# IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 40, NO.

4, NOVEMBER 1998

355

**Lightning-Induced Overvoltages in Power Lines: Validity of Various Approximations Made in Overvoltage Calculations
**

Vernon Cooray and Viktor Scuka

Abstract— In this paper, the validity of different approximations used in the calculation of induced overvoltages in power lines are investigated. These approximations are as follows: 1) neglect the distortions introduced by the ﬁnitely conducting ground on the electromagnetic (EM) ﬁelds; 2) the horizontal electric ﬁeld at ground level is calculated by using the wavetilt approximation, which is valid for radiation ﬁelds and for grazing incidence; 3) the horizontal ﬁeld at line height is obtained by adding the horizontal ﬁeld calculated at ground level to the horizontal ﬁeld at line height calculated over perfectly conducting ground; 4) the transmission line equations derived by assuming that the ground is perfectly conducting are used with the horizontal ﬁeld present over ﬁnitely conducting ground as a source term in calculating the induced overvoltages; and 5) the propagation effects on the transients as they propagate along the line are either neglected or modeled by replacing the line impedance due to ground by a constant resistance. The results presented in this paper show that in the calculation of induced overvoltages the approximation 3) is justiﬁed and approximation 2) is justiﬁed if the interest is to estimate the peak value of the induced overvoltage. Approximation 4) is probably justiﬁed for short lines and/or for highly conducting grounds. But it can introduce signiﬁcant errors if the line is long and ground conductivity is low. Approximations 1) and 5) may lead to signiﬁcant errors in the peak value, risetime, and derivative of the lightning induced overvoltages. Index Terms— Coupling models, lightning-induced voltage, lossy ground.

propagation on the transients as they propagate along the power line. In executing these steps in the numerical model many researchers have used different approximations. Some of the main approximations are as follows: 1) neglect the distortions introduced by the ﬁnitely conducting ground on the EM ﬁelds; 2) the horizontal electric ﬁeld at ground level is calculated by using the wavetilt approximation, which is valid for radiation ﬁelds and for grazing incidence; 3) the horizontal ﬁeld at line height is obtained by adding the horizontal ﬁeld calculated at ground level to the horizontal ﬁeld at line height calculated over perfectly conducting ground—in the literature, this is known as Cooray–Rubinstein approximation [4]; 4) the transmission line equations derived by assuming that the ground is perfectly conducting are used with the horizontal ﬁeld present over ﬁnitely conducting ground as a source term in calculating the induced overvoltages; and 5) the propagation effects on the transients as they propagate along the line are either neglected or modeled by replacing the line impedance due to ground by a constant resistance. In this paper, the effect of these different assumptions on the calculated induced overvoltages are investigated. The results show that some of these approximations are justiﬁed, whereas others can lead to signiﬁcant errors. II. THE ANALYSIS

I. INTRODUCTION UE to technical difﬁculties associated with measuring the characteristics of lightning induced overvoltages in power lines, many researchers have resorted to numerical models to derive the features of overvoltages produced by lightning. The main steps in these numerical models are as follows [1]–[3]: 1) ﬁnd a reliable return stroke model capable of generating ﬁelds similar to those generated by lightning return strokes; 2) estimate the distortions introduced into these ﬁelds as they propagate over ﬁnitely conducting ground and then obtain the vertical and horizontal electric ﬁelds at ground level and at line height; 3) use a reliable coupling model to simulate the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) ﬁelds with power lines; and 4) include the effects of

Manuscript received May 16, 1995; revised May 22, 1998. The authors are with the Institute of High Voltage Research, University of Uppsala, S-752 28 Sweden. Publisher Item Identiﬁer S 0018-9375(98)06340-6.

