated charge moving from left to right in the no resistance. with the potentialdifference Q through current to match. where we may use the word in a popular sense = Some curious consequences of the absence of re(conduct to lead). the result is.. becomes attenuated to : . 2.will be reflected back. becomes a nucleus with a long slender tail behind it . the imaginary circuit of no resistance is useful for investigating the effect of inserting resistances. not merely undistorted. we approximate to the effect of continuously distributed resistance. in fact. and be each very small. every one of these will attenuate in the ratio 1 cr. that the nucleus. and be a great number of equidistant small equal resistances . of (4:ld). and the action of a real distortionless circuit itself. In the limit. . But the simplest way of viewing the matter is to start with a This is a distortionless perfectly insulated circuit of no resistance. to use a very gross There is no simile. cause an attenuation from 1 to cr in passing the resistance (equation the remainder 1 . They are. but also unattenuated. by (41c).
explain the other kind of tail. In the first place. what will really happen will be an immediate splitting into halves and current.. half being to the right and half to the left of the position of the original isolated charge.... true from x At the that the origin of x was the original position of the charge. (43d) the circuit is perfectly insulated. and V^ from left to right on the further side of the bridge... so that separation of two nuclei. it being supposed really an infinite series). EFFECT OF A SINGLE CONDUCTING BRIDGE ON AN ISOLATED WAVE. In a similar manner.. were there no resistance.. The length of the tail is 2#. and joined by a band... viz. V F . The equation of this doubleconsisting of the two tails superimposed. must be placed. Let a distortionless circuit be bridged across anywhere by a wire whose conductance is k. reflected... this being made a special case of the first part of the last Section. we may remark that we have already solved one bridgeproblem.. as terminal reflections. 2 same side.. by limiting the number of radial circuits to two of the same type. THE PROPERTY OF THE PERSISTENCE OF MOMENTUM. though it is = vttox= + vt. Ul The amount here no leakage. attenuating as they progress according to (42rf).. V^ going from from right to left on the left to right on the left side of the bridge.. and let us examine its effect on a wave passing along the circuit. etc. MAXIMUM Loss OF ENERGY IN BRIDGECOIL. etc. Now let Fy Vy and 3 be the potentialdifferences in corresponding parts of an incident. OF UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LEAKAGE.... travelling in opposite directions at speed v.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND Since there in the tail. the rest of the original charge must be of electricity in the tail is therefore Sx *>(! */"). it being of course supposed that neither the head nor the tail has suffered any extraneous operations. travelling in opposite directions without attenuation.. it' initially the isolated charge SV^a be without it would. each represented by in a finite through the very small distance a. the result due to an impressed force in the bridge itself. EFFECT OF ANY NUMBER OF BRIDGES. tail is in form (as usually understood.. is in a finite form.. when . WITH MAXIMUM MAGNETIC FORCE... and also complete solution. and transmitted wave ... to make up the I shall later illustrate this graphically. ends of this tail the two nuclei. AND THE NEGATIVE TAIL. SECTION XLV. is ITS PROPAGATION. at once divide into equal halves. by a convention that a solution terms of a sine or JQ function. CONSERVATION OF CURRENT AT THE BRIDGE.
. that L becomes S. viz... We see that this resistance is replaced by the conductance of the bridge.. we have the following full connections 3 1ttf F x From these we find Ct k+2Sv _. (48d) not by any means obvious at first which. viz. a certain At moment these are coincident.. If we fix our attention upon the current. are in the same straight line. whether positive or both negative.. whilst a negative wave goes from right to left. whether positive or negative.. or the reverse..LvC2 If the first of these relations be true. that the sign of the That current. Then. and 2 = . which is the direction of motion of a positive wave (therefore socalled) .. in the ratio of k to 2Sv.. by the properties of positive and negative waves and elementary principles...... is split into two. the corresponding ones relating to the effect of a resistance r inserted in the circuit.. and the current in a What is a possible negative wave may be positive.. we see that every element of current. whilst it is an extremely important property. the current in a positive wave may be negative.. is . very useful purpose may perhaps be served by a careful study of the properties of ..142 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. a field of electric displacement across the dielectric from one conductor to the other. source of some preliminary confusion is the fact that the vector we term the current. and the vector direction of motion of a wave.. and lowering the potentialdifference . It may be as well here to remind the reader that from left to right is the arbitrarily assumed positive direction along the circuit. These equations should be compared with (36d). whilst the other part is The electrification in the reflected wave is negative. though extremely simple. Also. or of ^Lv to k~ l half the critical resistance to the resistance The first part is reflected. increasing the current on the of the bridge. it will be made plain enough later on. . It is an example sight. is. when it arrives at the bridge. I can also recommend the reader to take the advice before given to fix his attention upon the electromagnetic field which is implied by a stated Fand a stated C. the property of a negative wave.. incident. one way or the other. whilst if the second be true. and C be both the wave must move from left to right. V A ....... Particularly notice that 01 = 02 + 0.. of the persistence of momentum though this may not be immediately recognised. These connections are all summed up in Fj = LvCv the property of a positive. that in the incident wave be positive and conversely.. (37d). and that Fand C change places in the expressions for the ratios of the transmitted and reflected waves to the . and a field of magnetic induction round the conductors. is a quite different thing. if transmitted. the wave must move from right to left. F .. left side. at the bridge : itself..
. this amounts to kF!/v = 4... Keturning to the effect of a bridge. the fall of potential through the resistance equals twice the difference of potential of the reflected wave.. if it be a telephone that is in question. In t in the ratio 2 to 3. If this bridgewire be a coil of a given size and shape. which is the above case of attenuation The heat in the bridge per unit length of the incident wave is then ^SF?. having the smallest possible timeconstant consistent with other necessary conditions. there is no transmitted wave.. If & be variable. notice that by the union of (48d) with the last of (46d).. correction is required for the inductance of the coil. It ought not. on the other hand. the bridge have no conductance. in a wellknown manner. as the heat per second. producing total reflection with reversal of electrification. That that is. the current in the bridge equals twice the current in the The corresponding property when it is a resistance r inserted in the circuit that is in question is. Notice that this is the impedance of the circuit as viewed from the coil itself. the magnetic force of the coil varies as the current in it and as the square root of its resistance .. we make the quantity in question a maxiwhen k = 2Sv.. the case becomes identical with that of a terminal shortcircuit. Whence. the current on the left side is increased J.e. and is therefore made three times the transmitted current. viz. the variation of k implies a variation of the thickness of the wire and of the number of turns. transmitted and reflected waves.. we produce reflected wave... however.. making a shortcircuit (subject to reservations that need not be repeated). the magnetic force is also a maximum when the resistance of the coil is \Lv. or the attenuation due to the bridge is Then. that is.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. The current in the bridge being kV& and the corresponding heat per second divided by v being the heat due to the bridge per unit length of the incident wave. Hence. If the bridge have no resistance.. it does nothing. to be a very large correction... fact.S2 F^kv/(k+2Sv)^ . require the magnetic force to be a maximum (i. is.. to assist in abolishing the timehonoured but (in my opinion) essentially vicious practice of associating the electric current in a wire with the motion through the wire of a hypothetical <?wrtsisubstance. due to the current coming from A We .. in another form.. by superim position.. the transmitted wave is half the incident. If the conductance of the bridge be 2Sv or its resistance be ^Lv. and of a really good type. which is a pure invention that may well be dispensed with... (51d) by (47d). 143 the distortionless circuit. the other half is equally divided between the mum . by (36d). which is half its energy . the square of the magnetic force varies as the product of the resistance of the coil into the square of the current. by what has just been said. If.
Let also p lt p 2 etc. separately for each bridge. Now let there be any number of bridges at different parts of the circuit. and act most strongly on the disc. or the attenuation due to the circuit from If the absorbing resistance the last s..] Allowing for the inductance of the coil. due to the extra There is. to and so on. = LvC extending be initially an isolated disturbance represented by is K F . vol. by (486?). ') ' A (52d) place the bridges at equal distances apart. and let the ratio V^V^ of a transmitted to an incident wave be denoted by s. belonging to the bridge next to B." Art. But if there be but one bridge. much attenuated by the many toandfro journeys. in addition. at B. each of conductance k.sn ) where p is the product of all the to B.144 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. say. that is. However many bridges there be. Disregard this for the present. to the end of the circuit. to get rid of the wave reflected from the bridge. and the attenuation due to it will be the limit of f = {l+k/2Sv}. if the currents be sinusoidal. be the attenuations due to the circuit in the different sections into which it is divided by the bridges. . followed by a gradual attenuation in the third section. and sn is former p's. but This exactly corresponds to the only a redistribution of current. and start with an isolated positive wave V^ at A. no leakage before the Then we see that if there leakage represented by K^ was introduced. On What passes the arrival at the first bridge. by letting the circuit have no resistance and no leakage. tribution of leakage. K^ being its conductance per unit length.. (53d) therefore the attenuation of the nucleus. by (47d). xxxvi. and the absorbing resistance be put at A. and increase the number n in the distance x indefinitely. there is.H Now =K^ with This w= oo. the total attenuation produced by them is. If there be n bridges in the distance x. arising from the complex system of small reflected waves due to the bridges across the circuit. [See "Theory of Telephone. it has attenuated to Fi/ r bridge (not what crosses it) is V^s^ which attenuates to P^p^p^ on Then there is another sudden attenuation... ii. arrival at the second bridge. no attenuation of current due to them. when its integral amount is considered. but after that there will come dribbling in and be absorbed the dregs of the original disturbance at A. to Pi/Dj/DgSjSg. then there is no dribbling in at B. when an initially isolated disturbance travels through the distance x. The disturbance ViPiP2P3 s i s2 r is then attenuated to P l ps 1 s2 . absence of any alteration of the total charge by inserting resistances in the circuit. leakage l per tion due to the circuit. we require equality of its impedance to that external to it. . Lv be put at B. the circuit) to make the stressvariations the greatest possible. the regular attenuaunit length. its value being given by (47d). it will at once absorb the wave just described . keeping the total conductance In the limit we shall arrive at a uniform disconstant. which is the general law. the beginning of the first section. They merely redistribute the charge.
A H. of the same shape as the correspondits ing tail due to resistance.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND through the very small distance a. we cannot change its momentum. at the time x/v removed a distance x to the right. the total energy will decrease asymptotically to zero. shortcircuit at A and B. all equation may together in a The property involved in (486?). becomes. For instance.g. or else be infinitely long. This was a linear circuit. but since L is here a constant. which leads to the deduction of It is the persistence (or con(55d) from (54c?). The meaning of terminal shortcircuit or of insulation may clearly be extended to various other cases not involving loss of charge in the latter case (e. The lineintegral of LC expresses the momentum. a terminal condenser) or of momentum in the former. with appropriate corresponding changes in the measure of S or L respectively. as regards electrification. or conducting bridges. with a tail of length 2x behind it.e.. The current in the circuit may be varied indefinitely in its distribution. if the circuit be of finite length. or be infinitely long. as well as what is equivalent to a series of condensers. If a circuit have no resistance. making a uniform magnetic field. the amount of induction passing through it. H5 later. of course the lineintegral of C cannot change either. . This tail is. due to the leakage. in spite of the persistence of the momentum. i. makes up CQ a. therefore. it ITS PROPAGATION. But I shall consider the tails later Section. then. K . the total momentum decreases according to the timefactor c~ mlL whatever be the initial distribution. so that the strength of current will equal the original total momentum divided by the total inductance. but we cannot change its momentum. as regards current. when added to the corresponding lineintegral for the head. is worthy of notice. VOL. but it has any number of leaks. the total charge subsides according to the timefactor t~* tls if the circuit be insulated at and B. and we can at once say what will ultimately happen due to any initial distribution of current. Our circuit is linear and of no resistance. There is. and is such that the lineintegral of the current in it amounts to because this.P. we must not insert resistances at the terminals. the electrification being opposite in kind to that in the head. It will settle down to uniformity of distribution. This tail is of the negative kind. a loss of energy in the settling down. On the other hand. ii. . according to (54d). if it be shortcircuited at A and B. This property only continues true so long as there is no resistance bounding the magnetic field. of course. attenuated to (writing K for the leakageconductance per unit length) extending through the distance a. but keeps its total amount unchanged. so that the disturbance can spread out infinitely.E. Maxwell showed. so be derived from (44d). If the circuit be infinitely long. the initial value of the lineintegral. which indeed tends to zero in any finite length. If the circuit have resistance. as servation) of momentum. Now our example is a remarkable extension of this property. with the current of the same strength all round it.
CANCELLING OF REFLECTION BY COMBINED RESISTANCE AND BRIDGE. NONNECESSITY OF LEAKAGE TO REMOVE DISTORTION UNDER GOOD CIRCUMSTANCES. of conductance k and..... a bridge across the circuit. Thus.. at the same When our incident wave place.. AND THE REASON. How NOT TO DO IT. which are of fundamental importance. Start with a circuit having no resistance and no leakage. Having in Sections XLIY and XLV discussed in some detail the effects due to resistances inserted in.. (Remember that Lv and Sv are reciprocal...) The equation (57 d) may also be written .... considering the moment when these are all at together (corresponding elements. Of course the ratio VjV^ if is the quotient of (QOd) by (5$d)..UG SECTION ELECTRICAL PAPERS..... there result a reflected wave represented by V^ V^= LvCft and a transmitted wave V% = LvCB Now. a distortionless circuit. first.. when wanted. the full investigation of the case of resistance and leakage combined in any proportions presents no difficulty. XL VI. at a certain place X. we have the following two equations connecting the three '. so that the sum of the second and third terms on the right of (57 d) expresses the bridge The first resistance r... see that the reflected wave may be either of the same or of the opposite electrification to the incident .... which is therefore both distortionless and conservative (or characterised by the absence of attenuation)... by adding this to (56d) the desired ratios. (5Sd) so that. arrives at X. and also those due to conducting "bridges across. of course). in order to completely abolish the reflected wave. current.. let there be.. (Qld) . CIRCUIT. a resistance r inserted in the circuit. we require.. . we obtain written in the simplest manner.... We .. X Vs : (57<7) is simply the expression of Ohm's law applied to the and the second expresses the continuity of the current at X.. and of a negative tail by an excess of leakage... and which lead to the development of a positive tail by a continuous distribution of resistance in excess of the distortionless amount.. and that. TRUE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM OF LONGDISTANCE TELEPHONY. TAILS IN A DISTORTIOXAL COMPLETE SOLUTIONS.... GENERAL REMARKS. by (QQd). defined by V^ = LvCr Also. and then subtracting it.... and let there be an isolated disturbance going from left to right.
but merely attenuation produced by the resistance and bridge. by guiding //. along which waves are propagated unchanged except in size. of the momentum . Thus any circuit (apart from interferences) may be made distortionless by adding a suitable amount of leakage. . each with its corresponding bridge . (The simplest case is that of a tubular dielectric bounded by perfect conductors. which is more convenient in the practical application concerned. of the electrification on the bounding conductors and a redistribution. 147 simply. so that when we pack them infinitely closely . the mere And by having both the translatory motion of waves is disregarded. of the same amount (when small enough). we abolish the reflected wave. incident The reciprocal V^V^ expresses the attenuation suffered by the wave in passing X. etc. by bringing the inductance into relative importance.) Now we prove by elementary principles. say an internal wire and an external sheath. Except in the matter of wavelength. and we cannot expect to come to anything simpler than this. This applies to any number of resistances inserted in the main circuit. with loss. we arrive at a real circuit. For.) bridge and the inserted resistance so proportioned as to make the loss of energy in each be. and a redistribution.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND and that we then have. these waves are identical with lightwaves. we tend naturally. (In speaking of redistribution. Nor is it required. of the corresponding magnetic quantity. On the other hand. . which may be easily done without using an extravagant amount of copper. without loss. The above equations are not in any way altered when we start with a an imaginary one of no resistance. produces a reflected wave of the positive kind. employing circuits of low resistance (which are the only proper things to use). say J or J. if of the medium which expression is equivalent to the permittivity other.) that an inserted resistance. or equivalently. we show that a bridge causes a reflected wave of the negative kind. (LS)~t. with loss. making the wellknown ratio RILn of the two components of the electromagnetic impedance small. so that there is no redistribution. in the case of the circuit of no resistance we are dealing merely with progressive waves in a conservative medium. This amount is usually too great for practical purposes. where L is the inductance and AS' the permittance. this speed being (/*c)~. involving a redistribution. causing tangential dissipation of energy. the momentum. without loss. of the electrification. them together to represent continuously distributed resistance and leakage. (Ohm's law. In the very important problem of longdistance telephony. with the peculiarity that the two (supposed) perfect conductors of our circuit prevent the waves from spreading in space generally. definitely along the circuit. latter course real distortionless circuit instead of But by adopting the we are directed to the nearest approach to a physical explanation of the properties of the real distortionless circuit itself. involving a redistribution. by ITS PROPAGATION. They simply carry their energy and all their properties forward at speed v be the inductivity and c the unchanged.
Heaviside.H8 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. when telephoning. and approximate to distortionless transmission. place. their residual effect in producing distortion becomes can see clearly that the greater the frequency the less quite small. For let the circuit be so long that we can get several waves into it at once. K <r n = { 1 + Ex/2Lvn + Kx/2Svn + EKx*/2n 2 }" = c**^**** (63d) . and each of conductance Kxjn with a corresponding resistance Rxjn in the main circuit. but as they are alternately of opposite kinds. is the distortion.beginning to end of the length x. A. t . equidistantly placed. unless we should unknowingly create a parallelism by employing quite unsuitable conductors . unless the increased frequency should bring with it increased resistance. will yet tend to behave in a distortionless manner to waves of great frequency. repeat that the problem of longdistance telephony is very remote from that of a long submarine cable which can only be worked slowly. we simulate the effect of the leakage which would wholly remove distortion. in casting light upon the obscurities of distortional circuits. even of the biggest waves. removing all their impedance This method was invented and introduced into the Post completely. provided the circuit be of a suitable nature. put the intermediate apparatus in sequence. We From (59d) we can get some results relating to the tails of waves in a distortional circuit. Let a disturbance pass from If cr be the attenuation at each . Every one of them has its tail. Thus. which is very much to be avoided. was done by the Post Office a few years since when they put down conductors having a resistance of 45 ohms per mile of circuit. combined with large permittance and small inductance . by (59d). It makes a wonderful difference in the capabilities of a circuit. to a state of things resembling that which obtains in the truly distortionless circuit (independent of frequency of variations). reducing the importance of the factor resistance. and then. for instance. and is what renders iron wire so unsuitable for this /^distance telephony. but it would enlarge the subject too greatly to discuss them at present. The theory of tails allows us to give an intelligible physical explanation of how it comes to pass that a perfectly insulated circuit violating the distortionless condition completely. to make the violation of electromagnetic principles more complete. W. as is now pretty well known. as they illustrate the importance of the distortionless circuit from the scientific point of view. let there be n bridges in the distance x. as above described. so as to introduce as much additional impedance as possible. They divide the circuit into regions of opposite electrification. without the disadvantage of the extra attenuation thereby introI am induced to make these remarks rather out of their proper duced. The total attenuation becomes. bridge. each of which may (very roughly) represent what I have termed an isolated disturbance. as. Office by Mr. By mutual cancelling of the effects of the tails. The proper place for intermediate apparatus is in bridge. the total attenuation of the head of the disturbance produced by n all the bridges and resistances is <r Now make n infinite. I may. however. keeping E and finite. These statements may be proved by an inspection of the sinusoidal solutions I have given.
. If. and the total momentum by the resistance. the charge and momentum in the nucleus become * and (* have next to examine to what extent the total charge has attenuated by the leakage. we have initially a disturbance F" = LvCQ extending through the small distance a. half on each side of its initial position. (64d) Now (63d) becomes e~ qt four being reciprocals of timeconstants. therefore. apply the previous method of equidistant resistances and bridges. etc. Similarly as regards the momentum of the moving disturbance. .. as before. no matter how it moves about. that the attenuation of the total charge equals the square of the attenuation of the nucleus due to leakage alone whilst itself. all h=fg. possessing the charge SV^a and the momentum LC a. This we can ascertain by (59d) and (60d). we arrive at e~ moving charge. mode of expressing f=E/2L. convenient to introduce a simpler Let g = K/2S.. We respectively. each would shrink in a manner independent of its translatory motions along the circuit. momentum We have uniform Kt/s R and K. can. obviously. H9 This is therefore the attenuation of the head suffered by every are the resistelement in traversing the distance x. . no matter how it redistributes subsides at the same rate as if it were at rest . when R and ance and the leakageconductance per unit length in any uniform K circuit..k/2Sv . and of momentum by a single resistance. and finding Rt/L and powers of (6Qd) and (67d). simply. in the infinitely numerous limit and splittings that occur in a finite time. for. Those equations give We + r/2Lv . when It is as if uniformly charged and insulated at its terminations. to ascertain the method of subsidence of the total charge and momentum. q=f+g. then. therefore.rk/2 2 + Ct 3 ' _ multiplied into the values of the charge and respectively before the splitting. so that we could follow the course of every electricity Then. if t = x/v be the time of the journey over the length x. being a nucleus of length a and a tail of length 2x.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. th rt the limit of the Putting r = Ex/n. S/K is the timeconstant of the circuit regarded as a condenser. give their total values after the splitting. thus see that a . also.. Notice. applied to find the loss of electrification caused by a single bridge. It will now be the exponentials. when the disturbance extends over the distance 2x. were atomic. rate as if it were at rest. it shrinks at the same particle. at the time t later.. when we pass to the These fractions. Could we identify its elements. .
without any current. square of the the attenuation of the total momentum equals the attenuation of the nucleus due to resistance alone." and The General Solution of Maxwell's Equations.. we have Sr<p.e*) . But as time goes on. which are already known. < 7M > to express the doubletail or band connecting the two nuclei at its ends.. corresponding to (65^). the head attenuates practically to nothing. of Electromagnetic " Waves. XL. full solutions of all tailproblems (shape. since these.) are con tained in the following four equations. e*(e*  e*) and >. if head to rto The C. if the circuit be long enough. growth. see Part vin. extends from the vanishing nucleus a long way towards the middle of the tail . Since the 7 function is a simple one. Thus.150 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. . added to (656?)... when resistance be in excess.. the current in the tail is from that in the head be positive.. then at time t we shall LC have As before. of Art. the disturbance tends to become symmetrically arranged with respect to the origin from which it started as a positive wave. or the leakage be in excess. Similarly. in the limit. 0.. Part I.*(* . 2242 it is quite easy to follow the changes of shape by these formulae... if there be initially a current at the origin. or the tip. with the current positive on one side and negative on the other. The region of positive current now leaving the big tail to work with. viz. tailing off on both sides.. a quite anomalous state of affairs occurs.. etc.. which may be inferred from the preceding by changing If f>g."] when .. .. But if /< g. make up the actual values otherwise found. of momentum a 9 without charge. (QSd) to express the charge and momentum in the tail . etc. and... when other formula may be derived from the above which will approximately suit.. except t has become large and the nuclei small. ... viz.. if . put on the two nuclei at the ends. origin at time t Let a charge SVtfi be at the At time t we shall have.. [For further " information..
. have.. of course. should be equivalent to the others will be understood on remembering that the energy is transferred at speed vl or v2 according to position... proportional to the is therefore speed of the current. put the second of (73d) in terms of potentialdifferences. therefore equivalent to that of the persistence of electrification. We V ... on arrival at the usually split into two. the reflected wave in the same.. three things that persist. BETWEEN SEVERAL CIRCUITS.. ABOLITION OF REFLECTION BY MOMENTUM. The the two members of (73d) together. The sole conditions at the junction are that it. Next. L and L 2 being the inductances per unit length. Thus. CIRCUIT IN WHICH THE SPEED OF THE CURRENT AND THE RATE OF ATTENUATION ARE VARIABLE.. which are equivalent expressions of the fact of persistence of energy. V and C shall not change in passing through Thus. WITHOUT ANY TAILING OR DISTORTION IN RECEPTION.. Corresponding lengths are compared.. TYPES IN SEQUENCE.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND SECTION ITS PROPAGATION.. Put the first of (73d) in terms of the currents. Thus. the second of (73d) into (74d) . momentum V which expresses that the electrification suffers The condition of continuity of C is no loss by the splitting.. in the denote the potentialdifferences in correformer notation.. AND ENERGY. momenand energy. a transmitted and a reflected wave. violated at the surface across the dielectric common to the two circuits .. and (74d) into (75d). If two distortionless circuits of different types be joined wave passing along one of them will. and the transmitted wave in the second circuit... be Let. The condition of continuity of identical with that of persistence of momentum.. results are ? Of) = Lfft. junction.. DIVISION OF A DISTURBANCE EQUALITY OF IMPEDANCES. PERSISTENCE OF ELECTRIFICATION. therefore. L showing that the l v 1 (Cl C )=L v C 2 z 2 ' B f . V^ 2 z sponding elements of the incident wave in the first circuit.. could be If the continuity of equations (73d) and by their product. electrification. and v v v 2 the speeds of the current. Multiply the first of (73d) into (75d) . Now let ijflj and L 2v2 be the impedances of the two circuits. a F V . 151 Two DISTORTIONLESS CIRCUITS OF DIFFERENT XLVII.. and these are expressed most simply by the two tum.. in sequence. That it while the last of (76d) is the equation of transfer of energy. (74d) of the incident disturbance equals the sum of the momenta of the reflected and transmitted disturbances.
including the reflected in the first circuit. T and G the That is. Every element of the transmitted wave therefore carries forward. . in the way before described.. of any types. L2v2 where / is the resultant impedance of . but changed in length in the same versely) as the speed of the current is changed. that must be separately reckoned for each circuit. which are therefore known. tangential continuity of E electric arid magnetic currents. in our special case.. Now the continuity of and C is violated at the boundaries of an isolated disturbance (e. But this is the common potentialdifference in all the transmitted waves.. there ELECTRICAL PAPERS.g. implies normal continuity of G.. In fact (73d) express the same facts as (lid) do generally. reflection is therefore secured by equality of impedances.. . however. with finite volumeratio of the reflected to the incident densities. There will be found to be the previouslymentioned persistences. and therefore.. In a similar manner. It should..152 at their junction. correspond all the other circuits (instead of that of one only). we must make them Then the surfacecurrents become real. As regards the attenuation as the disturbances travel away from the junction. and if the could be violated. constant in a certain part of the circuit.. according to the value of RfL. there would be a surface electricThese statements are implied in the general equations continuity of current. gradual. and zero before and behind). Practi E and H V T= cally. to ascertain the magnitude of the reflected wave in the first circuit.. U l we be the incident and reflected waves. provided all the waves are counted. is current.... electrification.. we can determine fully what happens when a disturbance travelling along one distortionless circuit is caused to have merely divide between any number of others. momentum ratio (in and energy unchanged. and tangential continuity of H implies normal continuity of F. viz. Then we do have the surface electric and magnetic currents on the front and back of the disturbance. (lid) are the electric and magnetic forces. the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of their separate impedances.. its potentialdifference.. in passing the junction. The and is wave is given by positive or negative according as the impedance of the second The abolition of is greater or less than that of the first. We Let V^ and ing to (78d). C curlE = 47rG. since it. can have no divergence) .. since by dividing by the impedance of any circuit we find the current. there cannot be abrupt discontinuities . where curlH = 47rr. shall have Then. be stated that the conception of an isolated disturbance is merely employed for convenience of description and argument. Knowing thus U^ in terms of V^ we know their sum. of electrification. like G. irrespective of circuit any change of type that does not conflict with this equality.(or of the induction. would be a surface magneticcurrent .
find the time t taken. R being a function of x. every element of the wave has gone through the same ordeal precisely. number of them is the product of their separate . passing over the same resistances in the same sequence and at the same speed at corresponding places. 153 Now put any number of distortionless circuits in sequence.. As regards the time taken to pass over a distance x in the variable we have to solve the kinematical problem given the path of a : particle. . but there will be no tailing. The attenuation produced in limits. and Lv value of the impedances. .. Go back to the former case of any number of uniform distortionless circuits of equal impedance joined in sequence. If we start an isolated disturbance at one end. same extent. and finally its have recovered then pass into an irregular one as just emerge in a uniform circuit again. Thus. and its speed at every point. be a function of x.. By pushing this to the limit. or \Rdx between the proper limits. The impedance is a constant. on arrival at the distant end. we see that in our variable circuit the attenuation in any distance is expressed by the right member of wherein 2 represents the total resistance of the circuit in that where the Rv j? 2 . suffered in this journey is more easily expressed. If their impedances be equal. But as regards the reception of the wave.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ITS PROPAGATION. we know. that a disturbance will travel from end to end without any reflection at the junctions. Similarly there is no intermediate distortion as regards the succession of values of V and C at any one spot. are the resistances of the separate sections. circuit. which is properties of the variable rather a curiosity. owing to the variable speed of its different parts and the variable attenuation. And if we should cause this wave to start K in a uniform described.. The abovegiven demonstration of the distortionless circuit. depends entirely upon . i. attenuated to the same extent. it will travel to the other without tailing. . it will then original shape. There is only distortion when it is the wave as a whole that is looked at. so as to arrive at the distant end in the same time. however many changes there may be in the values of R and L. there is no distortion whatever. comparing its state at one instant with that at another. but the rate of attenuation and the speed vary in different parts of the circuit. we arrive at a circuit in which li and L vary in an arbitrary manner varies in the same way as It. For. where we may place the absorbing resistance. and also in the rate at which it attenuates. whilst same way as L. every part being attenuated to the circuit.e. But it will be distorted on the journey. by the above. It will vary in its length and in its speed. taken between the proper wherein v is to The attenuation passing through any attenuations. common R distance. As this is independent of the number of sections or their closeness. and S in the (functions of #).
written 2 R/K=L/S=(Lv) = constant.. Now assume P =LvC.. any functions of x... RJL and v are arbitrary. but of the same impedance. . +k/2Sv)and therefore... (Bid) and since we have made no assumption as to the constancy of JR. The assumption again makes (Sid) identical under the same conditions.LrC for the positive wave. Pi/ r 3 1 = r/2Lv which give the (k/2Sv)(l + r/Lv). = S(K/S+p)(LvC). making the attenuation and the speed variable... but without any tailing. L. (b We ratios of incident and reflected to transmitted wave. are 1 . (1 F^ = + r/2Lv) ~ l 1 (l .... leads to the expression (BOd)... is An infinite number of these r's and &'s in succession. and p means d/dt.. K.. (Bid) wherein V means d/dx..... We can also go a little way towards finding what occurs when the = For we then only condition is Lv constant.. (83d) ... The two conditions... /" \ .. irrespective of any change that may take place in the resistances. and S.. A third way is to examine what happens when we place a bridge of conductance k across the junction of two distortionless circuits of different types. Go back to the fundamental equations . r makin them become VC If our identical.. J from which...... at a single junction...... and Lv = constant becoming vVF=(E/L+p)K This is ... The following is also of some use. we see that R and L are left arbitrary. when the distribution of r and k is made continuous.. )" . destroy the reflection by r/Lv = k/ and then the attenuation due to r and k. V= .. using the former notation. the resulting equation being The necessary conditions may be (83f/) with the sign of v changed.... what comes to the same thing..... have. placed infinitely close together. along with a resistance r in the circuit at the same place. assumption can be justified...154 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. our previous proof that the abolition of reflection at the junction of a pair of simple distortionless circuits is obtained by equality of impedances... so that there is tailing...... = + r/2Lv + (k/2Sv)(l + r/Lv)... Or... these equations must become They do become identical if 1!/L = K/S.
that the . and that is the really essential Most of these facts. is not essential. to the ordinary magnetic telephone. But the permanent magnetisaThus we may abolish the tion.. having been requested to discontinue them. 302. SOME NOTES ON THE THEORY OF THE TELEPHONE. j if the total conductance of the leakage 7^ be the total resistance and t in that part of the circuit. because the attenuation now occurs at a different rate in different parts of the tail. But we cannot similarly estimate to what extent the total charge and momentum have attenuated. Similarly. AND ON HYSTERESIS.SOME NOTES ON THE TELEPHONE AND ON HYSTERESIS. magnet and core from the telephone. And if we carry the destruction of the magnetic field by the external magnet so far as to reverse it. ^AY'J. 155 the attenuation of the head of a disturbance in passing through any distance is e R\iZL . but it thing. Feb. we restore the efficiency of the telephone. But an approximation may course an infinitely more difficult matter. 1887. and we are not able to trace the paths followed by the different parts of a charge as it splits up The determination of the exact shape of the tail is of repeatedly. and bring it on again strongly enough. XXXVI. That is. magnetically attracted in either case. The efficiency is then greatly increased by inserting a softiron core in the coil. or we may increase it. appears to be different as regards their explanation. if not all. we may destroy the efficiency of a complete telephone by an external magnet. K NOTE (Nov. if we concentrate the resistance and leakage in a succession of points. leaving only the coil and disc. in the first place decrease. magnetisation may be communicated by a permanent current in the circuit. and produce the necessary permanent field of force by means of an external magnet suitably placed. as we could when the circuit was uniform. The author much regrets to be unable to continue these articles in fulfilment of Section XL. except of the iron disc. in the usual way. 30. and in the second increase the strength of the permanent magnetic field. which does not differ essentially from a common Morse instrument with a flexible armature.s'/. of course. are pretty well known. 1887). [The Electrician. I refer.. 11. by suitably placing the external magnet so as to. be obtained by easy numerical calculations. its cores need to be permanently magnetised before it becomes efficient. the The disc is strongly permanent polarity may be of either kind.] As was found in the early days of the telephone. or. with the important addition The permanent electromagnet is permanently polarised. p. in which an iron disc is attracted by an electromagnet. by employing a permanent magnet on whose pole or poles the coils are placed.
For. in his recent paper. as the square of the intensity of magnetic force in the space between them. we could just as well do without the permanent field. field of force as a great mystery. he brings in to complicate the thing such matters as hysteresis and the curve of induction referred to magnetic force. containing some phone. And. it may happen that the following explanation has been already well threshed out. " Tele phonic Investigations. which keeps h constant. portional to the product of the intensity of the permanent magnetic This contains the force into that of the undulatory magnetic force. except for a But the stress varies from being proreason to be mentioned later. . Let h be the amplitude of the undulations of magnetic force. produc2 ing a steady stress proportional to H' and that we vary the stress bymeans of the magnetic force of undulatory currents in the coils. Whilst not explaining the necessity of a per4. with the same weak undulatory current passing. H explanation. through that if it were a mere question of the intensity of magnetic force. and. and therefore h. that there is a permanent field of intensity H. 1887. which do not appear to be materially concerned. Suppose. then.h to parison with H. 290. 2 portional to (Hlif to (H+h) . disc and the poles of the electromagnet under similar circumstances. describing the effect of a permanent He looked upon the necessity of a permanent current in the circuit. we know that the intensity of sound continuously increases as we increase the intensity of the permanent field. small in com. This is quite independent of H. so that we vary the real magnetic force from the range 2h.156 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. We see at once that it is in at least approximate agreement with facts. keeping the permanent field the same. tions. varies. I have very little acquaintance with telephonic literature. and the greatest intensity of sound from it. Now. as . we should make the variations of stress as great as possible in order to obtain the greatest amplitude of vibration. There is no occasion to stress between the iron consider the relative intensity in different places. " good many years ago I read in Mr. Elisha Gray on the subject. 291). to many The of my readers. not troubling That is. Feb. we know that the intensity of sound continuously increases as we increase the amplitude of the currentundulaThe question of exact proportionality is an tions." remarks upon this question (The Electrician. and suggested some reasons for its I necessity that appeared to me to be unwarranted and inadequate. as the case may be but the perusal of the remarks of the above authority has suggested to me that the following explanation may be not only generally useful. now observe that Professor S. P." A of the above facts. Prescott's work on The Telean article by Mr. but even absolutely novel . Thompson. the stressvariation is proabout any constant multiplier. pp. in particular. and accepted or proved to be erroneous. and. or to perform integrawe have merely to deal with the fundamental fact of the stress on the diaphragm varying as the square of the magnetic force. as we cause this diaphragm to execute forced vibrations by varying the stress upon it. manent field. therefore. so H+h. or the range is 4:Hh.
phone without ordinary speaking of the permanent On the other hand. as. if H=h. its mean We cannot when the core is very strongly magnetised. whilst the magnetic force varies from h to + h. the double field. the multiplication in the intensity of certain tones. It has been assumed for is a very large was several times //. of course. Again. i. so far as variations in the magnetic force are concerned. the stress 2 varies from through zero to k' again. in intensity. vibrations. by means of a vibrating microphone sensitively set. Thus. or make disc is attracted both when the current is above and when it is below a permanent But. or h multiple of h under ordinary circumstances. H U H . increase the efficiency of a telephone indefinitely by multiIn the first place. the effects change. Then the magnet. and in the other it decreases the permanent magnetic field of the magnet.SOME NOTES ON THE TELEPHONE AND ON HYSTERESIS. when the permanent field is altogether positive value. approximately. producing corresponding changes in the intensity of the sound. abolished.e. positive or negative. The disc is therefore urged to execute vibrations of double the frequency of the currentundulations. between the stressvariation and the intensity of sound. the disc the intensity of the permanent field. This alone would be. the magnetic to (2h) 2 to 2k. In one case the permanent current which way the current goes. are insensible. microphone. and telephone. easily examine the effect of h alone. with the absence its But we may with H of We H strength. independent one. a serious hindrance to getting good two raps a rap for every current. we may expect that the effective inductivity of the core. 157 We have got already what appears to be the main Now to consider some other points. plying becomes stiffened under strong attraction. the magnetic force varies from a negative to a positive value. so that ultimately a large increase in the stress makes little difference in its displacement. explanation. In a telephone simplicity that But as is reduced. especially mechanical. in the stressvariations. for instance. speech from a magnetic telefield. so that undulations of current of given amplitude will not continue to produce stressvariations proportional to the amplitude of the current. There are many other things concerned. producing a very large variation of current in the circuit Here the current is equivalent of battery. as there is no reversal of the magnetic field. whilst the stress varies from a positive value through zero to another In the extreme. I think. It is similar to sending reversals through a Morse instrument. or in combination a similar strength. will be reduced. It is not a matter of indifference now but even J or J its strength. increases. when we put on the strong permanent field they are nonexistent. when W the armature will or make for every complete wave. and the latter may be made not insignificant compared with the former. may cancel the permanent field by an external strong small compared with h. especially .. to the coexistence of a permanent current and of an undulatory current. increased sufficiently. and the stress from And if// is force varies from less than h. but only a change in currents.
T. is exactly equivalent to selfinduction. worked up with wax into solid cores (1 wax to 5 or 6 iron by bulk). Thus. which does not involve any recognised or as yet recognisable dissipation of energy. p. It is possibly due to hysteresis. the action is different. But at the same time the variation in the inductivity It is clear that in the is recognisable. 1884 [vol. there is a small increased resistance. which does. I believe. the fundamental of the disc. April 23. In the repetition I used iron dust. but the latter is or the Bridge. permanent current. In the other way of getting power. p. I frequently make use of the For example. perhaps always. instruments. by having a movable coil in a field. we change the intrinsic magnetisation. more or less. It should be so placed as to increase the strength of field due to the electromagnet. But that there is no sensible dissipation of energy in an iron core placed in a rapidly intermittent or undulatory magnetic field of moderate strength I assured myself of experimentally some years ago. as I mentioned in The Electrician for June 14. If sufficiently divided. [vol. I. just as ductility is probably always in action to some extent in a strained elastic spring. and the residual effect was small. scarcely recognisable.. a few words. which can hardly be due stronger to the Foucault or Farrago currents in the insulated dust. Take two coils of the same resistance but of widely different inductances. perhaps. and the residual effect is far But if the magnetising force be made smaller. the changed resistance due to dissipation in the iron vanishes or becomes exceedingly I formerly used a bundle of the finest iron wires I could get. The application of the preceding is not merely to the telephone. becomes magnetised intrinsically as well as elastically. . 1886). Gott in 1877 (Journal S. subIron exposed to magnetising stantially. In conclusion. IL. unassisted. to multiplying power of a permanent magnetic field. p. V. when sufficiently divided. from my own point of view. make a tremblerbell go with a weak current or to make an electromagnetic intermitter go firmly with a current that. Vol. on the subject of the hysteresis which has lately become prominent.E. being merely to show that iron. is no stress on the coil when no current passes in it. small. and which has been. 43]. by Mr.. Use the differential telephone. 500). force usually.158 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and complete the balance by making up the deficit with iron. It is. an old thing in a new dress. and obvious. in changing the elastic magnetisation. But when a current passes. as it is the There electromagnetic force on the moving coil that is operative. which has also the disagreeable result or keeping up a sound after it should have ceased. first done. much more adaptable and generally useful.. the torque may be taken to be proportional to the intensity of the permanent field and to the current passing. so that the effect is complex. as in strong permanent the other case. The former is a handy little thing. 1 repeated the experiments in a far more effective form last year (The The method is very simple Electrician. but to various electromagnetic. of course. would do Then a strong permanent magnet takes the place of a strong nothing. 370]. rather overdone by some writers.
of diameter '08 inch. The average result observed is given in Mr. increase by more wires. p. p. be true in some particular case. . and '0169. owing to the neighbouring wires being earthed. Art. per mile. supposed 20. '171 inch sulated. 42. In both cases we may observe that the experimental result with wires insulated is about midway between the calculated result and the experimental result with wires earthed . 44]. it would not be very great. but we cannot safely conclude it from the above. p. centim. feet above the ground. not with jerks) dissipation due to hysteresis may be considerably reduced. 25. and '0142 when earthed. that experiment gave results nearly double great as the formula. I. 60 per cent. with a large number of wires. [Vol. but of course it would depend materially upon their mutual distances and height above the to the as ground.ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITY OF OVERGROUND WIRES. of course. 348) as 0120 with the other wires inAnd for the iron wire. is 159 nowhere. 332. as they would be As a guess. Taking the case of a wire 20 feet above the ground. Even then probable that when the variations of force are very rapid (undulatory. is '0095 mcf.. 375. This might.] IN the first late Prof.] With one additional parallel wire the increase of the capacity of the first was As to further 1 1 per cent. I verified this by working out the theoretical formulae for the capacities (self and mutual) of overground parallel wires.. ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITY OF OVERGROUND WIRES. case of telephonespeaking currents. F. the calculated capacity. 0131.. the similar three results I take v = 30 10 instead of the 2880 8 are 0103. 1885. The recent measurements of capacities of wires in the North of England supply some definite information. 1885. p. Sept. Sept. 18. Jenkin's is edition) a formula for "Electricity and Magnetism" the capacity of an overhead wire. it might run up to 50 or practically much further away.. Owing remark there made. etc.) whether the core be permanently magnetised or not. so that it would appear that the influence of surrounding objects (other than neighbouring wires earthed) in increasing the capacity was about equal to that of the neighbouring wires themselves. and applying them numerically in a special case. as may be seen thus. with three additional it was 24 per cent. and thinking that the presence of neighbouring wires should have a marked influence in increasing the capacity. and the results of Ewing and Hopkinson not be applicable. .). supposing there to be no other wires (nor trees. on If the wire experimented on account of leakage. it is We XXXVII. xii. diameter. Preece's paper (The Electrician. used in the paper referred to [vol. [The Electrician. I. require strong forces to make hysteresis important. dissipation (except F. which was attributed by him to induction between the wires and the posts and insulating supports. (p.
1887 . And this would be true with fair insulation. the remainder (due to the leakage of the neighbouring wires) going in slowly. but now first published. Sept. it might amount to nearly the full difference. reasoning are of so surprising a character that one of two things must follow. not merely in some points of detail. 1887. the extra charge will be nil \ the other wires. would alone be sufficient to recommend this paper to the attention of all electricians. firstly. only a part of the charge is observed. secondly. The fact that it emanates from one who is as the Daily News happily expressed it in one of the its preliminary announcement of Mr. Preece's papers acknowledged masters of his subject. then waiting a little. were perfectly insulated from earth through the poles. Which of these alternatives to adopt has been to me a matter of the most serious and I have been forced finally to the coneven anxious consideration.. that Mr.] A the Coefficient of SelfInduction of " was read at the recent meeting of Iron and Copper Telegraph Wires the B. in methods. It will be remembered that Mr. Preece. XXXVIII. results. and of his conclusions therefrom. needle. contains an account of the latest researches of this scientist on this important subject. reasoning. and consequently. 16. Preece is wrong. generally speaking. I propose to make a few remarks on the paper. H. clusion that electromagnetic theory is right. PREECE ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Either. How far this operates might perhaps be experimentally determined by charging the first wire with the others insulated. [Sept. it is clear that a measurement of capacity of the first wire would give the highest result. the effect of the imperfect insulation of the neighbouring wires is to make the apparent capacity greater.160 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. bettering the insulacapacity with wires insulated and to earth. by William Henry Preece. or. if the total charge But when the observation is made by throw of could be observed. In any case. . however. 400. 24. and so reduce the difference between the Thus. and observing the extra charge produced by suddenly earthing If the insulation be bad. F. the eminent electrician. and conTo show that this is the case. But there is The results and the an additional reason of even greater weight. or coming out slowly when discharge is taken. A. the views expressed by Mr. the accepted theory of electromagnetism must be most profoundly modified . if firstrate. in spite of the wellknown clusions. tion would shift the middle results above given towards the lower. Preece in his paper are profoundly erroneous. MR.R. It This paper will be found in The Electrician. but radically VERY remarkable paper "On wrong. p.S. W. whilst the other wires (though insulated at the ends) were so very badly insulated at the poles that they could be considered as connected to earth.
would be a convenient size. it appears. n. The unit employed is inconveniently large. he adopted rather pronouncedly what should. but that. His paper is devoted to by . he recently signified his conversion. simply. proving this. and by the experience of more advanced Americans and Continentals who had signally succeeded with wires of low resistance. as a copper wire of 63 ohms per kilom. with full application to telephony. was formerly an advocate of thin wires of high resistance for telephony . so that the real value of L is greater than this formula states. on the basis of his latest researches. perhaps taught by costly failures in his own department. Preece finds the inductance of a certain iron 00504 macs per It is so large that. Thus. recently still. I have proposed that y^^ 6 As regards straight part. Preece tells us that the inductance of a copper circuit will be approximately got by dividing by /*. I. if L be the inductance per centim. Along with this. Thompson.31.) [vol. It is not to be presumed that Mr. and its P. et seq. it may be remembered by the readers of this journal that it has been endeavoured to explain how and why the electrostatic (E. and is really quite negligible in consequence. it will be remembered that. 119 to 155.] Nothing daunted. the inductivity of the iron. wire to be (1). It is necessary to examine it in detail. although to some extent modifying his views as regards iron wires. and that the wirecurrent is on its surface. which he reckons at from 300 to 1000. Section XL. even for use with coils. M. have L . the inductance is 17 '7 per H. '031 L='l to Let us compare with theory. Ayrton and others pointed More out that he had not treated the telephonic problem at all. Mr. S. be understood to be the electrostatic theory. Preece meant to deny the existence of magnetic induction. asks us to believe that the inductance of a copper circuit is several hundred times smaller than what it is maintained to be by experimental theorists.. W.MR. however. Preece now. It will also be remembered that his views were rather severely criticised Prof. although it had been previously shown how very different the theory of the rapid undulatory currents of telephony is from the electrostatic theory of the submarine cable. and that Prof.E. theory has so limited an application to telephony. or 10 centim. Mr. however. P. if it be only 318 centim. The value ranges from 10 to 30. mile. we venientlysized numeric to deal with. must be of radius '091 centim. but that he meant to assert that it was of so little moment as to be negligible. The least value of the wire of radius r at height h above the ground is L of a copper on the assumption that the returncurrent is on the surface of the ground. VOL. Now Mr. with the result that we have a conThus. IL. PREECE ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. L . wires.. This gives in copper circuits. H. roughly speaking. above the ground. pp.P. according to radius and height. maintains that selfinduction is negligible in copperwire circuits and in fact. 161 influence of resistance in lowering the speed of signalling. however. in the present case. I find that it saves much useless figuring to reckon the inductance per centim.
permittance was. Although it is a considerable underestimate. and E. say 7 microfarads. but the resistance of the circuit.162 centim. //= 100. as the if the effect of its permittance were ignorable.. the balancing resistance balances the quantity he calls the throttling or 2 2 2 spurious resistance (R + L n )*. Preece's methods. in microfarads. p. Whilst corroborating theory to some extent therefore. T. Preece's biggest estimate. as his experiment proved nothing about the impedance or the inductance. then on the assumption of returncurrent on the surface of the ground. per cent. L the inductance. we have s=018. was not increased. by resistance. and the permittance of a solitary suspended copper wire. or 420 kilom. p. Preece's copper wire was 7 '44 microf. E. Preece's argument fails completely. and R. 303 [vol." Journal It is derived from S. 115 [vol. vol. Mr. p. It is well known that the resistance of a copper wire is not sensibly increased. Allowing for this influence. proof will be found in my paper "On Electromagnets. 46]. Let us now briefly examine Mr. per unit length. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. but wT e cannot expect anything amounting to several hundred cent." Journal S. and v be the speed of light in air. vol. L= in (2) above. yet we see that Mr. that the proper way to observe and measure the inductance of a copperwire circuit is to shorten it until .. measure the L of a copper circuit by a differential arrangement.. This gives L = (9s)~ l if s be the permittance per kilom. . IX. First. Preece the permittance of his coppercircuits he was virtually measuring their Thus. This is Even 177 times as big as Mr. per 261 miles. In the presence of such stupendous errors it is of course useless to take account of the small corrections to which the above formula is subject. does not seem to have observed that in measuring (2). Preece's enormous error has disappeared. however. I. p. if R be the resistance. except in the indirect tried to way that I mentioned nearly. we shall It is possible that certainly come near to the true magnitude of L. T. though very roughly. Maxwell's formula for the inductance of a pair of parallel wires by the if we assume A method of images. vn. and n/'2ir the frequency. But it will be clear to those who are acquainted with the properties of electrical He supposed that balances that he did not go the right way to work. Preece's estimate would be 60 times too small. and could not find that there was any to measure. which is wholly against his conclusion I should remark. I. This would be the impedance of the circuit But it was not. so that the impedance formula is But. which is more in accordance with my own measurements. E. Since Mr. Mr. he (3).. or the wire be very thick. in any case. unless the And it undulations be excessively rapid. as is explained in my paper On the Electrostatic Capacity of Suspended Wires. Why it is underestimated is mainly because the permittance is so greatly increased by the " presence of neighbouring wires. very carefully executed measurements by correct methods might reveal some quite new correction. or 30 ohms. and therefore L = 6 2. we have LS$ = \. if L and S be the inductance inductance.. it is not the impedance that is balanced quite different. Mr. 101].
In fact. It is not a question of small corrections. I believe. . represent the impedance. is (6). 163 the effect of its permittance is insensible. which makes a material difference. duplex balancing with condensers is. 4 iron wire can easily be 2 or 3 times its steady value. a No. from which he finds L. nor would it be practicable under the circumstances. The values of L come out 277 copper. or rather." as Mr. is no resemblance to be found between Mr. no attempt seems to have been made to balance the L. and that the difference 00043 was due to selfinduction in the iron wire . when currents of telephonic But. but of an entire change of method. Mr. the figures would not represent the resistance. Preece argues in quite another manner. It is scarcely necessary to say that there is no warrant for this singular reasoning from the point of view of electromagnetic These questions have been pretty fully worked out. quite another matter with iron. It is suggested that the chronograph figures represent something quite different from LjR. that itwould surely be right that he should give some reason for the faith that is in him. It follows that the L's are of the same order of magnitude. ConThe value of L deduced is sequently Mr. different. generally admitted to be correct. which does not run up in the way Mr.MR. Preece next gives a table of the values of the impedance on the assumptions of no permittance. are not widely great again as the other. Preece (4). He assumes that selfinduction is negligible first. what it would have been had there been no permittance. W. How the chronograph L/&" was made to indicate the values of L/R is not stated. because there is permittance. per centim. Nor do they not. and that '0044 sec. Mr. 540 iron. I may remark that Mr. Preece supposed that he frequency are passed. H. The L will be found to be about what I have stated. " It is.. Preece employs such entirely novel and unintelligible methods. But Mr. Preece makes it do as the frequency is raised. too. and then reasons that the timeconstant of the iron circuit would have been less than the measured '00667 sec. 0. and that it was a constant. But let us assume that it did do this. Coming next to the we are involved in further mysteries. the reason ing equally erroneous. say. In fact. and should therefore have been 00624 sec. however. taking the given 0044 and '0066 sec. as before. If they represent the time of transit. in the ratio of the electrostatic timeconstant of the iron to that of the copper circuit. Preece's results are wrong. but there theory. remarks. a great deal.. If there were inapplicable. and *00667 sec. as the values of L/R given by the chronograph. Why it should be shortened in this way will be obvious when it is remembered what a very rough business the P. Preece's methods and those which are. was measuring the impedance. is half as The resistances. and that L had the value he had The table is quite erroneously deduced. were Now one really the values of L/R for the copper and the iron circuits. These values of L and L/R are much too great. PREECE ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. " direct measurement of the timeconstant (5). not related to the quantity observed in the manner he supposes. It is known that the resistance of.
Preece has spoken through a copper circuit of 270 x 2 miles with a clearness of " articulation that is entirely opposed to the idea of any measurable magnitude of L" As regards the speaking. being under the idea that selfinduction is prejudicial to longdistance telephony (and also very rapid telegraphy. 5887. and therefore renders longdistance telephony possible under circumstances that would preclude possibility were there no inductance. 10496. We see that good telephony now possible. In fact we considerably towards a distortionless circuit. Mr. and calculate the corresponding results. precisely the contrary is the case. Introduce at end A a sinusoidal impressed force. (7). in its ultimate consequences. Change L to 5. Shortcircuit at both ends. vital error involved in the reasoning. 778. increase 1235. if rapid enough). Results : The change 1437. and no inductance in the first place. They 1567. 4670. is 3176. where n . 4 ohms and J microf. L to 10. The values of p are 1723. I would point out what is perhaps the most Mr. attenuated as nearly as may be to the same degree. The following examples will serve to show the importance of this matter.000. Finally. Let the ratio of the full steady current to the amplitude of the actual current be p. In conclusion. is 5587. 16607. " dominant " What is wanted is to have frequency in telephony. Now introduce the additional datum that L has the very low value of 2 J per centim. 2251. and let the = frequency range through 4 octaves. are 2649. Preece believes in. of great frequency that good articulation is possible. Results 1510. : though much distortion remains. and calculate the currentamplitude at the other end B by the formula of the electrostatic theory which Mr. which is a more probable value. 1825. per kilom.. frequency. as I have proved in considerable detail in this journal. Take a circuit 100 kilom. 3431. It is by the preservation of the currents marvellous. 1854. possible.] L increases the amplitude and diminishes the distortion. It is barely credible that any kind of speaking would be owing to the extraordinarily rapid increase of attenuation with the Nothing but murmuring would result.164 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. from n 1250 to n 20. currents of all frequencies reproduced at the distant end in proper proportion. 1049. showing splendid articulation. without other change. long. and we see that There is no a very little inductance immensely improves matters. of course. 4169. have approximated very . it has been done over a thousand (1000 x 2) miles in America. to prove that L is negligible in copper circuits. 1729. Preece wants striking thing of all. Increasing [The Electrician is referred to. But the important thing is the So far from being prejudicial.2rr x frequency.
a fraction. XXXIX. is at the present time at least a possibility of the various have proposed coming into general use. 1887. What is important is the nature of the effect of selfinduction. 1887. an isolated question. provisionally.] NOTE 4. Note 5. which is exactly the opposite to what is required for good articulation over R/Ln must be made (cceteris small. Bearing this in mind. Note June 24. What is really my objection is to its permanent use. it is impossible to treat these questions by the electrostatic Nor yet. I may say that were I investigating the theory of the dynamo. MAGNETIC RESISTANCE. June 17. is not the inductance of iron that is prejudicial. 143 . p. [The. p. especially with copper wires of low resistance. R is increased whilst L is reduced. this is all done by the inductance which Mr. Preece dreads so much. NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. without entering into refined calculations. There must always be a certain latitude allowed to inWere it vestigators who do not find words ready to meet their wants. I observe (The Electrician. To illustrate this. It is proved.NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. of The permittance has been purposely chosen lai great magnitude. First. a little theory. nor yet its impedance. It is the very essence of good longdistance telephony that inductance should not be negligible. 11. or reducible to a simple To 125]. 1888. last summer. 4. paribus). The true But theory takes both the static and the magnetic effects into consideration No particular exactness need be attributed to the simultaneously. aim has been to make a scheme which shall be at once theoretically defensible and yet thoroughly practical. I prefer to leave a blank in the place of "magnetic resistance" at present [vol. 165 Now. p. I was extremely in want of a term which should be an extension of impedance. I take the opportunity of making a few casual remarks upon the subject supplementary to those of 1885 and since. above figures. there would be little difficulty in finding a My perfectly unobjectionable word. May ETC. The bigger L is the better not merely by theory but by the It experimental facts. Electrician . bit of the electromagnetic theory put into the electrostatic. Preece attempts. The impedance of a circuit at a given frequency (under stated external conditions) is quite definite (with occasional departures due to want of proportionality between forces and fluxes). nomenclature I may mention that. if it be a simple circuit. and would make out to be 0. but it is not an isolated question. 114) it mentioned that I disapprove of "magnetic resistance. illustrate the difficulties connected with . 27. but its high resistance. by a mixed process. and that it is. as Mr. p." This is only a part of the fact. long circuits. As there I words n. I think I should make use of the term myself.
in terms of "attenuation and distorThe idea of attenuation. Telephony would obviously be impossible even were the frequency allowable to be sufficiently great. or else. then In theoretical investigations disconelastances are the proper things. no matter how much attenuated they may be. however. was nonsense . there is little fear of converts being = JRC. This eminent scienticulist could not see the force of Maxwell's argument. so that ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and at once adopted it myself as the very thing I " wanted. to "mutilation" and similar words. but several practicians find that "magnetic resistivity" and . " " way of expressing results." number of waves per parts. the ivord Lord Eayleigh use. which is of course out of the question under present conditions. inductivity would be the more convenient the reciprocal ideas. but expressly stated that it w as I have since found a far better only done provisionally [vol. it must be C = EjR. provisionally. there is little resemblance between the curves at one end and at the other. Now. One is just as good as the other.. only make the distortion reasonably small at a sufficiently great frequency. there is no distortion. we join in sequence. But. With condensers. should. however.) certain person once Referring to magnetic resistance again. 65]. p. Make currentvariations in a certain way at one place. and elastivity. say. resistivity ('?). their reciprocals. on the other hand." on the other hand. Now. or C = KE. " (Frequency is Lord Rayleigh's word for pitch. Which to use (including the ideas) is purely a matter of convenience in the particular application that is in question.166 circuit. and is just as meaningful. I chose myself as preferable Its meaning is obvious." and so forth. then the term impedance is again applicable. Drawn on the same scale. nected from special applications. expressed tion. Now. in a more roundabout manner in terms such as " diminution of ampli" attenuation " I found tude. is nothing new . [reluctivity]. there has been some development of practical applications in connection with the flux magnetic induction . inductivity. if at a single spot . As a general rule. conductances are the proper things to use. Distortion. and telephony is at once possible. But when it does. by the development of the electric light rendering energy a marketable commodity through electric agency. viz. II. declared that E = RC. if it be wholly localised in a part of the main circuit in which the current does not vary.. So we may return to be the conductance. to express Ohm's law. in late years. I used impedance in an extended sense. that electricity could not be a form of energy because it was only one of the factors of energy. permit A E K tances are more useful . resistances are more useful. in theory. theoretically. we can r second. and permittivity. the unitvolume properties conductivare generally much more useful than ity." both very important things. the strength of the current does not vary in different certainly only apply the term impedance legitimately at the seat of the impressed force. But if they be in parallel. basis . provided the attenuation be not of unreasonable amount. The extremest kind of distortion is to be found on Atlantic cables. because we usually deal with wires in sequence. if made to these views. If the currentvariations at another place are similar.
but kept them too much in the background. in accordance with induction." are more useful. Mac. It would be as bad as the passport system." and so forth. practical acquaintance with self and mutual induction. I think their choice has been a wise one. to avoid decimals. It is quite a euphonious and unobjectionable word. The introduction of anything of the nature of officialism into scientific . honour of the man who knew something about selfinduction. or millimacs. the science of magnetic induction must continue very empirical for some time to come. and whose ideas on the subject are not yet fully appreciated. There cannot. whilst at the same time I recognise the difficulties with which they have to contend. It is for the practicians to find practical ways of getting a round peg to fit a square hole. Here we are on firmer ground. Conventions or Committees should not meddle with matters And I may add (save very lightly) which are in a provisional stage. be any question that this is the right name for the practical unit of inductance.NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE. he would probably. in some future edition. and developed the whole treatise on their basis exclusively. and inductance. Inductometer. What particular method of making the comparisons is best I do not know. through " magnetic leakage. or more expedi . He had the most splendid and thoroughly philosophical ideas on electromagnetism all round. that. which is the same thing. This was very much his own fault. just as treaties are made to be broken. so the laws of Conventions will be broken as soon as ever it is found inconvenient to obey them. 167 "magnetic resistance. In short. If it were a Some mere question of coils of fine wire. beyond the region of proportionality of force to flux. which could. matters should be strenuously opposed in this country. be scientifically better defended. I think. and whether empirical formulae will not suit them better than more elaborate empiricism. perhaps. inductivity. I would apply the term to any instrument that measured inductance at once in terms of known inductances. have brought his views prominently forth ab initio. not Had read. For it is clear that. has gradually forced upon me the idea (not to be easily displaced) that really practical ways of measuring inductances should be in terms of standard inductances or. 1 do not think the time has yet arrived for laying down the law by conventions or committees in this matter (as it may have come in more definite parts of electrical science) but that practical and theoretical investigators should be allowed to develop their ideas freely. They know best what they want. by a properly calibrated inductometer and not absolute measurements. before the inner meaning of his scheme can be appreciated. this is a measurer of inductance (self or mutual) in terms of units of inductance macs. Naturally. as resistances are compared with known resistances. There cannot be any finality. but of long continuance. then millimac will be practically wanted. Maxwell's treatise requires to be studied. desultory. The utility of a Convention seems to consist in the formation of a temporary consensus of opinion from which to make fresh departures. Should the mac be 10 9 or 10 6 centimetres 1 If 10 9 which has great recommendations. in . nor yet how best to calibrate the inductometer. he lived. nothing is simpler.
