Types of Type

Sam Wallbank

Types of Type





Type in editorial

Dieter Rams



Main Studio





10-1 1






Editorial manifesto


Bureau Bruneau

Colophon / Eric Hu

Type Production

Karen Sheng

Erik Spiekermann

Creative block solutions



20-2 1






Grilli Type

Hey Days


Type application


Rosario Florio

Salut Public

Studio Makgill








70-7 1

Type application manifesto

Words of wisdom

Hunt Studio


Studio Newwork











Sam Wallbank

This book is not a how to (guide) it is more of a collection of what I find interesting. Quotes and extracts have been taken from a variety of sources that help understand more about typography. Current studios, designers and type foundaries have been included to showcase some of the work that is relevent to the featured articles.



Type in Editorial

Ten Princples of ‘Good Design’ from Dieter Rams

Barnbrook on Typography

Editorial Manifesto of 6



Ten Princples of ‘Good Design’ from Dieter Rams

After studying architecture at the Werkkunstschule Wiesbaden, the highly awarded and respected Dieter Rams landed a job at the architectural firm of Otto Apel (1953). Two years later, he left the firm and joined the product company Braun, where he created a legacy. Within the 40 years of working at Braun, Rams produced and oversaw over 500 innovative products as chief of design. Many of his designs are featured in museums throughout the world.

Good Design Is Innovative Good Design Makes a Product Useful Good Design Is Aesthetic : Good Design Makes A Product Understandable Good Design Is Unobtrusive Good Design Is Honest Good Design Is Long-lasting Good Design Is Thorough Down to the Last Detail Good Design Is Environmentally Friendly Good Design Is as Little Design as Possible


1 1

Barnbrook on Typography

Why is typography important? It is one of the basic building blocks of design. You can’t be a good graphic designer without a thorough knowledge of typography. So those students reading this who say they find typography boring should look at changing their career. What makes a good typographer? Absolutely it is about attention to detail first, that is what separates good typographers and designers from the average ones. It’s how you can aid proper comprehension of information, not how pretty you can make something look. Its very easy to see if someone is a good typographer because when they send you their portfolio they will have cared about how they have set their contact details and crafted the captions. You will be surprised about the amount of students who don’t even know how to use basic punctuation, which is essential if you are a typographer. What is the future of typography? Well it is difficult to know where to stop when I think of the future, when people ask me this question because it is so open ended. Do people mean ten years? A thousand years?, A million? Therew is a conflict now between asserting national identity and communicating clearly internationally. As it becomes easier to create typefaces electronically, will cultures that have lost their written language now rediscover them? Will English still be the ‘international language’ or do we need a new international language based on Chinese? In the longer term, will we evolve into a new way of writing that can be sent quickly electronically? Technology has always affected the future of language from ancient wax tablets to the computer screen. Will choosing typefaces become almost superfluous because the same information has to be displayed on so many different technologies?

Will another alphabet have the same number of characters in a thousand years time? Will people still use typefaces if they don’t use reading as a primary form of communication? Just to namedrop, I once asked William Burroughs to write a piece of text for a project I was doing at college. He never wrote the text but he was kind enough to invite me to meet him at a private view of his artworks and we had an interesting discussion about the future of typography. I asked him bout his feelings about typography and he said that he wasn’t interested in it because all words and representations of concepts, would be replaced by a system similar to Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs that would be understood worldwide. Something which would naturally develop from the system of pictograms in airports or people’s experiencing and interacting international spaces. How does a student learn to be a good typographer? It’s a case of first being interested in the subject and wanting to find out about it. The principles of good typography have not changed since the beginning of printing and are universal across languages. They are to do with aiding legibility such correct work count, line length and understanding hierarchy of information. Its not difficult to find the information, then only by actually doing it you will you know what is good and bad. So I would say learn the rules of good basic text setting, then start with the experimental work after you have done this. It sounds silly I know – yes you must have passion and a desire to change things – but you also must have knowledge of the rules to rebel against. Almost as important is a critical awareness, knowledge of where you are placed within your discipline and history. If you learn these three things they will provide at least the parameters with which to understand the complexities of typography and produce work which can be innovative.