D

A. Electric Fields Generated by Lightning Return Strokes over Finitely Conducting Ground The electric ﬁelds generated by lightning return strokes can be obtained if the temporal and spatial variation of the return stroke current and return stroke velocity along the return stroke channel are known. In the literature there are several return stroke models that specify these parameters. In this paper, a model introduced by Cooray [5] was used to generate the lightning return stroke ﬁelds. The model is capable of generating the return stroke current and return stroke velocity as a function of height. These model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations (see also Nucci [6] for a description and evaluation of channel base current models, which are also suitable for EM ﬁeld calculations). In this paper, the calculations are presented for a peak return stroke current of 13 kA. Once the temporal and spatial variation of the return stroke current is known, the

0018–9375/98$10.00 © 1998 IEEE

The vertical electric ﬁeld at 200 m calculated without making this approximation is shown by a solid line in Fig. D = 200 m. the vertical electric ﬁeld at 200 m calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground of conductivity 0. 4. the permittivity of free-space. Now let us consider the horizontal electric ﬁeld that exists at line height. The electric ﬁeld due to a dipole over ﬁnitely conducting ground was ﬁrst evaluated by Sommerfeld [7]. Their results show that the ﬁelds over ﬁnitely conducting ground can be well represented by the results of Norton [9] among others. VOL. " = 5. D is the horizontal distance between the dipole and point of observation. D = 200 m. ! = 107 rad/s. is .356
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY. Recently. 1(a). Ming and Cooray [12]. D = 200 m. ! = 107 rad/s. He compared the ﬁelds calculated by using both surface impedance and wavetilt expression with the horizontal ﬁeld obtained directly from Norton’s [9] equations and showed that the surface impedance expression is capable of accurately predicting the horizontal ﬁeld for distances down to about 200 m from the return stroke channel. the horizontal magnetic ﬁeld in time domain. " = 5. For angular frequency. NOVEMBER 1998
electric and magnetic ﬁelds over ﬁnitely conducting ground can be calculated by using the ﬁeld expressions for electric dipoles over ﬁnitely conducting ground.
. expressions for the dipole ﬁelds over ﬁnitely conducting ground (as published by Norton [9]) were used in calculating the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. (a) The vertical electric ﬁeld at 200 m calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground of conductivity 0. Cooray [14] showed that this relationship is capable of generating horizontal ﬁelds more accurately than the Wavetilt approximation can. and the results were given in terms of integrals. 1. Note that the maximum error is about 7%. and . Many researchers have considered different approximations for these integrals. For example. B. = 0:001 S/m. = 0:001 S/m. Cooray and Lundquist [10] showed that the calculation of lightning generated EM ﬁelds over ﬁnitely conducting ground can be simpliﬁed to a large extent by replacing the attenuation function in the equations by the attenuation function corresponding to a dipole at ground level. 1(a).
is the horizontal magnetic ﬁeld in frequency where the relative dielectric constant domain at ground level. = 0:01 S/m. 40. The results presented by Cooray [11]. ! = 106 rad/s. and Cooray and Ming [13] show that this approximation is valid for distances as close as 1 km from the lightning channel. In this paper. the horizontal electric ﬁeld at is given by ground level in frequency domain (1)
(a)
(b) Fig. " = 5. " = 5. Zeddam and Degauque [8] evaluated these Sommerfeld integrals and compared the results with these well known approximations. NO. and frequencies and ground conductivities of interest in power line calculations the second term in the right-hand side of the equation can be neglected (see the discussion by Wait [15] in time on this topic) Then the horizontal electric ﬁeld domain at ground level can be written as (2) with (3)
where denotes the inverse Fourier transformation. Calculations done recently by Cooray show that this approximation is valid even for distances as close as 200 m.002 s/m and relative dielectric constant ﬁve by replacing the attenuation function in equations by the attenuation function corresponding to a dipole at ground level is shown by a dashed line. ! = 106 rad/s. Horizontal Field at Ground Level The horizontal ﬁeld at ground level can be calculated by making use of the surface impedance relationship [14]. the conductivity of the ground. According to this relationship. = 0:01 S/m. The vertical electric ﬁeld at 200 m calculated without making this approximation is shown by a solid line. and are modiﬁed Bessel functions of zero and ﬁrst order. the of the ground. (b) Variation of the ratio of the horizontal ﬁeld at line height calculated by using the approximation III to the exact horizontal ﬁeld at line height: D = 200 m.002 S/m and relative dielectric constant ﬁve by replacing the attenuation function in equations by the attenuation function corresponding to a dipole at ground level is shown by a dashed line in Fig.