10 173 . p. A SERIES of experiments made some years ago. and the Penetration of Current into Wires... through wires. or more sensitive. Herein lies a moral of very wide application. 37 and p. MAGNETIC EELUCTANCE.168 tious. p. p. p.. 1886. 419 . August.. XL. and when referred to unit volume. " Absolutism. II. xxviii. Tendency to Surface Concentration. or ELECTRICAL PAPERS. is a tendency at the present time among some writers to extend the application of the word resistance in electromagnetism. ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. instead of of the transmission of current into wires. 1886. 100]. Sept.. and This investigation led me to the mathematically similar investigation I say into wires. more accurate. so as to signify cause/effect. 1887. 353]. Mag. 1886. Jan. NOTE There greatly 5. p. p. 118 . relating to hollow cores and the effect of allowing dielectric displacement. 273. Part 8. Oct. leaving out those of greater mathematical difficulty and less practical interest. p. 1884. because the term resistance has already become thoroughly specialised in electro magnetism in strict relationship to frictional dissipation of energy. 63 . PART I. now first published. the What reluctancy [or reluctivity]. p. The simpler portions of this investigation. were published in The Electrician. led me to undertake a theoretical investigation of the phenomena occurring when conductingcores are placed in long solenoidal coils. This seems a pity." The most absolute of all ways of finding the inductance of a coil is with a tape. than the immediate balancing of the selfinduction against that of an inductometer of variable inductance. I would suggest that what is now called magnetic resistance be called the magnetic reluctance . t 6. Nov. . 1887.. the simplicity are so great that I think practical men might well turn their attention to practical ways of extending the method to cases other than those in which mere coils are alone concerned. Part 4. in which impressed electromotive force is made to act. ditto dimensions. in which I used the Wheatstonebridge and the differential telephone as balances of induction as well as of resistance. Part 2. Professor Hughes 's experiments. Part 5. Part 7. I. Remarks on the Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves along Wires outside them. 332 . 18867.. The advantages and using the telephone [vol. Part 1.. (Phil. May 3. because the current is really transmitted by diffusion after [vol. p. t 3. July. Feb. etc. Art.] .. the popular meaning of resistance may be is beside the point . 1887. in order to explain the disturbances of balance which are produced by the dissipation of energy in the cores. 1886.
The wirecurrent is wholly superficial. Having. The disturbance is then propagated parallel to the wire in the manner of waves. Then ordinary rapid signalling through the wire would be accompanied by a surfacecurrent only. howLet it. it may be expected that the electric current is first set up in the outer part." Attention has recently been forcibly directed towards the phenomenon above described of the inward transmission of current into wires Professor Hughes's Inaugural Address to the Society of . able. still keeping it finite. . the wire or the core where it is finally dissipated in the form of heat. to or from the axis of the core or the wire. I also found the transfer of energy to be similar in both cases. p.. under certain circumstances. p. say a voltaic cell. The transmission of the longitudinal current into the wire takes place. p. I. 169 dielectric. PART from the boundary into a wire from the external I. Art. 440] " Since.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. page of currentconduction by high conductivity. an abstraction.. penetrating to but a small depth. Terminating the paper above referred to. with reflection at the end. under all In the case of a core placed in a ordinarily occurring circumstances. "Increase the conductivity enormously.. however.. the current is longitudinal and the magnetic force circular. radially inward or outward. It was therefore necessary to consider the dielectric. I. we may compare the circular electric current in the core with the circular magnetic flux in the wire. in which the following occurs. yet it is nearly the same with very high conductivity. ever. describing the way the current rises in a wire. exactly in the same manner as the transmission of the longitudinal magnetic force into the core within the coil. take minutes to set up a current at the axis. and hardly any tailing off. II. according to my sketched plan. which is easily realizSimilarly. having so much other matter. there can be no current set up in the wire at all. With infinite conductivity.. There is no dissipation wavepropagation is perfect. coil. on starting a current. After an account of the transfer of energy through the dielectric (concerning which I shall say a few words later) I continue [vol.. the magnetic force is longitudinal and the current circular ." [vol. This : have verified by investigating some special cases. for instance. ductor to magnetic induction (and similarly to electric current) applied by Maxwell to the molecular theory of magnetism. to its sink.. 429 . before proceeding to special solutions. viz. in order to comwhen the boundary conditions are plete the course of the transfer of energy from its source. and the consequent approximation. and takes time to penetrate to the middle. I took occasion near the commencement of the paper to give a general account of some of my results regarding the propagation of current. Art. the energy reaches the wire from the medium without. xxxv. in the case of a straight round wire. including the conductors. xxx. I started a fresh one under the title of "Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation. to get rid of general matter first. This illustrates the impenetrability of a perfect conI * ' .. 39]. with temporary storage as electric and magnetic energy in the field generally. made similar. and vol. to mere surfaceIt was meant to illustrate the previouslymentioned stopconduction.
1886. including the simple Bridge without mutual induction. upon under similar boundaryconditions. It begins on its boundary. then. I have shown its inaccuracy in my paper "On the Use of the Bridge as an Inductionbalance" [vol." That the capacity of wires. Engineers and Electricians. or to see the real being capable of giving. of the author should have led him to employ a method which was in itself objectionable. I have before made the following remarks [vol. the phenomenon I described contains in itself In The Electrician for January 10. giving the requisite formulae. in general. 30]. [vol. it takes place according to the same laws as the propagation of magnetic force and current into cores from an enveloping coil. wherein I also described correct methods. timeconstant of a wire first increases with the diameter (this is of course what the linear theory shows). As regards the interpretation of Professor Hughes's thickwire results. Art. and also methods in which mutual induction is employed to get balance. Finally. Hughes terms the inductive My own interpretation is roughly this. January. thoroughly worked out already . later. or. As regards the method employed. against which all the rest is insignificant. neither a true resistance nor a true inductionbalance (as may be easily seen by simple experiments with coils. . it was remarkable as containing. I have already described the phenomenon in this Journal . during the rise of the current it is As regards the manner less strong at the centre than at the boundary. 1885. I proceed " The most interesting of the experiments are those relating to the effect of increased diameter on what Prof. If the conductivity be high enough. After commenting upon the difficulty of exact interpretation. after all. without mathematical examination of the theory) a method which does not therefore admit of exact interpretation of results without full particulars being given and subjected to laborious calculations. "and. rather. of inward propagation. it is exactly what I should have expected the wires. for many It was remarkable for the ignoration of wellreasons. one might indeed imagine that an entirely new science of induction was in It was remarkable that the great experimental skill its earliest stages. many verifications of the approximation towards mere surfaceconduction in wires. IL. also for the mixing up of the effects due to induction and to resistance. known facts. be large enough to make the central : . very remarkable.. In fact. see especially 20]. and predicted. Thus. 33]. described how the current starts in a wire. II. decreases rapidly and that the decrease sets in the sooner the higher the conductivity and the higher the inductivity (or magnetic permeability) of If this be correct.170 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and the author's apparent meaning of his results. which are of the simplest character. I. by which I mean the theory that ignores differences in the currentdensity in wires. This is. the really important matter. I the above interpretation. . This paper was. and upon the section.. or the inductivity. the conductivity. showing departure from the linear theory. p. and is propagated inward. which I have described in considerable detail in The Electrician The retardation depends xxviii. so far as could be safely guessed at. inability to separate them. upon the inductivity. p. or the section.
and hope to publish them soon. there is an apparent attraction or repulsion between them. This would only occur superficially. from which the inductivity could be deduced. 171 current appreciably less than the boundarycurrent during the greater part of the time of rise of the current. one wire the return to increasing. " As a general assistance to those who go by old methods. magnetized in concentric cylindrical shells.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. The theory of the rise of the current in this case I have given before [vol. the magnetization being then. the greater the inductivity and the conductivity. I ought also to mention that the influence of external conductors. the sooner. During the rise of the current it will be denser on the sides of the wires nearest one another than on the remote sides. strong on the boundary. or reduce its timeconstant. weak in the middle. The case is similar to that of the superficial layers of magnetization produced in a core placed in a coil through which reversals are sent. that inertia is not so wholly ignorable in the longline case as is elastic Nor is the variation of yielding in the case of a short wire. there will be an apparent reduction in the timeconstant. longitudinal instead of circular. taking into account both electrostatic and magnetic induction. the current in layers. which it is not. and approximating towards the electrostatic theory (long submarine cable) on the other. regarded as a line. Go to an extreme case very rapid short Here we have currents. according as the currents are together or opposed. this may be useful. and also the case of the returncurrent at any distance [vol. as of the return conductor. aifected by it. investigation following in this paper currentdensity wholly ignorable.. n. send a current into a loop. if the speed be only great enough. with this difference. however. and as we can only do to a first approximation. and even they. however. must be treated as solid conductors. we should remove the central part of the wire that is. increase its resistThis will happen ance. if we wish to regard the wire as a mere linear circuit. IL. 50].. . This is. working down to the magnetic theory on the one hand. sometimes of very great importance. a rising current inducing an opposite current in itself and in parallel conductors. It is only thin wires that can be treated as mere lines. both being close together. as the section is continuously increased.. when the returncurrent closely envelops the wire. I have had for years in manuscript some solutions relating to round wires. by reason of its magnetic retentiveness. mechanical force on the conductors. 44]. The linear theory is departed from in the most extreme manner. Parallel currents are said to attract or repel. the other. is of importance. should afterwards be found. and large retardation to inward transmission. Oppositelygoing currents repel when they are decreasing and attract when they are Thus. p. The is more comprehensive. The thickness of the layers would give information regarding the amount of retardation. PART I. of alternately positive and negative magnetization. The distribution of current is not But when currents are increasing or decreasing. in modifying the distribution of current in the transient state. . p. Clearly then." An iron wire. through which rapid reversals are sent.
.. New But (Duplex) Method of Treating the Electromagnetic Equations.. tangential continuity of Hj and normal continuity of F. this definiteness that makes the German methods so repulsive to a plain first field.. and c the dielectric capacity (or CJ^TT the conEquation (1) thus connects the densercapacity per unitvolume).. or the variation of the elastic displacement. the most general that Maxwell's scheme admits of. Trans. a vector and a scalar potential.. without any volumeintegrations or complications. thus artificial quantities. "curl" denoting the wellknown rotatory operator. in a simple and direct manner. But this is not enough to electric and the magnetic forces one way. second relation between E : and H x is make a complete system. in the form I the general equations. is D the displacement... It is a necessity of a rationally intelligible scheme (even if it be only on paper) that the It is the absence of transfer of energy should be explicitly definable. I found that I had been anticipated by Prof. as well as not confining myself to media homogeneous and isotropic as regards the three quantities conductivity.. viz..... (1) his definition of electric current in terms of magnetic " force. and dielectric capacity.. therefore.. thus. That I should have been the use of a certain fundamental equation. taking into account intrinsic magnetization. It is. there is another matter of some importance. only man who more general form.. and having deduced it In connecin a simple manner. however.... 1884] in the deduction of the transferofenergy formula appropriate to Maxwell's electromagnetic scheme... inductivity. Poynting [Phil... linear func k being the conductivity.. as regards the transfer of energy in the electromagnetic is a very important matter theoretically.... that I can attach myself to the matter.. (2) .. and hates metaphysics in science. (Thick letters here Then.. Maxwell's second relation his equation of electric force in terms of two highly P. and. say A and E^AVP.. The electric current may be conductive... in the main. The Flux of Energy....... where C the conductioncurrent." say F=C+D. This likes to see where he is going and what he is doing.. able to arrive at the most general form.... as having given the equation of activity in a give it.172 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. The later investigation is wholly scalar. and is ...... arose from my method of treating I here sketch out the scheme.) currentequation is curlH^TrF.. . Maxwell's fundamental Let H 1 be the magnetic force and F the current... and tions of the electric force E.. at a surface..... tion with it... A is wanted.. It necessitates closure of the electric current. for vectors.
783. which are. and ignore (2) There are several great advanaltogether. we are brought into immediate contact with E x and Hj. we are enabled to perceive easily many important relations which are not at all obvious and P are used. PART ignoring impressed force for the present. except for special purposes. again. electric force being related to magnetic current. Fourthly. and fail. 173 to From A we get down Hj curlA = B. : .. the abolition of the two potentials. First. that the electromotive force of induction in any closed circuit is to be measured by the rate of decrease of the induction through it. and c of course to be known).. or B/^TT.) the inductivity.. thus.. That the advantages attending the use of (3) as a fundamental equaG.. I. the variation of magnetic force in a core placed in places. by reason of the close parallelism between (1) and (3). ii. (3) where That this may be derived the magnetic current. and that (2) is its consequence... and many others. these equations are deduced the general equations of electromagand P.. if given the two potentials is an objection of some magnitude everywhere. change ing. and the medium isotropic.. rather unmanageable. and cannot. I went to the root of the evil. Now make (1) and (3) the fundamental equations. of the difficult establishment of (2)... //. although they are not really general. and of electric current in a round wire . (1) and (2). in which Ej For example. Try it.. B being the magnetic induction.. Not being able to work practically in terms of A and P in a general manner. which have physical significance in really defining the state of the medium and P do not.. is that (3) can be got immediately independently. for impressed forces are omitted.. But what is of greater importance in view (2) is obvious. B = /*H i. and (3) ignored. and the intrinsic and this magnetization must be zero. thus As a companion to equation (1) use this. Even without using these complex general equations referred to.. and ignore intrinsic magnetization. Equation (3) is. we when the potentials are enabled with considerable ease... which anywhere (k... in fact.. to at once get the solutions of problems of quite different physical meanand H 15 or quantities directly related to them. the mathematical expression of the Faraday law of induction. Again and P. netic disturbances in vol. and yet knowing there was nothing absolutely wrong.. Next.. They contain both One or other must go before we can practically work the equations. independently of this. tages in the use of (3).. as magnetic force to electric current.is at once from ^ A A . (Here we From (2) is arrived at through a rather complex investigation.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. if we have obtained solutions relating to variable states in which the lines of E x and Hj are related in one way.. even if given over all space. Thirdly. and cured it. but those on which they are based. the very artificial nature of A and P greatly obscures and complicates many investigations. art. a coil.... are not sufficient to specify the state of the electromagnetic The equation A A field.
.. necessitate the closure of the magnetic induction. and adding the results. As regards the ir.. ii.j" where div stands for divergence. U = iBD...... tion are not imaginary... June. however. p.. in addition to (4)..... = Q+U+ r+divV(Ee)(Hh)/4ir. Hence . which I now reproduce [vol. The scheme expressed by (4)... in one respect The magnetic current is closed... and in increasing the electric and magnetic energies. to be = : + e.. (5)... say e and h............. .... (8) (according to the notation of scalar products used in my paper in the 1885 [vol... Next. r = C + D. (6).. ... and = T + h ... shows that (3) is really the proper and natural fundamental equation to use.. analogous to magnetic the electric conductioncurrent.. or the energycurrent density. c.. divB = is . D = cE/47r...... and p are in general the operators appropriate to linear connection between forces and fluxes)... k.. The appropriateness of (7) as a companion to (6) is very clearly shown........ T = JHB/47r. ... allowing energy to be taken in by the electric and magnetic currents..... then we shall have added.. and Q be the dissipativity... (7) is.. so far as the facts. by multiplying (6) by E......... .... defined thus : U T the mag Q = EC.. but require impressed forces.. showing the structure connection..... (7). Then we get the full equation of activity at once.e)(H .... I have repeatedly verified.174 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... and HJ are not the effective electric and magnetic forces concerned in producing the fluxes conductioncurrent.. In (1) and (3)... in the light of dynamics they define themselves in the equation of activity that is.. .. 4].... .. (4) between forces and fluxes two equations... G = B/47r. Let \ E E H H B = /xH. The left side showing the energy taken in per second per unit volume by reason of impressed forces.e)(H  ... er + hG = EF + HG + div V(E . p..... (10) There is no required to meet conductioncurrent with dissipation of energy. which is necessary to avoid having unipolar magnets....eunings of e and h.. by (7) but that does not too general. we see that V(E . i.. (6)..h)/4?r is the vector flux of energy per unit area per second.. displacement.. ..... however.. and Q+ U+T being expended on the spot in heating... (5) of the currents and two equations of cross let curl(Hh) = 47rr.... (6) = 4?rG . (5).... curl (E e) (7) the electric energy... and induction... and (7) by H.. But we must first introduce impressed forces. the negative of Maxwell's convergence. 449]. The establishment of the general equation of activity. It is Philosophical Magazine. . netic energy per unit volume. as the three linear relations C = E..
As regards the general equations of disturbances. I. and Z the vectorpotential of the magnetic current. and h is similarly related to magnetic current. I can find only two kinds of h. being the singlevalued scalar magnetic potential. field. Let there be a straight round wire of radius a lt conductivity & inductivity p v and dielectric capacity c : . two magnetic before. electric force has no rotation (away from the seat of impressed force). 0. they are far more a hindrance than an assistance in But when we come to a special investigation. Put e = in (7). and. and use the suitable coordinates. e has to include the impressed electric force due to motion in a magnetic field. it follows that under no circumstances (except by artificial arrangements of impressed force) can we set up the steady state in a conductor may approximate to it very strictly according to the linear theory. Application of the General Equations to a Bound Wire with Coaxial ReturnThe Differential Equations and Normal Solutions. surrounded up to radius a 2 by a dielectric of conductivity k% inductivity /* 2 and dielectric capacity We may We . much more importantly. general investigations. which is set up in solid dielectrics under the continued application of electric force. and need to know the forms of the functions involved. PART mere measure causation. due to motion in an electric force 47rVDG . connected with the corresponding h thus. J = ce/4?r connects the intensity of intrinsic electrization J with the corresponding e. . after which the investigation will be wholly scalar. apart from physical Thus. to match the two electric potentials potentials. make use of the above equations at the start. if v is the vector velocity. the state force VFB. necessitating a mechanical secondly. but it will be widely departed from in the very early stages. Under e have to be included the recognised voltaic and thermoelectric forces. intrinsic magnetization I. chapter xx. then we see that we cannot alter the magnetic force at a point without Now. as in a steady state the giving rotation to the electric force. Thus.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. some of whose properties in relation to dielectric and conductive displacement I have worked out in the paper referred to As A and P. Initial State. First. there are. then we may eliminate either E or H between (6) and (7). But besides them. vol. 47rVDv.. like Maxwell's (7).. e is the amount of energy taken in by the electromagnetic field per second per unit volume per unit electric current. viz. necessitating a mechanical It has also to include intrinsic electrization. or VvB. Arbitrary Tube. say Z and 12 . ii. in passing to the question of the propagation of disturbances along a wire. regards potentials. closely throughout the greater part of the variable period. 175 of impressed forces is concerned.
..rH+^nr = 4:TriikH+iicH. . giving %L\ ... if p is a generalised resistivity.. in its turn surrounded to radius a 3 by a conductor of & 3 /x 3 and c 3 2 This might be carried on to any extent but we stop at r = a g r being distance from the axis of the wire...... as the outer conductor is to be the return to the inner wire... (13) dz J In this use (11).. viz.(14) becomes which which is j~irH+fff=0.176 C ELECTRICAL PAPERS. .. or sheath. call K^ (sr)... and we get the equation.. which is 2 d 1 d TT d' H A TT ff /i ^\ j. dielectric.. or Now use equation (7).. .. (14) j dr r dr dz 2 T H The suffixes 15 2 and 3 are to be used. a constant... m ...... like H. is in question. netic force at distance r from the axis. 4 4 s ? .. let (15) Then ... The curl of the longitudinal and of the radial electric force are both circular. for reference. d/dt =p.... Thus. Also.. conditions.. ... or r. and distance z along it from a fixed point... or .. (16) the equation of the JI(ST) and complementary function. depending upon the terminal d 2/dz* = .. and y radial... . Let the magnetic lines be such as would be produced by longitudinal impressed electric force. given by r dr parallel to z.... dz We have also E = />r. with e = 0... say F longitudinal. and centred thereon... according as the wire.. H parallel to two components....... circles in planes perpendicular to the axis Let be the intensity of magof the wire. Use (6).. Let also In a normal state of free subsidence. its . with h = 0. 2 where m? is a constant.. to find the electric current.. It has ........
.. eliminating ^ 3 by division... and that the sheath and the dielectric are similarly H... we obtain the determinantal equation of the p's for a particular value of m 2 It is ... and of normal electric and magnetic currents (or of magnetic induction). y l = y 2 and Us i  (PiSjp^J^a^K^s^).. Thus. the A's and B's being constants : H l = AJ^s^r) cos (mz + 0)ept A lJl (s l r)m sin (mz + 6)ept = A J (s r)s cos (mz + 6)t pt l . J^aJJ^aJ.(21) whence. M ... The m's must be found from the terminal conditions.(22) where the dots indicate repetition of the fraction immediately over them.. have therefore the following sets of solutions. y 3 = ay This gives or H= 3 0. /) 3 F3 = /> 2 r2 . 5 1 //> 2 2 )/ I iXw) = (/>i5 As '/ (^i)^i(^i) ] 0... 1 L l ... forms a closed circuit. (A A+B . of length I... = there is to be no current beyond the sheath... (20) and the conditions y3 = y2 and . and sheath respectively.P. we have the boundary conditions of continuity of tangential electric and magnetic forces. cos { A J (s r 2 2 f S 1 ( 2 ') ) 7 (18) V) lV ^s.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. . .. II. PART I. 177 We dielectric.. at ^=(^3) This. we may in outline continue the process of finding the complete solution to correspond to any given initial state.E.. at r = a 2 give us . for example.. Suppose.. that the wire. .... Before proceeding to practical simplifications../} COS }m sin To harmonise these.. and putting for ^4 2 and B 2 their values in terms of A v through (19). VOL. in the wire....
without electric energy. fully expressed. Simplifications. Then. STT//. again. 523. A Thin Return Tube of Constant Resistance. we may alter it in various ways. placed perpendicular to the axis same at the other end. we desire to 47r//. as regards the initial state.] Thus. and do the y= will at z = 0. so as to keep the magnetic field the same whilst we vary the electric field. This will make make the sheath the return to the wire. yet at the first moment (when the previously acting impressed forces finally cease) the electric field and the magnetic field are indeThe energy which is dissipated according to Joule's law has pendent. in terms of merely the electric potential and the electrification. So both fields require to be known. This would complete the theoretical treatment.178 closed on themselves. we shall have Fourier periodic etc. etc. 27T/J. m = 0. Suppose. we shall have U ^ = 7rrn u u~ 01 (23) J as the expression for the value of the coefficient v which settles the actual size of the normal system in question. we cannot express the electric general case. and 01 energy of the initial electric field and the normal electric field in question. alone settles the complete state of the system after the first moment. Each ??i's Sir/I. and a certain electric field by a particular distribution of impressed force. series. that of the equality of the mutual electric energy of two com We plete normal systems to their mutual magnetic energy [vol. or equivalent information given. GTT/I. has its infinite series of p's. by longitudinal impressed force. two sources. by the equation (22).. Now. clearly. with m = 0. p. energy but require to use also the vectorpotential Z and the magnetic current. and at z = l. For. there are several important practical simplifications. If. withjoin them at the end z = by a conducting. I. and TQl is the mutual magnetic energy of the initial magnetic field and the normal magnetic field. and make TT/I. Also fietum Now first. out external resistance. plate of no resistance. if n and Tn are the doubles of the complete electric and U is the mutual electric magnetic energies of any normal system. the electric and the magnetic energies. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. It is best to use the electric and magnetic forces as initial data in the As regards potentials. where z = I. Equal roots require further investigation. that the thickness of the sheath is only a small fraction of its . the electric field and the magnetic field must be both given. make the of these 0's vanish. having set up a certain magnetic energy. of no Resistance. may then decompose them into the proper normal systems by means of the universal conjugate property derived from the equation of activity. set up a certain distribution of magnetic Or. Now we may. although the quantity H.
The S. But the effect of increasing inductivity is a tendency to surfaceconcentration together with large attenuation in transit. and we magnetic shall have purely wavepropagation. ' (/ (J. there is none. of infinite inductivity. unless it be a conductor as well. This makes the left side vanish.(K + s^K^J. The result is that we shut out the returnconductor from participation.. then the big fraction on the left side of (22) will become . (*! + 2 WJWl So the are derived from Jl as the latter are derived t left side of (22) will become (24) *34 and K J^JfiKu Jfl  W 3 3 } " _ J_.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. or ^ = 0. 179 Then it may be treated as if it were infinitely distance from the axis. in the phenomena. of no resistance. and then we sweep away the denominator on the right side. to be measured by the tangential magnetic force divided by 47r. it would involve infinite currentdensity in the sheath. PART I. the effect of increasing conductivity with constant inductivity is a tendency to surfaceconcentration and also to a state of perfect slip. parenthetically mentioned. except superficially. & 2 = 0. in' important practical cases. the resistance of the return is next to nothing in comparison with that of the wire. Being on the outer edge of the magnetic field. no tangential current. * s2 2 [The case.] . in the dielectric close to the sheath.H. without attenuation. wherein 2 and from J and Q +W J _ 1 2 )^l  K K . If there could be As it is. or electric force. Then put p 3 = in (22). A ' The inductivity of the sheath is now of no importance. yet it cannot be quite zero without infinite conductivity. thin. . and the returncurrent has become a mere abstraction. and turned round through a right angle on the inner boundary of the sheath. any. though resembling that of infinite conductivity in excluding magnetic disturbances from the body of the conductors. differs widely from it in other respects. of course its resistance may remain the same as if of finite thickness. making the sheath a linear conductor. (25) will result from the condition /> 2 F 2 = 0. The most For we have important simplification arises from the smallness of S 2 2 Now. the thinness of the sheath makes its contribution to the magnetic energy be diminished indefinitely. with the return . at r = a z that is. + WjJJKj . which is what is here assumed. solutions will give more details on this point. In a similar manner. and get the determinantal or differential equation "MpMs^J^ Although we may have the return of nearly no resistance and yet of low conductivity (as in the case of the earth). Considering here only the effect on a train of waves sent along the conductors. or F 2 = 0. let the dielectric be nonconducting and the wire nondielectric. Let a4 be the very small thickness of the sheath. if we make the wire infinitely conducting (or of in * Then the finitely great inductivity either) the wire will be shut out. and electric fields are confined to the dielectric only. Again.
the only assumption made is that the return has no resistance. in the expressions (17). theoretically. pt . we get F 0. the longitudinal electric force is negligible against the radial. 2 is made a small quantity very length small when the line is miles in length. take (7) is satisfied. take first terms only. except in case of the insignificant terms involving large multiples of TT in m = mr/L Again. into the conductor.. so that unless p be extravagantly 2 Thus. so far as substantial accuracy is concerned.. But. The ^i(v) = . We have now the following complete normal system : ) cos(mz+6)c sin (mz pt .(V)' + JV 1 (log s. where it is dissipated. it is to be remarked that.m l + 6)<. where B = A(p 1 s /p. its seat of transmission along the wire. vanishing at = a. Therefore. "Regarding (28). however.2 fr. Then (6) is nearly . which is important as causing the electrostatic retardation on long lines. making (26) V These. )J() (s a ) l 2 1 l + / longitudinal current and electric force in the dielectric vary as The radial comthe logarithm of the ratio a. 2 r  1 ) : leading to the determinantal equation and requiring us to substitute (.180 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. (/*/)"* is the speed of light through the dielectric. To satisfy (6). Applying it. bring it =  V down to (27) concerning which. used in (25). ponents vary inversely as the distance. s. m returncurrent. the dielectric solutions do not satisfy the fundamental = But the other fundamental equation (6). .V)for (SoV)" 1 in the 1 4 H 2 and y2 formulae in (28)..2a 2 is in general exceedingly small. with moderate distance of large /*2 cp is exceedingly small also. Numerically considered. as it determines the passage of energy from the dielectric. )m ')s l + pt 0)e . cos(mz+0) sin (mz pt ) r 47ry 2 = B(sjr). on account of the approximations. If the length I of the line is a large multiple of the greatest transverse we are concerned with. the longitudinal component of the electric force is very important when we look to the physical actions that take place.
. the wire is delayed. subsidence of an initially steady current.. ... independently of the electro m static charge. so that is the timeconstant of the linear theory. Equation (29) may be written ... PART I. (29) L = 2/* log (ajaj.... 2 ... and The real timeof which the first is exactly the lineartheory value.. by means of s?a? = .... in the negligible... " current in is not.. satisfied.. being very slightly less at the boundary than at the axis. (31) .. case when the electrostatic retardation proper equation in the ra = is not It must be taken into account. the coefficient of selfinduction of the surfacecurrent. constant of the first normal system of current.. Expanding (29) in powers of p. for instance. if L = J/^ + Z/ ..fJ^p/R we .. since J/^ is the inductance per unit length of wire when the returncurrent is upon its surface... bringing (27) j*.. In fact we shall arrive at (29) from purely electroBut it is also the magnetic considerations. Now down to take ni = in (27).ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Current in a Wire. to be inferred that the subsidence of the " It is accelerated.. we get....... But taking second powers as well. making  s = f* 2 cp'2 and . both per unit length of wire .. 181 and is expression to \r.. on the supposition that the resistance of the wire fully operates.. therefore. quite satisfied if we change the last term in the last But the other fundamental is violated.. get (30) Taking first powers only... at least at first. or the retardation (pJc^a.. and the resistance of the wire.. This case of short that the electrostatic induction is really negligible in its effects on the wirecurrent... with e = everywhere.. although the current is confined = is appropriate when the line is so to the surface. we get which is greater than the lineartheory timeconstant of the wire by the amount J/^/^o. Magnetic Theory of Establishment of Viscous Fluid Analogy.Vo(Vi)where WAi).*) of the wire is so small that a steady current subsides with very nearly uniform currentIt density.. exceeds the lineartheory value by an amount which is less than J/>4/72 when the return is so distant.. Ignored Dielectric Displacement. however.
. Similarly if the sheath be close to the wire. according to the equation (32). and there will be no approach to the linear theory.) The rise of F to the final steady value. the appropriate form when a full investigation is desired.This analogy is useful because every one is familiar with the setting of water in motion by friction on its boundary.? . therefore (34) Considering the first term only in the summation in (33). and the boundary. The values of total current C. etc. in a viscosity.182 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. put p~ = (L + L^jPi^ where L^ must be very small compared with L then is started. by a steady impressed force in the coillong solenoidal coil of small thickness. the abscissa being s^. as may be done when the linear theory is nearly followed. join the wire and sheath to make a closed circuit. in ordinary language. Graphically representing (32).. which is always turning up. abscissae the time. at r = av ^faih)*.. tJ i F+ ^ uT . L. Their intersections will give the values of The satisfying (31). that is. in which insert a steady impressed force e at time t=Q. Many normal systems must be taken into account to get numerical solutions. Electrostatic charge being ignored.. or the current in the wire. This I have before made use of [vol. and ordinates F. because the boundarycondition of the magnetic force is of the same form as (34). q 1^/2^. q being then a function of the number of windings. ^/L^ may be very large. whether it be magnetic or not. first root has been already considered. s^ thus to its final value C : (33) The boundary condition of F is that. containing a solid conducting core. at the centre. Let F be the current at distance r from the axis at time t.. according to (32) . The = 0. under the same circumstances. intermediate points.... = 0. by what we may call the arrival curves of the current. There is also the waterpipe analogy.. after the first l stage of the rise. say F is given by s^ . (There is no y now. the magnetic force in the core rises in the same manner as the current in the wire.. rest. 384]. (32) where The rises = are to be got by (31). Draw the curves y^ = right member. and comparing them with . when ^/LQ is very small. and ?/ 2 = left member. Water in a round pipe is started from rest and set into a state of steady motion by the sudden and continued application of a steady longitudinal dragging or shearingforce applied to its boundary. will be nearly those of J^sfa) But if the wire is of iron. transmitted inward by When the current circuit.. p.
two special values of q. r.. I have already given [vol. M N P2 + If y 4 2 = M* + N2 + 2q(MM' + NN') + <f(M'* + N'*) . or perhaps more Some curves of (32)...ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. p.. Magnetic Theory of S.. 398 ... (39) ? >2 (ay) = (47r/x1 ^ 1 2 7i) . we may notice these characteristics.H.. of wire Let there be a simpleharmonic impressed force e sin nt in the circuit and sheath. with no external resistance.. In (36).. of course..... M= i/ (WO + / (W^)......(36) nt^ M and N are the following functions. The current rises much more rapidly at the boundary than according to the linear theory. II. (38) standing for v/  1.. 58]. and have the values denoting differentiation to r. very marked at the axis of the wire. for easily by the use of the waterpipe analogue. and P We have distance . Q the values at r = a 1} the boundary.) The boundary condition and the solution is r^^(P^ where + Q QS)^(P M+Q N)smnt + (P NQ M) C o Q Q S . PART I. rapid reversals are sent is easily understood from this. translate is the coresolution into the wiresolution.. Going inward from the boundary we find that an inflection is produced in the arrivalcurve near its commencement . there being practically no current at all there until a certain time has That the central part of the wire is nearly inoperative when elapsed. 183 the linear theory arrival curve at all parts of the wire.... le ' Q = N+qN'. tfj^WT) Ji/ 1 ' (Wt)J Also . making a total circuit(I resistance R. we have the following series :  PV y 16 y A 8y / . but much more slowly in the later stages. This dead period is... and x for /v/W/A^w. the rapid rise being delayed for an appreciable interval of time. at first... vol. I. ... 4262 v (40) . P = M+qM'. Variations of Impressed Voltage and resulting Current. p..
very high frequency. is I*. the inertia or retardingpower of the electromagnet is greatly reduced. or very close return. . M* + N 2 = .(46) w hich r is of course excessively small. showing that the current is stronger than according to the linear theory. when the corresponding y is great. a large core.184 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. etc. when the . N. (44) . The wirecurrent C amplitude of F or of is given by C when y is f where P. done away with by dividing the core to stop the electric currents. making y very great. if/yi. Q. or large retardation. in a great measure. Analogous to this. M As for M and N ('*') M=lJL 2 4 2 ^ ~2 2 2 42 6 2 82 2 2 224252 "2 2 But these series are quite unsuitable when y is very large. The amplitude of the currentdensity at the axis. currentdensity amplitude is On the other hand. and far stronger in the case of an iron wire. so far as the coilcurrent is concerned. M. linear theory is approximated to. or both combined. \trji In the extreme. . This is.. themselves. their expansions are . high inductivity. with r = a A in /. the amplitude of the wirecurrent C tends to be represented by (45) e/L ln. impressed force in the coilcircuit is greatly increased by allowing dissipation of energy by conduction in a core placed in the coil. that is. Then use the approximate formulae ' 'which make.. under the same circumstances. .H. the amplitude of the current in a coil due to a S. for calculating the These are suitable not a very large quantity. N' have the boundary values. '27rr 2 . the boundary TT1I which may be greater than the lineartheory amplitude.
1886) possesses advanI find it difficult. the currentamplitude is increased whilst. in copper wires. experimenting with a wire and outer tube for the return. The expression for v the magnetic force at distance r from the axis. frequency of about 850 waves per second would be required. it depends upon the position of the dielectric. but also c = 0. the dielectric disturbance must be exceedingly small. the method followed by Lord Rayleigh (Phil. Heaviside. two Coaxial Conducting Tubes. per unit length of wire." or the impedance. 6 ReturningY to the former expressions. appears to be. using a (for telegraphic purposes) very strong current. If // PART II. H ^ = Ki(V)W^i)(^i(')Mi. will now be . could not detect the least sign of any inductive . But in an iron rod of the same size. however. which is the "apparent resistance. 67 j. resistance can become of serious moment. On this point I may mention that my brother. from that given by the linear theory. This means that there is to be no current from r = to r = aQ . the inner conductor was solid. (49) instead of the former A^far). is given by . radius. rigidly true. we therefore ignore the minute longitudinal dielectriccurrent in this space. W. where g = (^w/A^) 2 and When . below that frequency. if we go only as far as n the G of the wirecurrent is given by CQ = e/R rr l. p. thus preventing current. . to understand how the increased tages.. just as we ignored that beyond r = a s If we wish to necessitate that this shall be previously. 1 1. quite insignificant in general [vol. the primary seat of the transfer of energy. the axial is about onefourteenth of the boundarycurrent To get this in a thick copper wire of 1 centim. In Part I. if we take /^ = 500. of the first of equations (18). .. In any case. if we at the inner boundary of the wire (as we impose the condition H^ = may still call the inner tube). with only k = Q. and a sensitive telephone in circuit with a parallel outer wire. either conducting or dielectric. its reduction.OX THK SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. A. PART Extension of General Theory to II. above a certain frequency. For. Mr. May. 185 1600. that is to say. only the total current is under investigation. rapidly interrupted. only about 8 J waves per second would suffice. = R and L have the former meanings. making it a hollow tube of outer radius a 1 and inner a The reason for this modification is that the theory of a tube is not the same when the returnconductor is outside as when it is inside it . Let now the central portion be removed. Mag. where the amplitude square of R". a amplitude. we may suppose that within r = a Qt and beyond r = a s we have not merely k = 0.
if the proper means be taken which theory points out.. only gone as far as forty miles. On the other hand. but this distance may easily be extended.  ] . For. we have only to change the Jo( s i a i) i n ft k the quantity in the { } in (50).d' /dz' instead of the constants in a we if see that A = l . . avoiding some extremely difficult reasoning relating to potentials. the interpretation is comStarting with the inner tube. JEi . the currentdensity at r = a But. then. (50) gives us the connection between I\ and A v From it we may see what A l means. connects the currentdensity and the integral current. when l is eliminated by division. since p mean d/dt and m 2 mean..  2 Sj = kirnfap + m2 2 2 . action outside the tube. so that in the neighbourhood of the battery the disk of a telephone may be strongly influenced by the variations of the magnetic field. so far.. without knowing v (49) and (50) connect H^ /s1 and Fj directly... In explanation of the last remark. having got (22). (49) is the general paratively easy. = Q at r = a Q if.... there is a spreading out of the disturbances. is perceptible with the telephone at hundreds of miles distance.186 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the induction between parallel wires whose circuits are completed through the earth.. Corresponding to (49) we shall have . direct experiments have. if Cl be the total longitudinal current from r = a to r . with r = a1 in both cases... Similarly. we let normal system of subsidence. tion in Terms of Voltage V to The method by which (22) was got was the simplest possible.. But... When the tube is solid.. in particular. although the transfer of energy is from the battery along the tubular space between the wire and return...... and let A l be an arbitrary function of z and t. scalar and vector... Practical SimplificaElectrical Interpretation of the Differential Equations. and... or practically at any His distance. we need only consider that. the z and t factors. 1 = C1 * (2/r)... at least when the source of energy (the battery) was kept at a distance from the telephone.. put r = a in (50). yet. and Current C. in both. 47ra X 1 (s 1 . that would occur were they considered ab initio.. quite recently . reducing mere algebra the work that would otherwise involve much thinking out. given by solution of (14).. before getting to this confined space.. Also. and the /1 (s 1 a 1 ) to that in the {} in (49).. Now. with the limitation l H .. (50) omitting. to obtain the corresponding development of the general equation (22).. a )F . hence F is ^ 1 = 47iT A A H r = L 27Tf oi ^ . in s. .
If we take r = a l in (51). 187 H Now = 3 pass to the outer tube. the positive direction of the magnetic force through the circuit is upward through the paper. the wirecurrent. on account of our neglect of F 2 we get. and r = a 2 in (52). H brings (54) to 27T0! . of uniform intensities e l and e..2 over the sections of the two . and C? becomes the same plus the longitudinal dielectriccurrent. in the rectangular circuit due to the radial force. Quite similarly. and can put in terms of C. and calculate the E. (54) will become an 3 l : where E E equation between e and C.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. s 27JT J~. then.  ^ connecting F 3 the longitudinal current density at distance r in the outer tube. the magnetic force in the (7) . and oppositely in the return.M.. Next. we see that if we agree to ignore the latter." e Therefore ~T! \ / A \ e is the impressed force per unit length in the circuit at the place considered the positive direction in the circuit being along the wire in the direction of increasing z. let there be longitudinal impressed electric forces in the wire and return.M. z being This being 2C/r. of the field in this circuit in the direction of the circular arrow.F. on . PART II. dV by the Faraday law.F. be the lineTherefore. This previouslyused inductance of the dielectric per unit length. on the right side. If z be positive from left to right. We shall have if E l and E3 are the longitudinal T~1 electric / 777 forces 7VT "of the field. conductors. .L C. remembering that r _ . if = al to r = a<i integral of the radial electric force from r so that dVjdz is the part of the E. or equation dielectric. two of whose sides are of unit length parallel to z at distances a^ and a 2 from the axis. where LQ is the performing the integration. we shall have . and use them in (54). and the other two sides parallel to r. To obtain the required E l . V o . with (73 the current through the circle of radius r in the plane perpendicular to the axis. since C becomes C. at r = 3 we shall arrive at . .E 3 consider a rectangular circuit in a plane through the axis.
.188 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. for brevity......is the timeintegral of the radial current at r words..... p..... T?" are as before. For....... = (LQp + m 2/Sp + E? + tiZ)C. (56) They are generalised But of respectively.2 is the reciprocal of k2 + and..... " and B^ are similar expressions on the assumption that H = at r = a l or at r = a 2 thus.... they will become 7?" _ 7?" _ that is.. the electrification surfacedensity there.. where E" and R% define themselves in resistances of wire (55). or by the second of (11). Equation (56) is what we get from (22) by treating s z r as a small quantity and using ^26) .. But we may get it from (22) at once of (54) in .... their structure. . write thus... later. per unit length.. Then. (59) = a lt or. being given by Jo( s 2 ai) ~ In these take s 2 r small ........... (58) which is really the same as (56)... remembering also the extension from a solid to a hollow wire.. ... (57) reduces to e Z $ = /x 2 c 2 ... in other a. the steady resistance per unit length of the dielectric tube (fully.. when the conductors if . 03 has a different structure... #+#S++3)a /% J'oi (57) / Here R" and respectively ... e^=L&C+lS?C+I%C. whilst // for the dielectric... and return By more complex reasoning we may similarly put the right member terms of C without the neglect of T 2 and arrive at (22) itself... if S is introducing the electric capacity per unit length.. by continuity.. with k2 = 0. It becomes ... in a form similar to (55) or (56).. .... such that e. by a proper arrangement of the terms. if p 2 be imagined to be resistivity. which..
static problems. The possibility of this property depends upon the comparative insignificance of the longitudinal current in the dielectric.. Again. .... + (R(m + L'mp)Cm + (B. or J FQ per unit length of wire. . as it is the lineintegral of the electric force from end to end of the tubes of displacement.. 2 . which are definitely localized. elastically resisted.... becoming mere constants in simpleharmoniLet e m Fm and Cm be the corresponding cally vibrating systems.. The physical interpretation of the force . potential at the wireboundary over that at the inner boundary of the return.. It is. or any similar elastically resisted generalized displacement of a vector character.dF/dz.. It has. When there is current from the wire into the dielectric there is necessarily a back electric force in it due to the elastic displacement and if it vary in amount along the wire... We V we may use o. its variation constitutes a longitudinal electric force. ...... (62) Or where Ii' m em d J^ = (R' + L' p)Cm m m ... useful in electroequation between e and C without it. the obvious property of allowing us to express the electric energy in the dielectric in the form if of a surfaceintegral... Hence the utility of V.. quantities for the particular m . (64) .. It may happen... Then R" and E" may be thus expressed f z : . 2 be a constant in (58) being a differential equation previously. (63) = B' + R^. lm L' = L Q + L{m + m LL . be the charge per unit length of wire. But it is not the electric Q It is not even the excess of the potential at the surface of the wire.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. however... instead of by a volumeintegration throughout the dielectric.. it includes the lineintegral of the electric force of inertia.) &C_m* c _dV dz' "tip dz*~S~p which establishes the equivalence.. ..... 189 Therefore (60) (There is 1 equal  a at the r = <t. for the abovementioned reason. For... that the longitudinal displacement is far greater than the radial but then it will be of so little moment that the problem could be taken to be a at all.or Q. however.. (58) being the need not use purely electromagnetic one..... let m it...... (61) where R{ and B' L{ and L are functions of p The utility of this 2 notation arises from R{ etc..... which we ignore.L + LLp)Cm .. the lineintegral of the radial force in the dielectric from r = r = a. J V<r per unit area of wiresurface. is sufficiently clear. by (56). y surface. are nondielectric..... however. Or it may be defined by is l It j to Sr=2lTU <r=Q.. PART II. Particular attention to the meaning of the quantity Fis needed. . instead of V^ . then... thus. in terms of Maxwell's inimitable dielectric theory.. especially when we assist ourselves by imagining the dielectric displacement to be a real displacement.
. . (65) 2 m Now.. Thomson arrived at a system which is formally the same as (70). C is the wirecurrent. (TO) Here the first equation expresses Ohm's law.3 (65) becomes (66) simply... leave out the impressed force e. The matter was not set straight till a generation later. f m they should not materially change. and meaning is rather indistinct in Ohm's memoir.. First. Misled by an entirely erroneous analogy. and denote f ..... when Sir W. as in the purely electromagnetic case..... . or (7. (68) m case.. in changing from one m to another. of signals along wires. at least approximately.. them by R f and L f simply..... although R m and L' are really different functions of p for 2 every different value of m.190 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Then U/. we may i egard E' and L m as having the 7ft = expressions. The second equation is of continuity. E is a quantity whose the resistance per unit length.. or Q = diffuse themselves through the wire as heat does by difference of temperature when there is no surfaceloss..d =spr.. that of C becomes now / simply ... correct in form. The equation of ^is now and..... through a great many TTI'S.. by entirely erroneous reasoning... This system has at present only historical The most remarkable thing about it is the getting of equations interest. and S is the electrostatic capacity V SV V V .... and shows that V. (69) The assumption above made Previous is. we have Ohm's system. R' and L' are functions of p 2 m m Therefore. dz2 . Ohm supposed electricity could accumulate in the wire in a manner expressed by the second of (70)... justifiable. wherein S therefore depends upon a specific quality of the conductor...... The third equation results from the two previous.. that of in the Cm being . which may be thus written : Jf=R C dz . from m = upward. but which would be now called the potential... since they contain m yet if. by (62). but in which is precisely defined.. Ways of treating the subject of Propagation along Wires. summing . in general........ dz %%BSpr. is now to be the electrostatic potential.. .. whilst S changes its meaning entirely. up..... Let us now compare these equations with the principal ways that have been previously employed to express the conditions of propagation For simplicity.
uniformly distributed. by reason of its high inductivity . p. For example. where electricity In short. But there are extreme cases when (71) is not sufficient. we simply unite accumulates and charges the condenser. The continuity of the current in the wire is asserted . An easilymade extension of (71) is to regard 11 as the sum of the as the quantity Q/S. so that. II. the Extra Current" (Phil. if we decide to accept the law of quasiincompressibility t of electricity in the conductor. 281. with exceptions to be later mentioned. his equation may not be conformable to Maxwell's ideas. renders the system quite inapplicable to lines of moderate length.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. be the earth. p. or. obliged to have the return equidistant from the wire. Also. for instance.LpC. efficient of selfinduction. In ignorance of Kirchhoff's investigation. which is implied by the second of are accepted. per unit length of wire. a very close returncurrent. as the influence of S tends to diminish as the line is shortened. even as regards the conductor. I V am. [Art. It applies to short lines as well as to long ones. It may.. Mag. or a parallel wire. 53] getting this system. force "On I. The return is supposed to have no resistance. translated into physical ideas. with the corresponding changes in the formulae for the electric capacity and inductance. as I The system (71) is amply sufficient for all ordinary purposes. as his estimation of the quantity L was founded upon Weber's hypothesis. unless very fine. in this approximate system (71). of the unit current in the wire. arriving at an equation which is reducible to the form (70). a very thick copper wire. unfortunately. not acquainted with his views regarding the con tinuity of the current. 1876). in which case. Nor are we. reducing (71) to (70). but it can be discontinuous at its surface. or. according to Maxwells system. wherein everything is the same as in Sir W. no matter how fine a wire may V . The next obvious step is to bring the electric force of inertia into the Ohm's law equation. Ohm's law (with continuity of current in the conductor) and the similar condenser law. being numerically equal to twice the energy.... and V= at its boundary. PART II. where L is the co now prefer to call it [vol. 191 of the condenser formed by the opposed surfaces of the wire and return with dielectric between. I made the necessary change of bringing in the electric of inertia in a paper August. it may possibly turn out to be different in value from that in the next following system. Thomson's system. and being the charge per unit length of wire. Thomson's meanings of S and Kirchhoff seems to have been the first to take inertia into account. whereas the omission of L. an iron wire. relatively to that of L. by reason of thickness and high conductivity . the inductance. vol. per unit length of the wire. when Sir W. Q steady resistances of wire and return. xiv. and make the corresponding change in that of V' that is. with the addition of the electric force of inertia .
. this simply changes R and L from other equations. in powers of to expand the numerators and the denominators of R" and R% in powers of p. certain constants to others. in the case of the inner tube. . or. or (22). in the system (71). A further refinement is to recognise the differences between R' and L' in one m system and another.H. no matter what the conductors may be. and In a S. as may be at once verified by the squareofforce method. to obtain a complete development. (72) and (73) being the tubeformulae when the return is outside it. as in (67). and the normal systems (18) of Part The Effective Resistance and Inductance of Tubes. Mag. to be done separately for the inner and the outer tube.H. so as to from source to sink. I. instead of assuming m = in R" And n lastly. so it is of some use. in general. it is simply the inductance of the tube per unit length (of the tube only). application. we shall have sible mistakes. extremely rapid reversals of current. the work is very heavy. if we simply exchange and a l we shall get the formulae for the same tube when the return is inside it. so that we must regard ( R{ + L(p) etc. change to E^ and to /z3 and &3 a 1 to a 3 and a^ to a 2 Or. so. But in the tubular case. the division is merely of \xJQ (x) by J^x). Now. May. with the extension of meaning of R and V just mentioned. perform the divisions. well's equations. more simply. But R{ gives us the first correcwhich is the steady resistance. a comparatively easy matter. be. But. and exact solutions of Maxr . problem. and then separate into odd and even powers. change R and L to Rf and L'. 1886). When the wire is solid. depending on the frequency. 2 p we have as regards our obtaining the expansions of R{ etc. by sufficiently increasing the frequency we approximate to surfaceconduction. I imagine. there is extreme departure from uniformity of currentdistribution in the variable period . in powers of p. . . The first correction depends upon p*. fall be able to fully trace the transfer of energy back upon (57). ri is written for p for LI. for. as a simple change converts one R' or L 1 into the other. defined by (56) and (55). To tion to lt . it would. The work does not need (73) for the S. where 2 2 As E obtain P4 and L( from these. E ^ ^ . I .192 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. We must then. Thus. be of no use developing R" etc.. I should mention that my abbreviated notation was suggested by his. on account of pos2 go only as far as p or three terms in the quotient. The solid wire Rf and L' expansions were given by Lord Eayleigh (Phil. merely as a convenient abbreviation for the E[ etc.
. (75) where To get R( and Z. Although the steady resistance of the return may be very low. and put in the exponential form. when x is very large. n. may be treated as linear conductors. and must be much greater than it. and those for the outer tube depend not on its bulk.. from which the current is transmitted into the conductors. in both cases it is the extent of surface that is in question. then. VOL. but on its inner radius. compared with that for the wire.. (w^\ &! .. PART II.P. as L Q except in the case of iron.\^ = (sin x . JSiV = (""^i/*!^)**!* 2 = therefore n\ p R( = therefore B( f pi = ($n)*(l +i) L{ = = ( Jw)* +jp( Jw" 1 )*... and p q n/27r is the frequency. except under extreme circumstances. In the case of a solid wire.. and 2 x 503] when the return is inside. next the dielectric. there is a large change. whilst the highfrequency resistance is independent of the steady In (75) then. The highfrequency tubeformulae are readily obtained. 193 If the tube is thin. resistance tube is very thin. locality of the return. We shall obtain But Also. so that whilst the correction is reduced. yet the percentage correction will be very large. subject to the equations (71).(74) R" fraction. so that.. great enough to make E' several times R. the reduction is far greater when the return is outside than when it is inside.. of course. N H. This will be readily understood by considering the case of a wire whose return is outside it.E. That is. . with no The L may be taken corrections.cos x) + (irx)l. Consequently thin tubes.. change the //. \ n . as is otherwise clear.'e) = (ainx + coBx) + (irx)*. in this aJctQ = 2 example.. the decimals are 083.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. } ' ^ ' . the greater must be the freis = For the steady increased indefinitely by reducing the thickness of the tube. Those for the inner tube are the same as for a solid wire.. and also a^ to a 2 It is clear that the thinner the tube. finally. Let GQ (x) = (2/7r)KQ (x) and G^x) = (2/ir)K1 (x) ... itself very large when the quency before these formula? can be applicable. Taking rtj/</ =2 only. ) J (x)= G J^x) = Use these in the 1 (x) (. we shall find when the return is outside... there is little change made by thus shifting the But if a^/a be large. and of great bulk. q must be resistance..
2W . let priate to the terminal conditions at z = wire and return be joined direct. Thus two e's directed the same way in space. though I do not see how to m f do it. makes no difference in e. Impressed Voliage. m obtained by adding together the separate solutions for eW) e01 etc. But when Rm = R' and L' = L' it can of course be done.H. cancel. find V and C everywhere subject to (66) and (67) with e = Q. Then. Shifting impressed force from the wire to the return. in the equa and tion we know em is whilst R' and L' are constants. This makes the currentsolution become ) . Thus.e2 ir/l. the other in the outer conductor. of equal amounts.. one in the inner.. e sin nt being e at distance z the proper expansion is t now where e l m = l of (54) and (53). imagining it to be V^z^ from 2= to z = zlt and zero elsewhere. for m we may then use the finite solutions of (66) and (67).go) +o V e sin ( nt ~ 6m) cos mz case is. 2. and of uniform intensity over crosssections). . and no impressed force elsewhere. neglect the summation altogether.R'Q) r (R'P + UnQ) . . For definiteness. no impressed force anywhere except at z = 0. without any terminal resistances. Now (77) may perhaps be put in a finite form when R' is allowed to be different from fi'.1 I m \ (R'* + U*n*)t ^[R% + (L' where the summation includes all the m's.. Let there be any distribution of e (longitudinal. and sin (** g f oo . to S. etc. Practical Solution.) Then. and is n. Expand it in the Fourierseries approand I. given V F sin nt at z = 0. \" tan O l = (L'nP .cos 2$). where it is Then. to GO . and diminishing z l indefinitely. with a simultaneous reversal of its direction. solution in the general case. give the S. Let P = (Sn)*{(R'* + L'W)* . = oo + eoi cos m\z + eo2 cos m & + m 2 = 2ir/l. c _Vof If the line sin (nt / o y sin (nt  * J cos 2 mz 1 ' . is short. The complete solution m . of the line.J 2 / 79) . This will clearly become departed from as the distance of the return from the wire is increased. and F = Q at z l.L'n}*.. . subject to (58). (It should be remembered eo > that e is the in the same plane z = constant. the A practical V expansion required j going from 1 is . tan = sin 2QI r (. unless the frequency is excessive.H. one end sin nt.194 Train of Waves due I will ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
According to (82)... But if the frequency is sufficiently increased. and another reflected at z = 0. . give the greatest value of the impedance. impedance (from impede). we have extended the meaning of impedance.. whilst. but is greater or less than that of the former formula (linear theory) according as the frequency is below or above a certain value. there is a reflected wave (the e^ term).. as we must (or else have a new word). the third and least important.. The distantend impedance may easily be less than the impedance according to the magnetic reckoning.. is that it line.... The impedance according to the latter formula increases ignorable. 195 Fund C solutions are pz sin (nt + Qz  Ol + 2) + e~ fz sin (nt Qz6 l + If we expand the last in cosines of mz we shall obtain m = R'. what it really is.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. <82) o/ QuasiResonance.... .. The shortline impedance is (E 2 + L 2 n2 )*l or (*+ISW)M> at the frequency 7i/27r. roughly speaking.. (77). with R' There are three waves the first is what would represent the solution if the line were of infinite length but. or are not. without any magnetic and electrostatic induction. on the average. impressed force acts at one end. even on a short line... with the frequency.. The amplitude of G anywhere is At the distant (z = I) end it is ~ 2 cos 8Q "* .. according as currentdensity differences are. Fluctuations in the Impedance. we have . That is. if the line be long.. What is more remarkable. I have already spoken of the apparent resistance of a line as its The steady impedance is the resistance. the formula ceases to represent the impedance. It is what the resistance of the line would have to be in order that when an S. (83) as the distantend impedance of the line..H. being of finite length. then the finite PART II... since the currentamplitude varies as we pass from beginning to end of the (83) will. the currentamplitude at the distantend should be. . it will not do so at any frequency except zero. however.
... etc. Therefore .... and let h = 1.. We U=L . which is. may = L Q and the take v = 30 10 cm. 202 285' nl/v'.. Here nl/v We rjc.. we dielectric air.. = 30 ohms. of course.. Now.. if we [ ] take only the first term within the [ ]. itself increasing.1)* N/2.. . be much less than the steady resistance of the line. giving resistance to the line. and.. and the currentamplitude . This implies Without making use of currentdensity differences.... Then F /C = \LW = if 82847r . . Then shall have. With this vf and h notation (83) becomes factor outside the The *"where 2 COB 2QI}*. This is due to the toandfro reflection of the dielectric waves. by (83) and (78).. The sine is to be taken positive ahvays. the dielectric . on the whole. (84) where v = (L Q S)z = (/* 2 c 2 )*. we suppose that the conductors are thin tubes...196 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. This accounts for the infinite accumulation... This requires 5 nljtf = 285. Resistance R'l by making use of the above values of h and .. Choose Q so that 2Ql = ZTT. where t/ = (L'S) ~ *. we shall obtain the former infiniteThe effect of resistance is shown by the conductivity formula (84)... the speed of waves through the dielectric when undissipated. terms containing h.. is and h  the electromagnetic impedance ... may transform (83) to 27r. If nl/v infinite. it will be subject to maxima and minima values as the speed increases continuously. in the first place. the impedance is zero... which requires the conTo show this. 606 U ohms. U 9 Impedance " 60 6 L' 10 _ .. it is clear that although the impedance can never vanish. which is a phenomenon similar to resonance.TT means that the period of a wave equals the time taken to travel to the distant end and back again. quite unrealizable.. (86) PI = (nl/v')(JT+h... take R' may ductors to be of infinite conductivity. = Tr.. 2i[Y +  2]*.... inductance.
U= 7/ = 7/ 1. =105.72' . ^ = 85. . 1. and then derive F and y from either by (11). if a tone last through the time of several waveperiods. .72' 77=100. becomes 42 per cent. 4 . = . ^ = 85. with the same Rf and 7/. ^ = 8568. Then. t . In the other case./i=10 . ^ = 8568. ^ = 856. . U= >f 10. . . make use of (49) and (50). / 1 resistances vary from T to 100 ohms per kilom. . H . Then F /C and = 28L' ohms. and y from it.. The common value of nl is distanceend impedance to the resistance.7?= 10 72' s . w = 10 3 5 .. 4 Impedance Resistance Thus the amplitude of the current. the longitudinal current through the circle of radius r. . . the frequencies from 10 2 /2n.. we may first derive Cr or r from C. and the value of l Then we shall obtain H A Cr = //rV \ rr~Tr^TVVJ \ V.. 10.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. 10.. =105. F. But taking 2QI = TT. 10. nl/i/ has one fourth of the value just used.7j!'=10 . ^ = 85. from being less than the steady strength in the last case.w = 10 . PART II. Thus. .. / x has values one fourth of those in the above series. R' = 10 5 ..rt = 10 2 4 . the inductances to 100 per cm. if we value of the impedance. if / x = length of line in kilom. 197 or one fourth of the above value. ^ = 856..?^10 3 % = 10 2 w= .. . The V from 1 856800. etc. the wirecurrent. . n = 10 3 and ^ .856.. Derivation of Details from the Solution for the Total Current. and the In all cases is the ratio of the lengths from 85 to 8568 kilom. = 10 4 per cm. L'= jj = L'= 1. = 85.7i=105..to 10 5 /2w. =10*.. We If R' = 10 3 and .. io*. Remember that 1 ohm per kilom. that go to Telephonic currents are so rapidly undulatory (it is the upper tones make articulation. above apply practically. so that. and convert mumblings and murmurs into something like human speech) that it is evident there must be a considerable amount of this dielectric resonance. Thus.t\ ~ \fi (^) .72' =10*. for is Having got the solution for C. properly. .72'=10 6 . greater than the steady have evidently current by quadrupling nl/i/ and keeping h = 1 ranged from somewhere near the first maximum to the first minimum These figures suit lines of any length. we may obtain those r being the same as ('2/r)Cr where Cr H.. there given. The following will show how the choose the resistances. jf // = ioo.