Editorial Manifesto of 6

Paul Willoughby ‘Blurrint vision you see type and images as abstract forms and shapes and balance weights and compositions without overanalysising content. When considering how a graphic is held within the page, it narrows your view of positive and negative space.’ Andrew Losowsky ‘There are two ways of viewing type: as striking visual elements that can completely change the attitude of the reder towards the printed page; or as mere background, that most readers aside from typographic geeks barely even notice. Both are equally true.’ Laura Meseguer ‘Typography plays a major role, whis is that communicating and it does it by titles, paragraphs, columns and is based on how these are intergrated with the other elements of the magazine thus defining the style (sober and functional, fun and flashy, ect.). Typeface is used on three basic levels (arranged in columns, paragraphs around images or on pages); headlines (words or phrases); or in small sections (such as subtitles or captions) or even others that are more discreet (page number, section titles).’ Ludovi Balland ‘In my projects, typography is always one of the most important issues. What is more exciting than choosing your outfit before going out? Typography is the outfit of the text.’ Emiliano L.Suarez ‘If you’re working on editorial or print projects, print it out to preview your design. Dont work only on screen especially if you’re combining small and display size fonts as you can get confused- make sure you’re not zooming in at 6400% to read your smallest font size’

Luise Mendo Often in my teachings I use the metaphor that magazines are old radio shows. You probably know these: a story being tolf on the radio with many different characters coming in and out of the rooms, expressing their personalities only through voice differences, accents, maybe in the way they pronounce the letter ‘R’. Not only single image to illustrate them; the only information we are provided with to make sense of what is happening and how people react comes in the form of sound: the different voices, the special effects, the changes of rythm, the dialogues. This is exactly how type works. You have words, combinations of letters that create ideas, interpreted by the reader. But the type treatment helps us understand - before you read one word - what is important, what is not, if it is a story about politics or light gossip article, comunicated all this by type. In other words, you could “read” a magazine in a language you totally don’t know just by looking at the type treatment: size, the chosen typeface, the colour, underlining decoration all these things are sounds of a radio show, tell us who’s the good guy, who’s the bad guy and who’s the girl in the story. Thank god for type. In an era when we are literally immersed in messages, the personality, size, font and treatment of type can tell you much more than words alone can. That makes art director behind a magazine such an influential figue with the power to say things, to make the reader read something or neglect it.

Typo Mag 14

Turning Pages


Studio Profiles


Bureau Bruneau


Eric Hu

Grilli Type

Hey Days





Tim Beard / Jon Jeffrey / Mason Wells




Le Corbusier

Dieter Rams: Ten Principles

Biblioteque are one of the foremost young uk design groups. Formed by the trio of designers Jon Jeefrey, Mason Wells and Tim Beard.


Olt Aicher 18


Bureau Bruneau

Ludvig Bruneau

Oslo/ Norway

After graduating from the Graphic Design department at Westerdals School of Communication in 2010 he undertook an internship at Sagmeuster Inc. in New York I mainly work with printed matter ranging from visual identities to editorial design and packaging. The ideas behind my projects varies from technical to emotional concepts.

Lava Film AS

Lava Film AS

Cesium 137

Lava Film AS

Cesium 137


2 1


Eric Hu

Anthony Sheret / Edd Harrington
Apercu Specimen


Eric Hu

New York/ USA

Colophon is an independent type foundry set up by Brighton based design studio, The Entente. As well as distributing and acting as a platform for fonts designed by The Entente, it selects fonts designed by other designers to distribute and create products for. Some of the typefaces released by colophon are limited edition ranging from 50-500.
From Apercu to Untitled

Eric works through a range of medias focussing on typography identity and publication design.

Panoramic Landscape Panoramic Landscape

Apercu Specimen


From Apercu to Untitled

The Lagoon is Gone



Grilli Type

Noël Leu / Thierry Blancpain



Visuelle Dialogue

Gilli strive to produce high-quality, interesting typeface in a tradional Swiss way. They have a range of display and text typefaces, based on historical sources with and experimental background.

Visuelle Dialogue

Visuelle Dialogue 24


Hey Days

Mathias Haddal Hovet / Lars Kjelsnes / Martin Sanne Kristiansen / Thomas Lein / Stein Henrik Haugen



Heydays work across a variety of media and fields ranging from identity design to art directing. Working in the fields of publications, magazines, campaign marketing, web, packaging and motion graphics.

Heydays Stationary

Berg & Berg

Heydays identity

Berg & Berg

Heyday Business cards

Berg & Berg 26



Eikes Grafischer



Bauhaus Dessau

HORT began its inhabitance back in 1994, under the previous stage name of Eikes Grafischer Hort. A direct translation of the studio’s mission. A creative playground. A place where ‘work and play’ can be said in the same sentence. An unconventional working environment. Once a household name in the music industry. Now, a multidisciplinary creative hub. Not just a studio space, but an institution devoted to making ideas come to life. A place to learn, a place to grow, and a place that is still growing. Not a client execution tool.