these calculations are made in frequency domain and therefore it is difﬁcult to pinpoint exactly the magnitude of error one may encounter in time-domain calculations. and Nucci et al. and the conductivity was changed over the range from 0. the vertical electric ﬁeld inside the ground is smaller by a factor of compared with the electric ﬁeld in air.01 to 0. is on the order of a skin-depth corresponding to the frequency under consideration. Therefore. [21]. The results are compared with the electric ﬁeld at line height calculated by using the above approximation. These calculations were performed for angular frequencies (i. Horizontal Electric Field at Line Height As mentioned in the introduction to this paper. second. [17]. the lower limit of the integral in the case of the vertical ﬁeld can be replaced by zero. In this ﬁgure “ratio” is the ratio of the horizontal electric ﬁeld at line height to the horizontal ﬁeld calculated using the above approximation. Norton [8] published the expressions for the electric dipole ﬁelds in frequency domain for dipoles at different heights over ﬁnitely conducting ground and for different heights of observation points. The distance to the point of observation was changed from 200 to 5000 m. the risetimes are longer than 50 ns and the risetime
. [14].001 S/m. Cooray [19]. Let us consider a single conductor line over ﬁnitely conducting ground.1 s.
Writing the above equation in integral form and performing the integration over the closed path shown in Fig. Let us investigate the validity of this approximation.. For most of the lightning generated EM ﬁelds that have propagated over sea water. several researchers have calculated the horizontal ﬁeld at line height by adding the horizontal ﬁeld calculated at line height over perfectly conducting ground to the horizontal ﬁeld calculated at ground level over ﬁnitely conducting ground. 2(a) we obtain
(5) where is a depth in the ground at which the amplitude of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds can be assumed to be zero. The Coupling Model Several coupling models available in the literature describe the interaction of EM waves with overhead power lines.[16]. the horizontal electric ﬁeld 10 m above ground was calculated by using the expressions given by Norton [9] for different frequencies and for different dipole heights.COORAY AND SCUKA: LIGHTNING-INDUCED OVERVOLTAGES IN POWER LINES
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C. The reasons for this are the following: ﬁrst. In general. . [18]. Geometry relevant to the calculations presented in this paper. In the literature this is known as Cooray–Rubinstein approximation [4]. The results show that the maximum error one can expect due to the above approximation is not more than 20% for the range of parameters considered. But. Several examples of the calculations are given in Fig. The studies of Nucci et al. Consider the Maxwell’s equation related to the Faraday’s law. 2(a). the results show that this approximation is reasonable in calculating horizontal ﬁelds at line height for times longer than about 0. it would not be much larger than the above estimate. the relaxation time of the ground for conductivity 0. This can be written as (4)
(a)
(b)
(c) Fig. [20] show that many of the models available in the literature are special cases of a model proposed by Agrawal et al. 2. The latter authors derived transmission line equations for a multiconductor system including a reference conductor. For most of the frequencies of interest. [21] but modiﬁed to take into account the ﬁnite conductivity of the ground. ) in the range of 10 –10 rad/s and for dipole heights in the range of 0–2000 m. To test the validity of the above approximation. D. To derive the transmission line equations over ﬁnitely conducting ground we will use an approach similar to that of Agrawal et al. for variations of the electric ﬁelds which take place over times longer than about 50 ns the vertical electric ﬁeld in the ground can be neglected. Since the length of the return stroke channel of interest when calculating induced overvoltages in power lines is less than 2000 m. Of course. The relevant geometry is shown in Fig. 1(b).e.001 S/m and for relative dielectric constant of 5 is about 45 ns and the relaxation time decreases with increasing conductivity. The return stroke is an extended source that can be divided into elementary dipoles located at different heights.