For we have where s x ni even. whether we derive the special results from the general. the work has to be done. and desire to know the effect produced there and elsewhere. will serve to show the procedure have an impressed force acting at one spot. Now we have We . In the solidwire case . In a comprehensive investigation. of their amplitudes in the S. the Csolution would be only a special result. case is we see that the ratio = using the r a l expressions.d 2 /dz2 where. and We N the odd powers of (p + m at r = takes the place of the y in those equations.) solutions (80) have been asked by more than one correspondent how the above and (81) are obtained. 2 are to be d/dt and .H. Note on the Investigation of SimpleHarmonic [I (July. it might appear that there would be some saving of labour by first getting the Csolution and then deriving the general from it. But this does not stand examination . or conversely. and. The first step is to form the differential equation connecting the impressed force with the effect produced. it giving the working rather fully. M contains the have also F being F . since by the first of these. States. m rji( s i r ) C = Q ' Vi( s or i tt i) Or. use the M and N functions of Part L. and therefore add some details. as in other cases. 1892.198 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. equations (42). As this special result is more easily got by itself. with m = 0. in the s lt p and Similarly for the returntube. connects the boundary and axial currentdensities.
. evidently . F*..) cos (6A) This is in rational form... if we introduce the leakageconductance per unit length (as in Parts IV.. sn J + . (3A) needs forms.B.. The denominator...z) + c~ pl ) 1 *') sin Q(l ....ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. The work is now to turn (3A) to (4A).............).. however.......z .. if we wish to find the ultimate simpleharmonic state of V due to simpleharmonic e of frequency w/27r... (.. in. e = A+B ...... say D....... If..F*. .. + ...... But it can be simplified... then (3A) becomes... the differential equation connecting at z with e at z = 0... all indefiniteness having been removed by the previous work........ But. V fully when e is y_ (cuii _ c m*) cos Q(l ........ (. multiply it and the denominator with the sign of i changed.A + i.. To suit the present case.. when the real and imaginary parts in the numerator and denominator are separated........ we know that 2 2 + Qi.. . being any solution of the problem of finding is due to e. them by the terminal conditions /. and V.Z + i(* ) p(l 1 . But the primitive solution in general requires a good deal of development.... producing To numerator by the cos cos ) ) Qi . (7A) .. the It may also be regarded as the function of the time.A + e~ fl ...... making text (when K=0). . F=P F=(a + bp)e.. as happens when p no development.... (2A) K where A and E are undetermined. therefore give A and B and develop (2 A) to Q = * fl .. we find which F=0 at s = therefore V= e at z = 0.n or p ni.. where P and Q are given in the p = . For the march of connected with that of e through the operator in (3 A) and by strictly nothing else.... First put F=P+Qi. (4A) expressing given fully in any amplitude and phase.. needing development to more immediately interpretable = Q. it is (usually) in a very con This is V latter V V densed form... cos . and therefore V=<. since is i p/n...) sin )sin .... This substitution made in (3A) will make it be convertible to the simple form . Thus..... PART II. e i  e  Qn sn ..z) e ( _ ) C os Ql + i(<? + sin Ql rationalise the denominator.... whilst (3A) is the solution....... It then represents the ultimate steady state of V due to steady e. F be constant. 199 in the line generally..
Some V^ We V n ... The result is a complex solution. But I find the above method more generally useful.ft ) cos 2 + sin #a/ ... pf cos(nt  Qz)~] cos2Q/[~..* + e* * sin 2 COS Sin * +  e z sn + t the full solution with e simpleharmonic... P2 Thus F= F e. either of which may be selected..... may derive G from thus. giving the result...CQs2 ^ ~ sin2Ql . that is. only greatly simplified) explicitly. )"j sir\(nt Qz) + V z sin(nt + Qz)\ . perhaps.. but left arbitrary in amplitude and phase. then the terms in the first two lines of (8A) receive sin nt as a factor.. sin( .. or any combination made. sin( )+ 2 .... as the primitive The easiest way will depend . easily reduce (6 A) to and we may V= fcos Cs/c'V*" + ** ( ft + e...200 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. and add and substract from (9 A) terms so as to isolate the solution for an infinitely long line.sm(^  Qz) +F slr/ c pz cos(^ + Qz)  e~ p* The transition to the shorter cos form (80) ~ pl ' is now obvious.. after rearrangement. a special complex form of impressed force...dV\dz _ This process R'L'p may be applied to the final form of solution for (3 A)... with the additions caused by the reflection at z = l and the subsequent complex minor reflections at beginning and end of the line. which was arranged to show the solution for an infinitely long line (obtainable by the same process.. by taking ~ 2 "2 ". divisible into one due to J^cos?^ and another due to F" sin nt.. sin 2$[V* cos(nt + Qz)e. (i LO sin e 2 ~ pl ' ^ nt of the above work may be saved. If it is F" sin nt. V or to any previous form..... whilst the next two lines receive cos nt (by the operation of the differentiator i on e). (9 A) This differs in form from (80).. by taking e = at the beginning. To get (80) from (9A) observe the form of D in (7A).
for the quotation is from memory) that one might as well prove the rule of three by the laws of hydrostatics or something similar to that. I believe. made use of Green's Theorem concerning the mutual energy of two electrified systems. Special proofs of the possibility of certain expansions are sometimes They are frequently long. Something is clearly wanted of a quite general nature. " and the possible nature of the " terminal conditions which may be imposed. of Fourier is full of it. in dynamical applications. and. whilst there is an infinite number of functions equally deserving. and because the solutions can subject is reached. the forms of the functions involved.] PART r/cx III. This will. in the course of his learned paper on the Bipotential. He said (in effect. In the second edition of his treatise. be fully realised. perhaps. for it is the same problem the working of the as above. after all. Series. governs the whole subject. and simple in its generality. on circumstances. in his investigation of the conjugate properties possessed by complete sphericalsurface harmonics. But in the present place only a small part of the question will be touched upon. to cover the whole field. in the recollection of some readers that Professor Sylvester. It will be. poked fun at Professor Maxwell for having. and is done in the same way. quite special . Its complexity arises from the reactions between the terminal apparatus and the main circuit. the poetry is more plainly evident than in cases of Another remarkable thing to be observed is the greater complexity. can fail to recognise The great work the poetry that pervades this branch of mathematics. (7solution. complex. if he possess any soul at all. difficult to follow. way the principle of conservation of energy and its transfer.. PART III. be ultimately found in the principle of energy. a few years since. Maxwell made some remarks that appear . as regards the possibility of effecting certain expansions. with special reference to the physical problem of the propagation of electromagnetic disturbances through a dielectric tube. the manner of effecting the expansions. very vexatious. Prof. at least as regards the functions of mathematical physics. on the Expansion of Arbitrary Functions in The subject of the decomposition of an arbitrary function into the sum No student of of functions of special types has many fascinations. bounded by conductors. unconvincing.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. but with arbitrary terminal connections (instead of shortcircuits). 201 Similarly we may derive the ^solution from the by v_ ~ The above details dC/th_ serve to KSp dC illustrate will also problem in Part V. or the equation of activity. although there only the mere fringe of the For that very reason. mathematical physics.
... and the dissipativity.. and avoid the unnecessary complexities connected with the use of the special functions in question.. And in general... When there is no potential energy.. and activity. the physicist has a right to assist himself by the physical ideas.... but those of all other functions of the fluctuating character. we are enabled to go straight to the mark at once. where 2 . velocities. T. U= (90) So far will define.. and the forces of resistance to the potential energy.. and the Let the variables be xv x2 equations of motion dissipation of energy. are given to certain quantities. ^ = (A u + B^ + (V F F . in the briefest manner. r (^) Forming (89) where v 2 . no kinetic energy. U. are involved in the principle of energy. which are When there is quadratic functions of the variables or their velocities. and assisted by the physical ideas involved... Z712 Considering only a dynamical system in which the forces of reaction are proportional to displacements... and treat the matter as a question of the properties of quadratic functions . T...P2 }Xo + (A 2l . through the principle of energy. the mutual dissipativity is derived half from each.. as the reasoning is purely mathematical. we have T12 U which covers all .. the equation of total activity.. = and T12 = 0. the conjugate properties of normal systems are 12 and (X 2 = 0. We The Conjugate Property Ui 2 = T 12 in a Dynamical System with Linear Connections.. yet. including the infinitely undiscoverable.... as the mutual potential and kinetic energies are \ Q 12 + T12 equal.. may indeed get rid of the principle of energy. are necessitated. and^? stands for d/dt. to the effect that although names. 2 )Zj + (A 12 + B2lp + C^P^X! + (A?* + BOOP + C<x.. = Q'. we obtain 2Fv=Q+U+f.202 to be ELECTRICAL PAPERS. meant for a reply to this . > .. and Q. which present themselves in physical problems. 613+ &u 0. Q. U12 = Tl2i and has two equivalents. are impressed forces. for. When there is no = and Q12 = 0. involving physical ideas. But by the use of the principle of energy. conjugate properties of spherical harmonics. and are most simply and immediately proved by it. and predicted beforehand. a method which may commend itself to the pure mathematician. which may be so great as to wholly prevent the recognition of the properties which. say U. tne ip velocities v1 = ^1 . these standing for the mutual potential energy and the mutual dissipativity of a pair of normal systems.. and cases. For not only the Certainly . there are three important quantities the kinetic energy.. . but there is much more in it than that..
r . reference to the dynamical system expressed by Maxwell's electromagnetic equations.... [Vol. (92) Similarly.. or e 0.... i. adding which.. and 2_Fv=. so that where Z712 .. h 0. that is... using the equations (4) ii.. H by the action of the first system on conv VEjH^Tr = (Ej curl H 2 .. T12 Q12 ... in turn... 174]. comparison with the above is A equations.. The following to (10) of Part.. by (89) ...] Application to the General Electromagnetic Equations.. PART III... + E^ E^ (93) . pp. HB 2 1 /47r . or = But when existing simultaneously. But this property is true whether the ^'s be equal or not . Uu = T^ when^j is a repeated I have before discussed various cases of the above. = ^2 + (Pi +* 2 )( Ui2 + ^12)1 and. we shall find. conv VEcjH^Tr = + H 1 B 2/4. Let instructive. Let Qv 17V 2\ belong to the system p l existing alone then. with the F's of one system.. on subtraction. depend upon products from both systems. or = = <? 2 +72 + 2'2 ... I. Then the energy and .... by the action of the second system on the first. thus : = 2 ( Ai^ 612 the accents distinguishing one system from the other. by forming the equations of mutual activity 2^V=. through Q. applies to Maxwell's system. so that no energy can be communicated to the system.. that is. with no entering the unit volume per second the second is E 2 H 2 be any two systems satisfying these = = impressed forces. whilst it can only leave it irreversibly. there results or = Qi2 + & = (Pi ft)( ^12^12) . 203 Now let the F's vanish..... 520 to 531................ and the 0's of the other. Then let p v p 2 be any two values of p satisfying (88) regarded as algebraic. there results the equation of mutual activity...... with special root.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. [vol.. p.. (91) giving Ul<2 = Tl y if the ^?'s are unequal. and (90). x Ej..H2 curl E 1 )/47r.....
There will. making d/dt p^ in one. to Application any Electromagnetic Arrangements subject toV = ZC. or the amount of energy added of b. thus is . (In the previous thickletter necessarily. . obtain P\~ where the unit normal drawn inward from the boundary of the And if the region include region.H 7  1 E) . giving U^ Tu when these are complete. was the symbol of vector product.. Hence. is very useful in saving labour in investigations relating to normal systems of subsidence. if the systems are normal. Similarly for D and E. or C be a symmetrical linear function of E. a and b. and B and H. From (96) we obtain.. we can easily form the corresponding formula in a less general case.. The quantity that appears in the numerator in (96) is the excess of the energy entering the region through its boundary per second by the action of the second system on the first. we find there be no rotatory power. or some special representative of the same. per second to the combination through the terminal connections with.Vl2HJ/4ir<>i 3>1 XKrJ>3H1Ba/4ir) . subtracting (93) Addition gives the equation of mutual activity. be no confusion with the following use of One of the awkward express the lineintegral of an electric force.(H  RJ/i* . if we integrate through any region. and U12) Tu be the mutual electric energy and the mutual magnetic energy of the two systems in that region. nor receives energy from without except by means of the current. we Therefore. (95) by the wellknown theorem of Convergence. N (97) This formula. by differentiation.. that are joined through any electromagnetic and electrostatic combination which does not contain impressed forces. Suppose.(94) conT(VE1H. the value of twice the excess of the electric over the magnetic energy of a single normal system in any region .. (94) becomes if = (E L )/4 r = E^E 2 = Eg&Ej = E^. over which the summation extends. some other combination. we have two finewire terminals. over that similarly entering due to the action of the first on the second system. vector investigation as in Part II. Tait's V V V t . say C. from (92). " " Quaternions is the employthings about the notation in Prof.. And.? in the other. Bearing this in mind.204 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. for example. the whole space through which the systems extend.. the right member = will vanish. Then VG is the energycurrent. entering it at a and Let also be the excess of the potential of a over that leaving it at 6..VE . to however.. and p. since E^ conv (VEA .
... by their product. for example.. 2 .. .. to make a complete system.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Or. putting another barrier in the way of practically combining vector methods with ordinary scalar methods..c.. has its always.. where ance. (99) if Fi.. corresponding to definite values where the /'s and of p... \V1 2/ + (P . left . U.. Now.. T.. 2 oclinear. as mere symbols of operations.e. by writing out the equations of its different parts.Pl ) = c. of the terminals. proper normal modes of subsidence... say. what is always done.. wanted for other purposes..(101) dp' we can down complementary combination...VC is the energy remembering that entering it per second.. so that Z may be a function of p. we can always. without impressed forces in it... whose equation is.. (98) Z is A a function of d/dt. r=ZC. K.. course.. for example..T) in a single is dp In a similar manner for the dp write dp C .... however elementary. For ... to stop displacement. If.. in order that the two and C may suffice to specify.. 205 ment of a number of most useful letters.. All that is necessary is that the equation should be simple forms. we get } the energydifferences and 6' 2 7> PiPi respectively. V. C belong l to p^ and by the combination given F2 C2 to p whilst the V= ZC. supposing the structure of the combination to be given.. in which ducts.. Consequently.. besides the perpetual negative sign before scalar proThe combination need not be of mere linear circuits. . ( Pl pj. unless V is to be zero The complete system. the energyquantities Even in this we completely ignore the current at the terminals... .. be induction of currents in a mass of metal either connected conductively or not with a and b but in any case it is necessary that the arrangement should terminate in fine wires at a and b.p Pz~Pl normal system ' .) differences of currentdensity are insensible there may... we assume c = 0.. (dC/dt) curred... . in the neighbourhood of This is.. PART III.. member refers to u  lt Ta = <?!<?. (ioo) and the value of 2(U. unless specially allowed for. as S.. we could not do it. by (96).. dielectric currents and also the displacement.... i.. V V instance.. common In the simplest case form of this equation is Z is a mere resist But there is no restriction to such g's are constants. arrive at the characteristic equation connecting the terminal and C. V YC' . Now this combination must necessarily be joined on to another..
the complete Z712 By  T12 is g C2 1 ri" rg"^ + ^ = 0Cy C'/i"*2. no possible missing of the true normal functions which arise by treating d/dt as a constant . that we have the whole series of normal functions at command. is the determinantal equation of the complete system (both combinations which join on at a and b. or YZ=0. depends only upon a finite number of variof independent normal systems is also finite.. In such a case as the system (71) of Part differential equation is II. to hold good between the limits subject to at * V=Z C there is = 0. state if U01 be the mutual electric energy of the given and the normal system. Determination of Size of Normal Systems of Complete Solutions obtainable with any Terminal Arrangements provided R. where < < and C to express Initial State. when there state into the series of now infinite any. so that we can be sure of the possibility of .206 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. Therein lies the difficulty. V L are Constants.. magnetic energy. and F=Z C 1 at z = l. stant A v fixing the size of a particular normal system p lt will be If the complete system ables. and pass to and continuously varying normal functions. when we increase the number of variables infinitely.. nor is any proof needed that it is possible to do it. where J^and C are is of the reckoned). PiPz is . equally clear that the decomposition of the initial normal functions is not only possible. S. partial differential equations it is... = and z = and L are constants... i .(102) PiP* and the complete 2(T7. l... addition. involving the partial wherein R. (103) = 0... and T01 similarly. Provided always... but necessary. the mutual .... expressed in such a form that every term in dimensions of a resistance. z S. and there is no difficulty whatever in understanding how any possible initial state is decomposable into the finite number of normal The constates . by continuity.T) . it is clear that the number given by by the initial previous.... And.
........ (7 . Part II.. and L any singlevalued functions of z. (112) an d.. or 8." and the line itself.. denoting normal Kfunction as PART .ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES... after putting function. W remembering that m the denominator of is . which can only receive energy from the " line.. Thus.... ..... Complete Solutions obtainable when E.. If there be. if we make R... m . we must make corresponding additions to the numerator... getting this characteristic equation of C. .. subject to the elementary relations of (71)..(107) Here will be determined by the terminal conditions = W Z. by (106) and (107). without changing the denominator of A....... L are Functions of z. In a similar manner.... at z=l.(108) at time / ..... S.... (Ill) bp There are four components in a function of p.. 5.... the expansions. say F any ... the terminal arrangements... and the corresponding normal d Cfunction as _+& m 2 dz = + *cos (mz+0).......... where t V and G solutions are F=2^e* C=2Awf .....m we may u = sin (mz + 0).... (109) A is to be found from the initial state.. viz... which can receive or part with energy at both ends.. as there are three electrical systems. III. nction... 207 take the (106) 2 2 ESp + LSp by ... . functions of z by provided there be no energy initially in the terminal arrangements.. = IV .. and the complete at s = 0. The expression to be used for u/w is.. (110).... of p....... though not Effect of Energy in Terminal Arrangements.. w for C and p for p this equation for the current .
.. H remain functions of r only. from a solid to a tubular inner conductor. and then 141.. of course. remarkable.. Case of Coaxial Tubes when the Current is Longitudinal. It is also remarkable that..] finite number of variables. . S........... as regards the obtaining of correct expansions of functions. This must be done separately for each terminal arrangement. p. there is no occasion to impose upon E.. equations (11) to (14).. Suppose that the initial state is of purely longitudinal electric are force........ except as regards arbitrary multipliers. to receive special attention).. with the extension mentioned at the commencement of Part II.: calling these E v E2 . and L the This will be physical necessity of being positive quantities. XX. or real. however. examples. for [See Art.. except as regards the initial energy beyond the terminals. Electric Displacement is Negligible.. so that the longitudinal E and circular How can we secure that they shall. The terminal arbitraries 2 j(/2 (p).. independent of z... (109) and (110) will constitute the solution..208 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. For the normal potential. find the expression for the part of the numerator of (110) to be added for the terminal arrangements... understandable by going back to a passing to continuous functions.... Part I. Start with the general system.. so that any short length is representative of is to be longitudinal. are constants.. functions of r only.. etc.and currentfunctions will be perfectly definite (singularities.. each as the sum of two independent functions.. from the mere form electrical of the ^functions.... given by (115) and (114). and in what cases we can be sure of getting correct solutions. in subsiding. It is. giving . The matter is best studied in the concrete application. of (112). This is to be done by first 2 decomposing the expression for C' (dZjdp) into the sum of squares. ... and the terminal conditions will settle in what ratio they must be taken. perhaps universally. .... for instance... which I may consider under a separate heading. vol. are then the additions to the numerator of (110) are wherein the E's may have any values. without knowing in detail what combinations they represent... < 115 > and finding the w function by the second *we see that the expansions of the initial states F" and C' can be effected. that we can often. and examine how the preceding results apply.Afi(p).. I. there must be no longitudinal the whole ? Since E . subject to the terminal conditions (108)... Also when the Let us now proceed to the far more difficult problems connected with propagation along a dielectric tube bounded by concentric conducting tubes. (116) where rv r^ *2.
Or put nonconducting and nondielectric plates there similarly. for brevity. This is expansion of the initial state of normal functions are quite definite. or it must be entirely radial...and returncurrent. on account of symmetry. PART III. But there will be radial force in the dielectric. (118) the radial force.... This will make F^Q there. will be eQ =(ZQ + Zl + lLQp + lR'{ + lE'l)C.) system Now in shortwire problems the electric energy is of insignificant It is usual to ignore it importance.. In any of these cases. By (14).. and C the wirecurrent. more importantly..P.. inversely as the square of the distance.and sheathfunctions of equations (55) and (56). on the assumption H... we should... and still have correct expansions of the initial magnetic field. which will take place similarly all along the line. that we can V E. the lineintegral of r V is E It is clear.connections of the form VjC = Z before used.. then.. VOL. we are only concerned with its total amount over the complete section of the dielectric. This will make (7 = 0.. II .. For energy would leave the line . (119) if e Q is the total impressed force in the circuit. the energycurrent will be radial.F.. But it is simpler to ignore For the equation of altogether. as compared with the magnetic. the longitudinal energycurrent density will vary But. There will be no and F the currentdensity.. for one thing. Put infinitely conducting plates across the section at either or both ends of the line. so that C and H. but.. which is the fifth case.. upset this regular subsidence everywhere alike. in which. and therefore longitudinal energycurrent. Or. This necessitates This we can do by assuming c = 0... therefore. (By " the line is meant... giving correct subsidencesolutions. 209 or z = Therefore no energy l. the of tubes extending from z = Q to z = l. now allow terminal ..E r *J ai if r . In the H m 1 P 2. " and later all along the line. . the electric force will remain longitudinal during the subsidence. radial electric force in the conductors. equality of wire.. energy current. it prevents current leaving the conductors.. are independent of z... or leave it at This seems to be securable in only five cases. the equation of will be H f* \ dr r dr ^H^fakuA+ucB} and it is clear that the = 0. must be communicated to the system at = those places.. Rf and R" the wire.. let the inner and the outer conductors be closed upon themselves.. take But if we were to join the conductors at one end of the line through a resistance. so that the E and can be truly effected...2irrdr=rC. .E.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. this would cause radial displacement. to some extent.M... first at the end where the resistance was attached... Part II.. altogether.. Since the radial electric force and also the magnetic force in the dielectric vary inversely as the distance from the axis. alreadygiven normal functions. if Fis the lineintegral of the radial electric force across the dielectric.
... ^ = SF.y  ~ .. dz by impressed force). Thus. Thus. except when Terminal Conditions are when there are no Terminals. (120) and (59) and (56).210 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and as the normal //functions are and and = .... being the longitudinal electric forces at the inner and outer boundaries of the dielectric (when there is no E So FC.. definitely known. Failure to obtain Solutions in = 0.. It does not matter how e is distributed so far as the magnetic field and the current are concerned.. in the inner and outer conductor.. The rate of decrease of this quantity with z is to be accounted for by increase of electric and magnetic energy in the dielectric. putting eQ ~0 in (119) gives us the determinantal equation of the _p's . there is also a small longitudinal transfer of energy in the conductors... and and . E But as there is a small radial current. d dz y {j dV r dC v _ . In coming.FC EC to the Jouleheat per second plus the rate of increase of the magnetic energy.. The simpleharmonic solution of (119) is obviously tc be got by expanding Z and Zl in the form R + Lp. and by the transfer of energy into the conductors which bound it. and ~=L C+EF dz F ) . m = 0. r and the radial and longitudinal components of the electric force. for simplicity of reasoning.\j . to the more general case of equation (56).. such that V/C = Zl at z = l... Coaxial Tubes with Displacement allowed for. as in equation (66). . the second term the rate of increase of the magnetic energy in the dielectric. next. or Terms of and C.. all per unit length. If the electric current in the conductors were exactly longitudinal. Part II. E > .. (121) The first term on the right side is the rate of increase of the electric energy. Part II. l at z = 0. The influence of the terminal arrangements must not be forgotten in reckoning A. the expansion of the magnetic field can be effected.. Let it then be distributed in such a way as to do away with the radial electric field. but without restriction to exactly longitudinal current in the conductors. the energytransfer in them would be exactly radial. t being E . the terminal functions.. the third is the energy entering the inner conductor per second... it is In the necessary to consider the transfer of energy more fully. where and L are functions of 2 and adding them on to the l(R' + Up] equivalent of l(LQp + R" + R").. the fourth that entering the outer conductor. would be precisely equal respectively... dz dz But here.ZQ Z Z .. on account of the Longitudinal Energy V VC Flux in the Conductors. dielectric the longitudinal energycurrent is still VC.. Regarding the free subsidence.
T in the conductors except when exactly represent the 12 u E U . The longitudinal transfer of energy in either conductor per unit area is also E F E F .. if the systems are normal.. Their convergences are az *M. in the whole line. the latter being inward.. and. Similarly. by expressed by across the complete section.. It will and F be found that we cannot make the parts depending upon . A . by equation (13).H(dH/dz) . in the inner conductor. Fr and F z sum of the first are the components of the electric currentdensity. F . if we could neglect the longitudinal transfer in the conductors. for 2'1 . 4?r and and and lr*. Now let lt v Cv Fi.. and 2 2 C2 2 refer to two distinct normal systems.7/ r dr .. . ) .. in the whole line.. (125) We We have to see have how far these are affected by the longitudinal transfer. . the longitudinal and the radial components of the energycurrent per unit area are E r H/7r and EJI/47T. if Tl temporarily denotes the magnetic energy in the conductor per unit length. 47r\ ('"/\XW az / 4?r dz EP r r M 4?r Z Z 4?r + 4?r *ff dr + 4?r *^ dr or if  ^.. 5ftfi/4ir. or. (123) per unit length . The .. d... the rate of increase of the magnetic energy. ^ (122) the left side referring to unit length of line Z/ and.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.\dTJdz) (47rk). I...C1 ]J + ( ft 18 a single normal system. . terms is clearly the dissipativity per unit volume and l .. for PART III. = [FiC. Part. we should have that of the second terms is. 21 1 example. ET + ^.(4^) .. therefore. Then.F.rrn rr n ^ x ^_ .
to the same ??i2 the influence of the longitudinal energy transfer in the conductors goes out from (122) and (123).. is . which are therefore true in spite of it. j = 0.. and H^ and H.. and R f + L' p being m m a convenient way of writing the real complex expressions. are certainly important cases.. it is well to verify the above results by direct integration of the proper expressions for the electric and magnetic Thus. Considering only the at the terminals.2 being proportional to sin mz...t( and the complete equations  + ) .. Now the normal and C functions. did. (Er } l and (Er ).. which is a sort of combination of both. These.. V taken to be u= w= so that f . Although rather laborious. the parts the same in both systems p l and p 2 and (E^ Z (H\ of the longitudinal transfer of energy in the conductors...... Similarly. merely = It is clear that the only cases in which (equation (68). depending upon the mutual action of the two systems. 2 has series of m's. F"(7 = have then the cut off from receiving or losing energy at the ends. let energies of normal systems throughout the whole line..... may be r 2 r ) 1 (^T) 2 .. 0.. + m?... 2ir/l etc. and p are .. = + R' + U p m m (128) two of these being the terminal conditions. A Special Initial State. ir/l. and the line closed upon itself.. \co$(mz+0)J pt t V=Aue pt C = Aw . in case p l and p% are values of p belonging proportional to cos mz...5.. and every its own infinite series of ^'s through the third equation (128)... are equal ... T dr r dr j fill + s?Hi = 0.2 So. as before.. provided the m's can be settled independently of the p's.. etc...212 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. or the line four.... as well as being the most simple... (127) for the determination of m...... say u and w.... equations (124) and (125) are true.. and obtain the complete solutions in every particular. ... m ( In that case... the first We t m though very special... they are summed up in this. tan = ^ iw(ml+e)=Z l. 1 ... equivalent to ZQ and Zl being zero or infinite. TT//. and J.... We can definitely effect the expansions of the initial states in the normal functions. or JTT//. 6. fir/Z. 2 where where s? = 47ru 1 & 1 p.. with em 0).....  s = 47r/t 1 & ^ 2 + m... Verification by Direct Integrations.. the m's become clear of the p's are the beforementioned five cases.
. // for the intermediate space..8 r((7 r i 2 CfJ. EF=R"C.. becomes. thirdly. the accents and k in the outer merely meaning changes produced by the altered conductor.. Pi P* Pi P* E and F being But T/k. where 72"= the jR? + JRf of equation (56). by using the above expressions..S2 ) if Cp C2 still be the currents in the inner conductor. 213 We shall find 7 (s?  si) r^H^dr . per unit length . Hence. or the longitudinal electric forces at r = a^ or r = a 2 . provided m} = m. By summation with respect to z from to /. in the inner conductor.. .. (129) .. = = //2 at r = a . and so (126) becomes The mutual electric energy is obviously $ J^ Fg per unit length... *Ci<78 *41ogS. by (126a) and the next equation. subject to ^(7=0 at both ends. / r/2 H V 51 o'*\ . Then. We have 77' = = H^ at r a y in this case. The value of 2T in a single normal system is. per unit length.. for the outer conductor. . Part II. T 1 and F 2 being the longitudinal currentas l densities at r = a r Similarly. we verify that the total mutual magnetic energy equals the total mutual electric energy. PART III.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and that of 2 U is SV*. a i Therefore the total mutual magnetic energy of the two distributions per unit length is 47r which.
and whose numerator is the excess of the mutual electric energy of the initial and the normal system over their mutual magnetic A energy.(131) where and C{ is for a lt a3 for a the same with r put for a^ and C is the same with r put and s3 for s r It should not be forgotten that in the = 0. and then differentiate to p. or.... then.. and let at both ends. . y.. functions of r and z. with no magnetic m R m ... (130) the expanded form of or as may be verified by performing the differentiations. = ol the initial state to be a function of z.. by substituting for u or w the proper corresponding normal functions . H V= F . and in the outer con02 03 ductor. in the dielectric.. contains and must not be the for the same.. Also that R" t or f + L'p. 9 ... initially. But..... expressed by  cos (mz+0) &*^*+^ &. 2. remembering that m. (132) dp\Sp where the m's are to be njl. by (130) and . (131).. the denominator (130) requires to be doubled. the magnetic force and two components of current. F=0 We find immediately. . F... and the second for the p's of a particular m. H H H will be given by the summations to include every p. subject to TC = at both ends. the state at time t later more explicitly. using the expression for u/w in (127). m force. take the initial state to be e^lz/l). M which is say. in (130).214 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. we shall obtain.in it is a function of p . . the coefficient being given by the fraction whose denominator is the expression M. and Given. etc. and the complete energydifference in the whole line. for In this use V=u and C = w. and that the system is left without impressed force. with similar expressions for H. r put J Sp(R + Up) for m. in the inner conductor. equations (126). 3ir/l etc. expression To check. the first summation being with respect to m.7r/l. \l becoming case 2 = /... that at time/.
Let F" be the set up. whilst a function of zv the position of the elementary impressed force edzr To find as a function of zv we might. to be in which By (133) e is a function of both z l and t v and starts at time / . Therefore PART III. we find the effect of a continuously distributed impressed force. has the advantage of being applicable to cases in which VC is not zero at the terminals. variable with the time. If. since *2Au is the J^set up by unit e at z v expand this state by the former process of integration. By elementary methods. and /^ what it becomes at time t after removal steady state of of e then Fj represents the state at time t after e is put on. the effect due to an impressed force one spot. ^/ 1 d<f>\~ ' This is correct. The Condenser Method. = /j + dt v lasting from t = t^ to at the later time t. being zero is of p admissible here. though unnecessary for the present purpose. The Effect of Longitudinal Impressed Electric Foi'ce in the Circuit. starting at time tQt is eQ at e is a function of t r integrating along the line. then. But the following method. if 2 Au represent the F" set up by the unit impressed force at zlt . Let a steady impressed force of integral amount e be introduced in the line at distance zl . including the energy in the terminal apparatus. it may be partly in one and partly in the other conductor. To determine the effect of longitudinal impressed force. keeping to the case of uniform intensity over the crosssection of either conductor. we can find the we can. is therefore. So. and VQ when t = <x> No zero value From this we deduce that the effect of e t put on. time t after e is when t = 0. e per unit length. 215 we must have 4 Simplified. but F= ZC instead. F F will give the distribution of F* at .ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. . It is clear that the integration process. C it will set up. would be very wherein A is A . it d( : makes this theorem 1 if the p'a are the roots of $(p) wr^vdp) = 0. by state of F. by timeintegration. find the transient state that will result. as in Part II. we remove e steady the preceding.
216 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. with sign changed. a condenser inserted at Z Y If we increase S^ infinitely it becomes mathematically equivalent to an impressed force FQ. initially.. condenser and of the normal u' corresponding to w' must be But since there is. leaving out this term. is the value of in making M U A V=^Au expressing the effect at time t after the introduction of the condenser. A= where is the 2( T) of the complete normal system. change u to w . the summation (134). electric energy only at z v and magnetic energy nowhere at all. lengthy. and p depend on its capacity as well as on the line and terminal conditions.. expresses the final state itself. t.. So far Sl has been finite. (134) expresses the effect due to the steady impressed force F" at zlt at time I after it was started. f pt t is the current at z at time t after the introduction Suppose 2 V Aw of the condenser... . t . u' and u/ become u and w. of spot. clearly... due to the impressed force e.. as modified by f p t \ the presence of the condenser... Thus. or this . and becomes 135 ) fully expressing the effect at of zl and t lt starting at time z. without the condenser. This will have a term corresponding to a zero p (due to the infinite increase of Sl in the previous problem).. 2 Au = 2 is the expansion required to be applied to (133)... Therefore ... the integration is confined to one charged Let Sl be the capacity. expressing the final state.V^jp hence . wf M.. a function To obtain the current. and Q the difference of potential.... when. of finite capacity . or the current at zv we have S^ V is the current being the value of w' at z r The expansion of F is therefore initially and the mutual potential energy of the initial charge of the . the only term in the numerator of A will be that due to the condenser. the same as if the condenser were nonexistent.. This is avoided by replacing the impressed force at z l by a condenser. then. and consequently u'. But on infinitely increasing its capacity. it Put A = wJpM in < it.. since leaving the condenser. Hence. and due to its initial charge. and would require a detailed knowledge of the terminal combinations. and = 0.
. if e = 2 em . PART III. expressions of (126) and (130). R . cos mz I cos mz 1 . as showing the inner meaning of that formula. the formula for C is concerned. is that of (130) . and let $m stand for ra 2 + Sp(R' + L' p). and effecting some reductions. (136) . the u and w expressions those of (126). Let e = e sin (nt + a) in it.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.0. in equation (76). Effect the ^ integration. ' Special Cases of Impressed Force.. which may be derived from (135) by using in it w instead of u at its commencement. and use the u.. w being the value of w at z ... mse d' /dt 2 2 = . in the case V= at both ends. when the condition VG . periodic solution. Part II. F= ends). Again.. e sin nt dz1 . But if we regard S..at the ends is imposed... putting e = e sin nt. w. 217 outside the double integral. The M. with t = for simplicity. and (135) gives is confined to the place . leaving the second part to represent the final Take a = 0.n2 . as supposed in (135)... so far as of the time. where e is a function of z. The result is * (137) The first summation cancels the second at the first moment. in (135) let the impressed force be a simpleharmonic function I have already given the solution in this case. as the effect at time t after starting eQ The first summation expresses the state finally arrived at.. but it is instructive to derive it from (135). so that m m w= 2 Then we obtain. and ultimately vanishes.. When 2 = 0. and the impressed force is is of integral amount e Q) steady. the equation of Vm is . (p sin nt + n cos nt) Jo cos mz\ cos mz l .. But. (with at both gives the p'a for a particular M < m .. eQdz1 . provided the impressed force be in the line only.. then (135) holds good when terminal conditions V ZC are imposed. The Fformula may be got in a similar manner to that used in getting (76). f and L' as constants (or functions of z).
as in the previous.. the terminal arrangements being made to impose conditions of the form V= ZC.. due to the will be valid. Now to make some remarks on the impossibility of joining on terminal apparatus without altering the normal functions. considered as algebraic. at z = 0. (140) Jo the summation being with respect to m. close up to the infinitely conducting material... and y will vanish in the conductors. Uniting (139) and (140). in which the summation is with respect to all the ^'s belonging to all = 0. summation with respect to m... the corresponding mz\ cosmz1 m F"solution is _ _ ~~ 2F" > m sin mz{ (L' . but merely in the conductors. How to make a Practical Working System of V and C Connections. This. that if the quantity VG at z = Q and z = I really represents the energytransfer in or out of the line at those places. will be found to be the expansion of the form (80). the 2/1 must be halved. )... the summation being with respect which are the roots of $m = 0. in the first place. except in the special cases. on the assumption R' = Rf L' = Z/. dielectric..m /Sn m 2 2 )n sin nt r + Em cos nt} F sin nt.. But y in the dielectric at the same place will be continuous with the radial surfacecurrent on the infinitely conducting ends. then the equation w be . the impressed force being .. current in the conductors will be made strictly longitudinal. similar to (77) for C. requires us to stop the longitudinal transfer in the conductors there..218 (by (60) and (63).. by coating the conductors over their exposed sections with infinitely conducting The material. We e dzv . can ensure that VG is the energytransfer at the ends. It is clear. provided u and to make VG be the We . Part ELECTRICAL PAPERS. In the form of a In the case the m's. because the radial current y in the conducNot in the tors is proportional to sin (mz + 6). currentfunction w is proportional to cos (mz + 0). so that  de d N esinnt U' by a wellknown to the p's have also algebraical theorem. or make the current in This condition is violated when the the conductors longitudinal. But energytransfer at the ends. and y has to vanish. there results the previous equation (138).the correct normal functions... m m Part II. II. and joining the terminal apparatus on to the latter.
It would at either or both ends. This does not involve ic abolition of the radial dielectric current which produces the electric Lisplacement. such that d /dz* = constant. shall be a large multiple of the radius of the wire. it would appear that the only way of making a workable system. and which must be physically continuous with the radial current in the conductors at their boundaries. admitting of Terminal >racticable As mentioned at the close of Part III. unit length of line. We i . in the form of linear differential equations connecting C and V. 219 sudden discontinuity in the magnetic force. that the normal currentfunctions in the two conductors must be such as to have no radial components at the ter 2 minals. The only practical way out of the difficulty is to abolish the radial electric current in the conductors. at the ends.rned. is confined to the dielectric. It is clear. mile. and yet the variation in a few yards be so small that this . along which the change C is insensible. Working System in terms of Conditions of the V and C Form V = ZC. PART IV. admit of full solution in the above manner. They require alteration. assume. however. of sensible amount. only near the terminals. with full appliconditions. say. instead of its being in different stages of progress at the same moment in different parts of the line. it may be. if it were taking place in the same manner at the same moment at all irts (as when the dielectric displacement is ignored. which will allow us to itroduce the terminal conditions that always occur in practice. is to abolish the very small idial component of current in the conductors. be imagined to be joined on to that part of the longitudinal current in the conductors that goes out of existence by some secret method with which we are not concerned. or alter the equation of continuity to which the total The dielectric current. may be regarded as independent of the rest of the line . exactly as it would do were there no brostatic induction. 'he current may be widely different in strength at places distant. at any part of the line. therefore appear that only the five cases of or ditto. the current id potentialdifference at the terminals. making it only a juestion of inertia and resistance). PART Practical IV. that the propagation of magnetic induction and electric current into the conductors takes place. theoretically.tion. making (66) the V C= equation of V. so far as the propagation of magnetic induction into it is con. so that they cannot be what have been used. lis requires that a small fraction of its length. therefore. when the latter is abolished. Thus the energytransfer. all along the line.transfer. fully determining the iternal state of the conductors. which is Sf^per current in the wires is subject. cability of the and VC the V ZC terminal longitudinal energy.. or of (7. or the line closed upon itself. may. but. the variation of the boundary magneticforce.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.
circular tubes... from the inner to the outer conductor (concentric tubes). the quantity m in quantity ^ir^lcp is p/135.R"C are the longitudinal electric forces of the field at the inner and outer boundaries of the dielectric. all per unit length of line . will still be the lineintegral of the electric force The quantity across the dielectric by any path that keeps in one plane perpendicular to the axes of the conductors.. inner boundary of the returntube that corresponds to the former outer boundary. lineintegral of the radial electric force across the dielectric being F.. thus The V : . the product VG will still represent the total longitudinal transfer of energy per second in the dielectric at that plane. Also. . accompanied by an oppositely directed current of equal strength in the outer conductor. and &= 1/1700. on account of the dielectric being is. provided their distance apart be sufficiently great to make the departure of the distribution of current in them from have merely to remember that it is now the symmetry insensible. an utterly insignificant normal system. little difficulty. We may therefore take It will be as well to repeat the system that results. where JR V L^ and R% inductances of the two conductors. the returnconductor be a parallel wire or tube externally placed. in strictness. i. the value of the On the other hand. become respectively... . and R" and R" are certain functions of d/dt and constants such that R"C and . or... (141) e is impressed force. one of continuity of 6'. and C are connected by two equations. from Part II.s 2 = 47r/4p + m 2 has values 0. and the lineintegral of the magnetic force round the inner conductor being 4?r(7. and L the inductance of the dielectric. In a copper wire. in short. it is clear that we may regard R'{ and R" as known in the same manner. when it surrounded the inner wire concentrically. in which plane lie the lines of magnetic force. in which others energy is wasted.220 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.e. of ordinary round wire.. Now which the inner may be making it an We V . unless j be excessively large. some necessarily bounded by other conductors than the pair under consideraThis can tion. in which ft=l. or to a Single Wire. in a//. etc. 2?r//. which. Extension to L2 are the steady resistances and a Pair of Parallel Wires. so that C is the total current in it. to a certain extent. As regards the modified forms of S and Z there the energycurrent. S the electric capacity. The forms tric of R'{ and R% are if known when the conductors are concensolid. so that^V/J is a minute But then it would correspond to fraction. the other the equation of electric force.. or a similar series. when only the first differential coefficient dC/dt is Here counted. which / is the length of the line in centimetres.
but with these we have no concern. then. with consequently no electric current and waste of energy. The property is intimately connected with the influence of perfect For perfect conductivity conductivity on the state of the dielectric. LQ is simply the inductance of through the dielectric. so far as the wirecurrent is concerned. and. so that. PART IV. and are tangential at the boundaries. to be an unnecessary refinement to take the earth into consideration. On the ground. or to treat it as a perfect conductor. . we shall no longer have this property. at the first moment of putting on an impressed force. unless we take the earth into account fully as an ordinary conductor. The electric capacity S is that of the condenser formed by the two wires and intermediate dielectric. whilst. which lie in the planes z = const. be suspended alone at a uniform height above the ground. as regards the external electric field. Constant Speed of Propagation. due to the discontinuity in the electric displacement and the magnetic force respectively . and the value of L = = z is such that L^S fj. but if we allow the field to extend into it. and will make L Q S = v~ 2 irrespective of the shape of section of the conductors. wires always behave as if they were infinitely conducting. Similarly. which have no connection with the earth. by electric current. we treat it as a conductor. In neither case will there be dissipation of energy except in our looped wires. shut it only be allowed for by the equations of mutual induction of the various conductors. with extension of the 2 Neither magnetic and electric fields. per unit length of line. if the line consist of a single wire whose circuit is completed through the earth. . irrespective Form of of Section of Conductors. we out from the magnetic field as well as from the electric field. for instance. there will be both electrification and electric current. There are. . will make the lines of electric force normal to the conducting boundaries. . it would seem. as modified by the presence of the earth (the method of images gives the formula at once). by the above. have L S = v~ . so that only the very small dissipation of energy in the earth interferes. the product L S still equals v~ course is quite satisfactory perhaps it would be best to sacrifice consistency and let the magnetic field extend unimpeded into the earth. We must compromise in some way. but there will be a different estimation of the quantities LQ and . considered as nonconducting. two or three practical courses open to us as to suppose the earth to be a perfect nonconductor and behave as if it were replaced by air. In the other case. that is. travelling .c v~ where v is the velocity of undissipated waves the dielectric . the initial effect is simply a dielectric disturbance. 221 For. when we suppose the earth is perfectly conducting. though with insignificant loss of magnetic energy S required. termi2 nating the magnetic field there. will make them cut perpendicularly the magneticforce lines. as before. which are not now in question. Lines of Effect of Perfect Conductivity of Parallel Straight Conductors. Now. by regarding it as infinitely conducting we replace the true variably distributed returncurrent by a surfacecurrent.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. But if our pair. Electric and Magnetic Force strictly Orthogonal.
. (us) Q being the dissipativity and T the magnetic energy per unit length of These equations (143) must therefore contain the enlarged definition For it is no longer true of the meaning of the functions R(' and fi%... guided by the conductors.. or ... to the amounts CR'{C and CR"C per second respectively .. perties. (142) that is.. and substituting the establishment of a steady state of the opposite kind.. but it would appear.. .. to be itself immediately stopped. that R"C is. or furnish itself a proof of..... When there is the dielectric also the is unbounded not enclosed within conductors . thus.. parallel to the wires.. tending to become mere surfacecurrents as the frequency is raised (Part I... as it was in the tubular case. and finally completely alters the state of things. its rate of decrease as we pass along the line is accounted for (as in Part III. and so on. with e = 0. f c=Q +Tv l CRzc=Q2 +f2 .. a secondary phe Extension of the Practical System to Heterogeneous Circuits....) may be derived from. by making use of (141).. the property above mentioned that at the first moment there is merely a dielectric disturbance. and the dissipativity. which would be. in their turn. same principles apply to conductors having other circular.222 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. CR{ conductor... which are. that relatively to the main effect.. when V and C are made the variables. sort of mean value of the longitudinal electric force. we must have . the longitudinal electric It is a force at the boundary of the conductor to which R'{ belongs.). in increasing the electric and magnetic energies in the dielectric. provided the functions R" and R% can be properly determined. by general reasoning..... this does not add to the knowledge The effect of alternating currents in already derived from their study. and in transfer of energy into the conductors. (144) J4T* . Jouleheat per second in the two conductors or . irreOf course dissipation of energy in the spective of the form of section... Thus. For in rapid alternations of impressed force. we are continually stopping the establishment of the steady state at its very commencement.. in the absence of dissipation.. along the dielectric. with " ConExamination of Energy Prostants" varying from place to place. conductors immediately begins.. The It is clear that the forms of section than quantity VC being in all cases the energycurrent. Except the extension to other than round conductors... with velocity v. or propagation nomenon. the toandfro passage of a wave through the dielectric for ever.. accounted for by the rate of increase of the magnetic energy. outward propagation of disturbances to be considered this is.
dz dt .. then. and its difficonstancy of the constants in R" and li'i (as the conductivity and the inductivity. or length of line.(146) is the dissipativity in the dielectric additional quantity per unit length.. the e dz ~ = B"C. as we have got d/dt and constants. fall back upon round wires or tubes if required.. it is simply S(d/dt) when the dielectric is quite nonconducting. 223 the component of the E be the longitudinal electric force and magnetic force along the line of integration.. one conductor to the other. at places miles apart.Cfir. They are functions of But. But when leakage is allowed for. if PART IV... or reciprocal of the resistance. p2 respectively. or the diameter) need no Provided the conductors may be regarded as longer be preserved... etc.'... R% become diHerent resistances.. they may be of widely Then Rf. dz . we shall have <i47) R" and R% being what R" becomes with p l and p 2 for d/dt. their actual disLet us.. d/dt becoming^ and .. Let our system be functions of z as well as of d/dt. homogeneous along any few yards of length. But no extension of the meaning of V is required from that last stated... H component of current in the conductors. which is the circuital boundary of the section of the conductor perpendicular to its length. The division put in by p l the form p2 J'u^C'. it becomes K+S(d/dt). . As the of Part III. rid of the radial culties. with = 0. where K is the conductance. is KV. by (145). whilst now GR'C includes the whole magneticenergy increase. and the displacementcurrent SV> whilst e S"V t is We the true current across the dielectric per unit have now.. Then from which we see that if the systems be normal. and the right member of (148) . The KT 2 Let V C lt ly and V^ C2 be two systems satisfying (145) with e = 0... and S a function of z. II'....(145) where both R" and S" are functions of d/dt and z... if the line is homogeneous. (148) can be effected. As regards "...RW + Cftft) . of the dielectric across from and S are functions of z.. or the steady resistance.. and the dissipativity (rate of dissipation of energy) in the conductors.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Then both K The conductioncurrent their sum.. and the first term is quantity in the {} is the {712 we see that the mutual magnetic energy is U^T^ . assume that R'{ and We can always covery being the subject of independent investigation.. can be found.
.. from (148)... is got from w by first of (145)... in terms of the total current in the wire and its differential coefficients with respect magnetic t ...... (150) consider the connection of the two solutions for the normal functions. making Y w = X+qY.. We see also. az / is to be got from d f 1 __{ dw\ = r. say w.. and therefore. X and = p has C2 to the same be F.. this is done. that normal system per unit length of T line. be the data of the magnetic energy. In X and F.... be the magnetic energy of any then . field itself. . if Q be the dissipativity in the conductors. which we see expresses the reciprocity of the mutual activities of the two parts into which we may divide the electromagnetic state represented by a single normal solution. where the q is a constant. (153) The normal F"function.. say. we j g or J) = 0. which together make up the w in (153).224 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. XY' YX' = S"* wellknown equation constant = hS". field we can find the mutual magnetic energy of any (proper to our system) and a normal field. instead of the magnetic if etc. Since the equation of C in general is.. C.. Now a\o the normal (7function... by (145). 0^2) Let JT with d/dt =p in 72" and ". making them functions of z and and be the two solutions. giving if X' = dX/dz. in (147). making value. Y' = dY/dz... H w. When to may so that. ... C.. supposing (7X to be have disappearance of the right member. Therefore. say u.. (7..... (149) 2r=C^'. in the expansion of an arbitrary initial state. ) >. or FjOj  F 2 tfi constant.... (155) leading to the connecting the two solutions of the class of equations (152)..
including the apparatus. and less from zero everywhere to the final state due to a steadilyacting arbitrary distribution of e put on at the time 2 = 0.. so that the value of 2(U T) in a complete normal system.T of the line. 225 by (147). (159) . integrating with respect to z l ( SUl u. .T12 in the terminal arrangements. (JZfBfHCftft)... C is only in a very limited sense arbitrary. on account of the difficulty connected state is such as can be set up by any steadilyacting distribution of longitudinal impressed force (e an arbitrary function of 2). (these being functions of p and w v WQ are the values of w at z = l and 0.2 o Jo dz Jo PiP* lAPart III. however. we shall arrive at the solution (135). which is (158) the same. e. by the condensermethod of Part III. . 12 the corresponding 712 . subject in this There is naturally some form : difficulty in expressing the state at time t due to an arbitrary with initial state. II. In fact. The following establishment. by (153). dp ... Also... q VOL. as in is 2(UT) = Jo if Stfdz u?dzw? JoqP dp + w*. But when the initial M is quite direct. and C.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and let of the right member of (158)... and therefore also determine the effect of any distribution of e varying anyhow with the time..P.(157) P /C = Zl r at z constants).(156) Pi Pt . etc.. PART to /.. and the unstated form of R". be the value we have merely to employ the present u and w. from . 154). in this case we may readily find the full solutions. The Solution for V and to C due to an Arbitrary Distribution of any Terminal Conditions. are initially zero. and let (X + q Q Y)A Q and (X+q l Y)A l be the currents on the left (nearest 2=0) and right sides of the seat of impressed force. We have to find q Q q l} A Qt and A r The condition C at 2 = gives us.. Start with e 2 at 2 = 22 and none elsewhere.. To determine how V and mixed up with physical considerations..E. Or. so that whilst r is arbitrary.. C.. and certain definite distributions of electric and magnetic energy in the terminal apparatus are also necessarily involved . C F=Z therefore H. and = l and Z at 2 = 0. =  (X' + S{ZQ X ) + P (Yl + S!ZQ YJ. is either member of which represents the complete U 12 The negative of this quantity. IV. as before used. Q rise .
These A * *i or a oa / 161 \ Now use (155). of course.. 1 But > also. : Let . as when the initial G is not zero.226 Similarly. and constant after t = 0. These are.. or the same multiplied by any function that does not conflict with its use in the determinantal equation. if G' have then. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. when the p is throughout treated as d/dt. (2\ where f <f> Therefore.... where p stands for d/dt... the ordinary differential equations of GO and C\ arising out of the partial differential equation of C by subjecting it to the terminal conditions and to the impressedforce discontinuity. all the roots of <j>(p) = e being zero before.. is and S" at to be taken.. by the algebraical theorem. using (2) and integrating. means d^/dp.. when it gives incorrect results.. and the summation includes by (1).We and Gl are the currents on the left and right sides of the seat of impressed force.. V Zfi at z = /... Now make use of the algebraical expansion * /(?> = v_JW is . that is. <p(p) may be either 0(2>) the characteristic function in fully developed form. the manner of application should necessarily be changed. by (2).. (160) etc.. and = is the determinantal equation of the system. V rises amount e 2 suddenly in passing through These two con ditions give us where the determine A 2 means that the values and A^ to be or at z = zz are to be taken. and. (163) * [The limitations to which this expansion subject render its use in the above manner undesirable even when it gives correct results. Then we shall have. Here the numbers z= and atz = l are and l mean that the values of X. We should rather proceed thus .(1) be the differential equation connecting G with e. whilst the it. making the denominator in (161) be ^(<? !?i). by the at the place z = 2 the current continuous. 1=2 (4) . Now.. gives us l )^(Y[ + S'{Zl Yl } .
and the p'a the troubling about equal roots... (172)... do when (164) is applicable. and in accordance with the text (168) is incorrect.. . summation because We may write (165) thus : ^=^0 + where <7 is 2^ ".. so that (162) expands to e2 (164) q takes the place of the previous q Q or q v which have equal values.. hence where the single now d/dt p becomes (5) o P<t> where means with p . .... or <j>(. will however..... Between these places modify the method as in the present note...p) Here pQ has to be d/dt. roots of < = %o?i) = .. In the 1 first terms the p= and values must be taken. . but they are the same = 0. ... 0o P<t>' / with p = 0.] . ... So up to (162) inclusive the text is correct. so that (3) Now perform the operations indicated by J\p^ and = we get ..(6) 8^+6^^1... and use (6).ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. with w2 = X.. In accordance with the above (167) is not always applicable..... (162) lead to Thus... without inquiring too curiously into its strict applicability.. = h(q . ... PART IV.. when there is such a thing..... 227 the summation being with respect to the p's which are the roots of = 0..> + q F2 then in (7). (See also the investigation at the end of the (later) f Here e/" /0o i s the paper on "Resistance and Conductance Operators... whilst C is initially zero . if we take where means e*><.0. and fail otherwise. But the substituted method of finding (7 viz...") steady current..... independent of this restriction. (7) 0o instead of (165). w2 = X2 + q F2 in the in (8)... first or second of where C is the final steady current at z due to the whole impressed force. and C has the same expression on both sides of the seat of impressed force.. to be got direct from the Therefore (166) should be (162) as the case may be..... is The result (170). as it is immediately obtainable from the differential equations (162). Then pass on to (170). But e 2 is constant with respect to /.....6^... 0) the final steady current.qj. Here q and q l are not the same... (169). as the next clear results..
But if q Q and q 1 taken as identical could be consistent this is not generally true... given . (168) where rather. The quantity ..228 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. CQ is . case of e variable with t is the case of periodic e.. we must write... ( 169 ) Now the q being used in w and the q l in w r get the correct formula to replace (168).. To the F"solution. By integration with respect to z we due to a steady arbitrary distribution of e put on at 0.. Or.<$>' which occurs here is identical with the former complete '2(U T) of the line and terminal apparatus of (157) or (!58). By (166) it is 7 ... thus is ewdz Ji where <// a 66 ) = d(J>/dp. as in Part III. To our present purpose.... so that (168) is wrong. would be so with suit /> = 0. (167) To this apply (163).... Let C be the finallyreached steady current.... CQ = Then ew <PoJo a finite expression for dz... W Q and it <f> Q are what w and </> become when p = in them.. which brings (164) to 065) which find the effect = the complete solution. by C = o edzr Rdz + RQ + R. we can take p = 0. the extension is useless.... w and wr C becomes a constant.. and o\ the second If there is meaning that p = no leakage (K= in in S")... (171) ..... and w is the normal currentfunction XtqY. .. and therefore in the periodic solution obtained from (162) direct they must be both used.. whose solution can be 2 = 2 ?i constant.... The extension to e express But as the only practical variable with t... got immediate!} from the equations (162) by putting p Note that q Q and q l are not equal in (162)... viz. is obvious.. by (162). with p Q = 0.. turn the first w into u..
This can be done by letting R" be proportional and S" inversely proportional to the distance from one end of the line. by such a function of r. C0r being the final value. where C is given in (170). 229 where the numerator is the total impressed force. we have then become when^? = But when there in them. Explicit Example of a Circuit of Varying Resistance. say V& in the so that a single differentiation applied to (170) finds Knowing thus C finitely. electromagnetic and electrostatic timeconstants do not vary from one . very special distribution of impressed force to make where. may easily be investigated by means of Fourierseries. distance from the axis. and whose value at the boundary is In the simple case of a round solid wire. (172) becomes. only vary slowly along z. new functions. and the denominator and R^ being what E". Let there be no leakage. less than a t the radius of the wire. As before remarked. is therefore the expansion of CQ The internal state of the wire is to be got by multiplying the first w . as satisfies the conditions relating to inward propagation of magnetic force. H . choose the electrical data so that A' to avoid introducing the currentfunctions and Y are the / and K functions. and where S The is a constant. In the case of a wire of elliptical section it is naturally suggested that the closed curves taking the place of the concentric circles defined by r = constant in (173) are also ellipses. As an explicit example of the previous. 1 . it C would require a the same everyF". Z . is leakage (170) must be used. to be considered later. (87). Part II.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and that in a wire of square section they vary between the square at the boundary and the circle at the axis. r ^ sr w\ewdz This gives Cn the current through the circle of radius r. Bessel Functions. To find the corresponding distribution of steady state. let us. but not of z. we may write (166) thus. with / = 0. The summation here. and Zl the total steady resistance . at least when the returncurrent closely envelops it. PART IV. and R'f a function of d/dt. by unity. and a^ their proper ( 47iY* &1^)i. etc. they must values for the particular value of z. The value of sl is Here of course we give to /xa &j. R. The propagation of current into a wire of rectangular section. and of whatever other variables may be necessary.
230 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... which makes </> = JKJ' / 2 . the denominator in (166a) becoming The qJSop. the equation (166a) thus : we should where O is the expression for the steady current at z due to e. !&**" from which we see that . (166a) = J^fl) / K^fl). owing to the infinite conductivity a* the 2 = = GO there.. by inspection of the expansions of .. on the left and and w = JQ (fz) + q&tfz) u an impressed . we introduce peculiarities 0..... The We have also and the (7solution (166) becomes * l *). we have The value of J and l K <f> when p = in it is. The equation of the currentfunction is part of the line to another. that V w = JQ (fz)... the steady resistance of the line E Q being the write * [In accordance with the remarks in the footnote on page 226.... lt simply %RJP.. and right sides of value of q v got from the V= Zfi condition force..... . Y= K (fz). making ^i 0.. So function. by (160a).] .. seeing that C and But" on performing the differentiation of <j> with respect /! functions.. is = z2 ... where /= ( end of the line. it turns out to be all right. we shall only be concerned with the JQ making Q (fz) K place. say at z at z = l.. is.. (152a) X= JJ(fz).. But. on the left side of the impressed force.. in the first Since is made permanently zero at z 0.. q^ rather singular that we should have anything to do with the K^ are expanded in series of the / and function. It seems expression of ^ is then. the terminal condition there is nugatory.. and q 1 is given by shortcircuit at z = l. connected with the presence of the series of j^'s belonging to where If <f> =  we = /= V in general . whilst in the / = case..
which. A comparatively simple solution of this nature may be of course independently obtained in a more elementary manner. When the impressed force is entirely at z . 'here ra is the function of Y= sin mz.C=lR'W. the following summation. u = (m/S") mz . of the impressed force. (sin p given by so that ( 1 w = cos mz + q sin mz. there is no corresponding Fterm. that is wanting in the treatment of a special problem on its own merits. whose solution two terms. 74) . given by / 2 ^= S p(E + Lp). and the third . so that R" and S" are functions The normal currentfunctions are then simply p. is its expansion. each This quantity /term having its following infinite series of pterms. suit the Expansion of Initial State Terminal Conditions. extending over them's belonging to/=0. 231 p= 0. by the easiest way that presents itself. We may therefore write (166a) *** dp dp^ where the first term is (7 the finallyreached current . for we should then have C inde pendent of z. X = cos mz. the solution would be represented by the remainder of (172a). If there were no displacement permitted (S = 0).ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. the question of variable electrical constants.m? = R"S". on removal for the differential equation of first .RjL whose G'term is exhibited separately. let the line homogeneous from beginning to end. and P Jo [ edz=\ R"dz. Homogeneous Circuit. now.1. . part is a double summation. extending over all the/s except /= 0.q cos mz). The subsidence from the steady state. and therefore cancels the first term at the first moment . to Leaving. is represented by V J (fi) S7p where the summations range over the ^'s. where R and L are constants. On the other hand. and of such strength as to produce the steady current (7 and if we take R" = R + Lp. great power is gained by the use of more advanced symbolical methods. seem to give us some view of the inner meaning of the expansions and of the operations producing them. constant that fig becomes with thus : PART IV.C is plainly given by the (7. The third part of (Ilia} is therefore entirely due to the combined action of the electrostatic and magnetic induction. (the third part) elastic is zero initially as well as finally. Fourier Functions. not counting the p = . but not of z. there will be only two ^>'s to each /. besides.