Calle Underground

Bauhaus Dessau

Zoom Lebron IX

Bauhaus Dessau

Kiefler Woche 28




Type Application

Type application manifesto of

Words of wisdom



Type application manifesto of 3

Angus Hyland ‘The Alphabet is a system of visual symbols used to denote language.’ ‘If language is phonetic, writing was orignally simply a means of recording it or conveying it to people out of earshot.’ Sagmeister The message is always very clear and straightforward, the typography much more ambiguous and open for interpretation. I found that by utilizing an open typographic approach combined with the clear message many viewers have an easier time relating their own experience. Joanne Meister The transformation of the canvas should be active and engaging, but not so extreme that it ever sacrifices clarity. WWhen approaching a project, the final medium of the production must be considered. While the designer of production must be considered. While the desinger of the past has to asses the textural aspects of the paper for letterpress, the designer of today faces new or different variables. Today’s solutions must embrace the ever changing technical and potentials and constraints in, lithography, digital print, interactive media. The final production plays a key role in the typographer’s early decision-making: both the limitations and the possibilities affect the range of choices. For exampe, a typographer must choose a typeface in agreement with te final medium. A simple choice between uncoated or coated paper stock must be choreographed with the characteristics of the chosen typeface. Different paper stocks portray a different essence of the same typefaceby the way the letterfors are absorbed or reflected by paper’s properties. To be in control of his craft the designer should be fully educated about which visual eleementss are optimal in each circumstance. If no, he will strain to reach his ultimate goal of uniting form and function. to deliver his message.
Symbol Codex journal of typography



“function then form.”

“When the designer creates unity between form and function he has masterd design.”

“letters are not pictures but signs for sound.”
Eric Gill

Joanne Meister



Studio Profiles

Hunt Studio



Main Studio





Hunt Studio


Hunt Studio is a Melbourne-based boutique design consultancy that specialises in considered and bespoke design outcomes across all mediums and formats. Working with a wide range of clients across all disciplines, they pride themselves on our their attention to detail, and the unique process they bring to each one of there projects.

Process Journal 6

Process Journal 6

Process Journal 4

Process Journal 4.5

Process Journal 6 40



Valerio Di Lucente / Erwan Lhuissier / Hugo Timm



Volt Magazine

Julia is Valerio Di Lucente (Italy), Erwan Lhuissier (France) and Hugo Timm (Brazil). We met at the Royal College of Art in London, founding the studio in 2008 upon our graduation. We work on books, typefaces, exhibition design, posters, websites, identities and tablet applic tions. Our practice is complemented by teaching in the UK and abroad.

Variability Exhibition

Volt Magazine

Premio Typeface: 42



Cornel Windel / Stephan Muller



LL Brown Typeface

Lineto started out by Cornel Windlin and Stephan Müller in 1993, five years later they jointly set up Lineto.com to distribute their own typefaces on the web. They have invited a number of their fellow designers to publish their own fonts alongside. Lineto has grown into a reputable library of original typefaces. As of 2007 Jürg Lehni has officially joined forces as a third associate.

Replica Specimen

Simple Specimen 44

Akkurat Specimen


Main Studio

Edwin Van Gelder

Amsterdam / Netherlands


Mainstudio’s projects include editorial design, books and visual identities for clients within architecture, art and fashion. His design approach is creating a clear concept, while always playing with the context of the information.
Les Canaux De La Mode

Stills- Wiel Arets

A wonderful World

Stills- Wiel Arets

Mark magazine 46



Timo Gaessner / Alexander Meyer

Berlin / Zurich


Chapeau Specimen

Lacrima Specimen

MilieuGrotesque reflects Timo and Alexander’s interest and involvement with all things typographically related to work and thought.They also provide comprehensive typographical consulting, exclusive typefaces, bespoke designs and custom font solutions tailored to particular requirements, such as stylistic refinements, unique logotypes, language extensions as well as technical adaptations for any conceivable medium.

Chapeau Specimen

Generika Specimen

Generika Specimen

Generika Specimen




Oliver Knight / Rory Mc Grath

London / UK


The studio has a project specific approach allowing for a highly varied output that encompasses visual identity, publication design, art direction, editorial and digital projects. The studio’s methodology is built on an objective to communicate the intrinsic attributes of each commission through well-crafted, thoughtful and direct solutions. A grounding in conceptual thinking and a distinctive language based typographic approach is essential to the studio’s practice.