4. Finally. we obtain
(15) However (16)
. for frequencies that will be encountered in lightning EM ﬁelds and for typical ground conductivities it is reasonable to neglect the vertical electric ﬁeld in the ground. This can be written in frequency domain as (19) However. NOVEMBER 1998
of the EM ﬁelds increases with increasing propagation distance over ﬁnitely conducting ground. Substituting (25) into (24) yields the second transmission line equation (26) The total voltage on the line is the sum of the voltages due to the incident and scattered waves. substituting (16) into (15) yields the ﬁrst transmission line equation (17) In most practical situations. we obtain
(18) Consider the Maxwell’s equation related to the Ampere’s law.e. i. This is a reasonable approximation for frequencies encountered in lightning EM ﬁelds. therefore (20) Let us apply this equation to the closed volume around the conductor [refer to Fig. that is (27) In deriving the transmission line equations we neglected the skin-effect resistance of the conductor. Complex image theory represents a ﬁnitely conductive ground as a perfectly conductive plane located at
(14) Substituting (14) into (13). Therefore. The current ﬂows parallel to the axis of the conductor. dividing each term in (5) by and taking the limit as
where is the series resistance per unit length of line. NO. VOL. 2(b)]. therefore
(10) Assuming the scattered ﬁelds are transverse magnetic. 40. the scattered line voltage can be deﬁned as Substitution of (21) and (22) into (20) gives (11)
(21) (22)
(23) and the integral of the scattered magnetic ﬁeld can be related and the current to the inductance per unit length of the line in the conductor (12) Substituting (11) and (12) in (10). .358
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY. Now. we obtain Dividing (23) by and taking the limit as we obtain (24) The charge per unit length can be related to the capacitance per unit length of the line and the scattered voltage through (25) (13) The right-hand side of this equation can be expressed as the component of the incident horizontal ﬁeld in the direction of the conductor at the line height. when An expression for the inductance of the line the ground is ﬁnitely conducting can be obtained by using the concept of images. the constant resistance is negligiand this transmission line equation ble compared with can be written as
(6) Dividing each ﬁeld value into incident and scattered components (7) (8) (9) and substituting (7) through (9) in (6)..