. of course. in which q q Q and q l of (1606). (176) are.... of which one of the most useful...... got by differentiation with respect to p.R is K is the if RQ = effective = steady resistance at the z _ gi sin 1 terminals.. the steady resistance of line (both conductors). if . Thus.... . w = (l+qrf cos(mz+0). will be tial where g and ql are given by <? =^X m ( ' Zl ( As before.. (175) the determinantal equation of the p's. <? . gli 9 and gli KR^ cos gi cos gli + KR l sin gli I if R = effective l steady resistance at the z = terminals. now. exponential form. in the case of an arbitrary distribution of e we are led to the solution (165). and the steady distribution of V is got by KF = dCJdz. wherein for (and for u in the corresponding F'formula) w use the expressions (174).. may be written in many ways. and the corresponding C The value of <' here. we reach the (172) form of solution.. and conductance of the insulator.. Use (170) to find the final steady currentdistribution.. real in the The expression on the right side of (176) is. corresponding to (162).. Using the thusobtained expressions. # 15 and have the /> = =g values. and is is to be the common value of the <HKS%offi) = .. CQ = (cos mz + q l sin mz) I (cos mz + qQ sin mz)edz mz + q l sin mz)edz f + (cos mz + q in Q sin mz) I (cos S' f (^  ^).232 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. is the following. for expansions Let in Fourier series. Let there be a single impressed force e 2 at z = z 2 then the differenequations of the currents on the left and right sides of the same. They say. . both per unit length of line . if which m....
= case. and S constant (R and S not containing p. no leakage.. and happen in affect m to bring in m = 0. <= ZQ ^ Up Then dp 2m \dp p ) 2 . 233 m d f. correct.. although (180) is correct. or to the series of roots p belonging to the when we are working down from the general to the special. thus abolishing inertia. They will not alter the value of the right member of (180) at they only come into effect after the subsidence has commenced. the expansion of i. The corresponding current is given term in the expansion by ^. and p. in subsiding. which may occur.. 123.. then d<t> PART IV./m dp Corresponding to this. they will not. . if the currents in these coils be equal and similarly directed Part . Returning to (177). is got by multiplying each ... For example. so that the state of the line at subject to (178). 152] F (an arbitrary function of z) is [see also sin (mz + 0) I V^ sin (mz + 6)dz Jo L m d(ml) ti ZI~ ZQ _.. got by the union of tan (ml + 6) ff = Sf'ZJm.. p. d(ml)\S" (m/S")* + Z^~J ( m Z^. to say).m?/ES. the circuit they form by themselves..zJ Here p = . when there is. It is. however. it is tan(9 = %/w. that is vol. making. \ . (180) ty (m/Spf + Z. Take ^= for instance. constant.. if we take R = R. Similar remarks apply whatever be the nature of the line. initially. by (175) and (1606). For example.. rhere m = 2  dp _SpR". to be found by the energydifference method of all III. If there be.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. . easy to arrange matters so that the energy in the terminal apparatus shall produce no effect in the line. time t after it was V^ when left to itself. and S" = Sp. the line at all.r^ RS But the solution thus got will usually only be by RC = dF/dz. join the two conductors at one end of the line through two equal coils in parallel . or other equivalent expression. no energy in the terminal apparatus.. it is to be observed that particular attention must be paid to the roots ml = 0... additional terms in the numerator of (180) are required...Z \l\ J (177) finds the angles ml . (179) which are equivalent to (160&).
there will be none during the subsidence. cannot vanish Now. etc. L the storehouse for / The two p's approximate . have. on t m= account of the doubleness of the p's just as in (I72a) the double summation vanishes by reason of every ^summation vanishing when . The result series. so that if. and to oo . and each having two The be be. in (183). The current then rises thus : C : \ Fed? '^ f. Cl M Jo Ri2j mz e( Vcosrascosm^^le"^) ]o is (184) But the first line on the right side equivalent to . Inertia. m is but when one case. Z=0 R and L are constants not containing p. let very curious. given by ir/l t 2ir/l. .m?/BS.B/L. the summation comes to nothing initially.m L J Mz H * Jo R* + ^Vcoswwl 2 ^ . equation becomes is that the currentsolution contains a term. Transition from tJie Case of Resistance. = giving ml is finite. and is what the solution would were a constant (owing to the constancy of R). if e part is exhibited separately. let electrostatic one. roots. with no corresponding terms in the Fsolution. be exceedingly small. and Thus. Then we m and dp but when 2\dp is p making *dp 2 dp^ m zero the middle term on the right of the preceding finite. as long as Z^ is finite. The R" = R + Lp. and Elastic Yielding to the same without Inertia. But. Z is zero. the magnetic one. when the ends are shortcircuited (z?=0). = any integral multiple of IT. where of current due to e elasticity alone is transition from the combined inertiaandelasticity solutions to at both ends. in the first place. The rise is shown by the m's in the summation being 's.234 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and there is no displacement. or infinite apparently following a different law to the rest. when m . whatever e as a function of z. the which goes up to to Now. the current is steady. This merely means that the mean current subsides without causing any electric displacement across the dielectric.
.. This is We as ' Ts^ .. (189 > . giving 0=0 at the first moment. (186) On the other hand... (188) = 0. thus one half */)... as will be here assumed. (185) is equivalent to from which inertia has disappeared.. is correct... and compelling the current to keep in the wires always. equivalent to taking $ = 0. Here V is given by (188) below.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. Transition from to the Case of Resistance. when it gives C=e/Ii.. without any of the curious manipulation to which the when currentformula was subjected. L being made R except at the I _ ' 2 /fls\ Rl (185} J very first moment.. Jo m is zero and p finite. It is usual to wholly ignore electrostatic induction in investigations relating to linear circuits. let us consider the transition from the combined elasticityandinertia solution to inertia alone (of course with resistance in both cases.. although the preceding formula.... Next.. and here the exponential term vanishes exactly zero. Therefore V rises thus....m*J m2t / s . Inertia. 235 instantly.... and oo for zero..  inwzl ecosmzdz before abolition of inertia. by (145)... Or. An alternative form of (185) is The C= edz 7 + jKijo y]cosmzecosmzdz.. process amounts to taking one half the terms of the summation in (183). perfect. leaving " p. there is no such peculiarity connected with the ^solution in the act of abolishing inertia. and joining them on to the preceding term to make up e/fi.. stopping elastic displacement. and Elastic Yielding the same without Elastic Yielding. which is quite arbitrary. which is quite wrong.. i... But as L is made becomes m 2 for the electrostatic the terms vanish. The = term is m because (sin mz ffl\8p I edz\ / which =0. so that (184) becomes PART on IV. the denominator the other . when the insulation is then have... as in the preceding transition). Jo ..e.
. and making m' = oo.. By we get rid of F". but absolute nonsense physically considered. (193) showing the current to rise independently of the distribution of e. on these assumptions. though of inof (193).... and V to have its final distribution from the first moment.. . V will usually vary with the time until the steady state is reached but if the line is homogeneous....... This means that finitely short period... we shall have l r=[edz(f\\ edz. (191) = finding them's.... when e is steady and put on everywhere at the time t = 0. of amount e is e Q (l is commonsense according to the infinitely rapid propagation of V prescribed conditions. (1* where m has the values ir/l... V and C will (183) and (187))... second of (189) with respect to z from .. and E Z performed on This finds by In the final state V steady resistances... C.236 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. reaching the final value (7 . . when the = This z/l).. and instantly assume its final distribution. (192) V wherein C is to be the right member t 01 of (191)... How does really set itself up. with only the two constants E and L. reducing But the Foscillations remain in full force... when the line is so short that the current rises sensibly according to the magnetic theory 1 To examine this.. e at z = at time t = 0.. S L (independent of t V djdt\ and Zl rise = thus (a special Z^ case Put on of 0. especially in view of the transfer of energy... 2ir/l.. The question then arises.. and if also ZQ and Zl are zero.... and obtain the say. and subside at a definite rate. We can find at distance z by integrating the <j to z. impressed force is wholly at 2 0. F"will be independent of t. It is clear that when S is made to vanish... (190) whence follows this manner of rise of the current. ... Jo v/Jo .. etc. which. differentiations with respect to for put EQ for R"... . the the (7solntion to the first currentoscillations wholly vanish. thus. let the lineconstants be E. . integrating the second of these with respect to z differential equation of (7.. Then..
237 mean and value of this V at any place has is its to be taken to represent its actual value. although as the oscillations subside the = (LS)~l. mean value final value. 132]. if V denote the mean value about which Introduce /^oscillates. sitely travelling waves. a conclusion which (i.(195) which must very nearly show the subsidence of the oscillations. I. F=0 *0 to beyond z = vt. . it is necessary that the L in the above should not at the beginning be the full L of dielectric and wires. which allows us to represent things by means of two oppoTo this I may return in the next Part. the whole line is charged to The wave then moves eQt back in the same manner as it advanced. when the line is short. v is constant. as thus expressed. but only L that of the dielectric. so that the state of things at time t = l/vr is the same. when my brother's experiments on iduction between distant circuits (mentioned in Part II. until t reaches 2l/v. re. hundreds of miles) las been somewhat supported by results. to the conclusion that longdistance signalling was possible by induction. replacing it by unity. p. from * When vt = I. and only affects the conductor secondarily. tending towards v ever. on the assumption of infinite conductivity.. then (195) represents a wave of /^travelling to and fro at velocity v. making very nearly. then the second of (194) becomes jr. I have given a fuller description of this case elsewhere [vol. I will conclude the present Part with a brief outline of the reasoning hich guided me six months ago. be far from being reached.. The nature of the dielectric wave is far more simply studied graphically than by means of Fourier series. which may. . a dielectric phenomenon. the PART IV. through the exponential factor. which. First ignore the subsidencefactor. That is. when we have V=Q as at first.) in the north >f England commenced. This would be repeated over and over again if there were no resistance. causes the range of the oscillations of at any place about the final value to diminish V V Also. clear that this oscillatory phenomenon is. the resistance has the according to the timeconstant 2L/E. making v the velocity of undissipated waves. primarily. Ji _ *\ _ 2v* ** \ I / I v~ m = cos mot. On Telephony by Magnetic Influence between Distant Circuits.e. . especially in the case of an iron wire. effect of rounding off the abrupt discontinuity in the wave of V. howvelocity must diminish.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OP WIRES. so far as the experiments have . and only bring it in here in connection with the interpretation accordAs it is ing to my present views regarding the transfer of energy. we have LS = v~ 2 where .
distances on the above basis. which will be large or small according as the circuits are small or large.2 all n times. So only ly e l remains to be increased n times to get the same secondarycurrent can therefore ensure success in longdistance experiments impulse. Recognising the great complexity of the problem. when than to the short distances than the above asserts. and yet receive the idea of signalling by induction long distances with utter incredulity. of the and L of a circuit of moderate size. One may be fairly well acquainted with electromagnetism. would be sufficient for the purpose. inductance Let R^ and R. then. But practically the result must be far more favourable to the long For no one. in the ratio n (with the same kind of wire) increases M. it is not uncommon for the These form the principal parts to be 100 ohms and 12 million centim. The incredulity will probably be based upon the notion of rapid decrease with distance of inductive effects. and also their distance apart n times. and also with the capabilities of the telephone. The induced current (integral) in the secondary due to starting or stopping a current C\ in the primary is MCJUft or Me^R^Ry if e l be the impressed force in the primary. then primary. and of course do not inIt is therefore certain that we can crease when we enlarge the circuit.2 be the resistances of primary and secondary. and the made no special calculations. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. say. I portant element. The coefficients of electromagnetic induction of linear circuits are If. or at least in the same way as one might accept the truth of the statement.238 yet gone. on the basis of the success of shortdistance experiments. Thus may be that only a slight increase of e 1 is required. namely the size of the circuits. multiplying the distance and size of circuits. that when one stamps one's foot the universe is shaken to its foundations. of frequency W/^TT. in the endeavour to be precise when the data are uncertain and very variable. Now increasing the linear dimensions. with elements of uncertainty arising from new conditions coming into operation at the M R We long distances. with a margin in favour of the signal long long distances. the mutual is increased n times. one is in great danger of swallowing the camel. if it be largely in excess of requirements for signalling in the part. on account of being multiplied in a far greater ratio than the resistances. Thus. without any statement of the magnitude of the current in the primary. Quite true. of two circuits n times. and R. leaves out of consideration an imdifficulty of hitting the exact conditions. say ten times. Again. and the distance. This. if e l in the primary be periodic. but insensible a few yards away. for. would think of putting ten telephones in circuit to keep rigidly to the rule. but preferred to be guided by general considerations. so that we shall have enough current in the secondary if the above ratio is only ^ . however. the ratio of the amplitude of the current in the secondary to that in the primary it M R R ' willbe Now. or the selfand L of a telephone inductances. we increase the size proportional to their linear dimensions.
without going to precise formulae. J mile between centres. therefore have. in comparison with T J^. that it would be matter for wonder and special inquiry if we found that we could not signal long distances by induction between closed metallic circuits. though in my opinion quite plain enough to show that we may ascribe the signalling across 40 miles of country between lines about 50 miles long mainly to induction. are referred to.) The theory seems so very clear (though it is only the first approximation to the theory). the latter being far more difficult to theoBut the reasoning regarding the retically estimate than the former. a superposition of effects due to induction and conduction. etc. But we should expect a rapid decrease of effect when the mean distance between the circuits exceeds their diameter. with closed metallic circuits whose linear dimensions and distance are increased in the same ratio. getting something enormous compared with the feeble variations of current in the microphonic circuit. my brother found it was possible to speak by telephone between two metallic circuits of J mile square. especially when exceedingly But we have the power of rapid alternations of current take place. to say nothing of electrostatic induction. y^.. Experiments and of this kind are of the greatest value from the theoretical point of view. the same property of nfold increase of with %fold lengthening of the lines and their distance would still be true. . the theory is rendered far more difficult on account of there being a conductioncurrent from the primary to the secondary due to the earth's imperfect conductivity. magnetic induction is not very greatly changed. circles. as we should be necessitated to do if we carried the experiment further and closed the circuits metallically by roundabout courses. with a considerable batterypower if necessary. keeping the circuits unchanged. Now. But the diffusion is onesided only. counterbalancing this by the multiplication of the variations of current in the primary that we can get by making and breaking the circuit. Electrostatic induction also comes in to assist. using two bichros with the microphone. it may be easily seen that the above ratio may be made quite a considerable fraction. PART IV. But. and therefore the current in the secondary also. it is to be hoped that they will be greatly extended. as it increases the activity of the battery. starting on the basis of a shortdistance experiment. 239 But.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. As a matter of fact. (It should be understood that squares. and following up the theory. coming to metallic lines whose circuits are closed through the earth. or that can work a telephone. although not so favourable to longdistance signalling. and is even then only partial. If the returncurrents diffused themselves uniformly in all directions from the ends of the line. this does not profess to be We M more than the very roughest reasoning. for then the plain arguments relating to induction will become valid. as regards wires connected to earth.
by a polar force." as usually understood. and let the returnconductor be a closefitting infinitelyconducting sheath. that is a matter of elementary reasoning founded on the general structure of L. we diminish their energy at the same time by the amount of work done against the attraction. distance from the axis of the wire. but a The electrostatic induction will be ignored. thus making the problem a magnetic one. The magnetic energy per unit length is JLC2 . longitudinal of course.240 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. diminution of the L of a circuit in general. If we draw apart currents. we require at least two geometrical variables in place of the one. Let a steady current exist in the wire. where C is the current As regards the in the wire and L the inductance per unit length. the magnetic potential. of course. . so that. need not be a wire in the ordinary sense. is abolished. or a force which is the spacevariation of a singlevalued scalar. when the external magnetic field. and we " may have to supplement the magnetic force of the current. which served before . as in a strip. instead of concentrating it in a wire. viz. keeping the currents constant. some simplified cases which can be fully solved. The mathematical difficulties in the way of the discovery of exact solutions of problems concerning the propagation of electromagnetic disturbances into wires of other than circular section or. in order to be able to set up current in the circuit by means of impressed force.. PART V. with the Electric Current longitudinal. The wire. . so that we cannot entirely abolish but we may approximate in a great the external magnetic field There . and with closefitting ReturnCurrent. when the returncurrent is not equidistantly distributed as regards the wire. even^ if of circular section. Consider. through its axis is . by enclosing the wire in a sheath of infinite conductivity. by spreading out the current. then the measure and representative of the returncurrent. This stops the magnetic field at the boundary of The sudden discontinuity of the boundary magneticforce is the wire. in order to make up the real magnetic are. it. measure to the state of things we want for purposes of investigation. a straight wire or rod or prism of any symmetrical when a uniformly distributed current passes the axis of the magnetic field. where the intensity offeree is zero. or is not so distant that its influence on the distribution of the wirecurrent throughout its section may be disregarded As soon as we depart from the simple type are very considerable. force. large bar or prism. that in the dielectric. tenant's Solutions relating to the Torsion of Prisms applied to the Problem of Magnetic Induction in Metal Rods. then. St. however. It is true that we must practically separate the wire from the sheath by some thickness of dielectric. requiring the wire to be not of great length . of magnetic field which occurs in the case of a straight wire of circular section. thus doing work against their mutual attraction. Thus the quantity ^LC* of a circuit is the amount of work that must be done form of section.
that is.............. let h be the vector magnetic force when the boundary of the section perpendicular to the length is circular.. therefore. as the work is already done.. so to speak ... and of the boundarycondition. h = 27rr o Vkr.. Thus.... be indefinitely increased by fining the wire ..... by a polar H FN = hN is ... and k a unit vector the vector distance from the axis in a plane perpendicular to parallel to the current . To find F we have the datum that the magnetic force must be tangential to the boundary. But we can no more have a finite current in an infinitely thin wire than we can have a finite charge of electricity at a point. V 12 = 0... Here p l measured outward along the normal to the boundary. finds the magnetic potential. which... Q . requiring the curl of F to be zero.. we can in several cases estimate L exactly. The nature of the problem is most simply stated in terms of vectors. 2 is length VOL.. That is. and F=Vfi . their difference being proportional to the difference of the amounts of the magnetic energy per unit current in the two cases. or.. we have CI if s be length measured along the bounding curve. similarly..... although by a useful and almost necessary convention we may regard finewire circuits as linear. whilst their inductances are finite.. PART V..ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. if r is .. that of a mere line being infinitely great.. supposing it divided into infinitely fine filamentary closed currents... In another form. as regards our enclosed rod with no external magnetic field..... in a different field of Physics. in the direction of the magnetic force.. .......... in which case the electrostatic energy would also be infinitely great. since we have h circular about the axis.. in terms of the magnetic potential..... the currentdensity being F . The inductance of a circuit can. whose potential is ft. The boundarycondition (2a) therefore becomes.. 241 to take a current to pieces. and therefore have no normal component . Now. do not We need.... ii.. and H what it becomes with another form of boundary . or (3o) it. with H... to separate them against their attractions to an infinite distance from one another.... (2a) F This gives F. if N be the unit vectornormal drawn outward...... any examination of special formulae to see that the inductance of a flat strip is far less than that of a round wire of the same sectional area.... This must be so because the curl of and of h are identical. for a similar reason .. intensity 27nT at distance r from it.. when it is remembered that must have no convergence within the wire. (la) the field of magnetic force differs from the simple circular type force F.. then H = h + F..P..E..
. .. z being parallel to the current .. is 2 fc ) so that the energy per unit length over section .... we have (loc. we may use the vectorpotential A. except...... cit.. y in a twisted prism. being /xh... circular.. Comparing (14a) with (5a). then V 2 ^' = 0. we see that (7 a) is the simpler. cit. equation (9) )... 706....irT the latter being the boundarycondition.. where the second part on the right side what it would be if the boundary were find A'... because F is H T= 2 /zh 2/87r . we see that there is perfect correspondence...... and y the longitudinal displacement along z. expressing that is zero at the boundary. then H express (la). as regards the constan The lines of tangential stress in the torsionproblem and concerned.. (7a) A' .. its curl except as regards a constant. (9a) 2 2 be the x and y comOr. to find y. equations (12) and (18)). Tenant's torsion problems. if n is the rigidity (loc. Thus. A the summation extending over the section. and A = f fj.. of course...... let its tensor be is.. say I is 7 .2 /xF /87r = 2 /xh /87r + 2 /xhF/87r .. the lines of magnetic force in our problem are identical. we have where T is the twist The corresponding equation (10) ) . in Cartesian coordinates. is closed so that polar and . parallel to the length of the prism... and the energy with (10a).. But 2 FH = 0... let H^ and 2 ponents of the magnetic force H. To r2t .... n times as great. Comparing with (5a). thus.... It is parallel to the current. We may therefore make use of all St... Venant' results.. and (Sa) is represented by the latter form expressing It will be observed that the mathematical conditions are identical with those existing in St. forces are (Thomson and Tait. (13a) Also. The magnetic energy per unit length of rod. if a and ft are the y and x tangential straincomponents in the plane x. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and (13a) with the first is similarly reckoned. and consists of two parts .. Part II..242 Or. (1 of (lift).
..) is F of which an elementary solution is F = cosm if cosny 2 rc **.. (20a) cos ma etc. . as L \^ in the case of a round wire. ..... [Remember the limitation of closefitting return.. that of a wire rigidities. is L = {jab/ (a 2 + b 2 ) when the section is a square.. or Consider the subsidence from the when H E curl H = 47rF. or F = 0.. cosnb = Q.. above mentioned. during the subsidence. etc... which is parallel to z... the double summation over = Q at the boundary. the origin being taken at the centre.. or ma = \TT. when it is an equilateral triangle. The equation of F is therefore believing a distinction desirable......... cos ny E = 0... The general solution is therefore mx m and n. (I speak of the intensity of a "force" and of the "density" of a flux.... the impressed force that supported the current is removed. of elliptical section. from from x= a y= b to + #. nb = ditto. . 1 1 = 2 (2 /ma) sin ma cos mx..ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. //. then the two equations of induction ( (6). Now . (7). parallel to x and y respectively.. (I8a) 4:7r^Jcp= (m + 2 . = 2(2/7i&) siunb cosny.. in a prism of rectangular section. lc the conductivity.. Let 2a and 26 be its sides... Let 2 be the intensity of the magneticforce vector E.. to . of wires of different sections PART V. it is 4417/x.. .. . = 0.. TT.. (190) ) At the boundary we therefore cos or have.... (15a) are reduced to _ dx if dy the currentdensity..] That of a rectangle will be given later in the course of the following subsidencesolution.. Let H^ and be the x and y components of the magnetic force at the time /.. 3627/x.. initial state of steady flow to zero.. F = 22 A cos mx cos ny t pt if we find A to make the right member represent This has to be F = F a constant... f TT..... Part L).. the initial state.. the inductivity. with closefitting ReturnCurrent.... Subsidence of Initially Uniform Current in a Rod of Rectangular Section.. +6..... semiaxes a and b. 243 It will be sufficient here to point out that the ratio of the inductance is the same as the ratio of their torsional Thus. .  curl E = /^H..
giving A nf = 167ru^v>:\sinmasm nb rcosTwacoswye^ . y.. = component of /xH perpendicular to s.244 ELECTRICAL PAPERS solution is Hence the required ab or VV ^ T = ir <^^ mn ab o ~ m .. is given 4*7= 2* by lineintegration ff/^ rt 2 round the boundary.. n gj 8in ^ cos mx cos . (24a) J~y 7^ 2 A A A A V ^^ Since the magnetic energy is to be got by summing up the product F over the section. . . Thus m n .. mx cos *y y by The total current in the prism. the squareoftheforce method the same result is reached. Q being the dissipativity per unit length of prism. this gives (ma) y 1 2 (26a) The lines of currentdensity. is no potentialdifference.(21a) From this derive the magnetic force by (15a). points where if s F magnetic current are also the lines of equal electric That is. The steady inductance per unit length is the (25a) becomes L in when t = T=^LC^ which .. Since the current is longitudinal.^ sin Wft sin . being the tensor of A.. the vectorpotential is given by E = or. . say C. that the amount per unit length is 2 ** ' By course. y through the has the same value is a line of magnetic current. *J n ny 4*. For. is got by dividing the general term in the Fsolution (21a) by pk. we find... of We may also verify that Q+ f=0 during the subsidence. 4 Or if CQ = 4^&ro the initial current in the prism.. be any line in the plane x. by integrating the square of F.. and there . a line drawn in the plane x.
H writing it 2 r(nb) + (ma) 2 ma we may effect as constant in every term. When . by any way I know. as usual. the result is in agreement with the above (29a). and the +T in (45). (the second T) should be T. ma has the values JTT.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.(a/b). attention to the astonishing theorems in pure mathematics to be got by the exchange of a and b. when dE/ds = 0.T in their course. a/b changed to b/a. These corrections have been pointed out by Ayrton and Perry. PART V. but not to both. 245 so that is parallel to 8. quantities a and b may be exchanged . . such as rarely fall to the lot of pure mathematicians. we have The L = ^7Tfj. perpendicular to the lines of magnetic force and electric force. Effect of a Periodic Impressed Force acting at one end of a Telegraph Circuit with any Terminal Conditions. respect to ma or to nb. This follows by effecting the ma summation in (2Qa) instead of the nb. circumstance renders the errors in their equation (46) worthy of being For the distinguished authors pointedly called long remembered. the solution in the case of a periodic impressed force situated at one end of a homogeneous line. viz. 3. for changed multiplier. regarding Use the identity P* lx_ ""  1 6** *' _ 2^ cos(tmg/2Q 1 where i has the values 1. The General Solution. again easily summed up. The transfer of energy is. TT. = 1. of . without altering the value of L.(28a) where the quantity in the {} The first part of (28a) is the value of the second 2 in (27a). giving Take x = Q. that is.. as was done.. etc. made..) Such little errors will find their way into mathematical treatises there is nothing astonishing in that but a certain collateral . The above expression (26a) for L may be summed up either with Thus. They were miraculous. TT. allowing. (I also observe that the equation (44) should be +T. we may repeat. . etc. or a/b is very small. and the result is is in which summation. and apply to (27a). the second summation. h = (b/a)(ma). Compare (29ft) with Thomson and Tait's equation (46) 707. . Part Turn the nab 2 outside the [ ] to nab B and multiply the 2 by 2. I now pass to a different problem. II. 5. iirl'2l = nb. with respect to nb. When the rod is made a flat sheet.
It is. work must. of two may be functions of the frequency. the effect of magnetic induction in I have therefore thought it the terminal arrangements was omitted. the amplitude of the current at the end remote from the impressed force. and are less important than the linefactor. many derived simpler arrangements . in particular. The general statement of the problem is this. and at the same time have endeavoured to put it in such a form that it can be readily reduced to simpler cases. of length I. and. one for the line and two more for the terminal apparatus. inductance L. The conditions that obtain in practice are very various. p. be done again in a more general manner. and from his results much interesting information is obtainable. If the line consists of two must be the sum of their resistances per unit length. so that it might seem impracticable to formulate generally . of course. whilst the resolution into independent factors is no longer possible. inductance. for the line.246 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. when subjected to any terminal conditions of the kind arising from the attachment of apparatus. in their influence on the currentamplitude. of which the first.. but valuable information may be arrived at from the study of the comparatively simple problem of a periodic impressed In Part II. I force. The only serious attempt to formulate the effect of the terminal apparatus with which I am acquainted is that of the late Mr. But the results are only applicable to long submarine cables. worth while to take a far more general case as regards the line. Hockin would in general give quite misleading results. electric capacity S. to cases that cannot be derived from his. 432). E. in so far as they show the influence of terminal apparatus. For instance. C. duced. including. whilst the apparatusfactors vary. or in the wire attached Find the effect proto it . in the case of a very long submarine cable. all per unit length of line. next. although the effect of L on the amplitude of the current at the distant end becomes insignificant when the line is an Atlantic cable. whose steady resistance is R. independently of this. besides. resembled that usually occurring then in connection with long submarine cables. If we take L = we 7 get the submarinecable formula of Sir W. whilst any terminal arrangements exist. R . but. T. is acted upon by an impressed force FQ sin nt at one end. and electric capacity). its omission S (resistance. and E. v. of which the full solution may always be found. L. and conductance of insulator K. They complicate the formulas considerably in the first place . on account The of the omission of the influence of the selfinduction of the line. parallel wires. There are some & priori reasons against formulating the His apparatus arrangement (Journal S. they are various in arrangement. vol. but without any effect of the terminal apparatus. and which the first allowance for the effect of terminal apparatus. whilst at the same time the results apply to any terminal arrangements we choose to use. again. But in other cases the terminal apparatus may be of far greater importance than the line. not easy to adapt his formulae. therefore. is always the same. we may divide the expression of the currentamplitude into factors. gave the fully developed solution when the line has the three electrical constants E. A homogeneous line. Thomson's theorj .
(106) ..... 247 Let C be the current in the line and the potentialdifference at distance z from the end where the impressed force is situated.... Thus.\ end...... PART V. (46) m* S" = K+Sp.... ..... <? ind put the equation referred to in the exponential form.....n*.. Part IV... ssing the following properties...... and =R' + L'(d/dt) in the periodic case...... Let the terminal conditions be U V=Z F sin^+F=^ The solution is a we may quote..... (36) = F sin nt... Then V are our fundamental lineequations..... in F^ S".... Also put 2 = F* = (K+Sp)(B' + I/p).. to be used later. In meaning d/dt so at <7 z= * l at = end. Z . .. z2 = 0. .... it terminal condition there were no special case of the second of (1626).. The values of P and Q are P= . which take ll'' t = R' + I/p ...... and the ampli(76) Here P r and Q f are functions of Put z... Here R" = B + L(d/dt) to a first f approximation...... where R and are what R and L become at the given frequency..... = wh r :l m ./ if .... and far. so that P"= ^ (7 would be the z = impressed force. ... ..ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES....B' giving the amplitude and phasedifference anywhere ide is ... ........... Now )  ^ T lt d2/dt'2 = .. whilst A' and B f are constants. It is then reducible to d f (A'P + B'Q>n*) + (A'Qf .... SI _ This "" is " Z ) "(F/ff' and Z the differential equation of let ZJ (F/S" + Z C in the line. M" I .....
. B f P Q of (66). It becomes..248 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. which we require.. a..... I shall only develope the amplitudeexpression (76). Q of (96) and the A..L' L(n*) + Kn(RJL{ P R(L. \.......... substitutions (86) in (56) is to express a..... This referring to simplification occurs any point between 2= and when we It only numerator to remains to simplify the denominator as far as l.. (136) in terms of A..\ Q ] I The effect of making the terms of the P.. (56) . Derivation of the General Formula for the Amplitude of Current at the End remote from the Impressed Force... (126) therefore fully serves to find the phasediffer... B..... if required. conditions are fully given... B.......... b of (116).. + 2 cos 2Q(l ........... a very important It reduces the ... ) .. Let A=R f .... thus : C in '{(............ by (126).... P The expressions of Mb R(. b of (116)....  .R{ .......... .. Here we see the expressions for the four quantities A'... ) . ....... ....... f f The dots indicate repetition of what is immediately above them. + (A + a) . L' L{ can only be stated when the terminal Their structure will be considered later...... take z = I. and Q depend only upon the line... }'>] . ence.... + (Aa) .. +(.Sn\R&{ + I%Ll) + K(RW f UJW\ f B = Un + Sn(R'....... + ...
independent of what part A.R'Q) + (R' I? + R(I$)(KP + SnQ) + (LJ/ + L(I%)n(KQ . Noting therefore that the B in (146) is given by H whose numerator and denominator are given in (166) [the numerator being (GH)* sin 20. AbaB= (R' + R()(R Q . Q 2 2 . L' It is then suggested that G is Q / 2 + (P 2 + 2 2 Q )/ ( .L L{n )(KR \. by merely turning P to . on the other hand. the final result is that (146) becomes . using (166). a.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. (146) are the expansions of the quantities occurring in the denominator of (136) \_G<? = 2 F (P 2 + g 2 )* f : Pl + Ht~pl . Q Q a2 + 6 2 = (P + Q ) (R' + Rff + (L' + Z()V Q Q { } Aa + 3b = (R> + R()(R'P + L'nQ) + (U.(L' I? + L(I*)n(KP + SnQ). when the result is divided by I 2 This may be verified by out the (196) . b are. + L()n(UnP . and the denominator (GH)* cos 201 it will clearly be of advantage to develop these factors.LfnP) + (ZJ + L{)n(R'P + L'nQ} + (R' I? + R{1%)(KQ . But G and may be each resolved into the product of two factors.R'nLQ... (136) therefore takes the form 2(Ql + 0)J. L{ = in G it becomes say G.2(GH)l cos The following Let P=R Then 2 f* + LV. H 1 + 2P(RIR' + LiL'n*) + 2 Q(L'nRf> . which is the same as that of (136).SnP) . We have therefore merely to split up one of them. B.# function of R{. we put . When done.Q. 6 occurring in (136). A + & = P + (K* + &tf)I*I? + 2(R R{ . Z = in G.( 1 66) f > These may be used direct in the denominator of (146). carrying But I should mention that it is not immediately operation described.P and Q to . L{ as (186) is of jR. evident. First of all. First observe that the expansion of is to be got from that of G. making use of the three equations (106). If we put R{ = 0. J5. it becomes the same If. really the product of (186) into the similar function of R{. 86) = 0. This is an identity. /2 = ^ f 2 + ZV. we may show that the product of the coefficients of 2W ~'2PI and equals onefourth the square of the amplitude of the circular in the denominator. f l{ 2 = R? + Lfn* f (156) + L'Stf) + 2(R{L' + R' L{)n\KL' R'S). PART V. to show as explicitly as we can the effect of the terminal apparatus. a. L(. and requires some laborious transformations to establish it.SnP). 249 possible. each containing the apparatusconstants of one end only. which is at present buried away in the functions of A.
and = Q. when on shortBut if the coil contain a core. Of course R^ and L^ are really somewhat changed in a similar manner by allowing any induction between the coil and external conductors. . system of telephonic intercommunication invented and carried out by A . and insert in (206) and its From this G 1 and H H lt Z We R companions. the brass parts of a galvanometer. Thus. it tends to readily pass rapidly periodic currents. at z = I . ^=100. l referred to as the terminal functions. the coil passes the slowly periodic. the two conductors at the is z = I end be joined through a Then R{ its resistance. then. circuit. make L(= inductance of a coil be 10 11 it must contain a very large number of turns of fine wire. tending to become equivalent to a shortcircuit. though this would require a great fre(Thus.15 = one as the gwsinegative inductance is large. except under very unusual circumstances. thus H H (206) by changing the signs of P and Q. and as the capacity is increased. . These functions have the value unity when the line = 0). though this does not materially affect I. the latter decreasing as the frequency is raised. contain only constants belonging to the apparatus those belonging to z = l. and L{ = . neither Rl nor . as a coil of no resistance and negative inductance. On the other hand. the steady values. a property which is also very useful in televery extensive application of this principle occurs in the phony. change R' to Q f E{ and LQ to L{. to obtain get the corresponding functions for the z = I end. instead of a coil. Then. and the accents may be dropped. especially if it be of iron. as in V"an Rysselberghe's quency in general.) Thus. Their form is invariable. =10. system. a property which is very useful in telephony. besides the linel 6^ and Only one of the four need be written . since ' we have Therefore take Z = l R{ = 0. frequency Their approximate values at a given be experimentally determined by means of the Wheatstone Bridge. (Z = 0. L( its inductance.(fy* 2 )" is 1  The condenser behaves. They may therefore be is shortcircuited at the ends. The Effective Resistance let and Inductance of the Terminal Arrangements. and 7j is its impedance at the given frequency. so far as the current concerned. coil.250 wherein at z 6? ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and tends to stop the rapidly periodic. on account of the induction of currents in the core. for instance L going down and R going up.Lj can have the steady values.10 11 To make the microfarad. or the effective resistance and only require to find the inductance of the terminal arrangements. and constants. it be a condenser of capacity S 1 that is inserted may . f and L'. If. whilst the condenser stops slowly periodic or steady currents.
known As spondence. W. from the detailed Similarly in other simple cases. When the two stations have finished correHeaviside. or _= C i~ l i^2 ' tJ. responding to slowly Of course periodic currents. 95J. which electromagnets will not pass the rapid telephonic currents in appreciable strength. Whilst all stations are in direct communication with one another.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. or rather. and the condenser Sl be in parallel. to be used in (206). id eliminate the intermediates so as to arrive at C the differ1 ential equation of the combination. or acting as an insulation at the first moment of starting a current. in general. was. I. when we As regards equivalent 6r r the z = . its influence was entirely overlooked by most writers on telegraphic technics before 1878. these electromagnets are used as callinstruments. Mr. there are various other details. PART V. they insert their own electromagnets in their bridges. which is another. we have A TV*  Trir. from the telephones up as bridges across from one to the other of the two conductors which form the line. a far greater length of buried wire can be worked through than on the Sequence system. as the at the various offices being connected . L. A. when I wrote on the subject [vol. there is no overhearing.L n )$. wherein R{ and L{ functions of the electrical constants and of n\ and are the required effective R[ and L{ of the combination. before then. As regards the property of the selfinduction of a coil in stopping or greatly decreasing the amplitude of rapidly periodic currents. which is now the common property of all electrical schoolboys (especially by reason of the great impetus given to the spread of a scientific knowledge of electromagnetism by the commercial importance of the dynamo). confined to a few theorists. but the above sufficiently describes the principle. second being the co And. F fia^^f.  (\LS n Y + (RSl nf L{. owing to the current being reckoned positive the same way at both ends. wherein Zl is a function of p or djdt. If the coil R. 2 = n 2 and it takes the form Zl = R{\L(p. we have the direct intercommunication. wherein the various stations have their apparatus in sequence with the line . so that it is nearly as if the nonworking bridges were nonexistent and. it is to be remarked that. p. the first the rest. whilst at the same time (in the Bridge system) a balance is preserved against inductive interferences. in F=Z t ~^ . in consequence.. the ' X U3STIV EH /^ THE " OF which show the expressions of R{ and efficient of p. knowledge of the >2 2 2 important quantity (A 4. stations except the two which are in correspondence at a certain time have electromagnets of high inductance inserted in their bridges. one important For all desideratum. 251 Bridge System. write out the connections between the current and potentialdifference in each branch. its z =l end. nature of the combination inserted at the end of the line.
with Magnetic Induction ignored. if we make the changes (216) just it.ZQ = RQ + L'p. whilst P and Q differ from the former P and Q of (78). whose evanIf we compare the old with the new escence makes them identical. U E' becomes becomes UKR'l&tf. P = Q = (%)*(R'* + U*n*)l(K* + S* making 2 )* = Q)*(R'S + KU}n. LongCable Solution. It follows that the equation (85). with leakage. we should be overlooking an important thing. it is . P and ft we find that . we shall have . If there is only a sufficient strength of current received for signalling purposes. V Z C as Zr Thus . Part II.. as I have pointed out and illustrated in previous papers. Thus the theoretical desideratum for an Atlantic cable is not high.\ R' + KL'/S. 531 and 536] pushed it to its extreme . (23b) . but low insulation the lowest possible consistent with having enough current to work with. by reason of K... Special Details concerning the above. = 0. in the presence of the quantity K. the signals can be far more distinct and rapid than with perfect insulation.. its remarkable effect in accelerating changes in the current. viz. this quickening effect. and that given in Part II. the former Sn now becoming (K'2 + S'2 ri2 )%.252 write ELECTRICAL PAPERS.ZQ that corresponds to in the simplest case. Any Eegarding practical difficulties in the way form a separate question. true. equation (82). W~~ or is ao (R' Part II.. pp.. is still unaltered by the leakage.. and thereby lessening the distortion that a group of signals suffers in its transmission along the line. or partial abolition of electrostatic retardation. I. (246) If we should regard the leakage as merely affecting the amplitude of the current at the distant end of a line. mentioned in or put instead of using the 1/ and h expressions of Part II. making the solution (19&). The So far sufficiently describing how to develope the effective resistance and inductance expressions to be used in the terminal functions G and H. the resistance and inductance of a the terminal equation. I have [vol.. Quickening Effect of Leakage. E' and L[ are Q coil. where. The solution then differs from terminal functions unity. At the particular frequency given by n 2 = KE'/L'S. we may now notice some other peculiarities in connection with the First shortcircuit the line at both ends. J" Then the function in passing from the old to the new. E'* + L'W .
If we regard it as the limiting form of a real problem. S 100 megohms. but the same theory applies to combinations of shunted condensers. VJ Yl* . by the discharge of every elementary condenser through its own resistance. requiring to be multiplied by the dielectric constant of the It is still further insulator in the first place.22 . The least possible value of L would be such that LS v~ where v = 30 10 . of fairly high insulationresistance : 4 ohms per kilom. in spite of the electric displacement and energy . to an extent which . at to be afterwards made zero. especially as it is a variable quantity but would seem never to become a very large number. This seems impossible . Of course this extreme state of things is quite imaginary. imicrof. on removal of the impressed force. as of course an iron wire for the conductor is out of the question. varying in any manner in distribution and with the time.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and. except as regards imaginable preexisting electrification. But it is really much greater. ductivity varies in any manner from point to point. making L=2say.. arranged in a suitable manner. if any impressed force act. unstated. and considerably by the sheath and by the extension of the magnetic field beyond the sheath. But leaving it is . taking R = B. the corresponding current will everywhere have the steady distribution appropriate to the impressed force of magnetic inertia (^ electrostatic retardation is = 0. which subsides everywhere according to the common timeconstant. we have. f L' = L. and L in determining the amplitude of periodic currents at the distant end of a long submarine cable. K it very difficult to estimate. is the conductance of the insulator should be remembered. S. PART V. = 2 per centim. or the electrostatic timeconstant. 253 In a medium whose conin the electromagnetic scheme of Maxwell. possessed of dielectric capacity which varies in the same manner (so that their ratio. is everywhere the same). Here. as described in the paper referred to. in which inertia occurs. I have shown that done away with. K. it #=10. without true electric current. there will be instantaneous disappearance of the current and the displacement. by (96). The following will serve to show the relative importance of E. we find that the instantaneous subsidence problem becomes [with reflecting barriers] an oscillatory subsidence of infinite frequency but finite timeconstant. This being over. but destitute magnetic energy). this would make L = only. about the mean value zero . makes 72 = 40 4 . no entirely any moment. as we cannot really overlook the magnetic induction in such a case. increased by the wire. which is mathematically equivalent to of the electrostatic instantaneous nonoscillatory subsidence.
to work a landline of. For instance. we must reduce the In fact. when L is small. The general effect is that. Then R l is its resistance The following relates to . resistance and electrostatic capacity.1 0 8 . R? + Ln*)} { . quite an It is what we get by regarding the line as having only old formula. worked nearly up to its limit of speed. thus. especially as regards the relative importance of the line and terminal apparatus at different speeds. and the third to that at the z = l end of the line.L(n) (286) This reduction to (276) is of course not possible when the line is very from being worked up to its possible limit in fact. would be too lengthy a digression to go into the necessarily trouble some details. as the speed is raised. of (196). more generally. and But it chemical recording has probably a great future before it. But. Same Properties of the Terminal Functions. Let it be simply a coil that is in question. the influence of the apparatus increases much faster than that of the line. L 2 n 2 is quite negligible in its effect upon P. except as regards the terminal functions I introduce. still regarding the line as an Atlantic or similar cable. 71/27T is Now the frequency. require to be used in For this reason a full examination of the effect of terminal general. . at least when = equivalent to taking L Q. unless quite small. Now this is P=e = (pS)i. making We see then that the first approximately P= = (1^. 400 miles up to its limit. some properties of the terminal function G. ) .2(G 1 (? 1 fl tf1 )i cos 2}1. apparatus is very laborious. (27ft) where the first of the three factors is the linefactor. even when we allow L to increase greatly from the above L = 2. P being a little greater than Q. Most interesting results may be got out far . say. with L' = Q and R' = R in the former. (266) is. which have application when (276) is valid. complete reversals taking place as the speed is varied whilst the line and apparatus are kept the same. or. Consider the G t of (286). PI is which large. K=Q. necessarily very low on an Atlantic cable. all three terms in the { } of (266).electromagnets seem unsuitable for the purpose. inertia of the instruments greatly to make it even possible. so that we may take this approximation = 2F (Sn/E)^. the second that due to the apparatus at the 2 = end.254 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.pl xG^^G^ C to (266). The 2 high insulation also makes the (BKLSn ) part negligible. of (196). say 10 at most. by (206) and (256). reducing (196) to (256) C = 2F (*/ B)J * {0 J <V + H H fal .
........ size of wire variable)....ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Again. (316) giving a definite resistance to the the magnetic force a maximum... There is.. on the other hand.. where l l x have the value n~ l have the same values as before. and it is conceivable that G l could be made less than unity. keepIf. on account of the iron... There If this constant K (33i > say .. 255 its inductance. but the same resistance. though it may not be practicable... Taking PI =10.. and M v Z is thus some magic about G = 2. so it at first sight appears that R 1 the magnetic force a maximum for a fixed size and shape of coil. the magnetic force will vary as = R/2P and L^ = Rj'2Pn make (Ri/G)*. but with 1 instead of J in (306).............. and therefore the currentamplitude a maximum. Now G J of stated size and shape.... and Zj stant. ff 1 coil.. we have G^ = 2 again. (296) depending only upon the lineconstants and the frequency.. however... because varying the size of the wire as stated varies L^ nearly in the same ratio as v whilst (306) assumes L^ to be a constant. where El is the resistance of the line... independently of the resistance of the coil.. 1 (326) . = 2 + ?'( R V)....... 6rfi=7.. or make the terminal factor be Now if we vary the number of turns of wire in the coil... given by (296). dropping the accent... GifR^ is made a minimum by If the coil R R E R .... keeping it of the same size and shape.... if the terminal arrangement consist of a coil R v L v and a condenser of capacity *SX and conductance v joined in sequence. The effect of the inductance has therefore increased the amplitude of the current.. but then. and so get lt (Ri/G)t to be a maximum.. to 1 make becomes . in the original G l of (286).... G l would have the same expression. The relation (296) makes had no inductance... with Rl variable.. we shall have L /R1 has been constant. PART V... Keep the resistance conwhilst varying the inductance so as to make G l a minimum. this makes L l = Rl/2Qn.. a fallacy here.. Now the G^R^ of (306) is a minimum.. It is perhaps conceivable to keep L^ constant during the variation of by means of iron... The required value of L is .. when = 2PJR V and this will make Gl = 2. we vary t ing LJ&L constant (size and shape of coil fixed. this quantity will not represent the magnetic force..
is lozenge.n R and if we take K^ = (condenser nonleaky. balance. and here.256 if R{. . 394. General Remarks on the Christie considered as an Induction Balance. E. T. was also observed.. and not shunted). quadto balance the resistances of four conductors. but also as regards its electrostatic capacity approximately by a single condenser.. This general principle also became clearly recogthat no matter how complex a line may be. not merely as regards its resistance. which is in many respects a simplified form of the Christie.. * Journal S. in a fifth.. we may include the analogous differentialcoil system of balancing. and quadrilateral.. nised.. we have the value of G 1 given by (30&) again... independent of the condenser. . H. although the (305) relation is not subject to any indefiniteness.72 2 ++ o. better by a series of smaller condensers separated by resistances . at least by some. . and. by a more continuous distribution of electrostatic capacity The effect of the unbalanced selfinduction along the artificial line. its use in other ways and for other purposes has not been neglected. along with the Christie. L{ are the effective resistance and inductance.. vol. . rangle. The most important as well as Christie's differential arrangement. FullSized and Reduced Copies. On the revival of duplex telegraphy some fifteen years ago.. it was " the line " soon recognised that required to be balanced by a similar line. These relaSimilarly we can come round to the same G l = 2 again. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. &. and But when supporting steady currents due to an impressed force this is done by observing the absence of steady current in a sixth. p. I. best of all. bridge. and E. tions are singular enough. Thomson has used it for connection with other methods) balancing the capacities of condensers* . to be used in making . most frequent application of Mr. but it is difficult to give them more than a very limited practical application to the question of making the magnetic force of the coil a maximum. S.. .. known at various times under the names of Wheatstone's parallelogram. connection with duplex telegraphy . PART VI. Thus. Maxwell described three ways of using the Christie to obtain exact balances with transient currents (these will be mentioned later in Sir W. (3 Variation of L^ alone makes T Gl a minimum when . or artificial line. and it has been used for other But the most extensive additional use has been probably in purposes.
to mean copy only as regards certain properties. similarity of environment. and also the C ends. so that similar parts. In particular. furnish a strong does not require formal demonstration. there should be. The same applies when it is not mere variation of the impressed force e. in PART VI. Thus. together reason why it A state at the same moment. n. VOL. however complex it may be. that might be overlooked at first. be equally influenced by it. that the principle is correct. is. there will be no current in it at any moment. R H. Connecting the bridgeconductor from B x to B 2 must not produce current in it from other causes than difference of potential . their potentials must always be equal. joined in parallel. or some special relation will be required This case might perhaps be virtually included under to keep a balance. Bj and B 2 will be always at the same potential as regards disturbances originating in the independent electrical arrangement joining same A to C externally. from their similarity. in the steady resistancebalance we only require AB X and AB 2 to have equal total resistances. with its extreme simplicity. it could be perby means of a precisely similar independent arrangefact. now. we require that the resistance of corresponding sections shall be equal. or owing to our inability to recognise the effects of differences in other properties. There being additive. so that. condensers be attached to the lines. . so far as the abovementioned impressed force is concerned. fectly balanced ment . if the points B T and B 2 be joined by another conductor. If we had sufficiently sensitive methods of observation. and likewise BjC and B 2 C . resistances in sequence But evidently. as B x in one line and B 2 in the other. more generally. the statement that one line must be an exact copy of the other would sometimes have But the word copy may practically be often used to be taken literally. either owing to the balance being independent of other properties. but of the resistance of the branch in which it is placed. resistance and capacity. imitating a submarine though of discontinuous capacity. Thus. 263] be two identically similar independent lines (which of course includes similarity of environment in the electrical sense in similar parts). the resistance must be similarly distributed along them. if ABjC and AB 2 C [see figure on p. the two lines must. from the absence of all reason to the contrary. variable period as well as in the steady state and the two properties.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.P. no induction between the bridgewire and the lines. And. If. . for instance.E. at least in general. as well as the capacities of corresponding condensers. 257 considered as an electrostatic and magnetic arrangement. that. the complex condition of a perfect balance is The great comprehensiveness of identity of the two lines throughout. are the elements involved in making one line a copy of the other. must be in the this principle. It is sufficient to merely state the nature of the case to see. however. to C having the A ends connected. and we join by an external independent conductor in which is an impressed force e. in order that we shall have balance in the cable. if the balance is to be kept whilst B x and B 2 are shifted together from end to end of the two lines. however it vary. this point to be attended to.
But the lines will easily balance under simpler conditions. other if. AB . I. yet. not n times (as patented by Mr. like resistances and it is only necessary . conductor . in similar parts. whilst as regards their positions with respect to a^ and # 2 we only require the mutual inductance of a l and 6 X to equal that of a2 and b y On the other hand. but independent). . the resistancebalance of the last sentence applied to every section between a pair of condensers. inductances being additive. and are similarly placed with respect to one another. and next. Function and its Properties. let us briefly consider the general theory of the conjugacy . and leakageconductance (E. one line will be a reduced copy of the and L in the first line are n times those in the second. has n times the resistance of then must BjC have n times the X 2 If conresistance of B 2 C to keep the potentials of B x and B 2 equal. would be sufficient to make a practical balance. when in the second are n times those in the first. The Characteristic After these general remarks. if 6 X be not a coil of fine wire.. first. but a piece of metal that is placed near the coil 15 many more specifications are The piece of metal is not a linear required to make a copy of it. we must generally make a copy of 6 X by means of a similar piece. 5 2 of the same metal. and a 2 in the branch be a copy of 2 we can complete the balance by placing a coil 6 2 (which is a copy of !. and likewise of B X C and B 2 C. Muirhead. Parts IV. dissimilarly placed. S and AB AB AB . If the lines are representable by resistance. of a In case of magnetic induction again. AB K K R Conjugacy of Two Conductors in a Connected System. Again. copy signifies equality in certain properties.. question.258 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. although no doubt only a small number (instead of an infinite number) of degrees of freedom allowed for. . But one line need be merely a reduced copy of the other. as we have not the means of simply analyzing pieces of metal (like coils) into a few distinct elements. so that the action between a l &j) in the neighbourhood of the coil 2 and &j is the same as that between 2 and b 2 But it is not necessary for 'b l and 6 2 to be copies of one another except in the two particulars of resistance and inductance . and V. of inductance. p. I X believe). as before mentioned. each for each. 25]. and preliminary to a closer consideration of the Christie. But very near balances may be sometimes obtained by using quite dissimilar pieces of metal. we require. L. and place it with respect to a 2 as \ is to a v to secure a good balance. that the capacity of a condenser in the line C shall be. per unit length). if AB X C and AB 2 C each consist number of coils in sequence. So far. if a coil a in the branch have another coil ^ in its neighbourhood (not l X in either line. that we require to examine fully the mathematical conditions of the case in If In the state of steady flow the matter is simple enough. densers be connected to the lines. S. that the total selfinductions of and 9 (including mutual inducX tion of their parts) be equal. and. electrostatic capacity. . It is only when we inquire into what makes one line a reduced copy of another. . they will balance if the" coils are alike. in the two lines. but l/n of the capacity of the corresponding condenser in the line AB 2 C [vol. AB AB .
C being the current in it.. the impressed forces in branches 1... together with the former circuitequations....... the solution is C^Ac**... .. being the currents. either transient or permanent... and e lt e.. or upon other impressed forces that we have nothing to do with.. when under the influence of impressed force in the other alone..... fe = a e + a^e + a 2 e + we ........ We property . functions of the electrical constants con cerned.. therefore 2e 2ZC connected by conditions of continuity at the junctions... . and V. it have 2 F~=0 in any circuit... F being common to all.. (4c) where the a' s are constants. then have is We FC=fe ... is example. then.. Let be the differential equation of any one branch.. V . and the F(j>) belonging to a certain p is to be obtained by the conjugate property of the equality of the mutual electric to the mutual magnetic energy of the normal systems of any pair of p's.. ... the fall of potential in the direction of (7.. becomes e+ V=ZG... (3c) e.. The direct way is to seek the full differential equation of the current in either.. We arrive at similar equations when the differential equation of a branch is not merely between the and C of that branch. and it and the /'s being differential operators.... PART VI. . .. etc... These. . and these a's cannot vanish together we cannot have What C may be then depends only upon the initial state of the system in subsiding.2 ..... making C independent of Conjugacy Therefore fe is the complex condition of If.. for conjugacy.. to ensure conjugacy.. As depending upon the initial state. and C be the current in a second.......... when . therefore secured by fe = 0. p being put for d/dt in ..... by the potential= in any circuit.. ff require ^2 = 0. lead us to a set of equations : If there be impressed force e in the branch. when an impressed force in either can cause no current in the other... (5c) separately . and the differential operator concerned. i all = 0. but between those of many branches for instance..... 259 of a pair of conductors in a connected system....ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. dropping the numbers as no longer necessary. 2... As depending upon <?. the form of the differential equation of branch 1........... the impressed force in the conductor which is F A .. conjugacy..... etc. if = 0. IV... ... Now let there be impressed force e in one branch only. . Also the currents are Cv C'2 . to the notation of V=ZG V Z according Parts III..... (6c) the summation being with respect to the p's which are the roots of = 0.....
..... necessary... 0^ 0.. that the the p = value of F.. let e be zero before ... then tfdt?Cdt = 0... = and ax = is obvious... is (7.. [In these equations (7c) to (lOc) modify as in the footnote on p. n..] * if .. 412] pointed out these properties of the F But in spite of that.... p.(7e) if C is the final steady current.. or that relation amongst the resistances which would make the steady current zero. vol.. if a2 = we have r Jo Similarly. and constant after. and with respect to the p's..* If there is F = dF/dp.. 226. = 0.... (lOc) Thus. subject to (4c).. it will be found that to secure perfect conjugacy for transient currents we must have a true resistancebalance.260 ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. Vii^ . calculate the integral transient current : = value if jF is of f(p)e/pF(p) when ^> = 0. (12c) Jo Jo and so If on. the steady current may be zero. which the current Then.... I have elsewhere [vol... by (3c)...... If then 04 = also. = = Supposing both a Q 0.. to be conjugate to the one in time = 0. o . / the summation being a resistancebalance. but after that it is contain inverse powers of p. if we were to allow the possibility of a steady current by changing the value of other electrical quantities concerned... and Now.. we prove integral transient current is zero. then therefore andtherefore o <ftc0* = Jo also... C' = 0.. I.. I will give an example of this later. if a 3 = also. The physical interpretation of a less easy.
in the case where there is no mutual induction. 12 do not contain . When is conductance merely. if e l2 be the impressed force in the conductor 1. are got rid of. vol. write if we 2 turn K to R~ l in F. giving a special form to K. . Let n points be united by ^n(nl) conductors. and extending the problem. it being the points that are numbered 1. (14e) do not contain 2y and 23 to be understood that the diagonal ... 2. Thus... art. K IZ . it becomes simple enough. thus. etc. so that R+L(d/dt) takes the place "" of A 1 then F=Q is the differential equation of the combination. F K X Y Ku A lz .. 261 function F. (It 22 . in terms of their reciprocals. ]2 RnXL+Yi^O.. this we e see that the 12 G' 12 in subject to only. . Then the determinant is V=ZC . where JT23 is .. From 1. K K FK^+ruKvXa + ra.. 1" .. the current (steady) in it is The proof by determinants is rather troublesome. without impressed forces.. K's. and therefore may be written is 7 .. whose conductances are u 13 etc.. we may where F= as # Jr/ + 7/0 = 0. and call the determinant that is left F..* Remove the last row and column.) 1 Then R' Vi = XIZ/Y^ = resistance between points 2 and 2. . differential equation of the current do not contain etc. or the form of the differential equation of a branch.^ and 3..^ etc. If every branch have selfinduction.. but the resistances complementary to them.. and ^=0 is always the differential equation In the paper referred subject to the condition of no mutual induction. and then clear of fractions. F/2 . using the K's. 2.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and its first minors are numerically equal.. it being understood that these resistances are not J? 12 7223 etc.. 280. and is the characteristic function of the combination.. to cores are placed in the coils. if any double suffixes be the negative of the sum of the real K's in the same row or column. but.. i... the combined resistance of the rest of the combination . . PART VI. K K . the characteristic function contains within itself expressions for the resistance between every two points in the combination. It is the F required... (17c) Jf/2 . expressed in terms of the conductances. which can therefore be written down quite mechaniFor it is the sum of products each containing first powers of the cally. ii K ^i2 ) KIU "2 ' with equal zero....... 2. R^ .. is As in Maxwell. etc... .
4. thus 1 and first branch. but only of the fifth in terms of the conductances .2) in terms of the resistances. those in all the rest follow. the currents in at least 6 conductors must be given. The missing roots belong to terms. It is the least number of branches in which. I. It is the same when there is mutual induction. thus Lv P\. etc. On the other hand.] Sv S2 .1 is the 7i points. Although it F=0 F E F= time. or one less than the number of .1 in number. It is then made of degree %(n. and so on. and n degree of the characteristic function in terms of the conductances. etc. or 5 and 6. If n = 4. and the in the same direction .. which subsides in so that 2l M is . only additional thing required.l)(n. the battery or other source being in 6. J(TI so that the  l)(n2) fewer Theory of the Christie Balance of SelfInduction. it is of the tenth degree in terms of the resistances. it is of the sixth degree in terms of resistances and only of the fourth in terms of the conductances . or than the number of condensers. Let be the resistance and L the inductance of a branch in which the current is 0.262 if ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. and if n = 6. For this make the dimensions correct. and no four of them should meet at one point. by multiplying by the product of put all the resistances. when we observe that it makes the steady current be = 12/(l2 + ^i) (19C) tfl2 the resistance complementary to Ii 12 is generally best to work in terms of resistances. viz. which is the number of curre"ntfreedoms.2) degrees of freedom to the currents. and. Thus. if 10 conductors unite 5 points. " are " the lines referred to in the beginning. 1. Jw(nl) conductors uniting n points give %(n !)(?&. In the following 5 and 6 are selected always. which instantaneously vanish. in the solutions for subsidence from an arbitrary initial state. The remaining conductors are . Coming next to the Christie as a selfinduction balance. figure. Z + Ip. K becomes K+Sp. so that there are nl fewer roots p in than the number of branches. the degree is the same. uniting the four points A. [Vol. the above is a case in point. three. so that becomes greatly more complex in terms of resistances than conductances. p. if every branch (without selfinduction) is shunted by a condenser of capacity degree of p in F=Q is the same as that of K. Thus. Cl for the fall of potential lt The six branches may be conjugate in pairs. let there be six conductors. or 2 and 3. producing a jump from the initial state to another. yet there are times when conductances are preferable. Now in terms of the resistances. When every branch has selfinduction. There is also less work in another way. 2. but if n = 5. and the degree of is the number of freedoms. B 1? B 2 C in the .. to say nothing of conductors in parallel arc. as will be seen by the way the characteristic function is made up out of the K's. whether in terms of conductances or resistances . and the telephone or other AB C X and AB C 2 R F R : . and that is the fib = YlJXf*. when the currents in them are given.. 540. reckoned positive in the direction of the arrow.