Gabriel Kuri



Free to Air

In other words 50




Type Production

Karen Cheng

Erik Spiekermann

Getting over creative block



Karen Cheng on the process of type design

There is no single, ‘correct’ process for creating a typeface. The methodologies of individual designers are as unique and varied as the designers themselves. In some ways, the most difficult part of the design process is finding the initial inspiration to make a font. The vast number of existing typeface (last estimate at 50-60,000 in 1996) can be intimidating, especially for the novice designer. Still, the ongoing proliferation of type shows no sign of abatement; if anything, the complexity of the modern world encourages continued growth. Many of the new fonts issued today are commissioned by clients for specialised audiences. For example fonts have been customized to appeal to readers of every possible demographic: conservatives, liberals, children, teens, the elderly, sports fans, fashion followers, enviromental activists and technological enthusiasts, to name a few. In some cases, the inspiration behind a new font is purely visual. A typeface is the formal manifestation of the authors voice. Type adds subtle but important nuance to textual communication. The right typeface, in combination with layout and typography, results in documents that are precisely tailored, aesthetically and conceptually, to a single purpose. Regardless of the motivation behind the design, once and initial idea has germinated, the next logical step os tp define specific typographic parameters. Moster designers begin by sketching a few key letters that set the proportions and personability of a font. (These letters vary from face to face, but generally, the lower case a, e, g, n and o are good starting points.) Once the selected letters have been roughly outlined, a word or series of words can be

tested . One frequently selected term is ‘hamburgefontsiv’ since it includes many of the most commonly occuring lower case letters. Alternatively, asentance or simplWe text passage can be an effective test. The first sketches can be created manually or digitally. Digial programs include both vector drawing applications (such as adobe Illustrator) as well as specialist font design software (such as FontLab, Fontographer or DTL Font Master.) Generally speaking, novice designers are off drawing type characters by hand. Organic curves (such as those on the s, a and g, for example) are difficult to render with points and line segments; the hand and eye are usually more graceful and more accurate in a physicalenvironmentwith a fixed scale. Additionally, free sketching encourages creativity in the early stages of design. Once the basic design idea for a font has been determined, the full set of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, symbols and diacritics) must be fleshed out. Analogue drawing must be scanned and traced to create digital character outlines. After all digital outlines are refined, characters must be imported into specialist software this is to complete the final stages of production; spacing, kerning and hinting. The initial spacing of a font is set by determining the left and right side bearings of each character (the side bearing is the distance between the letterform and the sides of an imaginery bounding box. Setting the sidebearings would be simple if all the characters had the same width (as in monospaced typewriter font) or the same basic profile (for example, diagonal, round, square). However, most fonts contain letters, numbers, symbols and

punctuation with vastly different widths and shapes. Therefore, each character requires customized sidebearings that are appropriate to their unique form, width and density. Unfortunately , even spacing cannot be accomplished solely through the setting of letter sidebearings. Characters with open diagonal sides the A, J, L, P, T, V, W, Y, 4, 7, f, j, r, t, v, w and y) cause problems, since their structures must extend into the space of adjacent letters to prevent unsightly gaps. The process of finding and adjusting these awkward letter pairs is called kerning. Both spacing and kerning can be set automatically in the previous discussed font design softwares. The default values generated, however, should be used as an inital guide rather than the final result. Spacing is an arduouse process that requires substantial testing and fine-tuning. The overall set of a typeface should be optically even so that text blocks uniform shade of grey. Additionally, the se of type should be ‘normal’ - nether too tight nor to loose. Tight setting impair legibility, since they create confusing letter combinations ‘rn’.

Extracts taken from DesigningType

There i s no right or wrong way of creating a typeface, each designer is different and has his or her own way of working. It gives a good insight into what is generally considered when working and designing with type.


Erik Spiekermann

Throughout his illustrious career as a designer and typographer, Erik Spiekermann has created dozens of commercial typefaces (FF Meta, FF MetaSerif, ITC Officina, FF Govan, FF Info, FF Unit, LoType, Berliner Grotesk) and many custom typefaces for world-renowned corporations.

What do you think of Apple and their approach to design in general? How does their industrial and web design compare to typeface design? I bought my first Mac in 1985 and have probably bought every single computer they ever made at one time. I also have a large collection of equipment by BRAUN, most of it designed by Dieter Rams. If you look at the stuff from the 60s now, you see where Apple (i.e. Jon Ives) get their direction. They have learnt to bring objects down to the essentials without making them look boring and purely functional. They know that aesthetics play a big role in function because we do not like to use anything that is ugly. Function also follows form. Perhaps that is the common denominator for my typefaces: I have always designed my faces for a specific purpose, but they always have to look pleasing, whatever purpose they serve. Can you briefly describe what the current process is like for you to create a new typeface and where do you get your inspiration from? The question about inspiration is tedious because I work like everybody else. Everything can be inspirational, there is no method or proper process. Like any design process, I look at the brief, take it apart, look at comparable briefs, make analog sketches, discuss with colleagues and the client and then carry on condensing the sketches, at some point digitally. What are the challenges today for someone getting started in typeface design versus when you first started in the 1970s?