This may be a good approximation for short lines in which the effects of the ground on the transients propagating along the line can be neglected. Consider a small element on the line. (36)
The two transmission line equations (17) and (26) can be directly transformed into time domain. showed that this expression accurately describe the inductance of the line in the presence of a ﬁnitely conducting ground plane. then the transmission line equations reduce to (42) (43) These equations are identical to the transmission line equations corresponding to a lossy line over perfectly conducting ground except that the horizontal electric ﬁeld that drives the line is the horizontal electric ﬁeld present over ﬁnitely conducting ground. The total induced voltage at the point of interest can be obtained by adding the integral of the incident vertical electric ﬁeld at the point of interest over the line height to the total scattered voltage. Hermossilo [24] where showed that this expression is identical to an expression given by Sunde [25] for the inductance of the line. Therefore. the contribution from this small element to the total scattered voltage at point on the line is (32) and is the speed of light in free-space. Using this theory Bannister [23] derived an expression for the inductance of the line. i. where From these equations one can see that if it is possible to neglect compared with then the above transmission line equations reduce to (40) (41)
(34)
. The transmission line equations (17) and (26) predict that the incident EM ﬁeld excites freely propagating waves at each located at conductor segment. The voltage induced at this element due point to the incident EM ﬁeld is given by (31) is the component of the horizontal ﬁeld in where the direction of the overhead conductor. These equations are identical to the transmission line equations corresponding to a lossless line over perfectly conducting ground except that the horizontal electric ﬁeld driving the line is the one present over ﬁnitely conducting ground.e. E. Chang and Damrau [26]. by comparing the above equation with a more exact formulation.. where The scattered voltage in time domain at the point of interest is given by the following on the line due to the element convolution integral: (33) In this equation.COORAY AND SCUKA: LIGHTNING-INDUCED OVERVOLTAGES IN POWER LINES
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a complex depth below the surface [22]. if . hand. This expression is given by
and
is given by
(28) is the radius of the conductor. This voltage gives rise to two traveling waves propagating in opposite directions on the line. the result being
(37) (30) . Solution of the Transmission Line Equations The propagation constant for a single conductor line over a ﬁnitely conductive ground is given by [24] (29) F. On the other can be replaced by a constant resistance. Transmission Line Equation in Time Domain over Finitely Conducting Ground
(35) at the point of interest can The total scattered voltage be obtained by summing the contribution from all the elements on the line. which is given by is the impulse response of the line. Under these conditions the approximation 4) made in calculating induced overvoltages is justiﬁed. It is of interest to note that the expression where derived by Sunde [26] for the propagation constant of a line over ﬁnitely conducting ground reduces to the above equation under conditions in which the skin-effect resistance of the line can be neglected. Furthermore. Under these conditions as well the approximation 4) (38) (39) is the inverse Fourier transformation of .

(b) Fig. 4. VOL. curve 1 is the voltage calculated when the ground is perfectly conducting. and the amplitude of the induced overvoltages. 2(c)]. The correspond-
ing waveforms when lightning strikes point P2 are depicted in Figs. Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by using the wavetilt approximation. 4(a). consider a 5-km-long line at a height of 10 m and terminated with it’s characteristic impedance. In this ﬁgure. 3(a). (a) Induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P1 [Fig. the shape. The ﬁnite conductivity of the ground changes the polarity. The ground is assumed to be ﬁnitely conducting with conductivity of 0. The geometry relevant to this situation is shown in Fig. First. (b) Induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P2 [Fig. the wavetilt approximation may lead to signiﬁcant errors in the tail part of the induced overvoltages. Consider Fig. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. 2(c)]. III. and 5(b). Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on both the transients and ﬁelds. 3(b). the wavetilt approximation does not introduce signiﬁcant errors. Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by using the wavetilt approximation. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on the transients traveling along the line. 4. induced overvoltages is justiﬁed. 3(a) and (b). The induced voltage and its derivative at the termination B. 2(c). Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. NO. note the inﬂuence of the ground conductivity on the calculated induced voltages. However. Note also that as far as the peak of the induced voltage is concerned. 4(b).360
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY.002 S/m and the relative dielectric constant of the ground is assumed to be ﬁve. Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on both the transients and ﬁelds. curve 2 is the voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. Curve 1: voltage calculated over perfectly conducting ground. and curve 3 is the voltage calculated by using wavetilt approximation. This point is important in cases where it is necessary to quantify the amount of energy dissipation in protective devices. (b) Induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P2 [Fig. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. 40. calculated by using different approximations when the lightning strikes at P1. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on the transients traveling along the line. 2(c)].
made in calculating. and 5(a).
. are depicted in Figs. RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
To illustrate the effects of different assumptions on the calculated induced overvoltages. Curve 1: voltage calculated over perfectly conducting ground. 3. The next section includes a discussion of the errors and problems that can be expected in the induced overvoltage calculations when one attempts to replace the line impedance associated with ﬁnitely conducting ground by a constant resistance. (a) Induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P1 [Fig. 2(c)]. NOVEMBER 1998
(a) (a)
(b) Fig.