It2 R6 ) + (R........ the second condition is also satisfied... namely.. by continuity.... " If...JK 2 L 3 ..... (20c) V=ZG.. there will be no final current in This is the condition for 5 when a steady impressed force is put in 6. .L... and the balance is exact however the impressed force in 6 vary... the condition of conjugacy is that the potentials at B x and B be always equal........ 1 and 4 = 4.... in addition to this..L2 L3 )p*....ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. 2 Therefore V^V so.. .. Zf^Zfy and ZJQ^ZJdi .. 0^ = 0^ and 0^=0^ at every moment (including equality of all their differential coefficients) . so that.(B& .... ........ ping C. ^2........ so that (21c) becomes i = Z&\ ...... + E. When the selfinduction is of the magnetic kind..L....... Mutual inductances will be denoted by thus. (28c) let branches and 2 be of equal resistance and inductance... 263 indicator in 5.... the / of the R + Lp.. though not confining selfinduction to be of the magnetic kind only. ^ A electrostatic if required. the third condition is satisfied..... (21c) But... is the electromotive impulse in 2 due to the l l stoppage of the current C\ in 1 ... besides the steady current being zero.. the integral extracurrent in 5 on making or breaking 6 is zero.. (24c) Therefore... " If........... (22c) consequently 0=/ is ..... (23c) is This function the complex condition of conjugacy. if and F =r 3 4 .. the timeconstant of a branch. a true resistancebalance..... ... " Practically..... (26c) (27 c) " If the first condition is fulfilled. (25c) and (26c) together therefore give an approximate inductionbalance with a true resistancebalance.2 Deferring mutual induction for the present..... in addition to (25c) and (26c). similarly C2 lf) is the impulse in 1 due to stop Mf M ' M .. . take ^= that is. (25c) .. if x = L/R..L...... the extracurrent is zero at every moment during the transient state... previous investigation.. Z = arranging /in powers of p....... but to include ........ PART VI. ......... we have three conditions to satisfy.E 3 L2 )p + (L.
become identical . and x3 = % Thus the remaining two L's become usually fixed.L's. the second condition may be written fo4X44t)Qi is fixed by (25c).264 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. to get we need only make and Rs = Rv L3 ^=L4 (29c) the method I have generally used. [In the last equation we may eliminate one of the Z's by (23c). L3 =L^ 1 ( ) should be cancelled. It is also the simplest method. The absence of current in 5 allowing us to remove 5 altogether.. or of 3 and 4. of which not more than three may be E's. The mutual induction. There must may state the matter thus first be a resistancebalance. p. fixing the corresponding timeconstants. third conditions Then the second and perfect balance. eliminating R and Li from (26c) by (25c) and (27c).] Now. But if L^ and L3 ~ ^4 & ^2 be given. then ly inductances may then be given. and then again eliminate one of the remaining three L's. we see by (18c) that the differential equation of G'6 is e = manipulating the Z's like resistances. and. In fact. the corresponding timeconstants usually become fixed.L/J + L%) i 7" \ // 7") I \IIL + Ji 3 = \L 2 + Li} i Z? \ ) / 7" i 7" N The independence of J/12 and J/a4 and sensibly true when the inequalities are small. we * shall make / T (. reducing the three conditions to two. if any. whilst preserving exactness. if we give definite values to two of the . 3 R . and it is required that the other two timeconstants shall be equal to them . only five can be stated arbitrarily. The absence of branch 5 thus reduces the number of freesubsidence systems to two. four Rs and four L's. The words is in the which exact when L = L%. . . Then." eight quantities. n. Of the We : thus either XI x1 or else = XB = x2 and x2 x^. [Vol. 33]. does not influence the balance when this ratio of ^quality J? 1 = 2 is employed So branches 1 and 2 may consist of two (whether L l = L 2 or not). becomes sensibly untrue when the inequalities Ll L% and L 3 L are great. then we require (unless xl = x s ) Xl ~ These two cases present a remarkable difference in one respect. Two of the given. if we choose x1 = x2 . and not more than three may be L's. to keep their " This is E temperatures equal. If these inductances be L1 and Z 2 then we must have (unless x l = x 2 ) Suppose E E2 E .* similar wires wound together on the same bobbin. of 1 and 2.
thus excluding the p l root. for we have x2 = x 3 is in 6 . . . only But if so that x 2 uot =z4 then x 1 = x2 and fixing the ratio of L^ to LB x3 = x fix L: and L 3 There are yet two other pairs that may be initially chosen.. which is ft " 7] 8 alone concerned in the settingup of current by the impressed force and the current divides between ABjC and C in the ratio of 2 their conductances. or the timeconstants of the one of the p's is PART 2 VI. in the variable period. and with miewhat different results. = anything. . and this is only . . if we choose x l = x. lid not originally arrive at the method of equalratio just described . . And if Z 3 L be so chosen that x3 = #4 then a^ = x 2 = anything. . which are not those given and the current C6 does not. . . it was not so as to make a^ = x2 it is only the ratio of L to L4 that becomes fixed. Then = _ A'j + 11.4 by vertical or by horizontal equality of timejonstants. whilst x2 = x3 produces equality all round. Leaving the mathematical treatment for a little while. Let it be L^ and L that are chosen if not as to make x l = x4 there are two ways of fixing L 2 and Z3 viz. I proceed to I jive a short general account of my experience of inductionbalances.i' . as before. however. and the Calibration of an Inductometer. but only fin all}''.# we do not have equality of timeconstants of C and so that there X 2 C. AB AB AB . 265 two branches 1 + 3 and +4 equal. = x3 we shall have Similarly.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. circuit ABjCB^. ways of fixing L^ and Z. either by horizontal or by vertical equality in the L's. .2 = 4 or by xl = x 2 and x3 = x4 but if so that a^ = x in )y x l the first place. concerned in the free subsidence of current in the Consequently the second p. so that only the ratio of L2 to L4 is fixed. . . . are two p's concerned. The loticed. In the above statement it was assumed that when L t and L 2 were When this happens. either = x3 and x. . then they must also = x 2 = x3 Similarly the choice of L 2 and L 3 so as not to make x2 = x3 gives two . divide between C and C in the X 2 ratio of their conductances. . only But should x3 not =& 4 then we require ixing the ratio of L^ to L 2 x l = x3 and x2 = 4 thus fixing L^ and L 2 And if L 2 L4 be so chosen that x2 = x4 then x1 = x3 = anything. chosen. . special case of all four sides equal in resistance may be also Balance is given in two ways. . . the fraction in the above equation of C6 will be found to contain Zl + Z% as a factor in its numerator and denominator. when L l and L3 are so chosen that xl = #4 = any thing. In fact. so far as e is concerned. Remarks on the Practical Use of Induction Balances. in the variable period as well as finally. On the other hand. . AB AB . .
therefore. which is manifested in an exaggerated form in So. two coils in sequence. one of which can be turned round. and 4 a coil having selfinduction. with. t The scale of this coil could be calibrated b}^ (12a). to be used as standards. the battery and intermitter in 6. to make simultaneous variations in some of the other resistances to restore But the method has the remarkable recommendation of giving us it.e. require first the ordinary resistancebalance. We signifying that the timeconstant of the coil on shortcircuit and that of the condenser on shortcircuit with the resistance 1^ are equal. * Maxwell. Put the telephone in 5. or practically inductionless. Branches 1 and 2 equal. circuit according to plugs. I discarded the condensermethod with its troublesome adjustments. with the assistance that I had obtained (by the condensermethod). but simply by means of the general principle of balancing by making one line a copy of the other. IL. wanted in the first place. intermitter and telephone. though the investigation came in useful at last. and to get this knowledge Not having coils of known inductance to start to the Christie. i. of which I obtained knowledge through duplex telegraphy. in or out of balance did not require to be upset. This will be completely annulled by shunting 1 by a condenser of capacity Sv such that went . course inductionless. together with a coil of variable inductance. art. . to know what practical values to give to the inductances of various electromagnets used for telegraphic purposes. through the general theory (20c) to (27c). and investigated the conditions (25c) to (27c) more from curiosity than anything In 1881 I wished else. The method is. But the double adjustment is sometimes very troublesome. the values of the inductances of various coils. " To use the Bridge to speedily and accurately measure the inductance of a coil. and. the coil to be measured Ratio of equality. the value of the inductance of a coil at once in electromagnetic units. vol. of known inductance and resistance. I employed Maxwell's condensermethod. first taking care that the resistanceThis set of coils. 778. we should have a set of proper standard coils. R^E^RJR^ But the selfinduction of the coil will cause current in 5 when 6 is made or broken. so as to vary the inductance from a minimum to a maximum. in itself. a good one. In the course of these experiments I observed the upsetting of the resistance and inductionbalance by the presence of metal in the neighbourhood of the coils. to study these effects with greater ease.* with an automatic Let 1 2. and have. Hughes's oddly named Sonometer will do just as well.266 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. For when we vary E v to approximate to the correct value of .K 1 $1 we upset the resistancebalance. especially if the capacity of the condenser be not adjustable. having got the information I electromagnets with solid cores. and 3 be inductionless resistances. if of suitable size and properly connected up. went to the equalratio method. resistances are also . It is the manner of connection and use that give individuality to my inductometer. t Prof. Of to be in branch 4. to form say branch 3.
turn again till silence comes. ranging from . of centimetres. of course. and described methods of correctty measuring it. set the resistancebalance so that Z4 should be 21 units . and microtoms were wanted. etc. II. to find the places on the scale corresponding to 20. and as it is for the measurement of induction it may. and that of the coils separately. by the equalratio method. and mark Why this can be done again. which. so I made them quite equal. and get exact balance by allowing induction between two little ones. if close together. turn the moveable coil till silence is reached. 2 . 50. Inductometer. p.. put one coil of It happened by the inductometer in 3.. Although rather out of order. I found that the calibration could be effected with ease and rapidity by the condensermethod more conveniently than by comparisons with coils. which. with no exact measurement of the fraction of a unit" [vol. thousands. yet shortly after making these remarks. Since Maxwell made the subject of selfinduction his own. Another good name is mac. rapidly is because the resistancebalance is at every step altered in the have . 49. 37]. merely requires us to get a balance. and mark the place 21. 22. and called it a torn the attraction this had for me arose from L toms + ohms But it was too big a unit. first ascertain the minimum and the maximum inductance. there is facility in calculations. arid two or three multiples . would have to be closed solenoids).ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. be referred to to find the value of a certain deflection. be appropriately termed an Of course. as no table has to inductance. The only step to this was to have a number of I have made (this was some years ago) little equal coils. according to It will then be sufficient the quite arbitrary size of the instrument). and millitoms equalling LfR seconds of time. repeat throughout the whole range. I think. next. as a practical unit of inductance. etc.. PART VI. if ^ and L2 are the separate inductances and ra the maximum mutual The calibration is thoroughly practical. 267 required to get and keep the resistancebalance. I returned to my earlier experiments by caliAs it then becomes brating the scale of the coil of variable inductance. Suppose the range is from 20 to 50 units (hundreds. might be called a mac. as a mere name.2w to ^ + 12 + 2m Q . coils of The two convenient to make them . the inductometer may be used with its coils in When in parallel. an instrument of precision. 10 6 centim. not to measure the values. We / x + 1. before calibration. . as desired. there is some appropriateness in the name. but it is very so. the other in 4. and balance. variable known inductance. . millions. 9 I formerly chose 10 centim. it deserves a name . to secure two advantages. 21.thus an instrument of constant resistance and same manner. Starting at 21. for many purposes no calibration is needed. Thus. First. Then set the balance to suit 22. is short and . Let 1 and 2 be any equal coils . R distinctive. the inductometer need not be equal . the effective parallel or in sequence. it will be convenient to mention here that although I have not had a regular inductancebox made (the coils. mere accident that my inductometer had nearly equal coils .
than the inductometer's greatest..268 resistance ELECTRICAL PAPERS.reading tells us the inductance... and 1.. Set up current in the combination. 757..... of low or high resistance. This assumes that L 3 lies within the range of the inductometer..) This seriously impairs the utility of the property. whilst. (32c) We may therefore make one in ductometer serve as two distinct ones. (31c) when in sequence. insert resistance along with it to The conditions of silence are bring the timeconstants to equality. when joined up in parallel. with or without mutual induction. Thus. . every branch having the same timeconstant.. * t Maxwell. and ^ = / 2 this reduces Z to . put the coil to be measured in 3. or of a combination of coils in sequence. C the common potentialfall it is easily being the total current. Having got the inductometer calibrated. Let there be any network of conductors... There does not seem to be any other way of making the two coils in parallel behave as a single coil as regards external electromotive force. and then remove the impressed force.. we have thus proving the property stated.. but the reservation does not apply in the case of the equalcoil inductometer. make 1\ = r 2 . putting at the same time equal resistance in the other branch. 2 being inductionless resistIf it has a larger timeconstant ances... shown that when the coils are unequal ... and any pair of them may consequently be joined by an external conductor without producing current in it. put the coil to be measured in 3. Now their inductances. but there must be no mutual induction. and V .. This property supplies us with inductionbalances of a peculiar kind. 1 and 2 being equal... and the inductometer in 4. the inductometer being in 4.. Thus. Z=2r+2(l + m)p...... and inductance are each one fourth of the sequencevalues.. . we may find the inductance of a given coil. Z=%r + l(l + m)p.... ^ and r2 being their resistances...... vol.. and is a good one for certain purposes. nearly as rapidly as the resistance. During the subsidence all the junctions will be at the same potential. If not. We balance. . and L 3 /E3 = LJR4 Here a ratio of equality is not RJi^RxRs The method is essentially the same as one of Maxwell's f.... when . required. we may vary the limits as we please by putting a coil of known inductance in sequence with branch 3 or 4 as required. ii... have to make E3 = R and L 3 = Z 4 or to get a resistanceand then turn the inductometer till silence is reached. .. (This is an example of the property* that any linear combination whose parts have the same timeconstant has only that one timeconstant. Any number of coils whose timeconstants are equal will.. art... ^ and 12 and m their mutual inductance in any position. behave as a single coil of the same timeconstant .. Or. the scale. let V= ZC be the differential equation of the coils in parallel...
6 PART VI. where they join the telephonewires. it is a question of small inductances. Variations to represent Intermittences. but of lower satisfied. rent matter. cannot fix the inductance of a straight wire. and localise them But this definitely as belonging to this or that part of a circuit. the coil to be measured being in 3. The inductance of a circuit is a definite quantity so is the mutual inductance of two circuits. and inductance of the coil of the mutual inductance of the two coils. strictly speaking. or else two coils whose total resistance in sequence is that . taken by itself. insert other coils of known inductance. Consider the equations (24c) to (27c). or of experiments of a philosophical nature. and the equalratio M L3 = Lt '2Mi( L being here the . and 1 and 4 coils having the same resistance as the others. may. Three conditions have to be in general. The exact arrangement of 3 and 4 will depend on circumstances. also twisted. 4 also. lost when we deal with short wires.. simplicity is. But always use a long wire rather than a short one (experimental wire). priate size). the resistancebalance (25c) and the balance of To illustrate this in a integral extracurrent (26c) not being sufficient. but these are the simplest. Balances can always be got. We and adjust them. as before. The returncurrent has to be considered. Also. When. Then gives the inductionbalance. p. (33. 37]. it is a diffeobtain considerable accuracy. we coils are equal). unless they are bent round so as to make nearly closed circuits. needing very careful balancing. each forms so nearly a closed circuit that it can be taken as such so that we can add and subtract inductances. put one coil of the inductometer and the other in 4. because in the position giving silence. where inductances are large and small errors unimportant. 269 in Or. by previous adjustment. I should recommend 1 and 2 to be two equal wires. simple manner. or easily neutralize them. to a great extent.) I have spoken of coils method is preferable for general purposes. Inadequacy of S. and / x + / 2 is known. let 2 and 3 be equal coils. inductance. of course slightly separated at the other. that will depend upon the configuration of the apparatus. when coils are connected together. 1 and 2 being any equal coils. " Speaking with diffidence. always. coils in series with course I regard the matter from the point of view of getting " easily interpretable results [vol. There are other ways . let branch 3 consist of the standard coils (of appro: . If this is in branch 4.H. the scalereading gives the value of / 1 + / 2 + 2m (or else 2(l + m) if the If the range is not suitable. of any convenient length. but as regards the interpretation. twisted together. joined at one end. Of Some Peculiarities of Selfinduction Balances. if necessary. 46 This is known in all positions. " So long as we keep to coils we can swamp all the irregularities due to leading wires. etc.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and can therefore easily With short wires. however. however. having little experience with short wires. inserting. n. the inductometer in 4. then the equalratio method acquires so many advantages as to become the method. It has no meaning.
but of lower inductance resistancebalance is satisfied.. by increasing either L or L4 to the right amount. but if put in 4 will bring us to silence. however. with an intermitter making regular vibrations. in spite of its electromotive force.. when if of each of the others. but not when it is L r If the sound to be quenched is slight. Now. yet by destroying the Thus we have a false resistancebalance we may approximate to it. though not with any pretensions to minute accuracy. if we take enough trouble. The reason of this is that in the L^ case we satisfy only the second condition.. Then the minimum insertion of a nonconducting iron core in 1 will lead to a loud sound. and 4 of the same resistance but of lower inductance much lower. are the R^R^ . if the assumption that has been made is justifiable. Another way to make the experiment is to make 1. how should we interpret the results 1 As neither (25c) nor (26c) is true. let 1 and 2 be just like a coil. were it not for the fact that this hypothesis sometimes Of this I leads to utterly absurd results when experimentally tested. . Supposing. resistance. So. but if it be loud. functions of the time.. except as regards something to be mentioned later. correctly interpret the results.270 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. all we make L^ + L4 = 2L 3 For instance. if L^ . and 3 equal. as we have only to test that intermittences Ll = L 2 may be regarded as S. . and (34c). whilst in the L4 case we satisfy the third as well... and we can undoubtedly.. or S. of course. the residual sound in the Z x case is feeble and might be overlooked . were equal sufficient to would be to L2 make an inductionbalance. The separated.. If we were to wilfully go to work in this way in the presence of exact methods... frequency being n/2n. the next condition should have to do is first adjusted to and L3 . (35c) employed safely... we could put it in one of the sides of the quadrilateral and balance it. and. reversals. simplify by taking which makes an exact equalratio balance. and that 71/27T could be taken as the frequency of the intermitter.n 2 in (24c). will give an illustration. whilst in the L4 case there is perfect silence. if circumstances compelled us to ignore the exact methods of true balances. (34c) two conditions to be satisfied . the pendulous.... then..H.. It does result when it is L 4 that is increased. 2.H. we should endeavour to get silence by operating upon L v although we cannot do it exactly. . and the question would present itself. then the residual sound in the L^ case is loud and is comparable with that to be destroyed. I should have been fully inclined to admit (and have no doubt it is sometimes true) that. we might regard the residual sound as due to the upper partials.. if a battery could be treated as an ordinary conductor... silence would result. and we find . it is suggested that we make use of the formula based upon the assumption that the currents are sinusoidal or Take ^ 2 = .and a false inductionbalance. fi3 = J?4 L 3 = L4 Since a steady or slowly varying current does not produce sound in the telephone..
the apparent resistance. whilst there was a small reduction in the amount of the negative inThe effect was distinct. a remark that applies more or less in all cases where the combination tested does not behave as a mere coil of constant 11 and L. as regards the values 165 steady. The S. and 4 the balancing coils. * .000 centim. which is. although to 130 at frequency 800. the deflection of a galvanometer in 5 must be the same whether 6 is in or If we leave out the battery in 6. That is to say. 126 ohms.H. but was principally due to a vanishing of the integral Of course in such a case as this we should employ a extracurrent. owing to the complex balancing. viz. of batteries. 3 the battery to be tested. of what I expected on the but was the opposite (as regards resistance) To see whereabouts the minimum apparent resistS.* Thus steady. though not perfectly. or as a shunted condenser with resistance in sequence. however. or 500. intermittent (about 500). The resistance went down to 113 with a slow rattle.H. although other effects are then produced. with intermittences. intermittent. from 125 to 130 ohms. under various changes of frequency. PART VI. ductance. out.. I am aware that Kohlrauseh employs the telephone with intermittences to find the resistance of electrolytes. impressed force. Another battery: steady. at the same time. R4 were a little increased. assumption. I find that a good battery can be very well balanced. got the best possible silence by adjustment of resistance and inductance. I lowered the frequency by steps.. or something similar . examined the influence of the frequency on the values of the and inductance. cutting So far regarding the resistance. 1J ohm. The change in the latter was uncertain. 271 equal coils. after bringing the sound to a minimum by means of resistanceadjustment. when the frequency was raised from about 500 to about 800. As regards the inductance. it becomes Mance's method.H. as regards resistance. The steady resistances are got by out the intermitter. using a makeand break instead. usually negative. It was naturally suggested by the negative inductance and lower resistance that the battery behaved as a shunted condenser. about  mac. and then found the residual sound could be nearly quenched by allowing induction between the coil in 3 and a silver coin. and so there was no minimum at all. and then increasing the inductance of the one containing the battery under test. I find. the residual sound (sometimes considerable) may be quenched by inserting equal coils in branches 3 and 4. : 166 ohms. strictly S. but have no knowledge of how he gets at the true resistance. The sensitiveness is. but the apparent resistance was notably increased by increasing the frequency. far less with rapid intermittences than with a steady current. however. 2J ohms. far greater when the battery is not left out. assumption had not the least application to and I effective resistance intermittences. or apparent inductance.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. 113 slow it no doubt is concerned in the rise from 113 The balance (approximate) was some complex compromise. ance was (being 165 steady). I selected the battery which showed the greatest negative inductance. that is. provided.
and thus ensure their equality There is then only left the inequality between at every moment. Now. If the arrangement is at all sensitive. The other effects. and this. and tell us which way If it be louder. for two reasons first. etc. lamps. to have to listen to irregular noises. from 46 ohms to there was a rapid fall in the resistance 18 ohms in half a minute in the case of a rather usedup battery. but a comparatively small fall when the battery was good. comes on. if it be slight and due to resistanceinequality. free from harsh irregularities. on account of temperature inequalities occurring in experimenting.272 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. assisted by an iron wire over or in the same coil. resistancechange. or by a thicker iron wire alone. or grating and fribbling sounds. if the four sides of the quadrilateral consist of four coils. and when the resistance and inductancebalances are both slightly wrong. and not distorted in shape afterwards. restore a resistancebalance is easy enough . Besides the advantage of independence of the manner of variation of the impressed force (in all cases where the lesistance and inductance do not vary with the frequency). for the effect of temperaturevariation on the inductance is small. I. * pure common . will practically keep equal in inductance . when no true balance could be got without it. next. Regarding the intermitter. especially when experiments are prolonged.* acceptation. I find that it is extremely desirable to have one that will give a pure tone. equal in To pairs. viz. compared with the . the equalratio method gives us independence of the mutual induction of 1 and 2 and of 3 and 4 . are It made little difference when the current in the cell was in complex. which must. leads to another advantage of an important kind. the preservation of the ratio of equality. a small inequality in the inductance may be at once detected by a fine iron wire. borne in mind when adjusting a pair of coils to equality. but more than that is needed. heat of hands. it is a difficult matter to follow the temperaturechanges. for reasons to be presently mentioned. again.e. by reason we may. and the great ease of interpretation. due to using a battery in branch 6 as well. and that is very easily followed and set right. quenching the sound when over or in the coil of lower inductance . as of the independence of the selfinduction balance of 12 before mentioned. not in the scientific sense of having a definite single frequency. it is extremely irritating to the ear. which is only needed in a special class of cases. But. there is a considerable gain in : sensitiveness when the tone in the is pure. a combination of these two ways These facts are usefully will show us the directions of departure. On the other hand. be separated for experimental When a sound purposes. holding a coin over the coil of lower resistance will quench it. caused by the breath. pair of coils once adjusted to equality. but on reversal (by reversing the battery in 6) its natural direction for instance.. wind them together. M . the balance will continually vary. during which process it is also desirable to handle them as little as possible. the cancelling will be still further the inequality lies. branches 3 and 4. of course. otherwise But a the heating will upset our conclusions and cause waste of time.
which is required to complete the analogy between the electric and magnetic sides of electromagnetism . V steady value. connected with that in the coil. that is. L then ceases to have any definite value. and its magnetic field in the region of the primary . and (7 the amplitude of the coilcurrent.H. Increasing the inductivity in any part of the magnetic field of a coil. assumption (no matter what his hypothesis underlying it was) that the induced magnetisation varies as the magnetic force . but whilst there does not appear to be any more reason for its existence than its suggestion by analogy. because the variation of the coilcurrent That Lf is less than L. or the amount of induction through the coil per unit current in it. I have.P. as well as that of the whole field. 441] upon the existence of a magnetic conduction. therefore. But this increase of L by a determinable amount determinable. PART VI. so that we are confined to iron and the other The foundation of the theory is Poisson's strongly magnetic bodies. in In a similar manner. if any. if regarded as the R H. variation. there is the effect of inductive magnetisation in increasing the inductance of a coil. from the power of conductingmatter to temporarily magnetic induction. indeed. \L'C^ where L. the inductivity. There must be this definiteness. the induced currents in whatever conducting matter there may be in the field. Coming now to the effects of metal in the magnetic field of a coil. the magnetic induction.current.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. or. guided by it. when the distribution of inductivity is known. without influence on its resistance. and the 2 The effect of iron therefore is. we see that impressed magnetic force is related to a flux. have merely to see whether it is obeyed and what the departures are. always increases the inductance Z. or masked by another effect. that may require us to modify it. on the assumption that the only electric current is that in the coil breaks down when there are other currents. the mean value of the is the effective magnetic energy becomes definite.. merely to increase the inductance of a coil. p. speculated [vol. the change from J to \ being by reason of the mean of the square of a sine or cosine being \. the conductivity of a body. VOL. Magnetic and Nonmagnetic. than by the more laborious course of noting facts and evolving a theory out of them a quite unnecessary procedure.. and. . 273 Disturbances produced by Metal. ^LC state. and when this is put into a more modern form. I. But in one case. the resistance of a coil. First. in the first instance. seeing that we have a good theory already. through a specific quality. The DiffusionEffect. in the steady magnetic energy. the matter is more easily understood from the theoretical point of view. Diamagnetic decrease is quite insensible.E.H. such as occur when the latter is varying. the is S. in the same manner as impressed electric force is related to electric conductioncurrent through that other specific quality. that of S. ii s . may be concluded in a general though vague manner from the opposite direction of an induced current to that of an increasing primary. its existence would lead to phenomena which are not observed. Equivalence of Nonconducting Iron to Selfinduction. more exclude distinctly. viz.
and a certain time which is considerable in the case of a large mass of metal. and we have to show nonmathematically. 1886. The same applies to the conductor forming the coilcircuit itself. not regarding electric current as causing magnetic force. and the wires regarded as linear circuits. May. are propagated with such air that we may. There is no distinction between the theory for magnetic and for nonmagnetic conductors . but quite as clear as in the argument relating to the heat. Magnetic force. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. . especially copper. ceases to have a definite value when the current is varying. resistance. and for the closure of the current. RC'2 the Joulean generation of heat per second.H. on account of the external generation of heat. and with it electric current. where B' is the effective That PJ is always greater than E is certain and obvious . But in the S. but as caused by or being an affection of the magnetic force. the mean value is necessarily a definite quantity (at a given frequency). and we have only to make the coilwire thick enough to make the effect of the approximation to surfaceconduction experimentally sensible. for present purposes. that the existence of induced external current reduces the energy. quite slowly in comparison. by reason of high conductivity. the slower the diffusion. for the coil heat is JJ?(7 2 and there is the external heat as well. may be regarded as having the magnetic disturbance diffused into its interior from the boundary. they are diffused through conductors in quite another manner. only superficially penetrated by the magnetic disturbance to an appreciable extent . Hence a conductor brought with sufficient rapidity into a magnetic field is. allowing for their being vector magnitudes. as an instantaneous action. making ^R'C* the heat per second. if C be taken to be the coilcurrent.274 . without mathematics . as before. the interior being comparatively free from the magnetic induction. by reason of high inductivity more than counteracting the effect of its lower conductivity is required before the steady state is reached.. also. a sufficiently rapidly oscillatory impressed force in the coilcircuit induces only superficial currents in a piece of metal in the field of the coil. The magnetic energy of the coilcurrent alone is \LCl. thus producing lateral propagation. we pass from one to the other by changing the values of * Phil. in which the magnetic field is calculable from the coilcurrent and the distribution of inductivity. and more especially iron. The greater the conductivity and immense rapidity through it regard the inductivity. But in common finewire coils it may be wholly ignored. there is some advantage gained. in a similar manner. without any reference to a particular kind of coil or kind of distribution of the external conductivity. inasmuch as we come closer to the facts as a whole. Mag. it. On the other hand. at the first moment. When the matter is treated in an inverse manner. apart from the details relating to the reaction on the coilcurrent. according to the same laws as the diffusion of heat. a nonmathematical and equally clear demonstration of the reduction of L is possible. And hence. a certain function of the former. Perhaps Lord Rayleigh's * dynamical generalisation might be made to furnish what is required. It is suggested that. case.
we destroy the diffusioneffect more or less. to conclude that we had is A A : make iron. and if we raise the frequency and increase the sensitiveness of the balance. resembling pieces of black poker in appearance. and leave In my early experiments I was sufficiently only the inductivity effect. These effects are greatly multiplied when big cores are used . thicker copper wire shows the diffusioneffect . produces no effect on the balance. A fine copper wire placed in one (say in branch 3) of a pair of balanced coils in the quadrilateral. under the influence of intermittent Its inductivity is that of currents. reduced the diffusioneffect to something quite insignificant in comparison with the effect when the core was solid. requires the inductance of the balancingcoil (say in 4) to be increased. if the steady state be taken in But. On the other hand. by reason of high inductivity. (siftings) and mix them with a black wax in the proportion of 1 of wax After careful mixture I roll the to 5 or 6 of iron filings by bulk. but only residual minor currents. somewhat only to stop the flow of currents to forces. conductivity and inductivity. with a continuous reduction in the diameter of the wires. according to the fineness of the division. owing to copper having same inductivity as air. under weak magnetising behave merely as an inductor. becomes relatively feeble with rapid intermittences. difference in the phenomena produced. at the best leaves a The influence of polepieces and of considerable residual sound. This will be understood when the diffusioneffect is borne in mind. with intermittences. (J inch diameter. if other things do not interfere. into the form of solid round cylinders. 4 to 6 inches long. then the balancing. thick iron wire shows both effects the inductance and the resistance of branch 4 must be strongly increased. the air it replaces. 275 Nor is there any the two constants. its thickness may be decreased as much as we please. a fine iron wire. and still show the diffusioneffect. resulting compound. Ewing on the nature of the curve of induction under weak forces. and requires a small increase of the resistance of branch 4 to balance it. there seems to be a difference in the theory which does not really exist. satisfied by finding that the substitution of a bundle of iron wires for a solid iron core. The other effect is small in comparison. too small for the diffusioneffect to sensibly influence the balance. so that the steady magneticfield is the same and it practically the . that there was a slight effect. and the inductance of coil 4 requires a slight decrease. under considerable pressure. PART VI. on account of some remarks of Prof. which is so great in the steady state. but quite sensible. armatures outside coils in increasing the inductance. Next. I immensely improved the test by making and using nonconducting cores. More recently.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. so that the disturbance is considerable. containing as much iron as a bundle of round I take the finest iron filings wires of the same diameter as the cores.) That the diffusioneffect was quite gone was my first conclusion. each case as the basis of comparison. If thick. If the metal is divided so that the main induced conductioncurrents cannot flow. the approximate balancing of it by change of resistance is insufficient. when in a slightly yielding state. though of doubtful . or that of 3 a slight increase.
p. it is much greater than the least effect that might be detected . (I may. Resistance of branch 6 a few ohms. E. the impressed force of intrinsic magnetisainsensible.276 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. so far as weak magnetising oscillatory forces are concerned. 3 and 4 equal in resistance = 724 = 93 ohms). if B is the induction and force. in which the variations in the intrinsic magnetisation are insensible. Though small. as well as the magnetising force. M : But. seldom higher. and f inch in depth. we need not trouble ourselves in the least about minute effects due to these causes. by using coils containing a much greater number of windings. the ability of nonconducting iron to act merely as an increaser of inductance will become considerably modified. of copper wires gives perfect silence. more recently. The resistancebalance had to be very carefully But. There is. or to slight curvature in the line of induction. To show it. and so does a method I have 6i shown to be exact [vol. J inch internal diameter. II. maximum with the cores only. there is merely a faint residual sound. I should state that the magnetic I define /x to be the ratio B/H. nearly destroyed by increasing JK3 by about ^j part. have been usually from 50 to 200. pure selfinduction relatively considerable change. It seems probable that n must have a distinctly lower value under rapid oscillations than when they The values of /* calculated from my experiments on cores are slow. amount and attended to. This would indicate a slightly lower inductivity with the smaller magnetising force. let 1 and 2 be equal coils wound is quite debateable. here mention that in experiments with mere fine copperwire coils there are sometimes to be found traces of variations of resistancebalance with the frequency of intermittence. It is confidently to be expected. 6 volts. Under the influence of regular intermittences. 38]. and difficult to elucidate owing to temperaturevariations. 1J inch external. so far as the quasielastic induction is concerned. I find there is a distinct effect of the kind required. . which is to include h.F. an immense sound in the telephone when the core is but when it is in. that of coil 3 (L 3 = 24 macs) being so much greater than that of coil 4 that the iron core must be fully inserted in the latter to make L = L y (Coils 3 and together (72 3 4. Frequency 500. it would be invisible except in a large diagram. of course. but of very unequal inductances. and that the dissipation of energy by variations in the intrinsic magnetisation will cease to be out of coil 3. and thereby increasing the sensitiveness considerably. Halving the strength of current upsets the inductionbalance in this way the auxiliary core must be set a little closer when the current is reduced. which is M . but whether it should be ascribed to the cause mentioned or to other causes. the iron gets into a stationary condition.) The balancing of induction is completed by means of an external core. the residual sound increases from zero with to the 64: only. a On the other hand. J? = 47 ohms). of very small amount. from our knowledge of the variation of /*.. however.) Balancing partly by Jf64 and partly by the iron cores. graphically represented.M. as dissipation of energy due to variations in the intrinsic magnetisation. (L=3 macs. character. and proves slight curvature in the line of induction. But. H . that when the range of the magnetising force is made much greater.
The Effective Resistance and Inductance of Round Wires at a given Frequency. in fact. to obtain the increased resistance. Then like a When M . I found a far greater difference than could be accounted for by any reasonable error in the ohm (reputed) or in the The capacity of the condenser. however. art. On reference to the second edition (not published at the time referred I will therefore only to) I find that the formula has been corrected. References to authors who have written on the subject of induction of currents in cores other than. II. I may mention that on comparing the measured with the calculated value of the inductance of a long solenoid according to Maxwell's formula (vol. and less comprehenSo sively than. Another method is to calculate the heat in the core. and unknown to. the phenomena in the core become amenable to rigorous mathematical treatment in a comparatively simple manner. where. of changed conductivity and inductivity. not with (See the general equations in Part I.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. by calculating the reaction of the core on the coilcurrent.. that we are concerned with in experiments of the present kind. and the core is placed axially. that iron when made a nonconductor acts merely as an inductor. Let be the mutual inductance of two long give my extension of it. . it requires to be treated as both a conductor and inductor.. outer diameter c 2 inner c lt having n and n 2 turns per unit length. equations (21) and (23)) in the first edition of his treatise. then. 678. coaxial solenoids of length I.. Mag. December. and the Corresponding Formulae when the Induction is Longitudinal. Inductance of a Solenoid. 277 It is with this /A... with the Current Longitudinal. Knowing.* far as the effect on an inductionbalance is concerned. This I have also done. 1886. art. and therefore recalculated the formula. there is disagreement still. In passing. it is to be found. when oscillatory currents are employed. myself. when we remove the insulation and make the iron a solid mass. and reduce the difference to a reasonable one. the coil is a solenoid whose length is a large multiple of its diameter.. When the diffusioneffect * is small. 678. as he remarks. if p= c /c .. <> As regards Maxwell's previous formula (22). l 2 When ^^KK^K^tC+t* . tion. are contained in Lord Rayleigh's recent paper.. This I have fully done in my article on the subject. just copper mass. its influence on the amplitude and Phil. PART VI. result was to correct it..) the ratio of the induction to the magnetising force as ordinarily understood.
Also let E 2 be the steady resistance of the same when used as a wire. and again as core in a solenoid with induction longitudinal. of length I. p. T\l Tt "\ (52o) . I have slightly changed the arrangement of the figures in the original to show it. and L{ its value at frequency ?i/27r. when it also adds resistance R{ to the coil.. \ . 364] 2. whilst N that part of the steady inductance of the coilcircuit which is contributed by the core.. We may easily make the coreheat a large multiple of the coilheat." Here H and k are the inductivity and conductivity of the core. 370] of the phasedifference. The being convergent. the same as that of the coil. I. the effects are thus connected. and R( and Li its resistance and then becomes.10. Corresponding to this. _ 4. which is 16. I find from my investigation [vol. p.14..8* V 3. inductance at frequency w/2w. When y is small enough. The full expression for the increased resistance due to the dissipation of energy in the core is to be got by multiplying the above l by is R Y t which is given by [vol. The law of the coefficients is obvious. and the number of turns of wire in the coil per unit length .278 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. we may use the series obtained by division of the numerator by the where y = (lirpknc*)*. series denominator in (49c).19?/ 229w 2 . c the core's radius.1 /7 T"fc T T~>/ T t . 16 3 9 . _ The value of R' is therefore R + R^.6. When the same core is used as a wire with current longitudinal. the formula is generally applicable. 369] = E + 2/7r(7r^VcV) 2 = R + BI " say. coil circuit phase of the coilcurrent is the same as if the resistance of the were increased from the steady value R to [vol. I. Let L l be the above steady inductance of the coil so far as is due to the core. that the decrease of the effective inductance from the steady value is expressed by y / . n/2ir the frequency.24 15. the latter being what Then J ^ TITOT. especially in the case of iron. I. p. in which the induced currents are so strong. Many phenomena which may be experimentally observed when rods are inserted in coils may be usefully explained in this manner.
. 279 I did not give any separate development of the L( of the core. this gives #( = #{ = It is ^=2234 L&.....6... When z is as large as 10...... the denominator being as in the preceding formula.16V __ 23.16 showing the laws of formation of the terms....'l4...6....10. {=225 whereas the correct values by the complete formulae are 198^. and of the electric current in the other case....14.... same denominator as in (49c) The highfrequency formulae for E{ and L{ are (2*)*' if y = IQz2 .16V 3.3 2 ... The full development of L{ is .. are _ 6. the highfrequency formulae are not so generally applicable as in the case of cores. y=1600. As... the longitudinal....16V 1+ 3.. particular frequency makes the amplitude of the magnetic force in e case of the core. which may be as ...... or whereas Lord Rayleigh's highfrequency formulae. 10. z is over 10.3 2 ... 16 _ 2.). however.....r6V ' . 2 2 ...4 2 .... we do not ordinarily have very thick wires for use with the current longitudinal. The corresponding current is fully developed formulae for R( and L when f 2...ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. fourteen times as great at the boundary as at the axis of the wire or core (see Part I.... and + I4 1 5" = 2 2 .16V 4... PART VI.16V + 2. Lr use the high therefore clear that we may advantageously which is frequency formulae when easily reached with iron cores at moderate frequencies.. 14.. which are ^ = 2234^2. is 5 = J/*x 447.10..16 3*. these give At z =10.. corf responding to (48c) and (49c) above for B but merged it in the expression for the tangent of the difference in phase between the impressed force and the current in the coilcircuit.
(56c) wherein the coefficient of every power of p must vanish.... and capacity of a branch. If the core is hollow..... whilst L^ is the part of L due to the core and contained hollow (dielectric current in it ignored). inductance. admitting of immediate numerical calculation. thick as we please.. L. however... of inner radius c else the same. 1 lateral consist of coils shunted by condensers. even making them. if all the Z/s . being given (whose value is zero when the core is solid).. and There may be a tubular space between the core and coil.. . as such a complex balance would be useless .. R sc J (sc)qK (sc) by . The Christie Balance of Resistance.. whilst by also increasing the number of windings the coreheating per unit amplitude of coilcurrent may be greatly increased... let the four sides of the quadribalance. or .. . we have selfinduction.. .. if e be the impressed force and G the current in the coilcircuit whose complete steady resistance and inductance are and L. Permittance. Thus.... and E. L may include the whole circuit... (53c) when q depends upon the inner radius.280 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and S denoting the resistance. Then R..... and is interesting enough for educational purposes. the equation of the coilcurrent is. In reference to this equation (53c)... it is to be remarked that there is considerable labour involved in working it out to obtain what may be termed practical formulae.. The same applies to a considerable number of unpublished investigations concerning coils and cores that I made. (55c) and 6 requires that {Sl }.. but some simpler cases may be derived.. is unnecessary to write them out.. but the interpretations are so difficult in general that it is questionable whether it is worth while publishing the investigations. and Inductance. of which two are identical by having a common factor.... including the effects of dielectric displacement the analysis is all very well... giving seven It conditions. ZZ 4t ZZ Z={Sp + (R + Ip)so that the conjugacy of branches 5 1 1 } .. Leaving now the question of cores and the balance of purely magnetic and returning to the general condition of a selfinduction = 2 3) equation (23e)..
. 281 the by mere resistances.. If we put ES=y. on this point...... Z=R + Lp + (Sp)\ which gives rise to five conditions.... a true : resistancebalance... without resistanceshunts..... If Sl = = /SL it is y3 = y addition to the resistancebalance is i/ 1 = yy 4 Next. let each side consist of a condenser and coil in sequence.. . ..... ........ and.... the beginning of the next Part VII.. we have I (57c) which may be compared with the three selfinduction conditions (25c) to (27 c).... in fact.. so that .. ditions. as there can be no steady current. others...... leaving condensers shunted three conditions PART VI........ General Theory of the Christie Balance with Self and Mutual Induction all over..... [But see... the timeconstant............. If two sides are resistances.... R 1 R^ = R2EBJ but not an inductionbalance. ..... (64c) is The multiplication of special kinds of balance a quite mechanical operation.. presenting no difficulties.. this seems a sufficient reason for its not But...] If there are condensers only.. (63c) #A = & the sole condition of balance..... vanish.. (59c) 1111 + = +.... suppose we have.. P^ and and $4 we obtain ... we have Z=(SpY\ so that is .... $3 BjRiSJSs as the sole condition.. . Passing now to balances in which induction between different branches is employed..........ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. becomes So the obvious way of satisfying it is by the true resistancebalance. eliminating $3 X 3 S4 and L by means of the other four conit Here looks as if . the second of (57c) may be written which corresponds If $2 = = $4 the single condition in to (26c).... (62c) .. the third condition.. Ry and two are condensers........... by union with the being required. in the first place. Then the expression for Z is .. 1 <t *l ~ LS ~ 1 1 9 the resistancebalance were unnecessary ..
Can these balances. concerned). by upsetting the resistancebalance by trial. 35]. p. Thus. IL. after the that. and therefore fifteen ways of balancing by mutual induction when only two branches at a time are allowed to influence one another.e. 105]. with a false resistancebalance. that when a coil is discharged through various paths. by means of small placed in the different branches. so that we may know what we are doing testcoils . 38]. (29c) and but not in the method. But more careful observation.282 there is ELECTRICAL PAPERS. when we employ them There are fifteen ? ATs concerned. 65 M^ M M M M M did what I should have done at the beginning. and in every case three conditions are involved. and gave the I have since further found when using the only practical method of equalratio. sound produced in the telephone. I. although some of them were far better than others. led me to suspect that the second and third conditions united to form one condition when a ratio of equality was used (just as in (28c). under various conditions. . and may be comparable to the original in intensity. 63 65 the minimum sound being sometimes comparable in intensity to that which was to be destroyed. If the sound to be destroyed is feeble. investigated the differential equations concerned. that all the balances by mutual induction. p. be made of service and be as exact as the previously described exact balances ? and are the balances easily interpretable. the integral current divides as in steady flow. arises. and it may be a The question very good silence. my suspicions. in spite of the electromotive This method gives us forces of induction set up during the discharge. because there are three degrees of currentfreedom in the six conductors involved. still further approximate to silence. whilst that by or was usually very bad. were imperfect. verified results in a Postscript [vol. p. We may also. II. or any of them. I investigated the matter by direct calculation of the integral extracurrent in branch 5 arising on breaking or making branch 6.. I was of opinion. whilst the resistancebalance giving a certain value to the makes a second condition. I observed experimentally that when a = L. we may think that we have got a true inductionbalance but if it is loud. there are no other ways than those described in the paper referred to of getting a true balance of induction by variation of a single L or M. making use of a M M MM ^ M principle I had previously deduced from Maxwell's equations [vol. and the fact that in allowing induction between a pair of branches we use only one condition (i. Then. using a true resistancebalance. the second condition of a true balance.J was taken. and that the 6i methods were persistently good and were not to be distinguished from true balances.. we find that we may reduce the sound to a minimum in a great many ways by allowing induction between different branches. showing a persistent departure from the true resistancebalance in the Q5 method and (due to Professor Hughes). in writing on this subject before [vol. due to the momenta of the currents in the various branches. So I above) in the 69 64c methods. Owing to this. then the minimum sound is also loud. the balances by means of ratio of equality (R l = R& were very good.
(69c) X 3l = + 7l/31 M  53 . 283 though it may This will appear in the following look complex.(68e) ^22^31 This could the complex condition of conjugacy of branches 5 and 6.. although we want but four of them. which. M +M + + 35 )p. in its simplicity..L 2 + 7I/12 ( + . but it be more simply deduced by assuming C5 = may be as well to give the values of all the JT's.54  . Then . They are (p standing for d/dt). eliminate C 1 C2 C6 by f . X 22 = . and 345. .P (M C 5l l Now. resistancebalance has been secured. when there is impressed force in branch 6 only. is quite mechanical Write down the equations of electromotive force in the three circuits 1 + 52.2 + .(65c) A+ 1 l ^"23^3 + ^2 A + ^5^5 + M36 C6 ) = +P(M31 C . + +P(M12 C2 + +P(M31 C1 + 1 M M M C2 + C 13 3 C 32 2 Q2 M 63 C3 + L 3 p)C3 7J/ (7 4 + 65 5 ) + 7!f36 (76 ). + M36 )p. 12 u 3l  M M  7l/ 24 21 M M  26 )p.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OP WIRES. at the beginning. investigation. + 1 + 3.J/.R. (7 = 64 (7 5.) = we is 31 3 ' 32 4 33 5' where the X's are functions of p and constants. see that Solve for (75 . 6 PART VI. Thus +M 15 + 2M3l )p. the continuity conditions 2 (7 = C' + C 1 3 5 r . = +p(M5l C 2 . ^= (73 + 6* (66c) giving us (67.
There is also the periodic balance. .x + M +R +R +R M^ for M 36 in (75c). 5B 6) . '" . except Jf46 . (73c) In this last.My... in addition.. or. in the brackets be is It is number with the object of substituting one investigation for a large of simpler ones that the above full expressions for A l and A 2 are written out. rather. we may unite these two between 6 and 3. Next. A = O^AQ + Atf + A^ .. (71c) if the frequency The values of is w/2ir. allowing induction these only differ in the sign of the M. + x.....) M + M M M M M M.x2 x3 )=As (R.... A and A are + (M32 + + R. M Ally's = 0.. Of these we may write out three sets. =R + Xx. wipes out all 1 2 ^= l 0.M .. Examination of Special Cases. } ...M . we arrive at the fifteen sets of three conditions... Now..MM ...MU . makes the A = 0.. we fall back upon the selfinduction 's as zero balance (25c) to (27c)... (70c) . and 6 and 4. let q 2 . .. by taking all the except one.. and integral trace of current. using the required powers of p. A.M . except M5Q (Prof....284 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the two conditions in each case besides the condition of resistancebalance. the coefficients of Then the value of 2 A R Rz R v R 2 ..... qy q v q. except M 36 . cases. it and arranging in becomes So gives the resistancebalance transient current vanish . = A 2ri\ . four of these in (68c). 4 x x )= (R! + R2 )M36 2 3 ... in addition....(M21 + 2. Reduction of the Three Conditions of Balance to Two.. A = 0.... M ...M ..M .M .MM M + M .. which is always the same.. If we take all the IPs as zero.. The two con ditions will be got by writing M 36  All M's = 0. Hughes's method).... 2Q 12 36 14 16 52 3i 2B i2 IB 52 2Q 16 15 .
. We know already that the same occurs in the case making 4 = 4: M M .. Similarly... = L 3 again. = L y Ll .MM .. one at a time.................. PART .. ..... 56  3l 3Q )   12 16 &) .. l case way of using inductionbalances in general. 26 ) (83c)  M M M Mu M .... (84c) 's are which are convenient for deriving the conditions when several Thus. and Af34 have absolutely no influence on the the last two mean that 12 balance of selfinduction. .....M bl ) 56 ) .... (81) the single condition......... In the 3Q the two conditions (75c) unite to form the single condition Now R practical M LtLB = 2M3Q and in the ........M. already examined : M (85) ' (86) (87 " JO = L.... (78c) M^ case (76c) unite to form the single condition Z4 as in (29c).......2B + + 2(MM . and 2 put l = 2 All the rest are double conditions. so that 3 =2Jf46 .. examine all the other 's.... (80e) Now l B =E But three ways of uniting the second and third conditions......L3 + M53 (l + BJRJ \ ) } ...L B ) + L B (M12 + Mu + M16 + Lt(Mu + Mu M M + MM + MW + M^ + 2M Mu + ^(EJE^M^ ..ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES......... on the same assumption.. L....... we have (L.....JtJEMMu = Ltfi ........M3Q ) + (1 .. excepting the few operative at the same time. were given in the paper referred to...... ' = L . one at a time.... ....LB + (1 + BJB 1 )(MU ... VI. (79c) of the simple Christie.L. .... Thus....M12 cannot vanish so that 4=4 is . (77c) to (82c).... in case of M^............ = L 2 With 12 we obtain 2 LI .. 285 = Rv L1 = L2 which is the really choose a ratio of equality........MM .. (82c) E All these...)(L 1 M 12 ) =Q ) and L... .. in 1 = E^ and Ll = L 2 ) then the two conditions are z M A A B M .....
and Jf34 may be bracketed... = 44^3(1^)' fO = 4 4 + Mn 9 . ' ' io=44+jif24 (i4/4)> = L4 i + Af14 (l+JJ4 /^) fO s (\RJRJ\ M) 94 . Let us examine what (83c) and (84c) reduce to when there is induction between . . M6V M M Mu and M 62 . which are the conditions required. when R^R^. Also Similarly 12 Also and and But 65 51 M^. 54 56 M M . R^ = R^ L3 = L. By (92c) and is secured by and (93c) we see that independence of 13 24 making all four branches 1. may therefore bracket together certain sets of the M' s. 2. L^L^..irji + 4/4) + jft/ij' jif 14 (i \o = jif . is As already observed. we shall see that whenever obtain the reduced forms of the conditions by adding together the values of L% L4 given by every one of the M' s concerned. from the conditions securing balance when only two of the coils at a time influence one another. m . .4 . by addition. ... 95 If we compare the two general conditions (83c).. and all the other this. Then (92c) and (93c) give. that is.. 4 equal in resistance and inductance. M . (29c) and 1T34 when these are the sole mutual inductances pendent of 12 concerned. (84c).. the selfinduction balance (28c). Effects of Mutual Induction between the Branches. M^.. suppose that 24 13 we may We M M IT's are zero..286 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... 1 ' . 3. Miscellaneous Arrangements. l ' Li L 3 = 44(0 13 (0 = . . ' ' + 4/4) 44+ /4 f (0=44^(1+^) \ o = 4 . M . To illustrate and are existent together. 24 .. 63 . .. M . . M inde M M But it is unsafe to draw conclusions relating to independence when several coils mutually influence.. 23 M^ will t not bracket.
M13 ) + M%3 ... On the other hand. 3 cancels on them as regards the telephone. The effects are added..Jf13 )( J/34 .. 23 34 12 ... identically.M.)(MU .. we have independence 1........ 2. = 23 and u = M<.. making which makes 13 and 23 u = . consistent with keeping wires 3 and 4 the away from one another for experimental purposes.Jf24 we shall find that merely of one W M M M M M .. ) M M^ .}.... Put all their double suffixes.. .... = (l/24 Jf13 )(Jf34 Jlf12 ). (99c) is first of all . the second condition .M\. when wires 1 and 2 are straight. M M . Similar remarks apply to the action between 4 and the equal wires 1 and 2 when straight or reversed ....L...)(M2. between 6 and the : rest. 3 else 12 .. if we make MM (98c) . Then.. 24 13 The pretty verification of these properties.. Jf = l/ and M = M independent of the values of M and If and Mu = 3/ and Af = M independent of the values of Jf and M Z4 .. 2.. yet 3 does not cancel on 1 and 2 as regards the telephone in 5... + (M2 . 12 . + IB .. Q so that it = M14 M23 . The meanings of some of the simpler balances are easily reasoned out without mathematical examination "of the theory . so that in (96c) and (97c) first reduces to we 4 equal in resistance and have R^ = R^ and L^ = L^ the ... not coil each.. but this is not the case when there is simultaneous induction between many coils.. and their resultant action on the telephonebranch is required.. the four branches inductance... ... makes some very M^ is experiments.. Returning to (96c) and (97c)...... especially when the four branches consist... hence the necessity of the condition represented by the last equation. or reversed. but of two or more... whether they be joined up straight..... But although 1 and 2 cancel on 3. subject to this. must cancel one another At first sight it looks as if and 3l 32 when wires 1 and 2 are reversed..... all PART VI. + L. 4.. 287 the four branches 1. (98c) and later. . ditions thus and put L = Ly but none between 5 and the rest or M' s = which have either 5 or 6 in Then we may write the con = (L. If these equalities be satisfied....ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES..M12 + (Mu ..) + (L. but 1 and 2 add theireffects on 3. is by winding the equal wires 1 and 2 together. . balance is to be preserved reduces to so that either absolutely necessary that U = 2# if the whilst... all viz.M23 )(M2 .. .2 . 3. the nearest approach we can possibly make to independence of the selfinduction balance of the values of all s therein concerned.. of M 12 and Now... 3.. 34 14 23 24: 13 . (lOOc) M M M = M or MM = M Thus there are two ways of preserving the balance when four branches are equal.. (96c) M (97c) The simplest way of satisfying these is MU = M by making 24 23 and M =M 13 . MUM* the necessary and sufficient condition of preservation of balance..M12 ..
A E E . there will be hardly the slightest sound in the telephone. so that insertion of the iron core does not increase the mutual inductance of the primary and secondary in the first place. and this coil is brought near to 1 and 2. Of course insertion of the core into the primary always increases the mutual inductance and multiplies the sound. be cancelled by inserting a nonconducting iron core in the secondary coil. but first decreases it to a minimum. say. one of iron. On exposure of the double coil to the action of an external coil in which strong intermittent currents or reversals are passing. we obtain fifteen sets of double conditions similar to those already given. there will be a residual sound. On M M and add M M twisted. if the twisting be well done. turn. and add their effects when they are But wires 1 and 2 straight. in a certain short part of The now comparatively loud sound in the telephone may its length. and when it is a coil G1 62 that operates in 6. if we have we use That are is. which may be zero. and cancel when 1 and 2 are straight. the other hand. or go too near or into the primary coil. With M 2b we have (102e) . which is immensely more sensitive than the comparison of separate measurements of the induction in the two cases. and later increases it. is to take two fine wires of equal length. using M 24 IB only. if it is desired to get rid of the influence of. when the core is further inserted. This paradoxical result appears to arise from the secondary coil being equivalent to two coils close together. before being wound into a coil.288 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. results which are immediately evident. out of which just four (as before) unite the two conditions. instead of 1 and 2. and the same are operative. 45 . Another way of getting unions of the two conditions of the inductionbalance is by having branches 1 and 3 equal. and the same when both IB the selfinduction balance is independent of 24: M (lOlc) M M 24 13 . Thus. This leads me to remark that a simple way of proving that the mutual induction between iron and copper (fine wires) is the same as must be thoroughly well M M . and connect up with a telephone differentially. with several twists in every But if it be not well done. which can be cancelled by allowing induction between the external or rather primary coil and a turn of wire in the telephonecircuit. 6l 62 their effects when they are reversed: whilst and 6l 52 cancel when 1 and 2 are reversed. between copper and copper. Reversing the secondary coil with respect to the primary makes no difference. curious effect takes place when we exaggerate the differential action by winding the wires into a coil without twists. provided it be not pushed in too far. = 3 L^ = L^ 2 = in if we take 1 A^ and 2 (73c) and (74c). twist them together carefully. M Z5 L2 =L and M and only. The fact that one of the wires in the secondary happens to be iron has nothing to do with the effect.27lf45 (103c) . Thus. = L 2 Lt2M25 = L 2 .Z4 . the other of copper. wind into a coil. R R A . This corresponds to (81c) and The other two and with ^T45 M and M (82c).
Chrystal. it is the battery balance. allowing us to put the L's of one. let L = L% = L4 = then = #2 L 3 + 71/36(^ + ^2) l . 289 conditions corresponding to (85c) to need not be written down. or three of the four branches 1.] of the general condition of conjugacy of a pair of conductors. n. But it is not so adaptable as the I need say nothing as to its quadrilateral to various circumstances. except in the special case of S. whilst 6i I have also employed the differential telephone sometimes. it is very similar to that of the equalratio We M M M M^ quadrilateral. . in the 6i method (79c).E. there could not be any steady current in either of the tobe conjugate conductors due to impressed voltage in the other. VII. I stated that in cases where. with a false resistancebalance. PART Some Notes on Part VI. (104c) gives the inductionbalance when M 3(] is used. doublewound coils whose selfinduction is negligible under certain cir cumstances. 3. the corresponding condition when But 56 will not give balance. it is sometimes useful to remember in inductionbalances. 4 equal to zero. Thus flux. I understand. Using a pair of equal coils. For instance. and the interpretation of the set of equations into which it breaks up. a true resistancebalance was still wanted to ensure conH. ii. two. fails to give branches 6 and 4. may then usefully remove the This vanishing of the L of a ratioofequality restriction if required. After my statement [p. T . theory. the abovementioned second way of having a ratio of equality is merely equivalent to exchanging the places of the force and the vanishing flux. and telephone that have to be exchanged . must not. subject to And is R^R^R^Ry (105c) = R2L3 MBb (R 2 + ^) is used. treated by Prof. so that we now use will not. In the general theory of reciprocity. there is induction between on the other hand. by the presence of inverse powers of p. But if we exchange the branches 5 and 6.P. having had one made some five years ago. vol. which gives silence. Several special balances of a comparatively simple kind can be obtained from the preceding by means of inductionless resistances. 45 (equation (88c)). His other two M^ M have been already described. that having been. transfer a coil that is operative. 2. branch of course also makes the induction between it and any other We branch vanish.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. VOL. 260.H. Condenser and Coil Balance. in making the exchange. it is a force at one place that produces the same flux at a second as the same force at the second place That the reciprocity is between the force and the does at the first. For example. The method (104c) is one of Maxwell's. The remaining eleven double (95c) PART VII. (1). currents.
Here its Z is terminals... independent of all other systems .. save for its terminal connexions.290 jugacy ELECTRICAL PAPERS. S1==7. . A = \. and yet the resistancebalance is not established. which each side of the quadrilateral consists of a condenser and a coil in sequence. choose ^= It will be 1. and y for the condenser timeconstant ES . subject to certain exceptional peculiarities similar to those mentioned in connection with the selfinduction balance. of a resistancebalance when there can be no steady current. (3d) flitrJ f. If V=Zfi be the characteristic equation of one system and C 2 that of a second.se ^ X2~ ^ and **>} y<Ly>} stands for the resistance and L for the inductance of a coil.. x for the coil timeconstant L/fi. form Z being a function of constants and of p. = 2. leads to the simple Similar Systems. it is true that the obvious simple way of getting conjugacy is to have a The conditions may then be written true resistancebalance. 2 S2 = 5.. it seemed to always require negative values to be given to some of the necessarily positive quantiBut a closer examination shows that this is not necesties concerned. they are similar when F=Z V ZJZ2 = n. No doubt simpler We must therefore remove the requirement illustrations can be found. although the condition of a resistancebalance.>:j'. any numeric the symbol of the generalised resistance of a system between when it is. we require first of all that one system should have the same arrangement as the other. that is. we require either vertical or else horizontal equality of timeconstants. = 5. found that these values satisfy the whole of equations (61c). by two condensers in sequence being equivalent to one) . being the voltage and C the current at the terminals. S for the permittance of the corresponding condenser. = L3 = 3 ^ S = 3. y%y> ore. sary. I . a condenser for a condenser. and p being d/dt. so that there can be no steady current in the bridgewire. tf^HVj Z4 = f. . or equivalence (as. To ensure the possession of the property (46?). As an example. when the currents vary. where R electrostatic and magnetic..p2 pB etc. a condition which is necessary to allow of the ZC being the full expression of the relation between and C. equations (59c) to (61c). as a coil for a coil. when fulfilled. for instance. It is also the case that on first testing the power of evanescence of the other factor on the right of equation (61c). 23 and either ' ?:? X ~ X& B and . and. (2). I am unable to maintain this hasty In the example I gave. V= V . in generalisation. 2 R. way of satisfying all the conditions.
