for the people

Sweden’s One Stop Shop for Onsite Education:
Sweden’s Performance Requirements
normal areas: 70% reduction in P & Reuse if possible high risk areas: 90% P reduction, 50% N reduction and Reuse if possible Environmental Protection Agency’s general advice to small drainage devices, NFS 2006:7

Approved Onsite Components
Toilets Urine diverting dry toilet Compost toilets Combustion Toilet Dry toilets Common WC Extremely low-flush toilet Vacuum Toilet Urine diverting flush toilet Pre-Treatment Septic tank Treatment Infiltration Drainage Prefabricated filters Spray filters Chemical precipitation Phosphorus filter Large phosphoric filters Mini Sewage Holding Tank Finishing Biofilterdike Resorptionsdike Precipitation Wetland / pond Irrigation Rootzone infiltration Infiltration Drainage

What is the future of onsite?
" , natural systems designs offer a more robust alternative, use the least amount of energy of any OWT system, and exhibit treatment performance equivalent to centralized plants" (Oakley, Stewart 1529).


Design for beneficial reuse Cost will always be a deciding factor Performance Based Rules

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

Installation in Harvard, Massachusetts.. Lombardo Associates.

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)

Diagram of Nitrex passive sand and wood chip filter system. Lombardo Associates.

Septic with Woodchip Filter (Nitrex)
Cost: $20-28,000 Impact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction Potential: Patent expired, may be less expensive to construct on site. Problems: not legal without WPCF permit (difficult)

Nitrex being shipped from massachusetts

Dry Composting Toilet

Dry Composting Toilet
Cost: $1,200-6,000 +2/3 scale septic system Impact: 80-90% nitrogen reduction Potential: lowest cost system for nitrogen reduction. Problems: not recognized as a nitrogen reducing system in Oregon, must be coupled with septic.
Vera Environmental’s “Carousel” Dry Toilet

Graywater and infiltration system
Potential: less expensive than septic system for graywater treatment. Problems: must be coupled with a redundant septic system.

Vacuum Flush System
Potential: Uses 1/5 the water of ultra low flow toilets. More concentrated effluent lowers treatment costs. Problems: Cluster systems not permitted by Planning Bureau and requires variance from Plumbing Code.
Jetsgroup 2009

Wostman Ecology's Vacuum Flush ''EcoVac"

2" piping allows for easier installation

Roedigger 2007.

Gloskow, Poland. vacuum station. Roedigger. roevac. com

Vacuum Sewers along the Rhine in Germany.

Septic Tank with Urine Diverting Toilet
Costs: $3,900-6,500 for retrofit with existing septic. $150-300/ year for once a year pumping of urine and septic. Impact: Reduces nitrogen in effluent by 80%. Potential: Low cost means to meet strict nitrogen standards. Urine can be used as fertilizer. Problems: Requires plan for beneficial reuse. Holding tanks not allowed

User Acceptance of Urine Diversion

Peter-Fröhlich, Bonhomme, Oldenburg, 2007. “Sanitation Concepts for Separate treatment of Urine, Faeces, and Greywater (SCST)- Results. Berlin: Kompentzzentrum Wasser Berlin.

Operations and Maintenance in France

Intestinale Members, France

Portable Dry Toilets
Cost: 10-20% higher than portable chemical wet toilets. Impact: All nutrients can be reused through composting instead of adding to treatment plant. Potential: Lower treatment costs. Diversifies income for dry toilet installers. Builds O&M competence for composting systems. Problems: Limited treatment facilities in Oregon. Biocappi portable dry toilets. Yverdon, Switzerland. Photo by Molly Danielsson.

1m3 portable dry toilets, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Portable Vacuum Toilets
Cost: Ultra high-end Barriers: none

Image Credit: Flexiloo UK

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