To test this possibility the quantity in the equations was replaced by a constant resistance. The derivatives of these voltages are shown in Fig. the waveform obtained when the resistance is 0. In these cases the approximation 5) is only valid if the impedance due to ground can be replaced by a constant resistance. For example. leads to an increase in the calculated horizontal electric ﬁeld. note that the effect of this approximation inﬂuences the results in different ways depending on the location of the lightning strike. The value of this resistance was changed until the peak value of the calculated induced overvoltage agreed with the peak of the induced overvoltage in curve 2 in Fig. and curve 3 is calculated by neglecting the propagation effects on both the transients and ﬁelds. it is important to note that in the example considered the maximum distance of propagation encountered by the EM ﬁelds is 5 km. The effective resistance required to bring the peak values of the two waveforms into agreement is 0. Note that the derivative of the voltage is several times smaller than the voltage calculated without taking into account the propagation effects along the ground. However. Note that the peak voltage calculated with propagation effects on the transients is about half the voltage calculated without propagation effects along the line. Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on both the transients and ﬁelds. The reason for this is that for a given conductivity the peak of the horizontal ﬁeld at ground level increases as the risetime of the magnetic ﬁeld decreases. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on the transients traveling along the line.
Fig. Second.e. consider the approximation 5): The results in Figs. The results also show that the inﬂuence of the propagation effects depends on the location of the strike point with respect to the line..24 /m. First. The effective resistance required to obtain this agreement was 0. Curve 3: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on both the transients and ﬁelds. which differs from the value we had to use in the case where the strike point was P2. the inﬂuence of the propagation effects along the line on the voltage measured at B is larger for strike point P1 than for strike point P2. For comparative purposes. In these ﬁgures. The results show that for lines of several kilometers length over moderately conducting ground the effects of propagation on the transients as they propagate along the line may not be neglected. Furthermore. for shorter lines ( 500 m) over sufﬁciently conducting ground it may be a reasonable approximation to neglect the propagation effects on the transients on the line. the importance of these effects increase with decreasing conductivity and increasing line length. (b) The derivative of the induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P2 [Fig. but taking into account the propagation effects on the EM ﬁelds.COORAY AND SCUKA: LIGHTNING-INDUCED OVERVOLTAGES IN POWER LINES
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(a)
(b) Fig. The reason is that in the case of strike point P2 the transients contributing to the peak voltage travel a longer distance along the line compared with those corresponding to strike point P2. (a) The derivative of the induced voltage at termination B when the strike point is at P1 [Fig. curve 2 is calculated by neglecting the propagation effects as they propagate along the line.36 /m (i. 5(a) and (b). curve 1 is the induced voltage calculated without any approximations.002 S/m the effects of this approximation would be larger than those shown in the Figs. 3(a) and (b). 2(c)]. The results for strike point P2 are shown in Fig. The change in the derivative of the voltage is even more signiﬁcant. 2(c)]. Of course. the value corresponding to strike point P2 is also shown in the
.36 /m. let us consider the effects of approximation 1): neglecting the propagation effects on the EM ﬁelds as they propagate along the line can lead to an overestimate of the peak of the induced overvoltage. 5. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. The results for strike point P1 are shown in Fig. 4(a)–5(b) show very clearly that the propagation effects on the transients as they propagate along the line make a signiﬁcant difference in the peak of the induced voltage. 4(a) and (b) depicts the effects of approximations 1) and 5). for short lines and for high ground conductivities this may be a valid approximation [27]. 4(a)–5(b). Neglecting the propagation effects on the
EM ﬁelds leads to an underestimation of the risetime of the magnetic ﬁeld. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. On the other hand. respectively. 6. which. 7. For lightning ﬂashes located at longer distances from the line and for ground conductivities less than 0. The peak value of the derivative is more sensitive to this approximation than is the peak of the induced overvoltage. Note that even though the peak values are equal there is a signiﬁcant difference between the risetime and the derivative of the induced overvoltage. Furthermore. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by neglecting the propagation effects on the transients traveling along the line. in turn.