115. (3). When the systems are not independent the above simplicity is lost . part of the dissipativity. II. 291 next. the potentials and voltages will be equal in corresponding parts. first. PART VII. of which a very simple one will occur later in connexion with another matter. the conductance of any part of which is the sum of the conductances of the corresponding parts in the real systems. and exposed to the same external impressed voltage at the terminals. I have shown how to apply it to the at first sight impossible feat of balancing iron against copper. far more general than the Christie balance.L + M13 . + Z4 +L6 m = . through a telephone Z the resistances. of great value in enabling us to avoid and lengthy mathematical investigations. on the other is the sum of the separate hand.7%^ = (msl (mj = (m. The Christie Balance of Resistance. Self and Mutual Induction. Then. The (74c). the magnetic energy. . they be put in sequence. now. and the energycurrent joining together corresponding points of course. that every resistance and inductance in the first system be n times the corresponding resistance and inductance in the second system. whilst the current in any part of the second system will be n times that in the corresponding Also the electric energy. any number of similar systems may be joined in parallel. and I have not formulated the necessary conditions of similarity in an extended sense except in some simple cases. m = + I m6 = Z. the current in all is the same. They will behave as a single similar system. having then equal voltages. three general conditions of this are given in equations (72c) to If.]. and every permittance in the second system be n times the corresponding one in the first. vol. the in any part of the second system are n times those in the corresponding part of the first. limited to four branches. each subject to V=ZG\ at the same time. and their currents in the ratio of the conductances. if the two systems be joined in parallel. it will be seen. If.* By the above.M 3 S 2 13 5 the conditions mentioned reduce simply to R\R = + m l3 + m 16 )#4 . In another place [p. the resultant Z's. however.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. we introduce the following abbreviations. + m ]3 )m 36 * ^^ useless This general property is. it is less general than the conditions which result when the full differential equation is worked out. and similarly for the permittances and for the reciprocals of the inductances. and the voltages are proportional to The inductionbalance got by is.
that as there are only three independent currents in the Christie arrangement. although there appears to be no other case in which this property is true for any value of the mutual inductance. The interpretation is. saving a great deal of preliminary [p. I. In Part VI. m m m m ances of the three circuits. plus the number of pairs of the same. viz. in which the inductances do admit of being definitely localised in and between the six branches of the Christie. ab initio with only these six inductances. But. the inductance of a short wire being an indefinite quantity. II. condition required is obviously that Z. excepting in the mention of mutual induction. in the figure. should reduce to the form + Lp. work. a property which. 2 . which is the property wanted. it is clear that (Qd) are the true conditions. Therefore equations (6d) are only useful as a short registration of results. and so obtain the various results in Part VI. vol. there can be only six independent inductances. we have to expand the m's properly. II.]. 267.]. 107. using (5d) or as much of them as may be wanted. CB B. whatever be the amount of mutual induction between them . a method which is. Reduction of Coils in Parallel to a Single Coil. on coming to practical cases. subject to (5d). vol. which can only have as many independent inductances as there are independent circuits. three self and three mutual .] the conditions (Qd). the generalized resistance of the two coils in parallel. which are not bent into nearly closed curves. I had pointed out in 1878 [p.292 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Now if the four sides of the quadrilateral consist merely of short pieces of wire. and immediately deduce vol. and 6 are the self. the second remainder must vanish. circuits be AB 2 CA AB^A. yet. I referred to the most useful property that a pair of equal coils in parallel behave as one coil to external voltage. and these maybe chosen Let the three to be the above ra's. and . to definite meaning be attached .2m J . in speaking of the inductometer.. if a special value be given to it. applicable to 7 an) network. which alone can We (4). and in the remarkably short way in which they may be got. the mutual inductand 13 6l m . we find z LLm ' 2 /^7 X . The R Performing this work. [p.C. whose meanings are as follows. any two coils in parallel will be made equivalent to one. on dividing the denominator into the numerator. of course. But. Equation (30c) gives Z\ to make the reduction possible. so that the currents in them are Cv CB and C6 Then p ra 3. may therefore start depending upon the position of other wires. Ill.
have <7=r(2Jv~)/. rl PART VII. if any number of coils in parallel behave as one. if D be coefficient of the determinant of the coefficients of the C"s in (9rf). Similarly. and l lt / 2 m the inductances \ . we obtain the required conditions : The induction through every also the voltage coil at due to its variation. . This equation (Sd) is the expression of the making of coils 1 and 2 similar. in the extended sense.T F. if any number of coils be in parallel.. and rs the be the total current. being the Let a unit current flow in the simple case to which I referred above. The simplest way to obtain these conditions is to take advantage of the fact that.. making therefore the actual inductions through them always the same. by solution. which. Then. the currents in them must at any moment be in the ratio of their conductances. Then ^ . l when we introduce into them. parallel. .m and l 2 m are the inductions and these must be proportional to the resistances. (lid) the JV's. .. therefore all Z=D/(2N). circuit two coils. if it be possible.. To reduce . any moment is the same in amount. so that. 293 which shows the effective resistance and inductance of the coils in and r 2 being their resistances. where the summation includes coil form. since by we ber is one less V.. if C = Cl + C2 + N m .. Z to the single require the satisfaction of a set of conditions whose numthan the number of coils. when put in one side of the Christie. impressed voltage V.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES..rA=P( m31 C are the equations of voltage. exposed to the same of the through them. and the impressed voltage. the selfinduction balance can be made. So. we n in D. with the equations we have. subject to giving a special value to m.. and the voltage supporting current.. will allow the coils to behave as one coil.
there is a great deal of labour involved. we may employ the telephone instead of the galvanometer. conjugate. Z R Z^ Z . is. in the case of the common Christie. left out any reference to the theory. we make A/B independent of G Hence. I. The proof that the complete selfinduction condition. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and B. Impressed Voltage in the Quadrilateral. the resistance Q can be altogether eliminated from the quotient where ^ is A E^ A R A/B. or. but taking the galvanometerzero differently. side 1. is the same whether 6 be open or closed.M. the current in 4 the bridgewire is independent of branch 6 altogether when the general condition of an inductionbalance is satisfied. which is sometimes nearly true. to e l independent of J?6 in the extended problem. due to an impressed voltage in any one of 1. in either case. 3. which. But the distribution of current is not the same in the two cases . relating to the behaviour in the quadrilateral. 4. making C5 due is still possible to represent the equation of a branch by V=ZC. if a steady impressed voltage in 6 give no current in 5. especially if the battery be fresh. a mere reproduction of the proof in the problem relating to steady . wherein is no longer a in the expansion of A/B to resistance. As is well known. . the same whether branch 6 be opened or closed. Linear Network General Property of a of [p. when we change from one to the other. and and B the proper functions of the resistances. for brevity in an already long article. Z1 Z4 = Z2 Z3 where the Z's stand for the generalised resistances of the four sides of the quadrilateral. the current in 5 changes temporarily . between which the deflection Hence Mance's method is not a true mil method. suppose B a steady impressed force in side 1. so that. for example. vol. have not to observe the absence of a deflection . on making = Z^ZB. as may be seen in making Mance's test of the resistance of a battery. makes the current in the bridgewire due to impressed force in. if the battery behave as a mere coil or resistance. II. but = R2 R3 which makes a resistancewithout the special condition Then we know that if we introduce this condition into balance. currents. making branches 5 and 6 Now.. when satisfied. 271.]. we have merely to write Z for obtain the differential equation of (75 . in which it . We. made one by having an inductionbalance as well as one of resistance in which case. but the equivalence of two deflections at different moments of time. when it is the special state . 2. without any transient disturbance. which is similar. unless it be changes. But. as is known to all who have had occasion to work out problems concerning the steady distribution of current in a network. formally.294 (5). and consequently.F. in the usual Christie arrangement (see figure. using another battery in 6. the absence of any change in the deflection . above) the steady current in In my remarks on batteries when put 5. or by simply measuring the resistance of the battery in the same way as if it had no E. Thus.
Thus. when there is an impressed voltage in (say) side 1. so that the proper course is either to assume the existence of the property required from the complex general purposely arrange so that the reductions shall be of the simplest character. If selfinduction be negligible. if there = = e^ and Z^Z is Z^Zy As an 6.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. making no assumptions concerning the nature of branch 6. to Z partly fails. is wholly unnecessary. at the beginning. we may the ratio of the latter. branches 5 and 6 If there are impressed voltages in then (ISd) obviously becomes c ( which makes C5 always zero example. conjugacy of 5 and and the impressed forces are also balanced. we may ask this question. PART VII. but not form . making C' 5 independent of is satisfied. <? 4 = 0. if e^ e^ e3 then. sides 1 Putting. 295 involved in a resistancebalance. to show that C5 is independent of branch 6. batteries in and letting them work an intermitter in branch 6.v g when there is restricting Z to a particular no mutual induction between different branches. But should there be mutual induction between different branches. for transient as well as permanent currents . therefore. or else to el = Z C1 1 / . writing down the equations of voltage in the circuits and BjCBgBj in the above figure. if not negligible. solve for C5 in terms of e 1 and (7C and equate the coefficient of C6 to zero. also let e 2 = Q. This remark applies with immensely greater force when the balance is to be a universal one. and now putting <74 = we obtain which give C (Z. and and 3. we have . to answer it. the resistance . Under what circumstances is C5 independent of C6 ? And. as E. may then proceed thus turning write down the equations of voltage in the circuits AB 1 B 2 A and know take Z R We : . and so avoid the reductions to the simple special state. it must be separately balanced. this workingout of problems relating to transient states by merely As before. we obtain a simultaneous balance of their resistances and voltages. CQ when all the condition of conjugacy of four sides of the quadrilateral. . Thus.
m. using circuit CAB C. the six independent inductances of these and of the Thus. Z . To be independent of (7 6. expanded. and how to prove it for transient states. (23d) which. 2. and not independent. and I therefore wholly changes the distribution of current in all the branches (except one of the conjugate ones) due to impressed forces in them. which. gives us the three equations (6d) again. it Consciendoes not also change the current in the excepted branch n. the form wherein the Z's are differentiationoperators. The extension that is naturally suggested of this property to any network whose branches may be complex. when m is varied in its nature. and we obtain [Hi 1. with it. yet it is far less easy to understand how. Zmm . but one fewer in number than them. eliminate C2 . voltage in all the independent circuits of the remaining branches. side. by solution for gives its differential equation at once in terms of e l and C6 3 . and of 5. except in the fact that the mutual induction between branch 6 and other parts of the system must be of the proper amounts to satisfy (23d) or (6d). this excludes the Ps. because. tious learners always need to work out the full results in a problem . say n. showing that C5 depends upon e 1 and the nature of sides 1. As before. Suppose branches ra and n are to be conjugate. + E2 +p(m l C5 3 . but is independent of the nature of (76 altogether. 2 b R C2 +p(m C 2 1 1 if there (7 is and 4 by an impressed voltage in side (16d). is The equations of voltage of the branches will be of briefly as follows. and 4. we require (^ 2 ^m 16 ){ + 4 +Xm +m 13 )} = (^pm36 ){El + E2 +p(m1 +m. so that a voltage in m can cause no current in n. independent of em but also of mm though not of ml Z . 13 )}. and. Z have dwelt somewhat upon this property. and when this happens. That the coefficient of Cm in the Cn solution shall vanish is the condition of conjugacy. although it is easy enough to understand how the current in one of the conjugate branches. by adding together equations (24d) in the proper order . subject to (23d). Cn is not merely m^ etc.296 ELECTRICAL PAPEES. CB^C. First exclude m's equation from (24d) Then write down the equations of altogether. then we can solve for all the currents (except Cm) in terms of Cm and the e's. 3. and leaves us equations between the e's and all the independent Put the Cm terms on the left (7's. is independent of current arising from causes in the other conjugate branch.
of the primary and the At the distant end of the line. yields a arrangement is used for receiving at the end of a long cable.* Let R% be the resistance of the secondary coil. PART VII. Example of Treatment of Terminal Conditions. supposed to be independent of all other this is not necessary.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. without knowledge of the nature of the arrangement in detail. it must subside to a state of zero electric force and zero magnetic force everywhere (with some system. would be of advanA preliminary examination of the form of the arrivalcurve when this tage. InductionCoil and Condenser. self and mutual. concerning which I remarked in Part III. Let. where z = l. though The line and the two terminal arrangements form the complete system. except what can be derived from the terminal equation. also joined through to earth. that the matter was best studied in the concrete application. with favourable result. as symbolised by the arrowhead. Now K . systems. owing to the existence of resistance. and L v L^ the inductances. to IV. especially with reference to the finding of the terms in the complete solution arising from an arbitrary initial state which are due to the terminal apparatus. and what is to the left of it the terminal apparatus. for example. 297 relating to the steadyflow of current before they can completely satisfy themselves that the property is true. The line is joined through the primary of the inductioncoil. One of the sidematters left over for separate examination when giving the main investigation of Parts I. and whose further side is connected to earth. Note on Part III. was the manner of treatment of terminal conditions when normal solutions are in question. There is also the question of finding the nature of the terminal arbitraries from the mere form of the terminal equation. consisting of an inductioncoil and a shunted condenser. suppose there to be no impressed voltage in any part of the its state at a given moment depends entirely upon its initial state at the time of removal of the impressed voltage . so that * It is not altogether improbable that the arrangement shown in the figure. M r\AAA/\A another arrangement of apparatus. But the examination did not wholly include the influence of the resistances on the form of the curve. =0. in the figure. of resistance v to the condenser of permittance SQJ whose shunt has the con R ductance /t0. with the receiving instrument placed in the secondary circuit. after which. we may have secondary. the thick line to the right be the beginning of the telegraphline.
are sufficient to define its state. we have r=VAue*. the current in the line.298 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. For instance. when we assume L = 0. or. as done by one method in If also the initial state of the Part III.e. in the form of a differentiation with respect to p of the determinantal equation. more simply.. and we make the lineconstants to be simply Pi and S... and is to be found by an integration extending over every part of the system. which quantity may be either expressed in the form of an integration extending over the whole system. when the nature of the line is given. i. and U... whose perand are the initial wherein mittance and inductance per unit length are S and L. The course of events at any place depends upon the initial state of every part. exceptional cases in which there is ultimately electric force.... viz. In one case. and that u and w are the normal functions of and C in a normal system of subsidence.. each normal system having its own p.. since any values may be given to the electrical variables which serve to fully specify the amount and distribution of the electric and magnetic energies.. and by another in Part IV. in which case we have ?* so that * XI we may take cos . apparatus be neutral. . including the terminal apparatus. as we may approximately do in the case of a submarine cable that is worked sufficiently slowly to make the effects U W V A of inertia insensible.. Then.... since we may obtain what we want by solving the inverse problem of the setting up of the final state due to the impressed force. whilst the denominator A is twice the excess of the electric over the magnetic energy of the normal state itself. we do not need to perform this complex integration. at time V t. which may be arbitrary.. so that the numerator of is the excess of the mutual electric over the mutual magnetic energy of the initial and a normal state. the manner of the subsidence to the final state depending upon the connexions of the system. when the initial state is what could be set up finally by any distribution of steadily acting impressed force. so that it is the state of the line only that determines the subsequent state. and also a constant A to fix its The value of A is thus what depends upon the initial magnitude.. as electrical variables. C=2Awe pt .. by giving to A and G in the line. we can pretty easily represent matters. though not magnetic force). (le) wherein the p'& are known from the connexions of the whole system .... and without any of the labour this involves. the transverse voltage. the value viz. Suppose that F". state. its resistance and permittance per unit length (constants)...
. and that the fourth is similarly the negative of twice the magnetic energy of the secondary current per unit primary current. and of the primary and secondary currents...(7e) have now to add on to (See equations (177) to (180). ... WQ (m/R) cos 6. dZQ /dp expresses twice the excess of the electric over the magnetic energy in a normal system (when jp becomes a constant). and for the secondary current. It negative of the generalized resistance of the terminal apparatus. <"> as the expressions for the normal voltage of the condenser. when it is not neutral..... Part IV. If then V ..... by (4e). their expansions must be C2 C ^Aw fciM* 2  yo (\\ e \ .. thus.. (Se) showing the three parts in the order stated... whilst the third.. Z^(K Q + S p)^ + (R l +L () 1 p)MY(R + L p)\ 2 2 . per unit squareofcurrent. same Z primary consists of three parts... for the Cv and Q primary current. if PART VII. that is. that the second term is the negative of twice the magnetic energy of the electric Here we may unit primary current.. A at both ends of the line.. and V=Z We at z = l . we have o_ dp' (ffo o r l /O. we have ... Thus... according to the figure. is the negative of twice the mutual magnetic energy of the unit primary and corresponding secondary current. one due to the condenser. which at first sight appears anomalous..A at once recognise that the first term represents twice the energy of the condenser per unit squareofcurrent. Performing the differentiation... if w be the normal currentfunction. a second to the coil. we may confine ourselves to the 2 = First we require the form of Qt the apparatus. and F and Y in the numerator depend F in the denominator is defined by l upon which is the determinantal at 2 equation arising out of the terminal conditions F=Z C Q = 0.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. 299 m 2 RSp] then equation (2e) becomes where the undefined terms the terminal apparatus.. are the initial quite arbitrary values of the voltage of the condenser. and a third to the presence of the secondary .) the numerator of the terms corresponding to the initial state of the As the process is the terminal apparatus. Now as shown in Part III.
. we know that the terminal arbitraries are and that F^VAfw. = 2. introduced (9e) in order to illustrate how we (12e). Since. so for all the values of z It from to I. by constants.. if it be not initially neutral. from a given form of Z. and in the corresponding expansions for the other end. second. . /2 . . in the case (9e). thus .300 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. We . without using (9e). owing to the forms of the normal functions in (100) being independently obtainable from our hpriori knowledge of the terminal apparatus in detail. the excess of the mutual electric over the mutual magnetic energy of the initial state Cv (72 and the normal state represented by F .. initially. etc (ISe) Thus. and independent of the state of the terminal and this Y apparatus. we have the identities to U. wherein the F's may have any values.. without knowing the detailed terminal We must either decompose connexions. with the identities = 2X/>. we thus express the state of the whole system at any time. we could form (lie) and (Se) was deduced I have. however. V is U. A by (5e) depending on the apparatus contribute nothing and (12e). the functions of por else into the form of the sum of squares and products. where a v a2 y etc. (We) is is what must be added to the numerator in (5e) to obtain the complete value of A. assuming that we have satisfied ourselves that they are all independent . Also. dZ /dp into the sum of squares of admissible functions of p.</>. When this is done. Using this value of A in (\e) and in (lie) with the timefactor e** attached.. and fourth terms are of the are proper form for reduction to (14e). r = wo{ o F = ?Af w 2 2 F3 = ?AfBw } .(16*) ( fl i^i/i + ^2/2 + ^3/8+ 17e ) in the case (I4e) of sums of squares. it follows that in the expansion the parts of that. can find the complete solution. are the constants. multiplied may have been .. if we also add the corresponding expression l for the apparatus at the other end. but the third is not. from which knowledge the form of ZQ in so that. the first. observed in the above that the use of (9e) was quite unnecessary. say. and /].
ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. provided a x is positive. when they alone are given. Now. In such a case the reduced form of Z cannot give us the least information concerning the influence It is as if it were nonexistent. it would seem that the indeterminateness must be removed. .g. notice in an investigation founded upon a given form of Z with undetailed connections. however. and the remainder for magnetic (or It is clear that we may assume any form of Z that we please kinetic). admitting of infinite development. we should rearrange the terms to bring it to the form (14e). if there be so many. lg which is what we require. . PART VII.. there must be no such thing as>*). find the arbitraries. Owing. to the abstractly mathematical nature of the investigations to say nothing of the length to which they expand. verifications . it is an enormous and endless subject. If. whose later values also are determinable by affixing the timefactor. Although. although when carried on upon electrical principles they I merely propose to are much simplified. of the portion conjugate to the line. and although it is similarly determinable when particular values are given to the arbitraries. from the initial state of the line. if we do not recognise the connection between the third term and those which precede and follow it (as may easily happen in some other case). For it is possible arrangement to have a certain portion conjugate with respect to the line and although the state of the line will not be affected by initial energy in that portion. however. although they be capable of immediate elimination from Z. when the sole data relating to for a terminal of Z and their initial values. 301 certain. so as to contain terms depending upon the conjugate portion. and a 2 and fl are negative. that the first term on the right of (19e) stands for 3 electric (or potential) energy. owing to the disappearance from Z of terms depending upon the conjugate portion. thus : . however. whether it be or be not capable of a real physical interpretation on electrical I have pursued this subject in some detail for the sake of principles. that there cannot be more than three arbitraries. therefore. for instance. of an admissible kind (e. yet it will influence the later This might wholly escape values of the other terminal arbitraries. we can certainly conclude. the state of the line at any moment is fully determinable for any form of the terminal Z's. and made to have meaning give later one or two examples in which circular functions of p are taken to represent Z. provided the initial values of the terminal arbitraries be taken to be zero. and fully solve the problem that our data represent. We may then take Further. them are the form . it does not appear that this determinateness of the later values of the terminal arbitraries is always of a complete character. Z be made more general.
by sufficiently lengthening the double tube. Permittivity. in the investigation of Parts the choice of a round wire or tube surrounded by a coaxial tube for returnconductor was practically necessitated in order to allow of the use of the wellknown J and JL functions and their complements. it was necessary to impose the condition that the wire." it must be capacity essential part of my It is an for something. and conductivity the conductance of unit volume. but also with its distribution. Resistivity. capacity is an unadaptable word. the electric : first. and a capacity for permitting the yielding from the inverse . to Some Notes on Part IV. Our investigation. ConductionCurrent Induction . Inductivity. and outer tube should be a because boundary. Magnetic. scheme to always use single and unmistakable words. for the reciprocals of inductivity and " " Resistance to lines of force " and " inductance. and capacity. Elastivity. are now only two gaps left. magnetic resistance will obviously not do for permanent use. Permittance. Resistance. and is altogether out of harmony with the rest of the scheme. involving elastic resistance to yielding from one point of view. to harmonise with the nomenclature I have used for some time past. then. as resistivity is the resistance of unit volume. and consequent Limitations of Application. I make this the elastivity Thus : Flux. and. next. Next. when c is the dielectric constant. by a medium of infinite elastivity and resistivity. to an infinite distance. It is I. scarcely necessary to remark that. . it was not merely the total current in the wire with which we were concerned. and it is certain that. the latter being the electrostatic capacity of a condenser. . hence elastance and permitThere tance. Inductance. Elastance. we should ultimately obtain observable inductive interferences. as electrostatic capacity. and elastivity is the elastance of unit volume. But electrostatic induction is cumulative . and not one of mutual induction also.) . Electric. selfcontained system. . (Maxwell termed elasticity. Now the flux concerned is the electric displacement. Conductivity. Conductance. its The elastance of a condenser is the reciprocal of permittance. and II. to avoid confusion with mechanical elasticity. only applies strictly when the double tube is surrounded on all sides. because people will abbreviate." there are not wanting " " reasons for their use instead of specific inductive capacity (electric). with fearful complications. thirdly. to have one word for two . making the magnetic force zero at the outer It is true that no external inductive effect is observable when the doubletube circuit is of moderate length. " electrostatic The word capacity alone is too general . As for "permittivity" and "permittance. Again. Interferences due Inequalities.302 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. tubular dielectric. viz. Force. 4?r/c. Looped Metallic Circuits. Electric. in order that it should be a question of selfinduction. Displacement . .
abovenamed functions. let the wires be alone in an infinite dielectric. electromagnetic units. and with it electric and magnetic energy outside the double tube. in another form. is made insignificant. that equal impressed conductors. buried twin wires. we have the following striking peculiarities Putting on one side the question of the propagation of disturbances into the conductors. PART VII. ignoring these. in any ratio and the inductance is the sum of that of the dielectric. so that the diffusioneffect. the same as the inductance of the dielectric in Thus. viz. though not so well representable \>y the : . just as in the tubular case. having in view the rapidly extending use of metallic circuits of double wires looped. of their resistances. consequent upon the development of telephonic communication in a manner to eliminate inductive interferences. in electrostatic units. and inductance. and are not set too close. to allow of the application of the JQ and Now suspended wires are usually of /! functions to them separately. similarly directed in the two conductors at corresponding places.and mutualinduction concerned. from which it follows that the effective impressed force may. we have still the electric current of elastic displacement. can do nothing. the effective permittance is the reciprocal of the elastance from one wire to the other. electrical constants are three in number and inductance of the doubletube per unit of its length . which may be divided between the two conductors the permittance is that of the dielectric between them . The effective resistance. like the effective resistance. First of all.. Dismissing. But. as before. 303 If this restriction be removed. which is so interesting a one in itself. or. I extended the abovedescribed method to a So far as propagalooped circuit consisting of a pair of parallel wires. permittance. and interferences . and that of the other the negative coating. inner. we have. the current in each wire. two electrical variables and three constants. we have self. forces. (If) . whilst the the current in each conductor. On iron. the surface of one being the positive. it is merely necessary that they should not be too close to one another. which is the sum of the resistances of the wires. be divided between the conductors in any proportion we please. and the effective resistance. so that the application is justified. The effective permittance is that of the condenser consisting of the dielectric bounded by the two wires. we find that the the resistance.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. even if there be no external conductors. this question of inward propagation. may be divided between them in any proportions . this elastance is. and so may be the effective impressed voltage. Then we have similar results to those concerning the doubletube. are of copper. though very near one another. permittance. tion into the wires is concerned. In Part IV. and outer Another remarkable peculiarity is. In the standard medium. the other hand. Or. excluding the earth. the transverse voltage. and the electrical variables are two The effective resistance per unit length is the sum transverse voltage. and also considerably smaller than the iron suspended wires. .
except as regards the diffusioneffect in them. which is made insignificant by the limitation of the magnetic field (in sensible intensity) due to the nearness of the To LQ has to be added a variable wires as compared with their length. then. whose greatest value is J/^ + /x 2 if /^ and /x 2 are the inductivities of the wires. and to make the necessary limitations of application of the method and the results which are required by the presence of the earth. and a coefficient of mutual There are. Wires" [p. when in the same units. in my paper Capacity of Suspended As may be expected.. that of the dielectric between them. two currents . there are two constants of permittance concerned in the coaxial tube case. although there is a formal resemblance between the results in the two cases. radii of the wires. and as regards the values of the constants of capacity [p. having special electrical constants. this matter in my paper " On one. whilst in the other this is not so. the solutions tend to vol. viz. 42. and ^ the inductivity of the dielectric. the earth. going back to the constants as above mentioned. are three. and arbitrarily operated upon . of course. for instance. and r 12 their distance apart ?\ and r2 be the (between axes). and treat the double wire as if it were a single and two potentialdifferences or voltages. two of resistance. from each wire to This is when the earth. so that there must be four electrical variables. 116. wires are treated in a quite general manner. and at least two of leakage. So far. which may be chosen to be the permittance of each wire with respect to earth including the other wire. two variables. causes practical differences to exist. I. I have somewhat developed " Induction between Parallel Wires vol. But when we proceed to make allowance for the presence of neighbouring conductors. we make a very important improvement. we can abolish this complexity. I. " On the Electrostatic concerned. as. to obtain the complete inductance per unit length.]. there is a perfect correspondence between the doubletube and the doublewire problem. then. . viz. three constants of inductance. And Their product. become very complex. except in certain simple cases. if they be charged and currented in the most arbitrary manner possible. and that of the But in the case of looped wires there dielectric outside the outer tube. First of all. I have at present to point out certain peculiarities connected with the loopedwire problem in addition to those described in Part IV. looped wires far removed from other conductors. quantity. there are but two . and permittance. yet the fact that in one case the outer conductor encloses the inner. fully define the state of the wires.. with a possible third direct from wire to wire. and an effect due to outward propagation into the unbounded dielectric from the seat of impressed force. when proper values are given to the constants concerned.]. If. we must employ the four electrical variables and the ten or eleven electrical On the other hand. For example. even though the wires be not connected to earth. transverse voltage and current. is v~ 2 the reciprocal of the The square of the speed of undissipated waves through the dielectric. similarly.304 if ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
however. the effective inductance would be the reciprocal of S in (3/) with //. but it must be modified in its measure by leakage being mostly from wire to wire over the insulators. comprehensive system of electrical constants and variables. H. Preece. 1887). There is hardly any resemblance between the manner of transmission of currents of great frequency and slow signals. in spite of its little influence on the value of the effective permittance . n.] . Roy. written for c. propagation of signals from end to end of the loopedcircuit will not then take place exactly in the same manner as in a single wire. he imagines it to be. little increased. Mr. in electromagnetic units. if the earth were infinitely conducting. or the earth has scarcely anything to do with the matter. vol. [See also p. allowing for the full extension of the magnetic field into the earth. and Journal S. due to the presence of the earth. The method of images gives r lt r. E. March 3. Preece's other errors appreciate the theory of the transmission of signals. he applies. arms. 10. The extreme is reached when each wire is surrounded dielectric to a certain distance. this is also the case when the where by wires are buried. if that were the only way of getting leakage between the wires. whose theory. perhaps better. the increase of permittance will become considerable .. we may either bring in the full. F. E. s v s 2 their distances from their images. the effective elastance is the sum of the elastances of the two dielectrics. Soc. giving a The effective resistance is of course the sum of slightly greater value. 1887. electrical variables PART VII.P. whilst. and the space between and surrounding the two dielectrics is wholly filled up with wellconducting matter. assures us that the capacity is half that of either wire (Proc. Jan. 305 and four constants (counting one for leakage). owing to s^/s^ being nearly unity. and only a part of the poles. H.R. But if there be any inequalities between the wires. he does not fairly a mere trifle in comparison with Mr. the permittance S does not sensibly differ from the value in an infinite dielectric.* If. 27 and Febr. n. r 12 their distance apart.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. Now bring these parallel wires to a distance above the earth which is a large The constant S of permittance is a multiple of their distance apart. in another form. 160. and the The charge on one wire not the negative of that on the other.2 are the radii of the wires. in the most confident manner possible. but inaccurate. differential effects will result. universally. Returning to the suspended wires. the resistances. but. It is. Then the permittance S becomes the reciprocal of the sum of the elastances of the two wires with respect to the enveloping conductive matter. with ^(/Xj + /x 2 ) added .. T. and s 12 the distance from either to the image of the other. u . whereby the current in one wire is made not of the same strength as in the other. we should have the formula (I/). and the effective leakageresistance would be the sum of the leakageresistances of the two wires with respect to earth.S. and This is simple. exhibit the differential effects separately by taking for variables the sum of the * On the other hand. To allow for this.K. even keeping to the quite or what special case of a long and slowly worked submarine cable. VOL. however. or. the wires be brought close to the earth. W.
the insertion of a resistance into either wire intermediately will upset the inductionbalance and cause current in the terminal tele This interequal resistance in the working of telephone apparatus. without explanation. thus greatly shortening the length of line that can be worked through. of application of the method of Part IY. But if the loopcircuit be in a vertical plane. metallic circuits with intermediate stations and introduce great impedance by the insertion of the ference can be . But theory goes much further than the above in predicting interFor instance. Even if the wires be well twisted. if two precisely equal wires be twisted. there must be terminal disturbance produced. connected. bridges across from one wire to the other. whereby the intermediate impedance is wholly removed. which last are the sole variables when the wires are in an infinite dielectric. I mentioned. are intimately The limitations If we have one. one expressing very nearly the same results as if the differential effects did not exist. The two matters. we not only intermediate apparatus. Another result of inequalities is to produce inductive interferences from parallel wires which would not exist were the wires equal. one part being in circuit with one In wire. mentioning my brother's system of bridgeworking of telephones (in Part V. Similarly in the many other cases of inequality that can be mentioned. removed by the insertion of an In the companionwire at the same place. so that one wire is at a greater height above the ground than the other. having its own circuit completed through the earth. being in explanation of that remark. there is current in the telephones caused by rapid reversals in a parallel wire whose circuit is completed through the earth. we also have the other. preservation of the inductionbalance. By adopting the latter course our solutions will consist of two parts. even when the disturbing wire is equidistant. do not in the least disturb the inductionbalance. two perfectly equal wires be suspended at the same height above the ground and be looped at the ends. As an example. unless the intermediate apparatus be double. The intermediate apparatus. let an iron and a parallel copper wire be looped. in addition to the difference of potential of the wires and half the sum of the currentstrengths. the other part (quite similar) in circuit with the other. if ferences than practice up to the present time verifies. and telephones placed at the ends ential effects as before. and transmission of signals in the same manner as on a single wire. Again.). terminal telephones will not be interfered with by variations of current in a parallel wire equidistant from both wires of the loopcircuit. the cancelling of inductive interferThe present and preceding paragraphs supply the needed ences. so that transmission of speech is not interfered with by foreign sounds.306 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. potentials of the wires (taking earth at zero potential) and half the difference of the strength of current in them. may be summed up in saying to interference phones when exposed from a parallel wire. the other the differ by themselves. but we produce inductive interferences from parallel wires. or else are quite equal. and telephones be placed at the ends of the circuit.
Sometimes. whilst the variables are the transverse voltage from wire to wire and the current in each. The Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves along Wires without Distortion. advantage presented by the ease with which solutions in terms of infinite series of One normal functions may be obtained. force (in the investigations of Part IV.). It is true that the most practical case of impressed voltage is when it is situated at one end only of the circuit. we obtain transmission of signals as on a single wire. the inductionbalance is preserved . although equal. directed impressed forces will cause no terminal disturbance (and none anywhere if other conductors be sufficiently distant). which may be readily examined or merely one. have yet to add investigations by* the method of waves (mentioned in Part IV. provided it be put. by which I have reached interesting results in a simple manner. leaving only two or three important systems. if a sufficient time has elapsed since the commencement of the subsidence to allow the great mass of (singly) insignificant systems to nearly vanish. In the latter case the effective resistance is the double of that of either wire. half in one wire. which is precisely the one that obtains in practice. I PART VIII. and leakage are to be measured as before described. 307 that the loopcircuit must either be far removed from all conductors. the full investigation of the normal systems in detail is prevented by mathematical difficulties connected with the This goes very far to neutralise the roots of transcendental equations. by proper proportioning of the electrical constants of the two looped wires. that it is worth while to point out the above restriction. yet disturbances at intermediate parts of the line will result. and the effective permittance. process. that is so artificially represented.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. or not in them at all . But the four electrical constants may And the impressed vary in any (not too rapid) manner along the line. oppositely directed in space. [But this is not an invariable rule. too. when it is of course equally in both wires. feature of solutions of physical problems by expansions in normal solutions is the very artificial nature of the If it be a case of subsidence towards a state of equilibrium. then. Besides this case of equality of wires. inductance.) may also be an arbitrary function of the distance. in which case equivalence of the wires is quite needless . though scarcely of prac R tical importance. or else they must be equal in their electrical constants. and. but there is such a great gain in the theoretical treatment of these problems by generalising. the most important then the It is the early stage of the subsidence process is natural enough. there are other cases in which.] Their investigation is a matter of scientific interest. similarly other. when the resultant of a very large number of normal solutions must be found before we come to what we want. PART VIII. simultaneously. . half in the For.
in Now the manysided question of the transmission of electromagnetic disturbances along wires. If we employ Fourierseries. other hand. at constant speed. the effects as they really occur in the physical problem. The solutions can now be followed into detail in various cases without any laborious and roundabout calculations. which admits of this simple and straightforward method of treatment. disconnected from the often unavoidable complications due to To illustrate this. results as we see their physical representatives in reality when we agitate one end of a long cord. enormous. and. is to get solutions which can be understood and appreciated at first sight. as to annihilate the distortion altogether. But we must take all the four properties into account which are symbolised by resistance. Besides this. knowledge that is unattainable by the method of normal systems. by considering the nature of the results through a sufficiently wide range of frequencies. and. generalising to some extent. . if we have both leakage and inductance. e. and followed into detail with ease.308 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. which. But only use the other method. Singularly enough.. there is one case. if it can be reached. It is usual to ignore the leakage of conductors. and K be the resistance. and can interpret for instance. but at the same time increase the attenuation. to refer to the elementary theory of the transmission of waves without dissipation along a stretched flexible cord. finally. _ u= ^ and we get rid of the mathematical complications. and sometimes the permittance. In my usual notation. but rather the other way. leakageconductance. there is. But the real desideratum. and permittance. only one. we are doing mathematical exercises. we may indirectly gain. powerful . by the effects of inductance and of leakage being opposite as regards distortion. inductance. and so ignoring certain effects. If there be only resistance and permittance. inductance. leaving only attenuation. presenting to us. is of paramount importance. roughly speaking. And. with comparatively little trouble. we may so adjust matters. so far as I know at present. we shall lessen the distortion On the considerably. as nearly as possible. Now if we introduce leakage. they cast much light upon the more difficult problems which occur when not so many physical actions are in question. to reach the muchdesired result. the effects are these. it is sufficient the form of mathematical expression. S.g. if we introduce inductance (instead of leakage) we shall lessen the attenuation as well as the distortion. Briefly stated. that we reach this unique state of things. In some respects these difficulties are evaded by the consideration of The method is very the solution due to a sinusoidal impressed force. let E. both very great attenuation and very great disThe distortion at the end of an Atlantic cable is tortion produced.. sometimes also the inductance. it is not by the simplifying process of equating to zero certain constants. in which arbitrary disturbances are transferred bodily in either direction . L. when disturbances of an irregular character are sent along a long circuit. in addition to resistance and permittance.
... V^\(VLvV) .. which must be added on to obtain the real result.......... and leakageconductance of a circuit.. and energies are added..... This the same formal manner as is to the spacevariation of C. per unit length... We In any portion of a solitary wave. if the wave be positive..... have now merely to move V^ bodily to the right at speed v...... positive or negative. any being the sum of V^ and V^ to make Cl and (?2 to make (7.. provided no changes of conditions have The solution is therefore true for all future time in an occurred. and E/L = K/S=q . (110 ... (Ig) p Here C is related to the spacevariation of Vir\ standing for d/dt... property allows us to translate solutions in an obvious manner.. the decomposition of an arbitrarily given initial and C into the waves is effected by state of initial state t V V r^Mr+LvC). we shall have.. PART VIII..... equations are V .... iff^z) be the state of initially.. V (5g) If Vy C2 be a negative wave... and let The fundamental the transverse voltage and the current at distance z...ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES... (70 and of Thus... all and C be to be treated.... Thus... (90 The dissipation of energy is half in the wires and half without..... infinitely long circuit... thus (100 a positive and a negative wave coexist.. in the present theory. as constants . and attenuate obtain the state at time t later.. But when the end of a circuit is reached.. the and magnetic energies are equal.. and F"2 them to the extent e~ gt to bodily to the left at speed 0. or travel in the direction of increasing z. When or L(C! + CS). thus electric iC? = JffF? . Thus the total energy is always crossproducts disappear.... 309 permittance.... travelling the other way..... and Let gives rise to the distortionless state of things.. (80 . ....... (20 The equation of Fis then and the complete solution consists of waves travelling at speed v with attenuation but without distortion.. V LStf = l. a reflected wave usually results..
Regarding v. etc.. and devoid of physical significance when by But the currentelement in our theory above. howof attraction. which can exist apart from all other It is only an abstraction in this quite different currentelements. ever. The electric and resistance. without specifying a . rather than greater than. always . that of light. on the straight circuit. In treatises on electro a currentelement and C= ing its correctness. the speed is not always less than. useful. To fix ideas most simply. It is a complete electromagnetic system of itself. quite an abstraction. magnetic forces are perpendicular. assuming that Maxwell's representation of the electromagnetic field is not correct. and that in the process of travelling it must be distorted from causes not considered in our fundamental equations. sense. say from 2 up Z = 20 is a convenient rough to 100.310 the total dissipativity is ELECTRICAL PAPERS. from its exceeding physical explicitness in dynamical interpretation. This makes It must not be confounded with our critical impedance 600 ohms. on a straight circuit (as well as of other forms). of course. though measurable in ohms. magnetic field. even as a working hypothesis. AY lien there is distortion also. according to circumstances. and whether there was any difference made by curving the circuit ] its properties It is. with the electric currents closed. it does not appear that under any circumstances the speed can exceed v. which alone serves to prevent the propagation of an abrupt wavefront. F'and C zero everywhere else. not the dissipativity. and by our currentelement we imply a definite electric field. and L is a convenient numeric. .. is a physical reality (with limitations to be mentioned). Now the classical experiments of Wheatstone indicated a speed half as Would it not be of scientific interest to great again as that of light. its possible greatest value is the speed of light in wcuo. For v is 30 ohms. to ascertain whether. the flux V to C have these important experiments carefully repeated. measure in the case of a pair of suspended copper wires. or when there is marked distortion. either in our Even distortionless system. there seems to me to be very marked advantage in assum The following remark may be magnetism by the German methods. V^Lv through the same unit distance. ssLy. occupy an important place. that we could not really terminate the element quite suddenly. t force being then at once expressible or measurable in ohms.e. making the apparent speed variable. the two conductors may be a wire with an enveloping tube separated by a dielectric. or and the total energyflux is always The relation V^LvC^ is equivalent to C1 = SvFl i. one cause being the diffusion of current in the conductors in time. stant through unit distance.V=V1 conitself. repulsion. a charge SF moving at speed v is the equivalent of a current C of strength equal to But it is practically best to employ Lv the ratio of the their product. It is the total flux of energy which is expressed by the product VG. and dissipation of energy.
half from the magnetoelectric force. (a wave simply carries its energy with it. do not in any way differ from plane waves of light (in Maxwell's theory). One case is uniquely simple. though it may be a part of it. and the insoluble problems they present. Again.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. and and Absorption. there are so many different arrangements of stress that will serve equally well. Only by having conductors to bound it of infinite conductivity can we make Then they will be greatly distorted. double V and cancel C. pair of equal disturbances. It introduces the A . If this mechanical force exist. that I cannot have any faith whatever in the special form given by Maxwell It is also well to remember that we are not exactly representing Maxwell's scheme. when we have undissipated waves without attentuation or distortion. The variation of the pressure constitutes a mechanical force. Yet Maxwell's stresses. if it be the real stress. I am bound to say I cannot follow readily. the stress supposed is not the real stress. for the electrostatic attraction equals and cancels the electromagnetic repulsion. save in being attenuated dissipation of energy in the dielectric (when it is a tubular conducting bounded by a pair of conductors that is in question). then the region of mechanical force stationary. But if the electrifications be opposite. 31 1 mechanism to correspond. On arrival of a disturbance at the end of a circuit. but converge upon them at a very acute angle on both sides of the dielectric. and in being practically of quite a different order of wavelength. on coincidence. The lines of energyflux are parallel to the wires. unless we at truly plane waves. due to stressvariation extends into the dielectric medium. and cannot help it. less the amount dissipated) . but a working simplification thereof. AVe have also the inimitable advantage of abolishing once for all the speculations about unclosed currents. however. in the above. by dielectric these are also the lines of pressure. when the electric and magnetic fields are But when they vary. this is equivalent to introducing an impressed force (mechanical). if it do not exist. travelling opposite ways. assumed to exist in the fluid dielectric between conductors. the same time remove the leakage by making the dielectric a nonconductor instead of a feeble conductor . It will be seen that our waves. The matter is difficult all round. As for Maxwell's stress in a magnetised medium. special PART VIII. Here. what happens depends upon the connections there. half derived from the electromagnetic force. and there be the corresponding acceleration of momentum. there must be corresponding acceleration of momentum . account perfectly for the forces between them. and also in the bounding conductors. itself. In Maxwell's scheme currents always close themselves. Properties of the Distortionless Circuit Reflection Effect of Terminal Now to mention some properties of the distortionless circuit. and it must be allowed for. or be balanced. Let there be a resistance inserted of amount Lv. /^is annulled and C doubled on coincidence. The lines of energytransfer are not quite parallel to the conductors.
becoming p^pj^V^} and so on. becomes p^V^ by reflection at B. and the toaudfro passages with the reversals at A and pVQ B continue for ever. If it be less. the is negatived by reflection. decomposed.312 condition ELECTRICAL PAPERS. at the negative . with the . there is no subsidence. and p : at B. and the terminal resistances be either zero or infinity. absorption of the two waves into which the initial state may be time But let the resistance be of amount 7^ at say B and let V^ and V2 be corresponding elements in the incident and reflected wave. But if the circuit have no resistance and no leakage. and the reflected wave coming from it. whilst the electrification does not change sign. if the circuit be given in any state whatever. by the complete l/v at the most.\e to the left) at speed v. Since we have . which travels both ways ( + \e. when it becomes pVi^oJ * s reflected.. whilst the current does not reverse. : Then an elementary attenuated to positive disturbance F starting from A becomes on reaching B. and end A. until it becomes infinitesimal. the positive end of the circuit. and . C that is inverted and perverted. If l M current Two But no absorption of energy. or pure reflector. reflected if cases are specially notable. some of these will come later) attenuation from end to end of the circuit (A to B or B to A). Thus. which may be + or . Let p be the coefficient of attenuation at A. viz. without impressed force. If an impressed force e be inserted anywhere. the electrification is negatived. or beginning. we have the reflected wave given by T< (15?) be greater than the critical resistance of complete absorption. These are the it characteristics of a positive and of a negative wave respectively follows that any disturbance arriving at the resistance is at once absorbed. say at distance zv it causes a difference of potential of amount e there. After reflection. and the periodic losses on reflection. the inverted copy of the incident. by the continuous dissipation of energy in the circuit. to the right. if I be the length of the circuit. we have the original wave travelling to the absorber or absorbing reflector. If 7^ wave l . over and over again. A . travels to A. V = 0. of R = oo is a perverted and representing insulation. meaning it is They are those in which there is a shortcircuit.LvC at say B. these being the values of the ratio of the reflected to the incident waves at and at B. it is wholly cleared of electrification and current in the if V=LvC if V . of course.due to terminal resistances (without selfinduction or other cause to produce a modified and let p be the reflected wave .
we superimpose R(l first . (220> when the terminal resistances . If e at vary in any manner with the time. ( Q~\ iy #7 true when z is not greater than vt. Fg. Thus. 77" ffo/Lv riet _a /I . is Rz method of Part IV. etc. . which we have already described. It will be understood that the original waves still keep pouring in.1. (m goes from TT..) When the summation vanishes.z is less than vt in the second.t)ILv = ep^. but requires laborious examination to extract its real meaning. and the circuit be shortcircuited . then at time 2l/v add a : wave F =V. In some other cases in which we can by the method of waves solve completely. allowing for leakage. the current at B varies in the same manner at a time l/v later. ad The settling down to the steady state.p~ l T^ V J 2 q + vV This includes the whole process of setting up the final state. the Fourierseries are difficult to interpret. On arrival at B. which is that calculable by Ohm's law. + *ZILv (1&7) these being true when z is less than vt in the first.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. taking for simplicity proper attenuation as the waves progress.) Rz " p. we have left the term independent of t. if the resistance there be Lv. (210.. the current at B is A But if we shortcircuit at B. making /o = A thus. Let us construct the complete solution ((190).. up to <x> . 3 ^>. By successive attenuations we at length arrive at a steady state. \e c (170) . STT. (220) and so on.^ILv beginning at time positive l/v and travelling towards A .. i.. On arrival at and B these waves are reflected in the manner before described. and the negative is the sum of the negative waves F" etc. a negative wave (210) F= 2 ep. The uniquely simple case of complete absorption at B of the first wave is much more troublesome by Fourierseries than is the really more complex (230) case. if e=f(t). PART VIII. of which the positive part is the sum of the positive waves Fj. 27r. the zero of z at the seat of impressed force. nothing more happens. 313 That is. we set up a positive wave and a negative wave F1= V= 2 J"^'. and in a rational manner. . .e. (190) is the complete solution. so long as e is kept on. there.. the two initial waves are converted into one. If the impressed force be at A. Fourierseries solution in this case (got by the inf. and . This is something quite unique in its way. above .
. and so on. period.. We thus follow the whole history reaching of the establishment of the final state. Should L and S have their values changed in any way. The resultant positive wave is the sum of V^ V^ . and the region of doubled current then extends itself to A. Thus the current in time mounts up infinitely. we have to add on the F" = . t (240) when z is not greater than vt. when so that this is from 2 = to z = vt. and B. The third wave then begins which reaches then starts : : B at time t = 3//0. the first wave due is to e at z = A R K= ^= Then. and the resultant negative wave the sum of V^ V^ . and remains on. of course.. and remains on.. When = l/v it is complete. Thus. reflected completed. . form a very fair idea of the process from the above. We can. especially if the circuit be sufficiently short to make the attenuation p be not great. by (150) we know p and p lt and by (160) we express the positive wave First of all we have ^ = ^(1^)6^.vt. ad inf. In the positive componentwaves the current is got by dividing V by and in the negative waves by . every reflection adding e/Lv to the current. Then begins travelling towards A.. ELECTRICAL PAPERS. The least resistance anywhere inserted will cause a settling down to (or mounting up to) a final steady current... however.. Lv. when RjL is not greatly different from K/S. there is no electrification left... . ... where it is at once increased to a trebled value and so on. true ... . The fourth wave at time il/v . though never becoming permanently steady at any spot... But the current doubles itself the moment the first wave reaches B. the final state (280) will be unaltered.. when it is complete and remains on... which are in geometrical progression so that finally we have . so that we get the resultant final current by dividing Fin (280) by Lv and changing the sign of the second term.... The case of no resistance is peculiar.Lv.314 have any values p.. A ... but the manner in which it is established will not be the same..e from z = I to z = 21 .. Expressing the negative waves of V. 2 wave when B is reached... There is no steady state if there be no resistance to make the toandfro waves (which may be regarded as a single wave overlapping itself) attenuate.. This is a and the state of electrification repeats itself in the same way.. and also be shortcircuits at 0. if there = 0..
. from this opposite behaviour of a resistance and of a bridge across it. whilst V 2 is a negative wave. .. r Fj. and resistance to conductance. Now consider the effect of a bridge of conductance k in the absence We now have of resistance in the wires. and in the limit. (340) and C = Observe the changes from voltage to (300).. V 3. the attenuation produced in the distance z will be the n th power of the right member of (300).ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES...... is when there is no leakage.... F F 2. so that the reflected electrification is negative. when the resistances are packed infinitely closely. uniformly distributed.. R is the resistance per unit length. increasing The attenuation caused by the resistance the electrification behind. or of uniform leakage.) Let a wave be going towards r.. of which one goes forward... 315 and Conducting Bridges Intermediately the circuit Inserted. the attenuation in distance z becomes From (320) be observed. and Fj and fore V z are positive waves. that if r/L = k/S. the other backward.. reflected.. reflected.. then. (like the charge before). such that nr = Rz. It current... there.. is expressed by (300). If there be n resistances r.. each being infinitely small... and half in the other.. is divided into two parts. just opposite. effect of an intermediately inserted be a double wire. both of the same sign as regards electrification.. on arriving at the resistance... Effect of Resistances PART VIII. The attenuation in distance z due to uniformly distributed leakage Compare with conductance K per unit length is therefore We may main infer circuit.. (300) rjr^l+r/ZLv)*... be corresponding incident. and let v V^ and VB be corresponding elements in the incident. if the incident be positive. (310).... there in the will be . is the current that now splits without loss. equidistantly arranged.. and ^=^+^ (310) we see that an element of the original wave.... it will t v if +v=y c\ + c2 =cl'+kr3 . and transmitted waves. half the resistance should be put in one wire. This. in accordance with the Section on Interferences in Part VII...&)i.. and transmitted 3 Consequently ra /r1 (i+*/2. As we have Let us now examine (If the resistance r. i . inductance to permittance. elements...
36 whence So the reflected r(*/&)(. ^ . no reflected wave. ... When this happens. as when light goes from air into glass perpendicularly. In our present case it is Lft = L z v2 when the wires and the dielectric have no resistance and no fj.. When the resistance r and the bridge of conductance k coexist at the same spot. From this manner of viewing the matter we can get hints as to the solution of other and more difficult partial differential equations than the one we are concerned with.. and And when the resistances in the of the same current as in the nucleus.. whilst tailing. wires and in the dielectric are properly balanced. + ?. We must. but managing so that there shall be no and Thus.&.. We have thus a complete electrical the attenuation in distance z. but no tail points to its tip. therefore.+ Tr + ZLv + ( )  . whilst the current in the On the other hand. 37( . ^^(l+r/Z*)!... Keeping to it. see whether combining the and bridge does not alter the nature of the result.. and... The condition and /* 2 being that there be no reflected ray is yu. (390 when R and K are uniformly distributed. the speed will be constant.316 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the formation of tails is is prevented altogether. however. of the opposite electrification to the nucleus.. any travelling resistance (of the wires)... if there be leakage.. explanation of the distortionless system . .+ (F./ 2 .. and v^ and v2 the speeds.. we shall have resistance F1+ r =(i+r/i.. .. we may somewhat generalise it by making the attenuationrate a function of the distance. the travelling disturbance will cast off a tail of a different kind.. reflection due to conductance in the dielectric itself is annulled by reflection due to the boundary If there be no leakage. isolated disturbance will cast a slender tail behind it. viz. whilst the attenuation in distance R K z ZQ will be exp ~ Now if we make the speed also variable. and there will be no tailing. and also the speed... it is clear that if L and S be constant. however. whose electrification is similarly signed to that of the nucleus... we must inquire how to prevent tailing due to what is equivalent to a change of medium. are functions of z such that their ratio is constant.)r3 \ fi r.^ = 2 v2 in that case.x wave is annulled when or by r/L = k/S the attenuation when is r and k are infinitely small. the inductivities.r. resistance in the wires.)*/.
r and k be the resistance in the main circuit.. must not vary with z... if we take Lv rk ultimately vanishes when we distribute resistance and conductance That is to say.. hence.. united with the properties We K t T LvC.... and ft/L = K/S continuously. We have. or when r . at a place where the main circuit changes in inductance and f permittance from L. (450) = L'v we secure the desired result.. S.. indicating a complete when q and v are functions of z. : and the attenuationrate To verify.. however.. L v vl being the values on one side. S to Z/... viz. will be a function of z.. S the main circuit being supposed to Let V^. if written. rk Fg/Fi^O +r/W). have simultaneously L. sponding elements of an incident. PART VIII. should. there will be no tailing.. as indicated by (400).. because the product So.. if Lv does not vary.. : and then 1 f . by common electrical principles. R. observe that our fundamental equations (1) may be E/L = KjS. the speed will be a function of z. and the conductance of a bridge across it. make sure that this is the condition when we in operation. the quantity Lv those on the other side of the discontinuity. 317 . Then satisfaction are the equations of positive or negative waves. .. we have which become identical if V= LvC. always. if there is to be no tailing..... L2 v2 That is.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. then. V^ and F"3 be correhave itself no resistance or leakage.. .. from which There is no reflected wave when the numerator on the right of 20) vanishes.. if Lv be constant. reflected and transmitted wave. k .. conductance respectively.. and Let. Lv .
and the tail it . in longdistance telephony we do not need z. by either reducing R. so that they are joined by a band (the two tails superimposed). would require us to examine the sinusoidal solutions of Parts II. and the attenuation is of course less than when there is leakage. cast out slepder tails behind them. any excessive leakage to bring about an approximation to the state of things which prevails in our distortionless system (where. As this. extending uniformly over a complete . and gives so much information of a rough The subject is quite a large one kind. be 10. Now there is to be no leakage this keeps If then there were no tailing there would the total charge unchanged. the same thing will happen. multiplications by 9 and simple additions. The heads. or increasing L or the frequency. are attenuated. divides. The substitution of isolated resistances and conducting bridges for continuously distributed resistance and leakage leads to a very easy way of following the course of events when there is distortion by a want of the balance between the resistance in the main circuit and the leakage which is required to wholly remove the distortion. however. moving to the right. It is sufficient to consider the progress of one of the two halves of the initial disturbance. when left to itself. therefore. the results are only rough approximations. Then. not merely waves of veiy great frequency. however. know that if there were no resistance. and to attenuation represented by Xz/2Lv In fact. between which there is no resistance. And. if there be resistance. and at rest. the nearer do we approximate to a state of little distortion. though this is scarcely large enough it is convenient. initially given existent in a small portion of the circuit. Suppose there is no leakage whatever. The smaller this quantity is. that it is worthy of attention. making E/Ln small.000. casts behind it. unless the resistance in the main circuit be low. with attenuation. Localise the resistance at points. I shall therefore only briefly indicate the nature of the process. there will usually be much distortion due to tailing. and the Transmission of Distorted Waves. be no attenuation. are propagated without distortion). say that which moves to the right. unless the waves be of great frequency. but the method is so easy to follow. or nuclei.318 ELECTRICAL PAPERS Approximate Method of following the Growth of Tails. we may now keep to the question of tailing and its approximate representation. besides being distorted. the loss of charge from them is to be found in the tails. and V. which would travel with speed v in opposite directions without attenuation or distortion. and would need a large number of diagrams to fully illustrate. disturbances of any kind. and let the attenuation in passing each resistance (equidistantly placed) be any convenient large proper fraction. but accompanied by proper leakage to match. in the distance We Let it be required to find how a charge. it would immediately separate into equal halves. But the charges.. on separation. say ^ . in itself. as all operations will consist in Let the initial charge. As may be expected.
2a.000. But we should.867. 281. > 9.4243.000 extending over becomes distributed thus : 531. 263. Allowing for this fact. instead of one only. In course of time. an initial two sections. 686. > 100. 810. the nucleus is so attenuated as to practically make the charge one long tail stretching .5303. > 8. the other y ^ backward. 3a. 346. ><> 820. and not to continue drawing the arrowheads.000 <1. we have merely to add each of the numbers to the one following it. 184. its distribution when the resistances are The corresponding current is not represented by these figures. 180. 836.901.290. 472. 530. 194.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES.. and moving to the right. more than half the original charge is in the tail. Then these two charges similarly 1 The arrows divide. section to the right. to approach reality. 338. 446. 245. 399. section PART VIII. 507. which is really something like uniformly spread.4773. the current. is represented by 4531. etc.000 over two sections initially. 591. initially and after intervals First of all ~$ of the initial charge passes into the next a. 885. 371. After seven operations. 59. 4773. To do this. 566. We see that the division of the initial charge over two sections has not been sufficient to remove the fluctuations wholly. 463. In the whole of the tail (represented by the small numbers) the current is negative. therefore. 767.  <810. 120. The currents are alternately + and . 583. <900. 828. ^ of each going forward. 590. of course. <. > 7. 703.'* In the head the current is positive. After seven operations we have this result : <so that > 531. owing to the opposite direction of current in alternate segments when the original charge extended over only one segment.000 . 90. 302. extend the original charge at least over two sections. after seven operations. All subsequent operations consist in pairing the charges which are moving towards one another in the proportions T9^ and y1^. and the other y1^ is reflected back by the resistance to where it was at the beginning. if the circuit be sufficiently long. 936. though the reversals have disappeared. Then first we have let a be the time taken to travel > 10. 625. charge of 20. 900. The directions of motion are alternately to left and to right. 583. 565.169. due to 20. 407. so that it is only necessary to know this. ' . 319 between two resistances. The figures in the successive lines show the distribution of the charge in the consecutive sections to right and left. indicate the direction of motion of a charge.4773.100. and one section. 775.
and tending to do so equally. If Now ^ V tion or persistence of the electrification l&Pft*. out both ways. and positive in the rest. then. the timefactor being c~ sides towards zero. before (ratio of transmitted to incident wave).320 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. Observe that as. in spite of the persistence of electrification or of . we have tailing and distortion of a distinct kind. which cannot be done now. the or negative (referring to the electrification). let the circuit be perfectly insulated. in the other. and the third row the corresponding distribution of electrification. we may obtain curves resembling the real ones somewhat by drawing curves through the zigzags which result. It is the currentelement that splits into two parts. except that current takes the place of transverse voltage. so that the greatest VThe current is disturbance is at or near the origin to the right of it. In a somewhat similar manner to that in which we have roughly followed the growth of tails. in the other the electrificationintegral the timefactor being e~ Kt!L Xil8 In both cases the energy subsubsides.000 (with corresponding current as before) extending over one section . and negative in all the rest. at each of the six junctions of which is concentrated onesixth part of the : . we shall have the same results as above precisely. In the one case the momentumintegral subsides. according as RjL is greater or less than K/S.000 over two sections. or rather. positive in the head. when there was no leakage. the region of positive current part. pass to the other kind of tail. the other backward on passing a bridge. one going forward. then negative in the hinder part and also in a portion of the forward That is. When we have both tail is positive resistance in the conductors and leakage. so now that there is leakage. of the momentum \LCdz. the results are consequently very singular. whilst the electrification in the reflected wave is the as If. when considered in more detail. which aims at high insulation. the attenuation be negative of that in the incident. and I daresay some people may think that of not insignificant moment. the remained constant. there be no resistance in the circuit. The method has no recommendation whatever in point of accuracy its real recommendation lies in the facility with which a general knowledge of the whole course of events may be obtained. without going into detail elaborately. we may follow the progress of signals through a circuit. at every one of the isolated conducting bridges which we use to replace uniformly distributed leakageconductance. the lineintegral of In one case it is really conservaline integral of C remains constant. due to reflection by leakage. the second row that due to 20. Thus the first row of figures (after seven operations) shows the current distribution (everywhere positive) due to an initial charge 10. The latter case is quite out of ordinary practice. To make the method intelligible. but uniform leakage instead. and obtain the arrivalcurves of the current at the distant end. momentum. extends gradually from the nucleus into the tail. and in only seven sections.
