Sweden’s Performance Requirements normal areas:
70% P reduction & reuse if possible

La Pine Performance Requirements existing development:
35% N reduction to 30mg/L

high risk areas:
90% P reduction, 50% N reduction and reuse if possible

future development:
79% N reduction to 10mg/L

N and P calculated based on mean yearly discharge.

reduction compared to average concentration, no maximum loading.

Sweden’s One Stop Shop for Onsite Education:
Sweden’s Performance Requirements
normal areas: 70% reduction in P & Reuse if possible high risk areas: 90% P reduction, 50% N reduction and Reuse if possible Environmental Protection Agency’s general advice to small drainage devices, NFS 2006:7

Approved Onsite Components
Toilets Urine diverting dry toilet Compost toilets Combustion Toilet Dry toilets Common WC Extremely low-flush toilet Vacuum Toilet Urine diverting flush toilet Pre-Treatment Septic tank Treatment Infiltration Drainage Prefabricated filters Spray filters Chemical precipitation Phosphorus filter Large phosphoric filters Mini Sewage Holding Tank Finishing Biofilterdike Resorptionsdike Precipitation Wetland / pond Irrigation Rootzone infiltration Infiltration Drainage

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

Installation in Harvard, Massachusetts.. Lombardo Associates.

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

Diagram of Nitrex passive sand and wood chip filter system. Lombardo Associates.

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)
Cost: $20-28,000 Impact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction Potential: Patent expired, may be less expensive to construct on site. Problems: not legal without WPCF permit (difficult)

Nitrex being shipped from massachusetts

Dry Composting Toilet

Dry Composting Toilet
Cost: $1,200-6,000 +2/3 scale septic system Impact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction Potential: lowest cost system for nitrogen reduction. Problems: not recognized as a nitrogen reducing system in Oregon, must be coupled with septic.
Vera Environmental’s “Carousel” Dry Toilet

How Does Composting compare as a treatment method?


Graywater Reuse

San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011

Graywater Reuse
San Franscisco Greywater Design Manual, 2011 Photo Credit: Josh Lowe

Fecal Loading in Graywater by Indicator
Indicator Organism E. coli Faecal enterococci cholesterol coprostanol Fecal Load (grams/person/day) 65g 5.4g .22g .04g Realistic Load

"The measurement of the two different sterols, however, gives a concentration span of potential faecal input that is more realistic than... the indicator bacteria. "
Stenstroem & Ottoson, 2003. Faecal contamination of greywater and associated microbial risks. Water Research 37 (2003) pg 652.

Graywater Filter and infiltration system
Potential: less expensive than septic system for graywater treatment. Problems: must be coupled with a redundant septic system.

Vacuum Flush System
Potential: Uses 1/5 the water of ultra low flow toilets. More concentrated effluent lowers treatment costs. Problems: Cluster systems not permitted by Planning Bureau and requires variance from Plumbing Code.
Jetsgroup 2009

Wostman Ecology's Vacuum Flush ''EcoVac"

2" piping allows for easier installation

Roedigger 2007.

Gloskow, Poland. vacuum station. Roedigger. roevac. com

Vacuum Sewers along the Rhine in Germany.

Septic Tank with Urine Diverting Toilet
Costs: $3,900-6,500 for retrofit with existing septic. $150-300/ year for once a year pumping of urine and septic. Impact: Reduces nitrogen in effluent by 80%. Potential: Low cost means to meet strict nitrogen standards. Urine can be used as fertilizer. Problems: Requires plan for beneficial reuse. Holding tanks not allowed

User Acceptance of Urine Diversion

Peter-Fröhlich, Bonhomme, Oldenburg, 2007. “Sanitation Concepts for Separate treatment of Urine, Faeces, and Greywater (SCST)- Results. Berlin: Kompentzzentrum Wasser Berlin.

Operations and Maintenance in France

Intestinale Members, France

Portable Dry Toilets
Cost: 10-20% higher than portable chemical wet toilets. Impact: All nutrients can be reused through composting instead of adding to treatment plant. Potential: Lower treatment costs. Diversifies income for dry toilet installers. Problems: Limited treatment facilities in Oregon.
Biocappi portable dry toilets. Yverdon, Switzerland. Photo by Molly Danielsson.

1m3 portable dry toilets, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Portable Vacuum Toilets
Cost: Ultra high-end Barriers: none

Image Credit: Flexiloo UK

Fact sheets Case Studies Information on Codes Tour Updates

230 liters wastewater per person per day (60 gallons): USEPA 2002: EPA/625/R-00/008, Onsite Treatment Systems Manual, 3.31. 40mg/L nitrogen transported to aquifer: based on 10-40% removal N during infiltration USEPA 2002, Figure 3-17 Human excrement production: 843g/week feces: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 11: 1998, 2358 2 pints/day urine. Gotaas, Composting-Sanitary Reclamation of Organic Wastes. World Health Organization, Monograph No. 31. Geneva: 1953. Nitrogen transport to aquifer from manure spreading, 5-87mg/L, averaging to 46mg/L: Saskatchewan Watershed Authority 2009: SH/SWA H01-2009, Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems in Subdivisions, Pg 18. 58 liters manure per 1000kg beef cattle: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2003: ASE D384.1 FEB03, Manure Production Charateristics, page 683. Full grown Steer 750lb (340kg): Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service: AGEC-579, Steer-Heifer Feeder Cattle Basis by Weight Groups

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