There is more competition out there. While there are fantastic tools available that I would have killed for, it has also become very difficult to master all of them. We are therefore on the way back to share work between people. Some of us are good at sketching, some at programming, some at using production tools. Not one person can do all of it equally well. That is how type used to be made before desktop computers and that is how type is made again today. Can you describe your ideal work environment? This is a silly question because I have no fixed formula. Every project is different and the work environment is always different as well. I do not work on my own, ever. (See question “Can you briefly describe what the current process…”) Which typefaces’ styles do you think will be the most popular in the near future and why? The ones that express the Zeitgeist, In other words: all the styles that are appropriate, fashionable, legible and cool, how ever that may be defined at the time. We do not have one style or fashion (not even within one culture, let alone globally) anymore but many currents at the same time. Type design has always been eclectic. Type has always mirrored what went on in the visual world. These days it does so as quickly as music does and even more quickly than literature and film because you can design and produce a single typeface in a few days, all on your own. It is only the larger, more professional typographic systems that need weeks and months to complete, but even that is less than what it takes to make a movie.



7 Solutions for creative block

1. Avoid Do something else, wash the car, back-up your data, do errands. 2. Think Sit back and think about the issue, just let your mind go. 3. Research Look up stuff, go through your old projects, but avoid Google it takes too long to find anything useful. 4. Collect We all have lots of stuff; there must be something in there that is waiting to be used. 5. Sketch Drawing is great, even if you have no talent. Just visualising the simplest things makes them come alive. 6. Deconstruct Take the problem apart, look at the parts and then put them back together. 7. Talk



Studio Profiles 3


Rosario Florio

Salut Public

Studio Makgill

Studio Newwork





Nicolas Bourquin

Berlin / Germany


Ohne Grenzen Year Book 2012

Onlab’s aim is to develop innovative approaches and strategies as well as solution-oriented and structured working methods while looking at cultural differences and similarities in a subjective manner. onlab’s core strategic goal is to link content and production aesthetics with elements of topicality.

Ohne Grenzen Year Book 2012

Claude Loewer: Exhibition

Claude Loewer: Exhibition

Ohne Grenzen Year Book 2012



Rosario Florio


Since 2009 Rosario has been working with some friends and set up Bureau Collective. This coprises of Larissa Kasper, Banziger Hug, Dominic Rechsteiner and Andreau Rueeger.


Echo of the moon

Echo of the moon


Echo of the moon 66


Salut Public

Brussels / Paris


Resolutely geared towards international markets, Salutpublic forge its practice around the book design , the architectural identity, the graphic design and designing websites. With its multidisciplinary experience, the studio permanently binds the form to content and develops strategies and structural narrative for arts and cultural mediation.

Vincent Dieutre, Gilles Collard

Sylvio Perlstein


Vincent Dieutre, Gilles Collard

Abomey 68


Studio Makgill



Pantograph type

Focusing on brand identities and visual communication for a broad and range of clients. Studio Makgill’s philosophy is to create succint, innovative, beautiful solutions.

Box Park oublication

Box Park Signage

Lollipop Shoppe

Box Park store front

Lollipop Shoppe


7 1

Studio Newwork

New York / USA


Newwork Magazine

They work across a range of media spanning print, screen graphics, products, and environments, aiming to create newness that could last decades.

Learario Beatriz

Newwork magazine spread

Robert Gellur

Newwork magazine spread 72



Eva Dijkstra / Michael Lugmayr

Rotterdam / Sydney Netherlands / Australia

Twin shadow

Toko philosophy and creative process follows a distinctive conceptual approach in which critical thought, experimentation and collaborations are key. Based in Rotterdam and in 2008 permanently operating out of Sydney, Australia.

Felicity posters

Host identity

Agda Extra Bold

Code magazine




















Darkside of typography

Design Inspiration





Eight 48


Graphic Exhchange







Mag Culture

Many Stuff

Nous Vous



Index 2


Recolte Difgitale


September Industry

Computer Arts Collection

Desinging Type

How to be a Graphic Designer without losing your soul

Studio Culture


Today and tomorrow


Type Token

Typographic art stuff




Turning Pages






Adrian Shaughnesy Andrew Losowsky / Gestaulten Ambrose / Harris Angus Hyland Dieter Rams Erik Spiekermann Karen Cheng Laura Mesgeur Simon Garfield Tony Brook