729. 262. The real state of electrification of the line at any stage is to be found by summing up the columns. resistance of the real circuit. <1.000 is absorbed.000 initially in the first section and moving to the right. 321 The results will now depend materially ratio RljLv. which That is. 0.905. x . 612. 612. 90. ) = time is A H. 9.100.000 in the first section. 181. 514. cables).P. of going one section. whilst T ^ of the 9. After another 9 step the 1. VOL. starting with > A.314. > 8. 10. 74. whether it be a large number. 7. 564. or 2a after commencement of arrival of the current at B. 61. and the real state of current by summing up the columns with allowance made for the fact that all charges moving to the left mean negative currents.000 goes forward. . <810. Let us also insert resistances of amount Lv at upon the both ends. 5. or small.000.ON THE SELFINDUCTION OF WIRES. If we increase the number of sections so greatly that the first arrival at B is insensible. Now the same figures serve with the impressed force. 0. though it would arrive far more suddenly than the current arrives at the end of an Atlantic cable. 29. The final current is (e/2Lv) x 6.as before. this gives the whole history of the circuit from the moment of putting on a steady impressed force at A up to 9a. 295. 219.000 wave. The sum total of all the arrivals at B when carried further is 5. > 672. > 810.E. In time a. then the arrivalcurve will resemble that at the end of an Atlantic cable (or even much shorter The value of e~ Kl/Lv is exceedingly small in such a case. 1. 266. the second of 266.290. and so on (not carried further). 112. This brings us to the third line.000. > 9. 738. 134. whilst at B it rises to it. 10. 219.000 is reflected back. 551. to stop reflections and complications. we proceed thus : Then. B. 520. 557. 0. Thus the current at falls to its final strength. ii. 162. 0. The attenuation at each resistance (Rl/Q) 9 is then T g. First. PART VIII. let it be small.000 900. .561 656. ^ of the charge would go out at B and really means 6. say Rl = ^Lv.000 goes forward to the second section. + If a 0.000. 4 y ^ at A. and 1\ reflected back. 5.314. which we have to imagine continuously sending into the first section the 10. The calculation is precisely that by which we should calculate (by the previously described method) the progress of a charge 10. The first arrival at B is of 5.999. <664. Of course the current would not really arrive at B in a perfectly sudden manner to  of its final strength. 6. 590.
) It seems very probable that the ironsheathing of a submarine cable may be beneficial. but at the same time increase the attenuation. for instance in the case of a very long cable. It was my intention to have given the equations of the tails. later on. assumed that we are only approximating towards equalizing E/L and K/S. Conditions Regulating the Improvement of Transmission. use of an irony insulator.322 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. though it is not at all easy to precisely state its full But it is naturally suggested to increase the inductance by the effect. terminal resistances stops the oscillatory action. we should increase the inductance as much as possible. It is scarcely necessary to remark that it is wholly impracticable to go anything like so far as this . of course. in addition to the regular action. resistance and permittance. if the resistance and the permittance be fixed. that without changing either the resistance or the permittance of an Atlantic cable. make the currentamplitude at B be nearly twice as great as the full strength of steady current (the doubling being due to absence of terminal resistance). The other way is to and reduce S. true when z<vt . although we must not absorb all reflected waves arriving at A. this jumpIt is also to be remarked that the insertion of ing cannot occur. So remarkable is this effect. At present I may remark that the equation is in the form of a series of rising powers of (vt + z). but reflect them properly. by increasing the inductance (with sinusoidal currents). Now if we shortcircuit at A and B the process is essentially the same. the illustration serves however to show the extraordinary range of possibilities implied in a single theory. I propose to consider the tails in the next Part IX. this But gives the results very simply in the early stages of development. In Part VI. I described the use of non K We . so that the arriving current at B gives a sudden jump at regular intervals 2l/v apart. The former may be done by therefore reduce M/L and increase K/S. working down to inertialess solutions. whilst RjL still remains the larger. positive or negative. however. or mixed. Thus. as. By increasing the leakageincrease conductance we lessen the distortion. or by both together. The general telegraph or lines to be followed to improve the capabilities of telephone circuits (longdistance) for getting signals through with the least distortion and least attenuation combined are We should these. But should the circuit be so long that the first increment of current at B is insensible. these jumps get smaller and smaller rapidly at each repetition. First of all RjL is usually far greater than K/S. (It is. and then increase the leakageconductance until the attenuation goes as far as is permissshall then have the least distortion possible with the given ible. either reducing the resistance or by increasing the inductance. and all transmitted waves arriving at B. it is desirable to transform first into powers of z multiplied into Bessel's functions of the time. but as the investigation would unduly extend the length of the present communication. This will lessen both the attenuation and the distortion. or both together. This causes there to be a sort of bore running to and fro. and then into other forms. we could.
. index . 1887. but with resistance if there be resistance Lv both at A Lv and at B . which is to be avoided. the distortionless system... and it shows. that such an insulator might be of great service in cables for telephony and telegraphy. in the case of no leakage at all. in if amount... As regards open wires... XLI.. we or one half this see that fil = Lv.. if of copper. Again... ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE [February. gives the value of Lv which makes to suit a given resistance of circuit.Rl/'2Lv.. it may be examination of the sinusoidal solution in Part V..." which paper * [This W.. therefore. 323 magnetic strict proportionality of force to induction variations when the range is small.. A. sts Heaviside and myself on " The Bridge System of Telephony.. . the current received at B a maximum may also be shown by the the receiver have small inductance.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE conducting iron to demonstrate the CIRCUITS..] APP.. . if possible. to the fact that most of the circuits of which mention is made in brother's paper consist of or contain a considerable amount of o article consists of the three appendices that I wrote to the paper of Mr....... especially as its The insulationresistance could not be so high as is ordinarily the case.. (51?) makes CB a maximum.. the resistance it should have (when of a given size and shape) to make the magnetic force a maximum approximates to Lv.. further than any one wants to speak. without troubling about getting the leakage to be large. (620) J82Z.. This was an insulator impregnated with iron dust. though...... quite unnecessary in the case of a long circuit.. good telephony is possible to ridiculously great distances. shortcircuited at A... There is a value of L which gives the least attenuation.. that if we approximate towards sothat the same formula but with the shown by an RjLn be small.... with small range of magnetic force (with which alone we are concerned in signalling) no sign of increased resistance.. which is the critical resistance that absorbs all arriving disturbances.. since we require the lowest possible resistance to reduce attenuation and distortion.... It .. changed permittance must also be allowed for.. and of low resistance. the received current is For since..... CIRCUITS..* but now first published.... if same formula that May 7. 1887 .. >( course. OWING my A. On the Measure of the Permittance and Retardation of Closed Metallic Circuits...... at B. It is possible. carry this But the attenuation is then so trifling that to out (by increasing L) would be..
as much as 45 ohms per mile. and we may exactly calculate the effect at the distant end of the line (or at any other part). and therefore possess considerable permittance. On these suppositions. in 1827. but which owing to the objections of the official censor. as R^lf is to R^S^9 bring the current at the distant end to y ^ of its full strength due to a steady impressed voltage at the beginning of the first cable. if R be in ohms. and with the further fact that the selfinduction of these lines is small. and length of line. and should be given credit for knowing all about it. the potential of the wire. xxxvin. Tel. we may. I was given to understand that the official censor ordered it all to be left out. permittance. regard the transmission of telephonic currents through the lines as being governed mainly by the three factors resistance. I have omitted the portion of Appendix C relating to the distortionless circuit.g. the retardation is pro2 portional to ESI a certain interval of time." supposed to have no resistance. R . 160. II. ] for presentation to the Soc. buried wires. was intended never got so far. and its resistance and wire. governed be the resistance. The circuit is completed through the " earth." The line is a single Electromagnetic induction is wholly ignored. of Taylor's "Scientific Memoirs. See. a single quantity F". when guided by an analogy between the flow of electricity and the flow of heat. therefore. for a similar reason. translation of Ohm's memoir is contained in vol. Art. whose outer boundary is therefore taken to be permanently at potential zero. its length. of his " Mathematical and A Physical Papers. Thus if $ the permittance per mile of a cable of length /. and the E . and S in microfarads. . and to extend right up to the dielectric material which envelops it. combined with the fact that these buried wires have very high resistance. because he considered that the Society was saturated with selfinduction. for startingpoint the now wellknown theory of the submarine cable promulgated so curiously foreshadowed by Ohm by Sir W. is expressed in millionths of a second. which is now known to be entirely erroneous. . in lines of different lengths.324 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and Electricians. n. in this volume for evidence to the contrary. owing to the ohm being 10 9 and the microfarad 10~ 15 c. when given along it. which." since it consists mainly of practical applications of the theory contained therein. leaving on one side the question of the apparatus (which is no unimportant one in itself). . as the matter is more The portions of the obnoxious paper fully treated elsewhere in this volume." and Sir W: Thomson's writings on the subject of the submarine cable are collected in vol. if it take 1 second to the second.s. Eng. however. due to arbitrarily varying the potential by a battery at the beginning. the time required to set up a given state in the first will be to that required to set up the corresponding state in For instance. the periods of time concerned being. fully defined by the three data permittance per unit length. in his celebrated which was memoir on the galvanic circuit. Thomson in 1855.. usefully serve as appendices to the preceding one "On the Selfinduction of Wires. fully expresses its state at a given moment. electromagnetic units. with constants fiv Sls l v and 2 operate similarly upon them. contributed by myself (about 20 pages) are also omitted. $2 1 2 and we If there be two cables. Take. and by the important law of the squares. The present article may now p.
retardation 325 first. but line. and they be properly adjusted in amount. on the other hand. on the then newlylaid AngloDanish cable . is to increase the retardation considerably. "On had their cause deepseated in the electrical system.]. however. unless the impressed voltages are in proportion to the resist<j ance of the lines. The way the current rises at the distant end due to suddenly raising the potential at the beginning to. insertion of a condenser between line and earth at the receiving end. and keeping it at. but it does not appear that Mr. when making trials of the speed of working. Varley or anyone signalling. line to T9 of its final strength. I. there will still be a perfect similarity. The influence of resistance at either end. the amounts of loss be properly adjusted in the two cases. when I also had the opportunity of being present at both ends of the line (not quite at the same time. provided the bar be prevented from losing heat laterally. testing cables during submersion. which was first observed by myself in October. Willoughby Smith's system of It is indeed true that Mr. which is maintained constant there. is precisely similar to the way a current of heat appears at the distant end of a metallic bar when its beginning receives a sudden accession of temperature. if the loss per unit length be proportional to temperaturedifference in the one case. we may render the systems similar.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. 1869. . both by reversing key and by automatic transmitter. be equal. a remarkable accelerating power on the more than doubling the speed of working a performance that contrasts with the effect of the most ingeniously arranged curbing which keys. and allow strict comparison. This reservation is necessary. called a fishing patent. p. Ii^S^ of the second cable be 5 times that of the it will take 5 seconds to bring the current at the distant end of the second The final currents will not. vol. Smith has Varley had previously patented the method in what Mr. has. and more especially the insertion of condensers at both ends of the The line.) so as to be sure that the anomalous symptoms did not arise from some easily remediable local cause. there is considerable lateral But if loss of heat from a bar through which a current of heat is sent. the practice of signalling through condensers having arisen out of Mr. or at both ends of a effect of The and of the receiving instrument on the nature of the arrivalcurve. as of the battery at the beginning at the distant end of the line. and to potentialdifference in the . XV.. whilst at the same time somewhat modifying the manner of rise of the current. on the other hand. terminal resistances. was given by me in my paper Signalling through Heterogeneous Conductors" [Art. because it is usually the case that submarine cables are wellinsulated whilst. of course. the main object of which was to explain the very singular phenomenon of a marked difference in the speed of working through a submarine cable having landlines of widely different lengths at its two ends. F. a constant amount. 61. have been found out by pure accident. although if both have terminal resistances. other. W. so that a strict comparison of a cable with terminal resistances to one without them is not possible . especially when the excessive simplicity of the means by This remarkable power seems to this result is attained is remembered. C.
in which the theory of the almost equally remarkable accelerating effect on the speed of working due to a leakagefault in the cable is considered. in my paper " On the Theory of Faults in Cables" [Art. therefore. vol. and next. I. the equal batteries have always opposite poles to line. with given terminal arrangements . and for the two batteries. Suppose now we take for granted that we know precisely how signals are propagated through a single submarine cable. more completely. signal through the new line in precisely the same manner as through the former two. 2. the two cables. had foreseen the extraordinary merits of the condensermethod. could. 1. 71.326 else ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. 1. the new potential being the same as that in both the old cables. and the currents will be equal and oppositely directed in space. XVL. poles to line. 47.F. We may now remove the earthconnections altogether.M. . vol. and. p. whilst the new current is the sum of the currents in the former case. I. but of double the permittance of either . and it is shown how to take account of the influence of any terminal arrangements. The theory of the influence of terminal condensers I have given in my paper "On Telegraphic Signalling with Condensers" [Art. If the batteries be the equality of the cables and of the other circumstances. We But if. p. and for the two instruments. take two equal but quite independent cables. xni. if there be terminal condensers. and half the resistance of either . or in the same direction in the circuit of :2R FIG. without producing any change in what takes place in the cables. a single condenser for the two at either end. with independent batteries and instruments. on the other hand.]. the phenomena produced in the two cables will be identically the same at the same time at corresponding places. as is symbolically represented in Earth FIG. owing to 1. the potentials at corresponding points will be equal and oppositely signed. by substituting for the two cables one of double the permittance and half the resistance of either of the old .]. as in fig. and operate upon them similarly and simultaneously. one of half the resistance and half the inductance . both with positive or both with negative fig. one of the same E. and again. with the solutions in several simple cases.
signalling. thus T : Conduction Current T Magnetic Induct. 327 thus making a closed metallic circuit. and the new permittance is the effective permittance The electrostatic retardation of the line is unper mile of line.the adjective which prefixing of . ( [Reluctanc . and the resistance of the battery. that by the abolition of the earth as a returnconductor.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. provided we double the E. whilst the earth itself counts for nothing except a may. however. in passing from singlewire to double. . we may treat the new circuit as a single wire with earthreturn. .N ( Resistance. and earth to second wire/ being in sequence. though wanted. except in this wanting. it may be observed that appropriate reciprocals This system.. and by the substitution of a return through an equal and independent cable. also refer to the unit volume. Again." the reciprocal of the specific inductive capacity. . appropriately speak of the doubling of the defining the elastance to be the reciprocal of the permittance . it does not at Although elastance is supported by Maxwell's elasticity.._* T\: i f  jp^tj^ Permittivity. first wire to earth. We R changed. we prefix. conductivity resistivity is respect. and. a doubling of what might be called the electrostatic "resistance. as are resistivity and conInductivity and elastivity ductivity. Inductivity.] * Electric Displacement n. therefore. the current in the single wire. " elastance " of a condenser. perhaps perfect conductor. we vary the current in the same manner as before the change. for this " electric is at once in accord with Maxwell's elasticity. as in fig. take for V. whilst inductivity is to inductance as and elastivity is to elastance as is to conductance . Elastance.on . therefore. elasticity. quite it appropriate.  Conductancei Conductivity. which refer to the unit volume.. Inductance. owing to the condensers. if instead of and S being the constants of either wire. .. becomes the current in either wire of the loopcircuit. are displacement. in another form. as signals from end to end are concerned. see. and double the resistance and inductance of the receiver. not the potential of either wire. we naturally accelerate The halving of the permittance is.M. Elastivity. we take them to be "2R and \S per mile of the new circuit . arrangements in proportion. So far. whilst (7. by itself. unless elasticity does not lend itself to the variations that are might be confounded with mechanical electric. The new resistance is the resistance per mile of line. In the cases of the fluxes induction and to resistance. . for our present purpose. but their difference of potential at a given place . halve their permittances. and if there be terminal condensers. 2. t ." if it were not desirable to refrain from multiplying applications of the term resistance. works well practically. yet all harmonize with displacement.F. and with the general terminology that We I have proposed.] Resistance and conductance are reciprocal. Reluctivity. Resistivity. I find. at the same time.) (But if alter the terminal we do not. which is.
It is quite painful to read of [I ance" to "lines of force. and adaptable substitute for displacement is therefore wanted. viz. Now capacity. is perhaps sufficiently true practically when cables are submerged. A good . thus reducing the retardaHence the greatest possible measure of the electrostatic retardation. though not true. that from one wire to the other. the reciprocals of inductivity and . modified in amount to an unknown extent (in the present case) by the amount of moisture present. completely removed by the substitution of elastivity. which are convenient. which may be quite unaccommodative. adjectives is just one of the things that we should try to avoid in a convenient terminology. for there would be some small mutual action between the cables. This objection is. or rather has been assumed to cables. Again. and have substituted permittance for inductance are wanted. is ". we should rather have a word suggestive of elastic yielding capacity seems to suggest the power of holding electricity." and it may be considerably less.328 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. or the effective permittance will be reduced. have." capacity in the text. will be increased by the substitution of dielectric for conducting matter. As for going to the dead languages for more new words. merely the function of a conductor of negligible resistance. the present term for the reciprocal of elastance. which. provided they be each wholly surrounded by fairly wellconducting matter. outside of the insulator. which has also the advantage of more perfectly harmonising with conductivity and inductivity. either existent all the way between them. "magnetic resisthave now inserted the additional words coined after writing the above. and from it a pair of words which shall stand for the reciprocals of the above elastance and elastivity. It is no use at all to measure the permittance of each wire by itself with respect to earth . tion of a pair of equal buried wires in loop is that of either alone. a) . it is clear that the effective elastance both.. when earth comes close up to the s. If the radius of a wire be ?. Experiment on this point is wanting to see how wires buried in pipes behave as regards permittance. may mean anything it is too general a term . however. and by the parallel conductors. and that of its (homogeneous) insulator its greatest permittance. the proper way is (as I have before pointed out) to measure the effective permittance as it really is. a notion which is thoroughly antagonistic to Maxwell's notion of the functions of a dielectric. I must regard that as a barbarous practice. we may return to the looped ^electricity The earth between them has.] After this little digression upon a subject which is important to all who desire the improvement of electrical nomenclature in a systematic and convenient manner that will harmonize with Maxwell's theory of and its later developments. or at least in good conductive connection. when buried in the technical "earth. if the matter does not extend from the outside of the insulator of one wire to that of the other and surround But if this be not the case. The above reasoning therefore applies to a pair of buried wires.
of course. and its permittance with respect to earth be wanted . n is negative (including zero) or posithe general formula being tive. we have And as the expression for the elastance between the proper limits.. 329 per unit length. C. to Mr. in his work The ulation and Conduction. e. The permittance of an infinitely thick cylindrical dielectric with finite internal radius." 1862. let this wire be suspended in the air. covering and the earth. then taken between the proper limits. we shall have to add on the elastance between the outside of the solid its reciprocal.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. n\a n the outer and inner radii are b and a. r. " Electrical Accum[It is. .g. I believe. however. when. difference of the reciprocals of the radii. that we must give the credit recognising and employing in electrostatic problems the idea addition of elastances. if c = r . consists of concentric layers of different permittivities c lt c 2 etc. of outer radii s 15 s 2 etc. instead of zero. 4?r/c being the elastivity. we get the permittance at once by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the elastances . reduced. . Thomson. where c is the permittivity of the dielectric. To illustrate the way of getting this formula. the permittance. or varies inversely as r. rather than that of the compounding mittances. Thus. in the cylinder case to if c = c r". as is the case when c is constant. except in some But its partial application is useful peculiar cases of magnetic circuits. n= is permittance inversely as thickness if 2.] . so that the permittance is finite when the outer radius is infinite. the elastance is simply proportional to the thickness of If it vary as ?. unfortunate that the application of first of the of perof the method is so limited. the elastance is proportional to the the dielectric. is greatly If c vary continuously with the radius. is zero w or finite according as. It is. enough. strict application of this method to magnetic induction problems not possible on account of the circuital property. is the elastance. to obtain the total elastance... F. since the elastance of a layer of thickness dr is (47r/c)(e?r/47rr 2 ). thus. if c vary inversely as r. 2dr _ c 2 fl Q Vn+1 when Similarly. this being When the covering the wellknown formula due to Sir W. Webb. when the dielectric layers are spherical. we have only to change n to n+1 obtain the spherical results .
In the case of a pair of twin wires in pipes. as it is really the permittance of the dielectric between them that is in question.. by removing all conducting matter from the neighbourhood of the wires to a very great distance . if the But if the wires are covered with dielectric has the unit permittivity. the permittance is brought to a minimum. and that this measure of the permittance may be considerably reduced. But. If rx and r2 are the radii. Its value was given " " On the in my paper electrostatic capacity of suspended wires [Art. which last is not now in question. let the wires be equal. of course. lastly. if it be infinitely long. solid dielectrics in concentric layers. (As to the permittance of either wire by itself in space. and. vol. the propagation of signals from end to end will take place according to the singlewire theory. S. we must then add the elastances of the various concentric layers. their presence will necessitate the consideration of the external permittance of the sheath. Returning to the previous case. and be far removed from other conductors. apart (between axes or centres). whatever it may be. with taken to be the fall of potential across the and S as just defined. where S is given by (1) or (2). to obtain the total elastance between the wires . we may apply the submarinecable theory. for each wire. or else meaningless. that But whether is zero. to represent the difference of potential of the two wires. which is J. S~ l will only represent the elastance between the external coverings supposed of radii rt and r2 . strictly speaking.. Quite independently of equality of the wires. whilst the effective resistance is the sum of the resistances But if is their difference of potential. but taking Let us now pass to the other extreme.) Let one be charged positively. this formula (3). whilst the effective resistance is double that of either wire .. and be not reciprocal. we only safely know the greatest possible effective permittance. V . for instance. and the inductance. I. If the wires be at the same distance apart as before. as per equation (2).. and r 12 their distance XII. we of course use formula (1) for the permittance. and other conductors be brought close. p. the ratio of this charge to the difference of potential is the permittance required. radii of the wires need not be equal. the resistance to be coupled with S will be the sum Observe that the of the resistances of the two wires per unit length. as if a single wire were in question.330 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. or rather the . But using the proper value. If one conductor surround the other concentrically. of the wire and sheath. and dielectric. nor their resistances. and somewhat modify the propagation of signals according to the singlewire theory. with a dielectric of unit permittivity all the way from wire to wire.) magnetic induction will now be ignorable will depend upon the values of R. the other equally negatively. (It is. keeping to (3). imagine the twin wires to go from the earth to the moon. R V V . its reciprocal is the required permittance. 42]. nonsense to talk of the permittance of the wires.(3) is the permittance per unit length (in electrostatic units).
leads to a great simplicity in the treatment of problems relating to the transmission of signals from end to end. Hence the formula (3). they will cancel one another to a great extent as regards their influence when they are equally and oppositely charged by the battery.. pair wires. It is necessary for the wires to be at the same height above the ground.. there is still a further increase to be practically reckoned on account of the proximity of The amount of parallel wires (i. Otherwise. is. hand... as is usual). this increase.e.. we have merely to pair the wires t S of (4) or (6).... distant r 12 between centres.. due to the currents not being quite equal in the two wires. see the paper last referred to.. when there are any. for the looped circuit to behave strictly as a single wire in the propagation of signals from end to end. generally to be equal. The extension of the meaning of a "line" to include looped wires. Clearly . (4) is nearly equivalent. or (4) will be approximately true. and to be equal in other respects.. and So.. infinitely 331 removed from other conductors.. with r T = r2 ... The value of the permittance between two unequal wires of radii r^ and ?\. But this value of S will be rather less than the true value. and at equal heights.. and (6) allows for the increase due to the earth's nearness.. the permittance between either wire and earth is On the other (7) and we see that onehalf to the true of this has no necessary equivalence whatever accidental equivalence. whilst (4) assumes the earth to be infinitely distant. differential effects are produced. but sometimes with a complete removal of this restriction. let them be suspended above the ground in the usual manner.. given by l . To get the results when wires are looped. at heights fa and Js2 above the ground. when the wires are of equal radii. which is a little increased by the presence of the earth. ) we shall have s= and. in charging the earth. I have calculated in the paper referred to.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS.. There may be an properly...... doing away with a vast quantity of round . (5) (To get this and other formulae. which is not at all insignificant. since s/s 12 is nearly unity. But. if s u be the distance between either wire and the image of the other (the image being a parallel similar imaginary wire as much vertically under as the real wire is above the ground). but still be at a distance from them which is a large multiple of their distance apart for instance. when the earth is the returnconductor...
of equal Here the differential effects will resistance. Let the upper wire have times the resistance of or . n. a more elementary treatment is contained in "Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation. in which metallic circuits are employed. not equal. we have the case of equation (3) again.332 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. and the lower have The top wire should then have a upper. the potentials at corresponding points will be equal. so that the circuit may be treated practically equal as a single wire with very great accuracy in the manner I have exemplified here in some elementary cases and developed elsewhere. between wire and earth. II. and the earthconnections may be removed./ZjiSy 2 = R. XL. and also an instrument of inductance . is equivalent to a single wire with earthreturn. be buried in the ground. about work 'that occurs when each wire is considered independently. with voltages in the ratio R^R^ we have equal but oppositely signed charges and currents. extended to include selfinduction and leakage. xxxv. leaving a metallic circuit. the ratio being N. of resistance equal to the sum of the resistances of the two wires... if the batteries be with opposite poles to line. we shall have differential effects produced. p. go back to fig. times the resistance of that of the battery on the battery of times the resistance and lower wire. calculated according to the methods appropriate to self and mutual induction of N N N N N electrostatic and magnetic. xix. principally owing to the extension of the use of the telephone.. and the other.] . 116]. now. In short. and the propagation of signals will not take place strictly according to the singlewire theory. times the permittance of the the lower. in which let the wires be. vol. . be very large. [Art. there is dielectric everywhere about the wires. This applies to all wires whose dielectric coverings are externally On the other hand. having the same timeconstant." [Art. 76]. 1. though not the currents. from the practical point of What is important is.2 Sf. If. an extreme case. vol. should have the two systems are to be similar . that in the practical cases that have view.. But this is a mere curiosity. the wires are in all respects. arisen of late years. to xxxv. p. whilst any condensers in the lower terminal arrangements times the permittance of those in the upper. And. with its own constants and potential and current. vol. and elastance equal to the sum of the elastances. if the differential effects are great enough to make it worth while to allow for them. if sufficiently distant from earth and other conductors. but will have to be." Sections xxxn. which. so that the two wires behave like one. wires. I have developed this in my paper "On the Selfinduction of Wires. but have the same timeconstants of retardation. let one wire be suspended. the earth be kept on for returnconductor. and similar poles of batteries of equal voltage be to line. one to be an enlarged copy of the other. if J^be taken as the fall of potential from wire to wire.. when joined by matter of negligible resistance. But if not sufficiently distant. In farther illustration of this matter. I. so that the electrostatic timeconstant is unchanged. as developed in my paper "On As Induction between Parallel Wires" [Art.
and another declare that 0075 was past bearing. 333 my paper on "Induction between Parallel Wires" already parallel wires the equations are [vol. s v s2 S 12 Kg c the magnetic inductioncoefficients p e 2 and e ]2 the electrostatic inductioncoefficients . that the greatest value of the timeconstant of a buried circuit with wires of high resistance which it is possible to work through practically with telephones is about ES1 2 = 015 second. potential V and current (7. as in equation (25) of the same paper [p. . and loop them. 2k = E of potential. of line per unit length. dx v2 and the potential equation that of v lt j by subtracting the equation of from d ^ = (K. the dot standing for timedifferentiation. vol. But on this point I wish it to be distinctly understood. v\ ~ V2 = ^ = difference C = current. so far as my own views are concerned. But it is really a quite indefinite quantity. . arid K. 140] v 2 are the potentials of wires 1 and 2 at distance x.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE See CIRCUITS. and from others of a similar nature. and the accent for ^differentiation. 139. but also the absurdlycalled personal "equation. I.*j*= KF+ SF. Now let the wires be equal. = K= leakageconductance Then we shall have  <*f= dx EG + LC. Let where &! and ^ and .T d \ Tf^<Z d \ (H + L (K + b ) dx 2 \ dtj\ dtj ) These are the equations of a single wire with earthreturn and constants R. a difference of 100 per cent. I.s ) = L = inductance 2(s 12 ( c ~ (2i) l . It would appear from the results given in my brother's paper. it only applies . . taking this 015 second as expressing the practical utmost limit of what it claims to represent. There are several other cases in which a t similar simplification results. depending upon so many circumstances. ^ and i 2 the insulationresistances . including not only the instruments. is. L.. For two p. = resistance ~C = s= permittance i2) .." One man might go on to 015. the resistances . S. From the results obtained in the early days of the telephone I concluded that *01 second was something like it. referred to. that.].
But the case becomes different when we stretch out the double wire . (though there might perhaps be an observable current if the wires were of widely different sizes. and yet work the telephone beautifully through it. When. the substitution of one telephone for another cannot (unless they are of widely different natures) be accompanied by any important change in the greatest working distance. The submarine cable would have no more to do with it than Mrs. B. the line can be treated as a submarine cable. and then to working through the longest distance possible. and have precisely equal There is. a doublewire line is an inductionbalance. if the terminal apparatus is fairly good. of considerable interest. nor does it matter whether the wires have the same resistance or not. in it on the whole. . there is no current. it is clear that. Apparatus is a matter of considerable importance.F. In fact.'S induced in them by the primary current. that is all. IT is needless to say that a circuit consisting of a single wire with earthreturn is not balanced against the inductive interference of parallel wires at all. observable current in the secondary . it comes to the complete removal of all intermediate apparatus (leaving only apparatus in bridge). The disturbances of balance referred to in the paper are. I will when APP. which would be considerable. and allowing the lines to have the best chance. then. there will be no sound in the It is true that we can easily detect the induction between telephone.F. but hundreds in the secondary that are in question.334 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. . In the following the theory of these disturbances is illustrated by investigating some comparatively simple analogous cases. nor whether resistance is inserted in the circuit It is simply a question of the resistance and inductance of the or not. the two wires of the secondary circuit change places so often that they may. . It would not be a submarine cable. I would undertake to erect a line of such length and permittance that its electrostatic timeconstant should be several times this '015 second. secondary circuit and since there is no E. Harris. to emphasize add that if any one would pay the cost. however. Take two long wires and thoroughly twist them together and join them up with a telephone so that any current in the circuit must go up one wire and down the other and then try to induce currents in the If circuit by means of intermittences or reversals in an external wire. especially if we make a loop in the primary of about the same size but there is practically not the least effect when it is not one loop. it telephone ought to be made one. in the this . this remark. be regarded as identically situated.M. On Telephone Lines (Metallic Circuits) considered as InductionBalances. the primary and a single loop (or half a complete twist) of the secondary. especially if the thicker one be iron). be done as a laboratory experiment. from the scientific point of view. as is remarked in my brother's paper. But. no E. Nearly all the progress to efficiency described in my brother's paper was in getting rid of apparatus retardation. And.M. More correctly speaking. mean.
there is still interference. It can be abolished by inserting an equal resistance R 2 in the other wire at the Kv K same 2 K ^ If unequal.M. These interferences We must make R an equal coil to get rid of l 2 it. first. though not the most important. there could be no such interference. there is still interference. Yet the impressed forces can still produce no current. which is of course the entire removal of the impedance of intermediate apparatus. however. either at the terminals or anywhere else. but when the primary is a Wheatstone transmitter wire. so that there could be. In fig. and let FIG. the circuit to be so far removed from other conductors that the permittance is appreciably the reciprocal of the elastance from one wire to the other in an infinite dielectric.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE to .F. as we please). and require removal. the short line is. We K . R a mere resistance. only one of degree in this respect. 1. they disturb speech on the telephone circuit. which allows current to leave the wires. CIRCUITS. Then let the wires be cut by the lines of magnetic force of a primary current. 1. equal to that of the coil. Imagine. The interference is therefore connected with the permittance of the wires. K . . If R is a coil and place. if electromagnetic induction were alone concerned.'S in them between K^ and Slt also between shall call these the impressed 51 and $2 and between S2 and 2 It is easily seen that those forces and ignore the external agency. There is no interference from 2 in general. represented by the condensers Sl and S2 in fig. let the two horizontal lines represent a pair of telephone wires in loop. and are not observable when it is a telephonewire that is the primary. there is. between K^ and S can produce no current . neither can those between 52 and 2 as there is no permittance attached to those parts of the But between S^ and S2 the wires are not conductively concircuit. and therefore The difference between the long and permits current to exist in them. which are to be imagined to be twisted (or not. and to be oppositely directed. 335 many miles in length for then electrostatic permittance comes sensibly into play. The way in which the Bridgesystem absolutely cures the evil is one of the most interesting things about it. as well as of the permittances of the condensers . in this case also. because any current there might be is constrained to be of the same strength in both wires. be the terminal apparatus. nected. no inter. 1. This conclusion is wholly independent of the resistances concerned. Now. concentrate the permittance at two places. ference effect. For illustration in a simple manner. but if a resistance 2 parallel wires to be observed at K^ and be inserted intermediately in one of the wires. causing equal and similarly directed E. are weak.
the currents in J^ and Kc. As the interference is not due to the mutual permittance.p)V2 ...R. If e^ + e 2 be not zero... * im^) upper and lower wires with respect to earth at one place.. 2... K^ KF F ' same denominator Thus... lower middle sections and e 2 the impressed forces in 7^ and 2 and V^ 2 the falls of gj Then. to which wire we may ... we have C = 0.. if e l + e 2 = 0.. in the circuit R^S^R^ where the timeilifferentiator. 2.M.. to make fig. to the left of Sl and to the right of S.. the earth being represented by a wire joining the condensers together as represented.. P\ and be found by 2 may if . Also.. or rather. the condenserequations are l p stands for C=(K + 8. (2) in the figure be and 2 2 Here K^ 2 be arbitrary.. Thus. Here the pair of condensers S1 and S2 represent the permittances of the * fr ! ^:: .. since the equal and similarlydirected impressed forces in the two wires between the condensers can produce no current. . and S3 and S4 do the same at another place. FIG..... and since the same reasoning applies to any number of condensers with any resistances and inductances between them. K and K^ KV may .2 if we take and 2 2 to be the currents which shunt the condensers. R R .. R .. the external conductor.336 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. we must refer it to the permittances of the wires with respect to external conLet it be the earth that is ductors... PW^(K^S.. so far as impressed force in M l and R2 is concerned. el is + e^Tl +F'2 + (Il l + E ? + Lp)C . From these data. we may conclude that there will be no current induced in any part of a circuit consisting of two wires twisted together. let the arrows indicate the directions of positive current and E.. to inequalities therein. (1) the equation of E. R.. provided the effective permittance be the permittance in the sense above mentioned.. however unequal they may be.F.. let and 2 be the resistances of the upper and l L the inductance of the circuit 7t 1 $2 7?2$1 . depending upon the nature of the line... etc.. V Bj and E 2. and now modify fig.. This is most intimately connected with the fact that under these circumstances the propagation of signals from end to end of the line takes place in the same manner as on a single wire with earthreturn.M. 1 thus. formally. if G is the current in potential through the condensers.F..
... by we have C ~SlP 7 (9).Vi~ y3 ) = (^ + by adding which there (7) in (5). and let L lt L 2 and be the . . .. M .F. c. + F2 )...\ " . balance was merely true because R 2.. + L 2 p)C2 + rc + JfpCv Vlt F2 etc.S%/Sl = . inductances.. the induction M we saw is before.M... Introduce these into . + M)S2 /Sl } P Cl 1 .......i and (4).rc (i. ( r.... y R R SsrS . F +F4 = 0.E. finally. are the falls of potential through the condensers.. = saP v..) =slf 71+ K. of the circuits the equations of E.... (10) from which we see that give which.S2 /S )C l +{(L 1 + M)(L. we shall usually have differential effects and interferences..P.... . that may have any values. VOL. the current is As K 3 Fi+F^O.......M. the condenserequations are where .... which may be zero if we please.. /io\ Notice the are the complete conditions of the induction balance... 337 attribute resistance r. + r. and we get i when ^+^= . S^7v 0^807^ 8#7 C2 /Cl = .ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. (11) which must be identically satisfied. (9) Also.. Also... R S3rS l 1 and rS4 R 2 S2 Then I + a + + lP rc 2 =V... and 3 be the conductances (generalised) of the systems to the between the upper side of Sl and the lower of S and to the right between the upper side of Ss and the lower of $4 Finally. . ii. in these circuits are i e...... to complete the relations. on account of the auxiliary conductor r....SJSB .. C^c^Cs .. (6) not now constrained to be of the same strength in the two wires. Let us then enquire how to make the currents in K^ and 3 zero when e l + e 2 = 0. self and mutual.. Let C v C2 and c be the currents in R lt # 2 and r . That is. and Z 2 + M are the inductions through L^^ + M then. we have if KL K left .. .. Ji v negative.. used in = (R l R.... (7) results .. l and l the circuits and R^StfrSt due to unit current in the circuit H. as Notice also that Gl = C2 here). Hence.... + K. etc.. From this we see that in the previous case (got by making r infinite ... l l ^^(R l + L l p + Mp)Cl + (R 2 + L 2 p + Mp}C 2 ...F..+ Vt + (R..( v... the arrows indicate the direction of positive current and E.. As before.. independence of the auxiliary wire's resistance..
will not be thus uniformly distributed. be worth while to give the full equations in the general case of disturbed balance. we have the condensers. and similarly for S3 and S4 when put in sequence with the substituted wire on the one hand and r on the other. we sequence with the other. + ^ + ('^ + MKJP> rSt p + Mp(K. is in the circuit of P v R2 in parallel. + St p). since P^ R = Pi 2 . l .F.. the E. and the Ol . .. and l of course upset the inductionbalance by putting a coil in sequence with one of the wires R^ R^ and restore it by putting an equal coil in In this case of equality. have. but only partly there. . From these we may deduce (12) by taking When. we have a large number of pairs. 4. = R^ etc..'S The general equations of self.'S in middles of every pair.. etc.. perhaps. the terminal condensers S1 and $2 by one of double the permittance. instead of two pairs of condensers only. which is independent of uniformity of distribution of the equal E. and of inductance ^(^M).338 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. B 2 Cl =C =^c = S pF = S pF = S pF^S p^'. 2. condensers and return.. if the impressed forces be also uniformly distributed along We the two wires. generally.and mutualinduction of parallel wires.M. by their mutual cancelling. the wires are equal. They are . We R R in which the A's and B's have the expressions U+j$% + ( R l + ^X*. Then 2Cl is the going and return current.M. the earthwire r must run on and join the see from this that the equal KM.M. the rest going further and getting to the auxiliary wire through other condensers. L^ = L2 S = S2 S3 .F.F. It may. resistance. we If. But. little if any effect produced (not referring to the balance at the terminals. Supposing. as in fig.'S). as in the simplest case. uniformly distributed. then. undisturbed. Rl and R2 will cause currents in them similarly directed which will not return immediately by the wire r in the figure.F. 2 l 1 3 4 and the equation of E. (13) have now equal and similarly directed currents in and 2 l passing through the condensers and returning combined through the The equal wires may be replaced by one of half the auxiliary wire. there would be.
but only to an extent which is practically negligible in copper circuits. On the Propagation of Signals along Wires of Low Resistance. without any justification. vol.. and be at the same height above the ground. When the circuit is completed by a concentric tube. if the circuit be This has not yet been observed. we cause a small departure from behaviour as a single wire. and therefore at different heights above the ground. and it is questionable whether they would be observable. I do not desire to underrate its importance in the least its influence is sometimes paramount. we cause the inductionbalance to be a little upset. Both effects will be small. introducing additional retardation. is that the theory of the transmission of signals along wires is a manysided one. the balance will not be upset.M. show that if we start with a pair of equal wires looped. the external permittance of the tube will give rise to interference. A. in accordance with which the inductance per unit length of wire is twice the magnetic . take Sir W. What has yet to be distinctly recognised by practicians. but the application of reasoning based solely upon electrostatic considerations should certainly be limited to such cases where the application is legitimate. 339 given in "Induction between Parallel Wires" [vol. if exposed to the interference of a parallel wire equidistant from them. record. Practical telephonists who keep their eyes open have unusual opportunities of observing very curious and interesting electrostatic and magnetic effects. Now some writers. 116]. p. long enough. even although the interfering wire be equidistant from the paired two. especially through wires of low resistance. A In my paper "On the Extra Current" [Art. if the wires be equal in all respects. and simultaneously we cause the circuit to behave not quite the same as a single wire. This is very wide of the truth. C. the demands of business. they behave as one . APP. however. Somenotably in telephony.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. times magnetic inertia itself becomes a main controlling factor. p. especially in reference to LongDistance Telephony. Thus.. according to Maxwell's system. supposing that magnetic induction is merely a disturbing cause. 53] I brought the consideration of magnetic induction into the theory of the propagation of disturbances along a wire. and explanation. Thomson's theory of the submarine cable to be the theory for universal (or almost universal) application. WHOLLY exaggerated importance has been attached by some writers to electrostatic retardation. and then introduce some inequality. and also slightly upset the balance. But I am informed by my brother that the interference arising from one wire being of iron and the other of copper has been observed in his district. of inertia.. to say nothing of other reasons. usually prevent their careful examination. I. but having only a limited application in side some of the more modern developments of commercial electricity. xiv. But if the paired wires be in a vertical plane. by the introduction of the E. and also. I. Unfortunately.F. and that the electrostatic theory shows only one a very important one. as described in App.
to be followed by an account of the principal properties of a distortionless circuit.F. and in which the permittance (though small) must not be ignored. by means of a suitable amount of leakage. The theory is then. in which." and "The Selfinduction of Wires. vol. to be regarded as submarine cables in general. a leaky submarine cable. in the course of my articles "Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation. electrostatic An intermediate in which both the and magnetic sides have to be considered simultaneously. is propagation by elastic waves (similar to the waves that may be sent along a flexible cord. especially if the resistance be high. In the present place I propose to give some practical applications of the formulae. due to its variation is . Though rather outside practice. and considering only the resistance and inductance. the momentum is LC and the E. Distortionless circuits. in combination with the inductance it produces an approximation towards the transmission of signals without distortion. now to be first described. 116] I have further considered the question. we may divide (1). There may the subject. Calling this L. circuits into five classes Circuits of considerable permittance. unless the wavefrequency be great or the resistance very low. In my paper "On Induction between Parallel Wires" [Art. Yet another class brought into existence by the late extensions of the telephone in America and on the Continent. in which wires of small resistance and small permittance are used combined with high frequencies. or perhaps better. I.M. in which resistance. and have worked out certain important parts of it in detailed solutions suitable for numerical calculation. For instance. this class." I have given a tolerably comprehensive theory of the propagation of disturbances. also be subclasses derived common clothesline. permittance and leakageconductance control matters. though even then there not usually enough resistance). Ordinary short telephonecircuits usually (3). (5). since. because it supplies a sort of royal road to the more difficult parts of The peculiarity that is brought in by magnetic inertia (symbolised by the inductance) combined with electric displacement.. except that extreme cases of the last class resemble it.. which casts considerable light on the subject by reason of the simplicity of treatment it allows. provided the frequency be not too great. a is from the above. come under class. the distortion of waves is abolished. Long overhead wires of : Roughly speaking.LC per unit length. (4). Short lines which may be treated by disregarding static permittance altogether. in addition to what I have already given. and more recently. and of rapidly increasing importance. the electro(2). quite unlike the electrostatic theory. xix. this class is very important in the comprehensive theory. p. This class is rather troublesome to manage in general. as distinguished from the waves of diffusion (as of heat in metals) which is the main characteristic of the . according to the electrostatic theory. energy of the unit current in the wire. 188567. even when the line is thousands of miles long.340 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. whilst inertia may be of insensible influence. comparatively small permittance may sometimes be included.
per unit length of circuit.. At z = Q. But to avoid coining a new word. p is plainly the impedance of the circuit to the If the line were perfectly insulated. as in classes (4) and (5). as in class (1)...... and because wires of high resistance would not go a characteristically American way of doing things.. Yet their action led the way to a rapid recognition of the sound practical merits of Maxwell's theory of the dielectric. then /= l(E* + L n the magnetic impedance.. permittance. and sometimes the other. (3) these understandings.. but did it because they wanted longdistance telephony.. K= 0. that we are principally concerned... so that p is a function of z.... S.. will be considered later. are the fundamental equations. .. only S=Q.. where VC=(K+Sp)r. impedance is strictly applicable only at the place of impressed force.... Also... and had no impressed force. L.... K=0...." It is with the equivalent impedance at the far end of the circuit.. 341 slow signalling through an Atlantic cable... Terminal apparatus If If S 0. K= 0.. then I=i(A\ in {<?" + e....ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS.. no idea of the important theoretical significance of the step they took....... let i (l P or e = "(l) t {(l+/ On +f}(fg. be the resistance. = 0.] Let E. inductance. (2) the frequency... p would be a constant for the whole circuit.... or a pair of wires in loop...... the value of / is provided the line be shortcircuited at both ends. Let V LSv*=l. L = 0. Call it /. Now suppose that an oscillatory impressed force acts at the beginning of the line.1)}* . in which case the wires should generally be equal... and leakageconductance respectively. I shall extend its use.. . Also 2 ) . (5) which Pl = (\nR3lrf...... K/Sn = g. .. The two features are always both present.. at a given But the range of the current is not everywhere the same frequency. The term (besides varying in phase). If t 2 2 )*. which may be a single wire with earthreturn. but sometimes one is paramount. and term p anywhere the " equivalent impedance. Let p denote the ratio of its amplitude to that of the current.. then K VF=(E + LP )C. I think. therefore... permittance.. where nftir is X/Ln=f..... (6) ...... [The Americans who went in for wires of low resistance had.. say z = I. this being the ratio of the amplitude of the impressed force at z = to that of the current at z = I..8 " 2 cos 2^}*. to avoid the interferences which would remain in spite of the twisting by which the greater part of the interferences from other circuits may be eliminated.. let Fand C be the potentialdifference and current at distance z .... (1) stands for d/dz and p for d/dt... then I=Rl the steady resistance of the circuit....
. when n is even as high as 10 1 / is made rather large.. per kilom.... So we may take its reciprocal We have to be zero . even with this relaThus. Now 1 ohm per kilom. and a permittance Now 1 A K= makes S= 10~ 20 also.... if there is sensible leakage. = 100//1. provided the resistance be small.... Notice here that the effect of g in attenuating the current may be considerable when the frequency is low. and on the frequency..... g is always small. Being twin wires. 1 megohm f=W*r/Ln . By bettering the insulation it is made smaller still. and is according to Sir W. when it is high... if the frequency be only high enough.. makes ff=10 ... the significance of (4) depends materially upon the values of the First as regards g. therefore / is big. such as are used in telephony by the Post Office. inductance. Thomson's theory. except by examination through a large range of frequencies. L is small ...000 tively low insulation. of of microf. It has a remarkable effect in removing the distortion of the signals. then the formula (5) for the equivalent impedance (unless leakage is 2^ is important) . permittance. Consequently But g.342 ELECTRICAL PAPERS... has an important attenuating effect. (8) or p = I/El = Pl (8Pl)\ .... later in the distortionless circuit. makes g='OQ5. latter case. and L is small... even with poor insulation.. makes 10~ 20 . and yet be small when the frequency is high. leakageresistance of 1 megohm per kiloni... These correspond to frequencies of about 160 and 3200.. Thus g is important at low frequencies.. g. we have g and becomes a small fraction at high frequencies. and 4 frequency. is low... what will come to the same thing.. and since we can work up to such frequencies that e we may then write big. by neutralisThis is marked when the ing the effect of electrostatic retardation. . take L = 0. Thus g has a large attenuating and also a large rectifying effect when the frequency is low.. per kilom. nor is so much rectifiBut the full nature of this rectifying action will be seen cation wanted. Now consider /. Consequently we may where PI cable... then it does not attenuate so much and does not rectify so much. or certainly not great . the above formula does not inform us what other effects leakage has. Therefore on a landline per kilom. but n is also small. if r be the resistance in ohms per kilom. there is little distortion even when the insulation is perfect.. (7) In a long submarine cable r is small. insulationresistance and '01 microf... (9) is as in This PI may be as big as 10 on an Atlantic (6). Now consider buried wires of 45 ohms per mile.. Now the frequency is low on long submarine cables. ?i=1000 makes #='1. Equation (8) shows the extent to which the line's resistance appears to be multiplied... or g = 0. ratios /. This depends on the resistance... We see that in telephony. or. . and becomes less marked when it is But in the frequency high.... consequently. and n = 20.. Therefore we may practically take g = Q in telephony through a fairly wellinsulated line.. so..
but would be more reasonable. the frequency would need to be low in order to allow the large L to operate. yet it will not be small enough at the low frequencies to allow of its treatment as a small quantity. Consider a pair of open or suspended wires. and of fairly high inductance. The data regarding the inductivity of iron telegraphwires are not copious . Similar remarks apply to long suspended copper wires if the resistance be several ohms per kilom. for although with high frequencies / will be small. and its inductivity would need to be large even then . in Now %=10 4 or r = 2. besides that.. making R= 20 4 of only 1 ohm per kilom.. The point is. from being large. Still. and a tolerably close approach to distortionless transmission. with the assumed steady resistance of 20 ohms per kilom. That is. it is considerably less . from my own observations. by (7). We should therefore use equation (4) with only g = in general. simplified form of theory. as will also the reduced inductance due to the same cause. especially as the increased resistance due to the imperfect penetration of the magnetic induction into the wires will increase /. even in telephony. on account of the increased resistance due to the tendency to skinconduction at high frequencies. 343 still apply the electrostatic theory. though not to be treated as either very large or very small in general. although it will somewhat fail at the higher frequencies and we see that it is by reason of their high resistance and low inductance that we can ignore the influence of inertia in them. with the weak magnetic forces concerned in = 200 is high. It could only be got with an iron wire. we could not treat /as a small fraction. may be made small by increasing the inductance without other changes.000. But now come to a copper wire loop with a similar wire. I believe that.2/i. but of the same order of always magnitude. (10) /. make /=2 if Z=10 and n= 10. Now the last value of L is extreme. of low resistance. Take 20 ohms per kilom. Thus / must be kept in the formula for the equivalent impedance. wellinsulated. and they be at the usual distance apart . telephony. as the resistance. remembering that in L is included the part due to the dielectric surrounding the wire. Such a large value of L may usually = 50 be put on one side.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. /* however.. go back to equation (2) defining v. we have the form of theory of class (3) mentioned above. and it may be as low as 100. so far as the buried wires mentioned are concerned. as we shall see pre: sently. less than that of light. and /=2 if =100. This will. from which we see that / may be so small a fraction as to lead to a We now have the fourth class of circuits . that /. Here estimate the value of L. If the wires are of iron. or 10 ohms each wire. making RjLn small. but if of copper it is so little less that we may neglect the difference. But this does not apply to the suspended wires which are in circuit with the buried wires. so far as practical work is concerned. . Now To v is a speed. however.
... Thus /is less It gives /= 1 when n= 1000.. the 1 standing for J/AJ + J/J 2 if /^ and These terms are important the inductivities of the two wires. and ^ when and / small in 1 (3) and (4). in the case of iron wires .. L=($s which terms is )\ .. p. We n get n R R (4) and the equivalent impedance formula reduces to (14) in the fourth class of circuits... g = loopcircuits.. Thus '01 microf.. s must be 18 J inches. On the other hand. vol. useful in giving an immediate notion of the size of L in of the permittance... so that if S Q is the permittance in microf. there is a setoff by reason of L being reduced by the induction of currents in the neighbouring wires.. therefore see that L = 20 is quite a reasonable value = 1..000. if S Q be the measured permittance per kilom.. so that /= T T when n= 10. Now L = 20 requires s/r = 148 . which require us to consider the various mutual effects of circuits. gives the reciprocal of the square of the speed of light... 42..... = 10~ 15 .. if s be the measured permittance in presence of earthed wires. L. and 1 microf. the magnetic field peneBut. then.. is 2 ohms . xn. makes L = 11.. and it is this which.. though not so greatly as to But much Again... when the X resistance per kilom. The explanation (or a part of it) which I have before given [Art.. which increases L.. Then.... Therefore.. 2 per kilom. when that is known. and counteract the preceding effect. L= 114 log (s/r) . vol. and XXXVIL. (11) per kilom. The other part of L is the inductance of the dielectric. if r = radius of each wire.. let our circuit be quite solitary..000.. .. subject to the proper limitations.. (12) . found by Professor Jenkin that the measured permittance was twice as great as that calculated on the assumption that the wire was solitary. when multiplied by S.. and sometimes It was too small...... apart. than unity throughout the whole range of telephonic frequencies.. trates the earth.. when they become relatively important on account of the smallness of the total inductance. or if r be inch (which is about what is wanted to make the resistance 1 ohm per mile). and becomes a small fraction even at practical frequencies. but riot with copper. and / is only TT at the higher frequency 20. We with copper n = 10.. IL. the real L must be considerably greater than by equation (11)..000/27r. Take... to avoid these complexities... this estimate (11) will always be too small a one.344 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. p.. unless the wires are very close. s = distance yu. when H2 are as with copper wires... 159] is that the neighbouring wires themselves largely increase the permittance......
1 to + 1. and the range in the fluctuations of / decrease ... 1=0.. But to use wires of such low resistance for comparatively short lines would be wastefully extravagant... Therefore increase the length of the line in equation (14) .... viz.. (17) Compare with (8). with a corresponding small change in L........ the ratio of the resistance of the circuit to 2Lv.. and at all higher frequencies. the value of PI).. If the length of the circuit be a small fraction of 600 kiloms..ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS.. say n = 20. the increased resistance due to skinconduction. I does not depend much upon the circular function... which is.. In connection with (15) I for the impedance. I=Lv$in(nl/v). Then 27r/n = 2l/v. 1 200 ohms.. When nl/v = 7r. The physical cause of the low value \El at certain frequencies is the timing together of the impressed force at the beginning of the circuit and the reflected waves. But another effect would come into play....... if the line had no resistance at all we should have The further significance of this formula will depend materially upon the value of the ratio ltt/2Lv (that is. the impedance depends upon the frequency in a fluctuating manner. Thus the least possible equivalent impedance at z = l is one half the steady resistance of the line... as we do this the range in the oscillation in / falls. when fil = 2Lv. on raising the frequency... Thus. ences. Such wires admit of very long being worked.. and there is nearly distortionless transmission of signals... ... . or the period of the impressed force coincides with the time of a double transit (to the end of the circuit and back again). and especially in early part... until. As the result of this increased resistance the value of Il/2Lv will rise. going down nearly to Uil and then running up nearly to Lv. (15) with the circular function taken always positive.. its may mention that an approximate formula when nl/v is in the first quadrant.. the corresponding cableformula. According to (14) this would go on indefinitely.. as the circular function goes from .... and note the differThe impedance is now nearly independent of the frequency. is which shows the beginning of the action of the permittance in reducing the impedance from its magnetic value as the frequency is raised... and the greatest is Lv. It is akin to resonance.. We may then.. provided H/Ln be small.000... in the present case.. and if the frequency be pushed high enough the fluctuations will tend to But this could not happen in telephony at any reasonable disappear. and Bl/Lc = 2 or 3 or more. 345 frequency... as the frequency was raised continuously. write simply circuits ..
y .346 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. which only assumes that RjLn is small. The following table gives the values of p calculated by (14). for a series of values of PdjLv = y.
customary. and so forth. there is personal It is clear. 347 dielectric and be dissipated. be minimized by a suitable choice of its impedance. The conditions as regards perfect " silence in reception are also of importance. in all details. Supposing. there are the terminal arrangements to be considered. apart from intensity of action. it is clear that we could increase that limit by the simple expedient of increasing the current sent out or the sensitiveness of the receiver. there would be nothing to wonder at . and to be astonished power the disc possesses of doing it. that in such a mixedup problem as this equation. any distance can be worked through. due to the electrical part of the receiver may. so that the distance to be worked through is much greater with similarly sensitive instruments. many other things may come in to interfere. not merely on long lines. Here. trial alone can settle how far we may work safely. for instance. practical limit in a given case might be fixed merely by the inadequate But intensity of the received currents to work the receiver suitably. we cannot safely estimate what amount of distortion is permissible in transit along the circuit. Then there is a kind of circuit which is distortionless. and their distorting effects. the disc does not do it. surprising what a large amount of distortion is It is. then. Trial alone could settle how far it would be practicable with a given type. Finally. Here the attenuation is not nearly so great as in the distortionless circuit of the same type (that is. but on short ones. or with instruments graduated to make the currents received and sounds produced be about equal in the different cases compared. independently of the attenuation. Nor should interferences be forgotten. for people to enlarge upon the wonderful manner in which a receiving telephone exactly reproduces. or certainly was on the first introduction of the telephone. So we cannot fix a limit at all on theoretical principles." is. however. and for long after. or the reason for wonder at the . however. both the transmitter and the receiving The distortion telephone distort the proper "signals" themselves. there is the approximately distortionless circuit above described. and to explain it by harmonic analysis. them slip But undoubtedly the distortion will increase as the circuit is lengthened (except in the ideal distortionless circuit) . we had reached a practical limit with nearly distortionless transmission. Coming to more practical cases. too. all tending to fix a limit. provided the attenuation is not too great. this will tend to fix a limit. and to be intelligibly guessable. but would along like greased lightning.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE waves to enter them from the let CIRCUITS. but in which there is considerable attenuation. When thousands of miles are in question. the sounds that are communicated to the transmitter. Well. and especially by making its inductance the smallest possible consistent with the possession of the other necessary qualifications. only differing in the leakage needed to remove the remaining distortion). though we cannot precisely define it. indeed. It is. again. as it would be in quite mechanical obedience to the forces acting upon it. and how much attenuated and distorted we may allow the vibrations to become before human speech ceases to A be recognisable as such. permissible. Here. plainly. If it did. Independently of the line.
The remaining transformations. This is true in a sense . Giltay. practical We A A The real explanation is. even if the resistance be suitably chosen to nearly stop the reaction of the instrument on the Then we should get the disc of the telephone to exactly copy line. What the permanent field does is . I may mention that we sometimes see the amusingly innocent remarks added that even whistling could be heard. and from the disc to the brain via the air and ear at the other end of the circuit. Here is one cause of second occurs in trying to make the primary current distortion. there is the distortion in transit. we have considerably distorted our signals before getting them on to the telephone line. Thompson permanent field was needed to eliminate the vibrations of doubled frequency that would result were there no permanent field. Silvanus and speculated as to its cause. the true explanation. who seem to hear very well even when all they have to go by (which practice makes sufficient) is as like articulate speech as a man's shadow is like the man. we need not consider. would be shifted elsewhere. but it is not the really important part of what is. was until recently unWriters have before now remarked upon the necessity of a explained. beyond what was furnished by M. I think." etc. by the way. from the brain to the vocal organs at one end. the receivedcurrent variations ought to be exactly copied by the magnetic stress between the disc and magnet of the receiver. distorted between the larynx and the diaphragm. because it is not a deadbeat arrangement.force variations. and the augmentation of certain tones and weakening of others. which it cannot do at all well. I think. And yet. the magnetic. after all these transformations and distortions. But the inductance of the receiver prevents that. according to the nature of the line. It would be really wonderful if we could The best telephony is bad to the get perfect reproduction of speech. I may mention that one of them. on account of the want of deadbeatness. and responds differently to different tones. So to begin with. third is in the transformation to the secondary circuit. and one voice distinguished from another. viz. if a high standard be selected. In connection with these transformations. which has been continuously trained during a lifetime (assisted by inherited capacity) to interpret the indistinct indications impressed upon the human ear .348 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. because the vibrations of doubled frequency would be very feeble. and candidly confessed his ignorance of the explanation.) Consider the difficulties in the cannot even make the diaphragm of the transmitter precisely way. which may be very little or very great.. variations copy the motion of the diaphragm. though this is not an important matter). who had also considered the matter. Next. permanent magnetic Prof.. and found that the field. to be found is possible. and recently recalled attention to the matter. in the telephone receiver itself. (As a commentary upon the reports of " perfect articulation. critical ear. Then. in the human mind. though perhaps this and the last transformation may be taken together with advantage. of which some remarkable telephony examples may be found amongst partially deaf persons. and not one based upon mere intelligibility. follow the vibrations set up by the vocal organs (which vibrations are.
in order that the disturbances passing (and reaching the distant end) may be a correct copy of those originally This ideal state of things is fairlywell reached in the despatched. which travel along it only slightly distorted. the waves should be absorbed by it. and perfectly in the fifth class. Setting up an arbitrary train of disturbances at one end. they are therefore proportional to the received currentvariations. the coefficient of resistance depending upon the mass and tension of the cord. and Sir W. we should have insensible vibrations of doubled frequency. the permanent field makes the stressvariations vary as the product of the intensity of the permanent field and that of the weak variation due to the currentvariations . we cannot fix it. The disc is attracted by the magnet. [See Art.] Returning to the telephonecircuit itself. Theoretically this only needs the further end to have its motion resisted by a force proportional to its velocity. do we so magnify the effect of the distortion in transit as to make the limiting distance be determined 2 approximately by the value of the electrostatic timeconstant JtSl now come to the first class we began with. by forcibly agitating one end. the effect is to introduce a considerable amount of distortion which may be The (somewhat imperfectly) ascribed to electrostatic retardation. by increasing the resistance of the line from very low to more common values. 349 to vastly magnify the effect of the weak telephonic currents. the following would appear to be what should be aimed at (apart from improvements in terminal transmission and reception) in efficient longdistance telephony. and make them workable. We . without reflex action. fourth class of circuits above mentioned. causing the despatch of a continuously varying train of waves into the circuit. n. should be done away with. p. limiting distance of telephony will therefore now depend more upon Still the circuit itself (apart from terminal arrangements) than before. In passing from the fourth class to the third. and we therefore to . The distortion in transit is very great. along which we can. Only by passing to the extreme case of such high resistance of the line acting in conjunction with the permittance that the effect of inertia is really insensible. This ideal may be illustrated by a long cord. if the line be long. vol.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. and the stress between them varies as the square of the intensity of magnetic force in We want the disc to vibrate sensibly by very the intermediate space. . which attenuation should not be too great and.. whilst the lowresistance longdistance circuits introduced in America are somewhere between the third and the fourth classes. as nearly as possible. weak variations of magnetic force. and which should then be absorbed by some mechanical arrangement at the further end. Thomson's law of the squares may be applied in making comparisons. If the permanent magnet were not But there.. 155. and are also greatly magnified. and with as nearly equal attenuation as possible. xxxvi. the waves should travel to the distant end of the line as little distorted as possible. on reaching the terminal telephone. At any intermediate point we may correctly register the disturbances It is evident that the reflected wave from the distant end passing it. finally. so that the telephone becomes efficient. despatch a train of waves.
as regards the total dis some extent swamp the terminal apparatus tortion. sufficient to : n. in conjunction with the inductance. not a comIn the case of a cable of the Atlantic type. used as a plete fulfilment. to greatly improve matters from the electrostatic theory. in spite In fact. consider the preclude possibility were it nonexistent. following table of the large permittance. But there is only a tendency to the electrostatic theory. telephonecircuit (of course not across the Atlantic) the resistance is rather low. a small amount of inductance is render telephony possible under circumstances which would To show this. and this is quite sufficient.350 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. .
let us inquire what length of line '01 sec. leaving only the lower tones. so that there is nearly perfect transmission on the line of low resistance. per kilom. case would render telephony possible. If. the reduction to 1/58 part applies only to %=10. and HI 12. is the utmost allowable. we shall see by the table that this makes Pd = \\Lv (instead of the previous 15). to contrast the two theories. nor any. will work with good articulation. such vibrations might as well be altogether omitted.000. example. far less '02 second. thus there is plenty of sound. On the other hand. to 1/778 of the steady current . If component vibrations on a cable really suffer attenuation to 1/778 part. so that the electrostatic timeconstant is still a which is no less Even if we make ^ large multiple of the value 01 obtained resistance. the electrostatic timeconstant. whilst there is extreme distortion on the circuit having the same electrostatic timeconstant if destitute of inductance. by (11). Of course this is excessively large. although the theory of such composite circuits cannot be easily brought down to numerical calculation. and the equivalent impedance = 778 x 12. In the north of England examples there are usually buried wires and overhead wires in sequence. instead of % part. of resistance 1800 ohms.ON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CIRCUITS. by the first table. get. which is only three times Lv . on the other hand. This is the reverse of what occurs in our other case. This may be done by simply varying makes . without change of length or resistance. in which there is little sound. before given. a sufficient magnification in the 6000 kilom.000 ohms. but very inarticulate. This difference should be noted. SQ microf. and suppose that an attenuation to part only of the steady current. let it be merely L that is variable. and this value. so that it is still more true that selfinduction comes in to help.. for reasons interferences. but with good articulation. But the probable fact is that '01 second with L Q is not possible. under favourable conditions freedom from But I do not fix this limit. But. Since there is a minimum value of the attenuationratio I/ HI when the ratio El/Lv is variable. the reason is that L is not zero. the reduction is only to 10/17 of the steady current . Let us see what its electrostatic timeconstant is. a large allowance. it appears reasonable that the circuit might be worked under favourable circumstances. 351 uniformly attenuated ? If so. at the lower limit. returning to the 4500 kilom. ?i=1250. by observation of wires of high Again.000 and = 6000 kilom. In the case of the cable of no If inductance. The result is 300^10 or say 900 kilom. When it is said to be done. we take the electrostatic timeconstant as *02 second.000 is. by the second table. gives PdjLv = say 20. Hence We than 22 times the supposed maximum of 01 second.. the attenuation at n = 10. etc. and therefore usefully admitting of magnification. then this circuit of 4500 kilom.
and a wide separation is necesI But there is another thing to be distance between the wires should continue to be a small fraction of the height above the ground. we have L = 20. in order that the property LSv2 = 1 should remain fairly true. (But this does not apply to the table. But if = 1200 kilom. S tends to become simply the reciprocal of the sum of the elastances from the first wire to earth and from the earth to the second wire . half the permittance of either. general as it is. The secured when it is large.. where L and S may vary independently. we should increase the amplitude of current of any (not too low) frequency by increasing the inductance. 61]. so as to shut out the magnetic field from itself. and in such a way that a doubling of S and halving of L are equivalent. in making estimates of the range of disturbances of appreciable magnitude.waves. there is a wide extension of the magnetic field. especially when the circuit is a metallic loop. Equation (4) has quite different significations under varied circumstances . instead of varying inversely as L. I may add that if the earth were perfectly conducting. 1886) [vol. It seems to show how careful we should be not to extend too widely the application of professedly approximate formulae. and distances from the line should be compared with its length. It seems at first sight anomalous that when the permittance is so small that we might expect the common magnetic formula to apply.352 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. as in my original statement of it (The Electrician. would remain unity always. the increased resistance and reduced inductance due to the tendency towards skinconduction Besides the propagation of disturbances through the are allowed for. even when. Although the permittance does not appear explicitly in formula (14). appreciable by cumulative action on a distant wire. which change is easily made by bringing the wires closer. it is yet not general enough to meet extreme cases. There are also the modifications due to the presence of neighbouring wires. it is implicitly present in v. Hence the necessity of raising the wires. which goes on increasing slowly as the wires are further separated. as we saw before. there is an outward propagation from the source of energy. calculated so as to suit the propagation of planewaves. if the full advantage of L is to be sary. and insignificant. remembered. p. to be quite a secondary matter. according to equation (12). after the manner of plane. if we separate wires very widely without raising them any higher. In passing. dielectric following the wires. which seems to me. however. . and.. as well as of separating them. July 23. The minimum the distance between the two wires in the circuit. we require L = 40. however the wires were shifted. But when there is an earthreturn. the product LSv'2 where L is the inductance of the dielectric and S its permittance. It therefore tends to constancy that is. provided parallelism were maintained. If / = 300 kilom. which may be calculated by the equations of a .. then L = 1 0.) Now. which concentrates the electromagnetic field considerably. attenuation at the distant end comes about (by first table) when Rl El JRlohms When / = 600 kilom. II.
[vol.. and receiving Let R^ and L^ be the (20) and is without assumptions regarding the size of / and g. and we reduce (20)." Part V... we may vary L^ independently by changing the form of the coil or by the receiving apparatus. five times as large.ON TELEGEAPH AND TELEPHONE system of parallel wires.......... then. and also. that the terminal factor inserting nonconducting iron... we do not want the full formulae.... with L^ alone variable.. II.... the result is to alter the attenuationratio from the former /> to p v given by ftpxejxflf... .... on the assumption that LJRy the timeconstant of the coil. Next let it be..e^l+EJLv^l+BJLv) .. Now take g = 0. instead of (21). 247]. p.E.. of see. (23) be merely a telephone that is Now let it resistance and inductance R 1 and Llt or something equivalent to a mere If it be a mere coil. but the magnetic force of the coil that is a maximum.... VOL.... (22) Note that the full expression for G is obtainable from (20) by changing But if we only assume / to be small and g A\ and L^ to RQ and LQ zero.. (which may be in any part of the main circuit of the terminal apparatus there). Z ... and is an approach to the .. if a telephone. (19) factors for the sending ends.P. I have considered the effect of any terminal apparatus in my paper. when We 4 6 4 which. is CIRCUITS. But so far as relates to a long circuit of low resistTake (17) as the formula ance. if it be a mere coil that is concerned... " " effective resistance and inductance of the apparatus at the receiving then end..... then. coil... 1 = (1 + El /Lv^ + (L ln/Lv)(L 1 n/Lvf)+f 2 (Rl /Lv) .. when we put on terminal apparatus containing no impressed force except the one sinusoidally varying force at the beginning of the circuit. not the current. " On the Selfinduction of Wires. (21) Therefore (19) becomes P^bLv..... when the fraction fLfl/Lv small.. Then. is fixed.. / a small fraction. to G^l+EJLv.... IL.. with 72 = 20 and w=10 makes 2Z 1 = 60 quite a reasonable But if w = 20 3 the result is 150 7 twentyvalue for a small telephone... to be calculated in the following manner. where G$ and G$ are the terminal . It is very complex in general..... This is nearly true when the size of the wire is varied.. H. is made a minimum... .. when the wires are shortcircuited at the sending and receiving ends...... we have .. 353 influence of all But perhaps the most important modifying that of the terminal apparatus.... though less easily..
. : B We have nW)}. with % = 10 and the timeconstant a = 0002. see further that this does make fL^n/Lv require 2'24 l Therefore. a far larger value of the terminal factor than need In fact. if the thickness of covering vary similarly to that of the wire... subject to constancy of a. The right member expresses the square of the impedance of the circuit to a S. and Ll njLv< 1... I. this is the extreme value of the resistance of the coil.. whether the circuit be a long or a short one.. of maximum received current are not usually identical." etc. using (23). when RjLn is small. and ?i=10 4 we = Lv.. and we vary the size of wire without varying the size and shape of the coil. which may be proved by the general formula from which (19) is derived. This happens when subject to RiJLL )* = Li>.. minimum. may easily verify Now that Lv is the impedance in the present case (with / small). the impedance of the coil equals the critical Lv. Under these circumstances we have practically perfect reception of signals. which should really be less on account of the term L^n.354 truth ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. I showed in my paper that in the magnetic theory the condition of maximum magnetic p. a general one. 99]. factor nearly unity. which contains the impressed force... or when We .. state is kept up by impressed force. The property of equal impedances is.. [Art.. the choice of its resistance to equal Lv will. " On Electromagnets. and may be For instance.H. but with the least power. the conditions of maximum magnetic force of the coil and be.... . It is now Gl /R l that has to be a = constant. is by (19) and (20).H. because / is small. force of the coil is that its impedance should equal that of the rest of the circuit. (25) 4 which. we should have the biggest current. so that all we do in verifying it is to see that no glaring error has If a coil connect two points of any arrangement in which a crept in. (24) when there is iron.... S. The general condition making G^R a minimum on a long circuit.... This is. xvn... nearly annihilate the reflected wave. Lv = 600 ohms when L = 20 . It is that if the receiver be a mere resistance. . if the timeconstant be '0002 second... however. of course. When/ and g are small we obtain the former result. if we should make the terminal quite antagonistic.... For instance... we bring the magnetic force of the coil to a maximum by making its impedance equal to that external to it. becomes G% = 1*7... and so do away with the fluctuations and the distortion due to them. impressed force at its end.. we small.. . But a remarkable property should be mentioned. vol..
The resistanceoperator is a function of the electrical constants of the combination and of d/dt. for instance. the the differential equation (ordinary. is the It seems.* it will be sufficient here. Mag. it is ' Z Z . to prove the rule. especially to practical men. It is this fact that makes them of so much importance. "On I. which we may write Q all the operations concerned in involve only differentiations. INDUCTANCE AND PERMITTANCE. so that no energy can enter or leave it (except in the latter case by the irreversible dissipation concerned in Joule's law) until we introduce an impressed force. which As I have made exwill in the following be denoted by p simply. linear) connecting V= V resistanceoperator is Z. vol... IF we regard for a moment Ohm's law merely from a mathematical point of view." = in the resistanceoperator of any system as above 2. to say that resistanceoperators combine in the same way as if they represented mere resistances. thereoperator that turns the current C into the voltage V. on examination. terminal be C. let any selfcontained electrostatic and magnetic combination be imagined to be cut anywhere. 415]. if and C. including some new ones. we see that the quantity E. .. but to theoretical men who desire to make theory practically workable by the simplification and systematisation of methods which the employment of resistanceoperators and their derivatives allows. formally define it. account of most of their important properties.RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. one producing the above voltage J^at a certain place." [vol. producing two electrodes Let the current entering at one and leaving at the other or terminals. AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. when the product VQ expresses the energycurrent. the Selfinduction of Wires. especially in connection with energy. p. 1. Then. we obtain the steady resistance. by whom they will be much employed in the future. n. 1887. December. 201 to 361 generally.or extratheoretical. pp. the operator of timedifferentiation. 355 XLIL ON RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. p. as regards their origin and manipulation. fore. * and Also after. or flux of energy into the system per second. appropriate that the operator which takes the place of R when To the current varies should be termed the resistanceoperator. and let the voltage be P] this being the fall of potential ZC be from where the current enters to where it leaves. 479. . If we put p If defined. and the substitution of simple In this paper I propose to give a connected for more complex ideas. All that is required to constitute a selfcontained system is the absence of impressed force within it. I do not refer to practical men in the very limited sense of anti. tensive use of resistanceoperators and connected quantities in previous papers. which expresses the resistance. in the equation V=RC. [Phil. when the current is steady.] General Nature of the Operators. and some illustrations of extreme " cases. ESPECIALLY IN CONNECTION WITH ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC ENERGY. Z Especially Part III. which are found.
. it is not possible to effect the above There are...H. the current become sinusoidal in every part of the system. two classes of problems which are important practically.. I have previously given some examples..." Parts VI.... pp..... Fixations. the manner of variation of the current.. say is the conductance of the combination.356 clear that ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. with the ... the result. in which we can produce simplicity by a certain sacrifice of generality...... will eventually If the voltage at the terminals be made sinusoidal.. so that C = YV. if nftir be the periodic frequency.. reduces to the simple form (1). even a complex one.. as externally impressed force is concerned.. (4) * "On the Selfinduction of Wires. provided we do not inquire into the internal details... But such both electric and.. In the first class the state of the whole combination is a sinusoidal or In the second class we ignore simpleharmonic function of the time... however....] ... with the charge iSFand electric energy ^SF2 or its equivalent. If we make p Thus.. Then.. (1) (2) In the first case.. In a number of magnetic problems (no electric energy) the resistanceoperator of a combination. when consequences of a singular nature result. inverse operations (integrations) have to be performed. it is a condenser of conductance and permittance S... S. the effective K'. and S'........... made in Z and F. Q) Therefore is the conductance operator... and is indistinguishable from a coil. be the reciprocal of Z.. let vanish in Y.. The system then behaves precisely like a simple coil. so far question........... simplifications except in some very extreme circumstances. But if when C is given completely. a perfectly nonconducting condenser having a shunt of conductance K.......... It is sometimes more convenient to make use of the converse method.. but this does not interfere with the use of the resistanceoperator for other purposes. K L that is in 2 In the ^LC . permittances for inductances... n.. and VII.. unless it be infinitely extended.. to the simple energy). which are due to the storage of electric and magnetic energy.. and 3. reduces them to the forms .. and consider only altogether the integral effects in passing from one steady state to another.. (3) ..n 2 .. [vol.. I/.. K'. which substitution. The fundamental forms of and are V V Y Y F Y Z . we cannot find immediately from C completely .... it is a coil of resistance R and inductance momentum LC and magnetic energy second case. should a combination store and magnetic energy. we have the wellknown property p 2 = ... we see that corresponding reductions form (2) occur in electrostatic combinations (no magnetic cases are exceptional.... At present we are concerned with a finite combination..... is known completely.* Substituting condensers for coils.. 268 and 292.
.. % The necessity of the term impedance (or some equivalent) to take the place of the various utterly misleading expressions that have been used.. In a similar way. considerably used.. (5) say . . R'\K' = all of * P= . and To obtain the relations between R' and K r .. In my papers. . has come about through the wonderful popularisation of electromagnetic knowledge due to the Mag.. and we may then call the effective conductance and Sf the effective permittance at the given frequency...... by (3) K K Y : Y and (4). and other terms.... say... f Sf are functions of the electrical constants and of w2 and are therefore constants at a given frequency.... because (5) are more useful in although theoretically the two sets are is now (3)......... (8) from which we derive i ....... and L and f /S".. 357 . is the impedance of the combination.. dynamo.. .... / are The former. } and (6) . .. or YZ= 1.f and it would be highly inconvenient to make a distinction.... = I. originally introduced by Lord ...RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. admittance naturally suggested to call / the But it is not to be anticipated that this will meet with so favourable a also reciprocal. however.. Phil. But it is important to remember that the two comparisons are of widely different natures and that the effective resistance [in the coilcomparison] is not the reciprocal of the effective conductance [in the condensercomparison].. If (V) and (C) denote the amplitudes of Fand (7... there is no limitation to cases of magnetic energy only.. in the second case we compare the combination to f a condenser. where R f Z/...............L'l&.. reception as impedance. " " of the combination. (6) / and being the ratio of the force It is to the flux (amplitudes). in connexion with the problem of finding the effect of an impressed force in a telegraph circuit. (4).... May... we have. 1886.. which term the methods of representation (1). of given a few examples of mixed cases of an elementary nature.. In the first case we compare the combination to a coil whose resistance is R' and inductance L f so that R f and L' are the effective resistance and inductance of the combination. Thomson's approval of it and of one or two . its adoption to Sir W.... . " On the Self Induction of Wires " I have t In Part V. practice than (2)......... we have ...... R' reduces to Z^ and f to Q at zero frequency. /. K Rayleigh* for magnetic combinations. of equal importance. Fand Z in (3) and (4) are reciprocal.. \ } (9) which are useful relations. (7) '.. just as the general and Z of (1) and (2) are reciprocal.. .
. and U denote the electric energy. (Example.. If the combination be magnetic.. If the mean energies........ The two energies are not equal and do not vanish Sometimes......... annihilate the effective inductance (and also permittance). (11) go in general..... (13) f But ^I/C Z is not necessarily positive and S negative... their sum is constant at every simultaneously.U=$UC*=\S'V*....... out. is. however.............. (12) VC = R'~& = K'V\ the bars denoting mean values..... but this is exceptional.. then I/ = = 8'. the differentiated terms . its mean value is given by R T=$I/C* so that t . or heat per second.. It should be noted that do not represent the dissipativity at any moment.. moment. If is ..... It should be noted that the vanishing of the energydifference only refers to the mean value..... and T denote the magnetic energy. because the square of the current fluctuates .. But.. ELECTRICAL PAPERS.. and conversely if the electric energy preponderates....) . By (3) and (4) we have the equations of activity (10) .... is we have T.. there is usually a fluctuation in the resistance. If there be no condensers. and make the effective conductance the reciprocal of the effective resistance... The three expressions in (12) each E' and K' are represent the mean dissipativity.. because the distribution of current varies.... ..... energy we should naturally use the comparison with a condenser but when both energies coexist. which method of representation to adopt is purely a matter of convenience in the special application concerned...... by equalising voltage into the same phase....... I=R'.. (15) the mean magnetic energy preponderates. f C* or K'V^ therefore necessarily positive.... Now....358 4. and it is only by taking mean values that we can have a definite resistance at a given frequency.. electric and magnetic.. leaving if we take the mean values. a coil and a condenser in That J = K' .. but besides that........ of course....... f L is its mean value is is 2 Z7=i'F ... in the general case of both energies being stored.... the effective inductance and the permittance negative .. usually the magnetic energy at any moment...... and if there be no magnetic positive.. which now equals the impedance itself. the mean energies we bring the current and sequence.. .... (14) so that S' positive and U negative....... The dissipativity fluctuates. be equal. the comparison with a coil is obviously most suitable... If the combination be electrostatic. The electric energy at any moment not usually S'V**. (16) R'K'=\.....
to avoid confusion. differentiations to p. so that F&m(fi+'pBi+&*F+. the combination to be magnetic. this. the impulsive inductance of the system. let F be the current at the terminals at time t when varying. let the system be electrostatic. corretimeintegral current.S^RV. being. is charge. (18) a function of the real inductances. is . which may be done by Ohm's law. we may write the electric energy in the form is . The momentum or electromotive impulse [or the voltaic impulse. relating to the 5. in (19) terms of the T^at the terminals.. in fact. Passing now to the second class referred to in 2. For although it is. however. Secondly.. the total current at the terminals. self and mutual. sponding to LQ C. Then. dividing in the system in a manner solely settled by the distribution of conductivity. first. V T=\Ll + MC& + \L\ + Now (17) put every one of these C"s in terms of the C. imagine. taking the current C at the terminals as a r basis. This reduces T to T=$L where C*. producing a steady (7. and of their resistances. the value of the sinusoidal inductance L at zero as it is only true for impulses that the combination frequency. steady resistance. This will be specially useful in the more general case in which both energies are concerned. LQ U=iS^.W where the accents denote indicate that the values when p = are taken. arid in (19) $ is positive. powers of p are therefore constants. if we use the modern "voltage" to signify the old "electromotive force"] at the terminals in the former case is L C. where R is the The true analogue of momentum. Impulsive Inductance and Permittance. quadratic function of the currents in different parts of the system. we may do so as regards the integral effect at the terminals The last is the wellknown produced by the magnetic energy. Although we cannot treat the combination as a coil as regards the way the current varies when the impressed force is put on. and that is steady.RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. in a similar way. (20) and the zero suffixes The coefficients of the + $zi'[t] + (21) . where S is a function of the real permittances and of the resistances. behaves as a coil of inductance Z it is better to signify this fact in the name.$ V. In (18) LQ is positive. 6. yet. in a sense. It is also the sinusoidal Sr at zero frequency. and in the latter case is . Integrating to the time.. $ is the impulsive permittance of the combination. Passing to the general case. Electric 359 General Theorem and Magnetic Energies. effective steady inductance. of the This L may be called the parts of the system. or of and at the terminals. and connecting with the resistanceoperator.
W.. This was first pointed out by Sir W..... 7. "If the currents are purely electromagnetic system is in question...... 93... since the resistanceoperator of the condenser S = F{= Z?Z[ . (26) permittance from the conductanceoperator. and the work done by the electrical forces during the displacement is equal to the increment of the energy of the The energy spent by the batteries is equal to double of either system........ the insertion of a nonconducting condenser of permittance Sl in the main circuit of the current makes Z infinite......... and is spent half in mechanical.. Hence the battery will be drawn upon for a double quantity of energy. i with p = Q . in addition to that which is spent in generating neat in the circuit......... tials are maintained constant.... We (Stf)' should then use (26) instead of (24)... the electrokinetic energy of the system will be at the same time increased by W. they tend to move so that the energy of the system is increased. is done by electromotive force.... be steady ... (27) It may be anticipated from the preceding that these equated quantities express twice the excess of the magnetic over the electric energy. In connexion with this I may quote from Maxwell... (23) and the electric the voltaic impulse employed in setting up the magnetic at the energy of the steady state due to steady V terminals.... and the final value be C. and L Q is infinite. multiply (23) by (7. (25) that we may show finds the impulsive and iS If ^ Fare equivalent expressions for the voltaic impulse.. V ((7RT}Cdt=Z^=(F(CT)dt... especially as the energy is wholly electric in the steady state.. ^C. vol.. so that ZQ is .......360 If ELECTRICAL PAPERS...... (22) the initial current be zero.. ii....... for simplicity.. the current be steady at beginning and at end. from the resistanceoperator...... art......." Although of a somewhat similar nature. the final current. Compare this result with the electrostatic property in art.." The electrostatic property If " their potenreferred to relates to conductors charged by batteries.......... of these quantities... then use Y. Thus L = Z' finds the impulsive inductance ..... half in electrical A work..... giving and. To connect with the energy... Or..... 580. For instance..... LQ C ZQ is There is no final steady current. (24) LQ = (ZZQ )p~' In a similar manner. these properties are not .............. maintained constant by a battery during a displacement in which a quantity of work... or 2/F... let 1 .... ^(Fz and if Q r)dt=z>[ri ...... should be infinite. Thomson.....
. producing the final current C. 361 what is at present required. we obtain where e stands for t. we see that T UWPtLjP  JS F* (30) confirming the generality of our results. electric displacement.(29) comparing which with (27). may be inserted in coils within the combination. That is. there must be a definite resistanceoperator connecting them. and make it a shell of impressed voltage (analogous to a simple magnetic shell).. depending upon 8. The one process is equivalent to allowing elastic yielding. and the three fluxes conduction current. General Theorem of Dependence of Disturbances solely on the Curl of the Impressed Forcive. F the currentdensity the final value. at time F T). (Black letters for vectors. and 2 the spaceintegration to include all the impressed forces. [vol. But a further very remarkable property we do not recognise by regarding only common combinations of coils and condensers. that permitting electric displacement increases the activity of a battery. 1885. and magnetic induction (but with no rotational property allowed. Applying (28) to our present case of one impressed voltage V. the whole work done by the impressed forces during the establishment of the steady state exceeds what would have been done had this state been : instantly established (but then without any electric or magnetic energy) by twice the excess of the electric over the magnetic energy. and the other to putting on a load (not to increasing the resistance. i. If we. select any unclosed surface. whilst permitting magnetisation decreases it. and C be the current potentialdifference through the shell in the direction of the impressed voltage.RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS. (28) an element of impressed force. p. The only effect is to make the resultant resistanceoperator at a given place more complex.. as is sometimes supposed). p. in the complex medium above defined. for example. Solid cores. electric and magnetic. It is scarcely necessary to Z Z V Z * Electrician.) The theorem (28) seems the most explicit and general representation of what has been long recognised in a general way.] .. remark that the properties of and f discussed do not apply merely to combinations consisting of previously coils of fine wire and condensers . thereby producing a between its two faces. 490. . or surface bounded by a closed line. which is contained in the following general theorem given by me* Let any steady impressed electric forces be started and continued in a medium permitting linear relations suddenly between the two forces. April 25. the currents may be free to flow in conducting masses or dielectric masses. even for conduction current) . 464.
362
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
the distribution of conductivity, permittivity, and inductivity through all space, and determinable by a sufficiently exhaustive analysis. The remarkable property is that the resistanceoperator is the same for any For a closed shell of imsurfaces having the same boundingedge. pressed voltage of uniform strength can produce no flux whatever. This is instructively shown by the equation of activity,
...........................
(31)
indicating that the sum of the activities of the impressed forces, or the energy added to the system per second, equals the total dissipativity Q, plus the rate of increase of the stored energies, electric and magnetic, throughout the system. Now here F is circuital; if, therefore, the distribution of e be polar, or e be the vector spacevariation of a singlevalued scalar potential, of which a simple closed shell of impressed force is an example, the left member of (31) vanishes, so that the disStart, sipation, if any, is derived entirely from the stored energy. then, with no electric or magnetic energy in the system ; then the positivity of Q, U, and T ensures that there never can be any, under Hence two shells of impressed the influence of polar impressed force. force of equal uniform strength produce the same fluxes if their edges be the same ; not merely the steady fluxes possible, but the variable
anywhere at corresponding moments after commencing action. The only difference made when one shell is substituted for the other is in the manner of the transfer of energy at the places of impressed force; for we have to remember that the effective force producing a flux, or the "force of the flux," equals the sum of the impressed force and the " force of the field " whereas the transfer of energy is determined by
fluxes
;
the vector product of the two forces of the field, electric and magnetic In (31) no count is taken of energy transferred from one respectively. seat of impressed force to another, reversibly, all such actions being eliminated by the summation. It is well to bear in mind, when considering the consequences of this transferability of impressed force, especially in cases of electrolysis or the Voltaforce, not only that the three physical properties of conductivity, permittivity, and inductivity, though sufficient for the statement of the main facts of electromagnetism, are yet not comprehensive, but also that they have no reference to molecules and molecular actions; for the equations of the electromagnetic field are constructed on the hypothesis of the ultimate homogeneity of matter, or, in another form, only relate to elements of volume large enough to allow us to get rid of the heterogeneity. As the three fluxes are determined solely by the vorticity (to borrow from liquid motion) of the vector impressed force, we cannot know the distribution of the latter from that of the former, but have to find where energy transformations are going on ; for the denial of the law that eF not only measures the activity of an impressed electric force e on the current F, but represents energy received by the electromagnetic system at the very same place, lands us in great difficulties. " cannot find electric force of induction." Again, as regards the
We
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
363
the distribution through space of this vector from the Faradaylaw that its lineintegral in a closed circuit equals the rate of decrease of induction through the circuit. may add to any distribution
We
satisfying this law any polar distribution without altering matters, except that a different potential function arises. In this case we do
not even alter the transfer of energy.
The
electric force of the field is
always definite but when we divide it into two distinct distributions, and call one of them the electric force of induction, and the other the force derived from electric potential, it is then quite an indeterminate
down
problem how to effect the division, unless we choose to make the quite arbitrary assumption that the electric force of induction has nothing of the polar character about it (or has no divergence anywhere), when of course it is the other part that possesses the whole of the divergence. This fact renders a large part of some mathematical work on the electromagnetic field that I have seen redundant, as we may write
the final results at the beginning. In the course of some investigations concerning normal electromagnetic distributions in space I have been forcibly struck with the utter inutility of dividing the electric field into two fields, and by the simplicity that arises by not
doing so, but confining oneself to the actual forces and fluxes, which describe the real state of the medium and have the least amount of Similar remarks apply to Maxwell's vectorartificiality about them. Has it divergence or not ? It does not matter in the potential A. When the electric force least, on account of the auxiliary polar force. itself is made the subject of investigation, the question of divergence of the vectorpotential does not present itself at all. The lines of vorticity, or vortexlines of the vector impressed force, are of the utmost importance, because they are the originating places This is totally at variance with preconceived of all disturbances. notions founded upon the fluid analogy, which is, though so useful in the investigation of steady states, utterly misleading when variable states are in question, owing to the momentum and energy belonging to the magnetic field, not to the electric current. Every solution involving impressed forces consists of waves emanating from the vortexlines of impressed force (electric or magnetic as the case may be, but only the electric are here considered), together with the various reflected waves produced by change of media and other causes. At the first moment of starting an impressed force the only disturbance is at the vortexlines, which are the first lines of magnetic induction.
the Forced
Examples of
Vibrations of Electromagnetic Systems.
Thus a uniform field of impressed force suddenly started over all (a). For, either there are no vortexlines at space can produce no effect. all, or they are at an infinite distance, so that an infinite time must elapse to produce any effect at a finite distance from the origin. and zinc put in contact. Whether the Voltalbrce be at (b). Copper the contact or over the airsurfaces away from and terminating at the contact (if perfectly metallic), the vortexline is the common meeting
364
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
;
place of air, zinc, and copper the first line of magnetic force is there, and from it the disturbance proceeds into the metals and out into the air, which ends in the steady electric field.*
Since the vortexlines or tubes are closed, we need only consider one If it be say, that due to a simple shell of impressed force. wholly within a conductor, the initial wave emanating from it is so rapidly attenuated by the conductivity (the process being akin to repeated internal reflexions, say reflexion of 9 parts and transmission of 1 part, repeated at short intervals) that the transmission to a distance through the conductor (if good) becomes a very slow process, that of diffusion. Consequently, when the impressed force is rapidly alternated, there is no sensible disturbance except at and near the vortexline. But if there be a dielectric outside the conductor, the moment disturbances reach it, and therefore instantly if the vortexline be on the boundary, waves travel through the dielectric at the speed of light unimpeded, and without the attenuating process within the conductor, which therefore becomes exposed to electric force all over its boundary The in a very short time ; hence diffusion inward from the boundary. It would electric telegraph would be impossible without the dielectric. take ages if the wire itself had to be the seat of transfer of energy. In the magnetic theory of the rise of current in a wire we have, (c). at first sight, an exception to the law that at the first moment there But it is no disturbance except at the vortexlines of impressed force. is that theory which is incorrect, in assuming that there is no displacement. This is equivalent to making the speed of propagation through the dielectric infinitely great ; so that we have results mathematically equivalent to distributing the impressed force throughout the whole In circuit, and therefore its vortexlines over the whole boundary.! reality, with finite speed, the disturbances come from the real vortexat present
lines in time.
a limitation of the disturbances to the neighbourhood when they are on the boundary of the conductor, and the periodic frequency is sufficiently great, the impressed force being within the conductor. [The attenuation by resistance is referred to.] But in a nonconducting dielectric this effect does not occur, at least On the contrary, as the frequency is in any case I have examined. raised, there is a tendency to constancy of amplitude of the waves sent out from the edge of a simple sheet of impressed force, or from a shell of vortexlines of the same, in a dielectric. Very remarkable results Thus follow from the coexistence of the primary and reflected waves. an infinitely extended dielectric have a (d). If a spherical portion of uniform field of alternating impressed force within it, and the radius a, the wavefrequency n/2ir, and the speed v be so related that
There
is still
of the vortexlines
:
tan
na
s=
na
.
v
v
8. T.
*"Some Remarks
p. 425].
on the Volta Force," Journal
p.
E.
d;
E., 1885 [vol.
I.,
t The Electrician, June 25, 1886,
129 [vol. n., p. 60],
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
365
There are numerous there is no disturbance outside the sphere. similar cases ; but this is a striking one, because, from the distribution of the impressed force, it looks as if there must be external displacement produced by it. There is not, because the above relation makes the primary wave outward from the surface of the sphere, which is a shell of vorticity, be exactly neutralised by the reflexion, from the centre, of the primary wave inward from the surface. of alternating, the uniform field of impressed force in (e). If, instead (d) be steady, the final steady electric field due to it takes the time at distance r from the centre. The moment (/ + a)/v to be established the primary wave inward reaches the centre, the steady state is set up there; and as the reflected wave travels out, its front marks the boundary between the steady field (final) and a spherical shell of depth 2a, within which is the uncancelled first portion of the primary wave outward from the surface; which carries out to an infinite distance an amount of energy equal to that of the final steady electric field. This is the loss by radiation. (The magnetic energy in this shell equals half the final electric energy on the whole journey ; the electric energy in the shell is greater, but ultimately becomes the In practical cases this energy would be mostly, perhaps wholly same.) dissipated in conductors. (/). If a uniformly distributed impressed force act alternatingly
longitudinally within an infinitely long circular cylindrical portion of a dielectric, the axis is the place of reflexion of the primary wave inward,
and the
reflected
wave
cancels the
outward primary wave when
first.
so that there
is
no external disturbance, except at
Here a = radius
of cylinder.
is a similar result when the vorticity of impressed force (g). There takes the place of impressed force in (/). force act uniformly and longi(h). If the alternating impressed tudinally in a thin conductingtube of radius a, with air within and without, then
destroys the external field and makes the conductioncurrent depend upon the impressed force only. And if we put a barrier at distance x to serve as a perfect reflector, that is, a tube of infinite conductivity,
JQ (nx/v) = Q
tube be the exact negative of the impressed force ; so that there is no conductioncurrent. The electromagnetic field is in stationary vibration. If the inner tube be situated at one of the nodal surfaces of electric force, the vibrations
makes the
electric force of the field in the inner
mount up
(i).
infinitely.
in case (h), the impressed force act circularly about the axis of the inner tube (which may be replaced by a solenoid of small depth),
If,
/1 (wa/v) =
J^nx/v)
destroys the external
field,
and
=
366
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
force,
makes the electric force of the field the negative of the impressed and so destroys the conduction current.
(j). We can also destroy the longitudinal force of the field in a conductor without destroying the external field. Let it be a wire of steady resistance in a dielectric, and the impressed force in it be
e =: e
Q
cos nix cos nt
e be the force of the flux, in the be the conductance of unit length. Ke, if These examples are mostly selected from a paper I am now writing on the subject of electromagnetic waves, which I hope to be permitted to publish in this Journal. If the electric and magnetic energies, and the dissipation of energy, in a given system be bounded in their distribution, it is clear that the But should the field be resistance operator is a rational function of p. boundless, as when conductors are contained in an infinitely extended dielectric, then just as complete solutions in infinite series of normal solutions may become definite integrals by the infinite extension, so may the resistanceoperator become irrational. may also have to modify the meaning of the sinusoidal R' from representing mean resistance only, on account of the neverceasing outward transfer of energy so long as the impressed force continues.
per unit length. wire so that the current
;
Then m = n/v makes
is
K
We
InductionBalances
9.
General, Sinusoidal,
and Impulsive.
Returning to a finite combination represented by V=ZG, there are at least three kinds of inductionbalances possible. First, true balances of similar systems, where we balance one combination against another which either copies it identically or upon a reduced scale, without any reference to the manner of variation of the impressed
force.
a combination, in virtue of peculiar internal relations, reduces to a simpler form representing another combination, equivalent so far The telephone may be employed with are concerned. and as advantage, and is, in fact, the only proper thing to use, especially great for the observation of phenomena. These are also There are, next, the sinusoidalcurrent balances. true, in being independent of the time, so that the telephone may be Here used; but are of course of a very special character otherwise. any combination is made equivalent to a mere coil if L' be positive, or 3 and 4), and so may be balanced by to a condenser if S' be positive ( one or the other. But intermittences of current cannot be safely taken
the
Z of
Along with these we may naturally include
all
cases in
which
V
to represent sinusoidality,
and large errors may
result
from an assumed
it is the impulsive inductance that is balanced against some other impulsive inductance, positive or negative as the case may be; or perhaps the impulsive inductance of a combination is made to vanish, by equating the electric and magnetic The rule that the impulsive energies in it when its state is steady. balance in a Christie arrangement without mutual induction between
equivalence. In the third kind of balances
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
367
the four sides is given by equating to zero the coefficient of p in the expansion of Z^Z^  Z^Z.^ in powers of p, where Zv etc. are the resistance operators of the four sides,* is in agreement with the rule derived from (24) or (25) above, to make the impulsive inductance of one combination vanish. Impulsive, or "kick" balances, naturally Even then, however, the method is sometimes require a galvanometer. unsatisfactory, when the opposing influences which make up the impulse are not sufficiently simultaneous, as has been pointed out by
Lord Rayleigh.f There is also the striking method of cumulation of impulses employed by Ayrton and Perry, J employing false resistancebalances. It seems but, just as a watch is a complex, and of rather difficult theory complex piece of mechanism, and is yet thoroughly practical, so perhaps the secohmmeter may have a brilliant career before it.
;
and permittances have appeared
Several interesting papers relating to the comparison of inductances It is usually impulsive balances lately. that are in question, probably because it is not the observation of phenomena that is required, but a direct, even if rough, measurement of the inductance or permittance concerned, often under circumstances that do not well admit of the use of the telephone. Only one of these papers, however, contains anything really novel, scientifically, viz., that of Mr. W. H. Preece, F.R.S., who concludes, from his latest researches, that the "coefficient of selfinduction" of copper telegraphcircuits is nearly zero, the results he gives being several hundred times smaller than the formula derived from electromagnetic principles asserts it to Here is work for the physicist. be. 10. To equate the expressions for the electric and magnetic energies of a combination is, I find, in simple cases, the easiest and most direct way of furnishing the condition that the impulsive inductance shall 2 2 vanish. Thus, if there be but one condenser and one coil, SF' = LC is the condition, S and L being the permittance and the inductance the voltage of the condenser, and C the current in the respectively, and C will be, of course, dependent upon coil. The relation between But in complex cases, and to obtain the the resistances concerned. value of the impulsive inductance when it is not zero, equation (24) is
F
V

most
useful.
The Resistance Operator of a Telegraph
Circuit.
and Z$ is a complex following illustration of the properties of one, but I choose it because of its comprehensive character, and because it leads to some singular extreme cases, interesting both mathematically
*
p.
The
Z
"On
the Selfinduction of Wires," Part VI., Phil. Mag., Feb. 1887
[vol. n.,
263].
t Electrical Measurements, p. 65. Journ. Soc. Tel. Engineers and Electricians, 1887. B.A. Meeting, 1887: "On the Coefficient of Selfinduction of Iron and Copper Wires." If the condenser shunts the coil, making V=RC, we get the case brought before the S.T.E. & E. by Mr. Sumpner, with developments.

368
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
in the physical interpretation of the apparent anomalies. Let the combination be a telegraphcircuit, say a pair of parallel copper wires, resistance /, permittance S, inductance L, and leakageof length / conductance K, all per unit length, and here to be considered strictly Let the two wires be joined through constants, or independent of p. an arrangement whose resistanceoperator is Z at the distant end B then the resistanceoperator at the beginning A of the circuit is given
; ;
and
by*
z_
1
if
+ Zl /o. 2 + K+ fi/tan mlml m? = (R + Lp)(K+Sp) ....................... (33)
(R + Lp)l{(ta,n ml) /ml]
This makes
.....................
\
Take
Z =Q
1
for the present, or shortcircuit at B.
Z=(E + Lp)l(tenml)lml,
and the steady resistance
at
(34)
A is
therefore
,
.......................... (35)
if
= RK. 77^
find
,
Also, differentiating (34) to p,
T
and then making p = 0,
we
Z{ = L
17 17 Q = $1 tanmJ/ r  RS\ + l sec% ,/, + RS\ ml (L g) ^Z j
_
....... (36)
/QA x
represents the impulsive inductance. in (36) we make the arrangement magnetic, and then If we put $ = L is positive. If we put L = 0, we make it electrostatic, and LQ is negaIt is to be noticed that tive, or S the impulsive permittance, is positive. there is no confusion when both energies are present; that is, there are no terms in Z' containing products of real permittances and inductQ ances, which is clearly a general property of resistanceoperators, otherwise the two energies would not be independent. may make L Q vanish by special relations. Thus, if there be no leakage, or JT=0, (36) is
,
We
L = Ukffl.RSP;
..... ....................
(37)
so that the magnetic must be one third of the electrostatic timeconstant to make the "extracurrent" and the static charge balance. (The length of the circuit required for this result may be roughly stated as about 60 kilometres if it be a single copper wire of 6 ohms per kilometre, 4 metres high, with return through the ground; but it varies considerably, of course.) But if leakage be now added, it will increase the relative importance of the magnetic energy, so that the length of the circuit requires to be This goes on until reaches the increased to produce a balance. value JKS/L, when, as an examination of (36) will show, the length of The same formula also shows the circuit needs to be infinitely great. be still greater, L cannot be made to vanish at all, being then that if
K
K
always positive.
*"On
[vol. TI., p.
the Selfinduction of Wires," 232 ; also p. 247 and p. 105.]
Part IV., Phil.
Mag., Nov., 1886
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
11. Now let the circuit be infinitely long. the irrational form
369
Equation (35) reduces to
.....................
(38)
with ambiguity of sign. Of course the positive sign must be taken. The negative appears to refer to disturbances coming from an infinite distance, which are out of the question in our problem, as there can be no reflexion from an infinite distance. But equation (38) may be obtained directly in a way which is very instructive as regards the structure of resistanceoperators. Since the circuit is infinitely long, Z cannot be altered by cuttingoff from the beginning, or joining on, any Now first add a coil of resistance 7^ and inductance L^ in length. and permittance S19 in sequence, and a condenser of conductance l The effect is to increase Z bridge, at A, the beginning of the circuit.
K
to
Z2
,
where
Z^{K
l
+ SlP + (R + L p + Z)^
l l
,
]
.............. (39)
or the new conductanceoperator, i.e., the reciprocal of the new Z2 equals the sum of the conductanceoperators of the two branches in parallel, one the conducting condenser, the other the coil and circuit in sequence. (39) gives the quadratic
S1 p)^ ............ (40)
Now choose RV L V KV S
make
the former
in exact proportion to fi,L,K, and S, and then lt The result is that we have added set infinitely small.
2
to the original circuit a small piece of the same type, so that are identical, and that the coefficient of the first power of
Z and Z ^ in (40)
2
vanishes.
Therefore (40) becomes
This fully serves to find the sinusoidal solution.
find
Differentiating
it,
we
circuit is infinitely long of when
corroborating the previous result as to the vanishing of L Q when the by equality of RS and KL, and the positivity
L
KL>RS.
The
1 2.
Distortionless Telegraph Circuit.
Now,
in the singular case of
R/L = K/S, we
have,
by
(41)
and
(42),
Z=Lv,
if v
Z = 0,
...........................
(43)
the speed of transmission of disturbances along the circuit. The resistanceoperator has reduced to an absolute constant, and the current and transverse voltage are in the same phase, altogether independent of the frequency of waveperiod, or indeed of the manner of variation. The quantity Lv, or L x 30 ohms, approximately, if the dielectric be air, is strictly, and without any reservation, the impedance of the circuit at A, but it is only exceptionally the resistance,
IJ.E.P.
= (LS)*,
VOL.
ii.
2
A
370
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
t
Make Vf(t)
and Cx are the transverse voltage and the current at time t, we shall have
at A, an arbitrary function of the time ; then, if at distance x from
V A
x
are transmitted undistorted along or all disturbances originating at the circuit at the speed v, attenuating at a rate indicated by the exponential function. (I have elsewhere* full} developed the properties of this distortionless circuit, and only mention such as are necessary to understand the peculiarities connected with the present subjectmatter.) The electric and magnetic energies are always equal, not only on the whole, but in any part of the circuit ; this accounts for the disappearance of LQ and the bringing of x and Cx to the same phase, as we But in the present case Z^ or Lv, or E', for should expect from 4. they are all equal, is only the resistance when the steady state due to is arrived at at the steady (asymptotically), or the effective resistance at a given frequency when Fis sinusoidal, and sufficient time has elapsed to have allowed x and Cx to become sinusoidal to such a that we can neglect the remainder of the circuit into distance from which greatly attenuated disturbances are still being transmitted. 13. Now, since the impedance is unaltered by joining on at any length of circuit of the same type, and is a constant, it follows that the of a distortionless circuit as above described, but of impedance at = l, with a resistance of amount Lv finite length, stopping at B, where x inserted at B, is also a constant, viz. the same Lv. To corroborate, take and Z^ = Lv in the full formula (32). The result is Z = Lv. RS = are The interpretation in this case is that all disturbances sent from absorbed completely by the resistance at B immediately on arrival, The so that the finite circuit behaves as if it were infinitely long. at is arrived at in the time l/v. permanent state due to a steady The impedance and the resistance then become identical. = Q, 14. If, in the case of 12, we further specialize by taking K=Q, producing a perfectly insulated circuit of no resistance, the impedance is, as before, Lv but no part of it is resistance, or ever can and C. However long we be, in spite of the identity of phase of may keep on a steady Fat A, we keep the impressed force working at the same rate, the energy being entirely employed in increasing the electric and magnetic energies at the front of the wave, which is unattenuated, and cannot return. But if we cut the circuit at B, at a finite distance /, and there insert a resistance Lv, the effect is that, as soon as the front of the wave reaches B, the inserted resistance immediately becomes the resistance of the whole combination ; or the impedance instantly becomes the resistance, without change of value. 15. As a last example of singularity, substitute a shortcircuit for the Since there is now no resistance terminal resistance Lv just mentioned. in any part of the system, if we make the state sinusoidal everywhere,
,
Fx =f(txlv)ew, A
Cx =Fx/Lv,
(44)
V
V
A
V
A
A
A
KL
A
V
A
R
V
*
"Electromagnetic Induction and
ii.,
its
Propagation," Sections XL. to
L., Electri
cian, 1887 [vol.
pp. 119 to 155].
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
371
f sinusoidal at A, musfc vanish, or and C be in perpendicular by now phases, due to the infinite series of toandfro reflexions. have, by (32),
V
R
V
We
Z' =
if
L^^
ph/v
f
= Dp^*M,
nl/v
(45)
paragraphs, used the term impedance in a wider sense than in 3, where it is the ratio of the amplitude of the impressed force to the amplitude of the flux produced at the place of impressed force when sufficient time has elapsed to allow the sinusoidal state to be reached, when that is possible. The justification for the extension of meaning is that, since in the distortionless circuit of infinite length, or of finite length with a terminal resistance to take the place of the infinite extension, we have nothing to do with the periodic frequency, or with waiting to allow a special state to be established, it is quite superfluous to adhere to the definition of the last sentence ; and we may enlarge it by saying that the impedance of a combination is simply the ratio of the force to the flux, when it happens to be a constant, which is very exceptional indeed. I may add that R, L, K, and S need not be constants, as in the above, to produce the propagation of waves without tailing. All that is required is R/L = K/S, and Li) = constant ; so that R and L may be functions of x. The speed of the current, and the rate of attenuation, now vary from one part of the circuit to another.
when fully charged. The impedance of the circuit to the impressed force at is Lv for the time 2l/v after starting it; then \Lo for a second period 21/v ; then \Lv for a third period, and so on. It will have been observed that I have, in the last four
on the other hand, V be steady at A, the current increases without limit, every reflexion increasing it by the amount VjLv at A or at B (according to which end the reflexion takes place at), which increase then extends itself to B or A at speed v. The magnetic energy mounts up infinitely. On the other hand, the electric energy does not, fluctuwhen the circuit is uncharged, and %SIF2 ating perpetually between
If,
= frequency, and R n/2ir
has disappeared.
A
The Use of
16.
the ResistanceOperator in
Normal
Solutions.
In conclusion, consider the application of the resistanceoperator If we leave a combination to itself without to normal solutions.
impressed force, it will subside to equilibrium (when there is resistance) in a manner determined by the normal distributions of electric and magnetic force, or of charges of condensers and currents in coils ; a normal system being, in the most extended sense, a system that, in subsiding, remains similar to itself, the subsidence being represented x by the timefactor e where p is a root of the equation Z=0. It is true that each part of the combination will usually have a distinct but the resistanceoperators of all parts involve, resistanceoperator and are contained in, the same characteristic function, which is merely the Z of any part cleared of fractions. It is sometimes useful to remember that we should clear of fractions, for the omission to do so
,
;
372
ELECTRICAL PAPERS.
lead to the neglect of a whole series of roots ; but such cases are exceptional and may be foreseen; whilst the employment of a resistanceoperator rather than the characteristic function is of far greater general utility, both for ease of manipulation and for physical
may
interpretation.
Given a combination containing energy and left to itself, it is upon the distribution of the energy that the manner of subsidence depends, or upon the distribution of the electric and magnetic forces in those parts of the system where the permittivity and the inductivity are finite, or Thus conductors, are reckoned finite for the purpose of calculation.
if
they be not also dielectrics, have only to be considered as regards the magnetic force, whilst in a dielectric we must consider both the electric and the magnetic force. (The failure of Maxwell's general equations of propagation arises from the impossibility of expressing the electric " energy in terms of his potential function. The variables should always be capable of expressing the energy.) Now the internal connexions of a system determine what ratios the variables chosen should bear to one another in passing from place to place in order that the resultant system should be normal; and a constant multiplier will fix the size of the normal system. Thus, supposing u and w are the normal functions of
variables, the state of the
voltage and current, which are in most problems the most practical whole system at time t will be represented by
..................
(46)
being the real voltage at a place where the corresponding normal voltage is u, and C the real current where the normal current is w, the summation extending over all the ^>roots of the characteristic equation. The size of the systems, settled by the A's (one for each p) are to be found by the conjugate property of the vanishing of the mutual energydifference of any pair of ^systems, applied to the initial distributions
of
V
Fand
C.
17.
To
find the effect of impressed force
is
a frequently recurring
is
problem in practical applications; and here the resistanceoperator
Thus, specially useful, giving a general solution of great simplicity. suppose we insert a steady impressed force e at a place where the = ZC thereafter. Find C in terms resistanceoperator is Z, producing e of e and Z. The following demonstration appears quite comprehensive.
Convert the problem into a case of subsidence condenser of permittance S, and initial charge
force.
first,
by substituting a
By making S
infinite later
we
Se, for the impressed arrive at the effect of the steady e.
In getting the subsidence solution we have only to deal with the energy of the condenser, so that a knowledge of the internal connexions of the
system
is quite superfluous. l that of the resistanceoperator of the condenser being (Sp)~ when we use the condenser, is lt where combination,
The
,
Z
Z = (Sp)^ + Z.
1
........................... (47)
the voltage and the current respectively, at time t after insertion of the condenser, and due entirely to its initial charge.
Let
V and C be
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTANCE OPERATORS.
Equations (46) above express them, proper at the condenser, given by
if
373
u and
w
have the special ratio
w=
we have
e
Spu,
So,
................................. (48)
its
because the current equals the rate of decrease of
= 2Au and 2,Aw = Q.
we have
charge.
Initially,
making use of the conjugate
.......................... (49)
property,*
if
Seu=2(Up Tp )A,
Up be the electric and Tp the magnetic energy in the normal system. But the following property of the resistanceoperator is also true,*
2(r,0,) =
that
is,
;
........................... (50)
where the resistanceoperator
dZJdp
place.
the impulsive inductance in the p system at a place is Zlt p being a root of Z = Q; just as l with p = is the impulsive inductance (complete) at the same Using (50) in (49) gives
dZJdp
is
(5!)
Now
use (48) in (51) and insert the resulting
results
A
in the second of (46),
and there
owhere the accent means
subsidence solution.
l
;
.......................... ...... < 52 >
differentiation to p.
This
is
Now increase S infinitely, keeping e Z ultimately becomes Z but, in doing so, one root of Z = zero. We have, by (47), and remembering that Z = 0,
l l
f
'
the complete constant
becomes
pZ{= (Sp)i+pZ' = Z+pZ ..................... (53) = Q, we have pZ{=pZ for all roots except the so, when $=oo and Z one just mentioned, in which case p tends to zero and Z is finite, making in the limit pZ{ = Z^ by (53), where ZQ is the^? = value of Z,
)
r
f
or the steady resistance.
Therefore, finally,
where the summation extends over the roots of Z=0, shows the manner of establishment of the current by the impressed force e. The
use of this equation (54), even in comparatively elementary problems, leads to a considerable saving of labour, whilst in cases involving partial To extend it to show the rise differential equations it is invaluable.! of the current at any other part of the system than where the impressed
*
"On
the Selfinduction of Wires," Phil. Mag., Oct. 1886 [vol. n., pp. 202
to 206].
" On the Self Induction of t In Part III. of Wires," I employed the Condenser Method, with application to a special kind of combination but, as we have seen from the above proof, (54) is true for any electrostatic and electromagnetic com;
bination provided
it
be
finite.
(54) t gives parallel. Or. and the vanishing of is then accompanied by Z=0 Z vanishing of the corresponding normal functions.374 force ELECTRICAL PAPERS. vol. Q multiply (54) by e and take the complete timeintegral. Arts. There are never any oscillatory 1 results in either case. positivity of When Z is irrational.* When both energies are present. to prevent the oscillations which seem on the verge of occurring by the repetition of a root which Z' = Q implies. p /j (56) remembering (29). To express the impulsive inductance Z' in terms of the normal ^s. as also the case in magnetic problems. In the case of (41). When the initial current is zero. to Routh's Theorem. and modifying the external Q to suit the new place. (57) is In electrostatic problems the roots of are real and negative. using (26). and of Q the dissipativity.f however. the real parts of the imaginary roots are always compelled to be negative by the T. 343c and after. "Stability of Motion. the application is not obvious. relating [See p."] . it is probable that the complete solution corresponding to (54) might be immediately derived from Z. i. increased. Or. as happens when there is selfinduction without permittance at the place of e and in other cases. although there is no difficulty in passing from the (54) solution to the corresponding definite integrals which arise when the length of the circuit is infinitely 7". XLIII. it is necessary to know the connections. connecting the. the resistance of showing that the normal systems may be imagined to be arranged in f any one being ( pZ ). "* t [Done in "El. given in his Adam's Prize Essay. inserting this ratio in the summation." 1888. xy y. later. Also Thomson and Tait.] . We obtain J Uc}dt = 2(UT)= \ ZJQ/ . Part I. so that we may know the ratio of the current in a normal system at the new place to that at the old. Waves. 18. and XLIV. is. 529. impressed force at any place x with the current at another place y. use the more general resistanceoperator Zxy such that ex = Z C Z . furnishes the complete solution there. Mag.
(3) These currents are also directly connected with the corresponding forces through r = C + D..] [Phil. p. p. not counting impressed .) The transfer of energy W per unit area expressed by a vector product. October.h) = 47TF. thus. electric and magnetic. March. 3. 1888. 130. all space. I start with a short summary of Maxwell's scheme. electric displacement D. all per unit volume.. and after [Art.. Jan. the natural companion to (2). ESPECIALLY IN RELATION TO THE VORTICITY OF THE IMPRESSED FORCES AND THE FORCED VIBRATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEMS. 1888. Part VL. May. the magnetic energy T7. thus B = /zH. curl (H . (5) The most important feature of expressing that B has no divergence. November. but are infinitely too useful to be ignored. 188o. I. PART Summary 1 . T=JHB/47r. so far as its essentials are concerned. viz. p. divB = 0.. 429]. p. 379 December. and magnetic induction B . and the dissipativity Q. Parti. W = V(Ee)(Hh)/47r. as a fundamental equation. Part II. energyrelations are not necessary.. xxx. XLIIL PART I. 1885. The electric energy 7. of Electromagnetic Connections. 375 ON ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. connected linearly with the three fluxes. Part IV. February. proportional to the curl or vorticity of the other force. G = B/47r (4) An auxiliary equation to exclude unipolar magnets. are given by The derived Z7=iED. p. D = (c/47r)E and magnetic. and h are the impressed parts of E and H. indistinctness. . is (J = EC (6. E and H. conductioncurrent C. p. Part III. * either E or its Propagation. Part V. . 202.. each (1) where e curl(eE) = 47rG.. 488.* To avoid Two forces. of which is currents. i. vol. T and G. Mag. (8) W disappears by integration over The equations of propagation are obtained by eliminating See the opening sections of " Electromagnetic Induction and Electrician.. (2) electric Two C = &E. (7) volume is and the equation of from which activity per unit er + hG = +?7+r+divW. in the form given by me in January. this scheme is the equation (3).ON ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES. 360. p. 434." .
Hence we may suppose that e is parallel to the We Then E... is plane. z components.. its tensor by E. 1885 [Art. vector methods will not be used.. because the extensive use of vectors in mathematical physics is bound to come (the sooner the better). p... the complete solutions due to the impressed force are then E EiwH i/(**/i>) z is . II....SEC) it is the obvious quaternionic practical extension of EC. Dielectric... as they should be. xxxi. H between (2) and (3).. Let e =f(t) ..." 8. by EI} E%... (9) on the right side of the plane... and the magnetic force. Ey The perpetually occurring scalar product of two vectors requires no The prefix V of a vector product should be a special symbol.. of intensity H. XLII. which is therefore * Phil.. as the sources of electromagnetic disturbances..z.. from inability to distinguish one from another in certain cases without looking very hard. n. June. vol. 487 [Art. f Plane Sheets of Impressed Force in a Nonconducting 2. The matter is not an insignificant one. I denote a vector by (say) E. 363]. vol. p. Let an infinitely extended nonconducting dielectric be divided into two regions by an infinitely extended plane . parallel to x....Surf ace... as solutions relating to h are quite similar. . being special investigations. or that of uniform intensity e. The result is a thoroughly practical working system. it will still be convenient occasionally to use the black letters when referring to the actual forces or fluxes... The German or Gothic letters employed by Maxwell I could never tolerate.. Mag. though they may be added on)... Dec. say F... the force of the flux.. and allows us to work without change of notation... i. Although. If it be perpendicular to the boundary.e.. Mag. and to refer to the above equations. where z is deduct the impressed force from E to obtain the force of the field. of intensity say. say the left. and of course take different forms according to the geometrical coordinates selected... is a field of e of (x. when wanted. Those examples were mostly selected from the extended developments which follow. 1] I have given a short introduction to the Algebra of vectors (not quaternions) in a practical manner. y. being entities of widely different nature from scalars.. it produces no flux. . and its x. but varying with the time. is parallel to y. what EC reduces to when E and C are parallel. y). p. on one side of which.. t In the early part of my paper " On the Electromagnetic Wave. where + and E = nvH= $f(t + z/v) . (10) In the latter case we must on the left side of the plane.. and my method furnishes a way of bringing them in without any study of Quaternions (which are scarcely wanted in Electromagnetism.. As regards the notation EC for the scalar product of E and C (instead of the . . without metaphysics. and choose it parallel to x. Only the tangential component can be operative.. In a recent paper I gave some examples* illustrating the extreme importance of the lines of vorticity of the impressed forces." Phil. especially when the vectors are in special type.... " On Resistance and Conductance Operators. prefix.376 ELECTRICAL PAPERS. the product of the tensors.. need only refer to impressed electric force e.. 1887.. involving special coordinates.
.. that e vanishes ~s^ both ways.... after the initial waves have gone force.... ef(z t t\ viz. there are now two sources of disturbances. we shall have H H Why .. 3.... Since the