and 5) the propagation effects on the transients as they propagate along the line are either neglected or modeled by replacing the line impedance due to ground by a constant resistance. Apparatus. Curve 3: the voltage obtained when the constant resistance was assumed to be equal to 0. The reason for this is that the frequency content of the induced voltages changes in different ways depending on the strike
. and derivative of the lightning induced overvoltages. First. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by replacing j! L by a constant resistance. 8. pp. but it can introduce signiﬁcant errors if the line is long and ground conductivity is low. the validity of different approximations used in the calculation of induced overvoltages in power lines has been investigated.24 /m. 3) the horizontal ﬁeld at line height is obtained by adding the horizontal ﬁeld calculated at ground level to the horizontal ﬁeld at line height calculated over perfectly conducting ground i. 4) the transmission line equations derived by assuming that the ground is perfectly conducting are used with the horizontal ﬁeld present over ﬁnitely conducting ground as a source term in calculating the induced overvoltages. For example.
Fig. The effect of this assumption on the derivatives of the induced voltages is even more signiﬁcant. Second. Syst.
1
Fig. vol. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. 1984. the magnitude of the resistance that gives the correct results for the peak of the induced voltage depends on the point of strike and probably on the length of the line. REFERENCES
[1] M. Master and M. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground replacing j! L by a constant resistance. Approximations 1) and 5) may lead to signiﬁcant errors in the peak value. Voltage induced at termination B when the strike point is at P2. 4.36 /m.. These approximations are the following: 1) neglect the distortions introduced by the ﬁnitely conducting ground on the EM ﬁelds. This makes it difﬁcult to simulate ground effects with a single resistance when calculating induced voltages in power lines.362
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY. Power.e.36 /m. IV. Approximation 4) is probably justiﬁed for short lines and/or for highly conducting grounds. Note again that the risetimes and the half widths of the induced voltages calculated by simulating ground effects by a constant resistance differ from those calculated without this approximation.24 /m. which is valid for radiation ﬁelds and for grazing incidence. VOL. the derivatives of the waveforms in Fig. “Lightning-induced voltages on power line: Theory. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. Curve 2: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground by replacing j! L by a constant resistance. PAS-103. J. 8. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground. Uman. simulation of the ground effects by a constant resistance leads to an overestimation of derivatives and an underestimation of the risetimes of the induced voltages.
1
point and probably on the length of the line. The results presented in this paper show that in the calculation of lightning induced overvoltages approximation 3) is justiﬁed and approximation 2) is justiﬁed if the aim is to estimate the peak value of the induced overvoltage. The value of the constant resistance is 0. Note that the constant resistance required to obtain agreement between the peaks of the induced voltages may over-estimate the derivative by about a factor two. The value of the constant resistance is 0. Cooray–Rubinstein approximation. 7. 7 are shown in Fig. NO. 6. Derivative of the voltage induced at termination B when the strike point is at P1.” IEEE Trans. Sept. 2) the horizontal electric ﬁeld at ground level is calculated by using the wavetilt approximation. NOVEMBER 1998
Fig. The value of the constant resistance is 0. Curve 1: voltage calculated over ﬁnitely conducting ground.36 /m. Curve 3: the voltage obtained when the constant resistance was assumed to be equal to 0.
1
ﬁgure. risetime. 2502–2518.. The most important points we have gathered from this exercise are as follows. A. 40. Voltage induced at termination B when the strike point is at P1.

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[2] V. AP-34. “Propagation effects on the lightning generated electromagnetic ﬁelds for homogeneous and mixed sea–land paths. 171–211. 31. Canada. pp.. pp. Degauque. Compat. and the Ph. Rubinstein. vol. degree from the University of Ljubljana. UURIE:223-89. F. Gurbaxani. Uman. F. A. “On the impedance of a ﬁnite-length horizontal wire located near the Earth’s surface.. “A model for subsequent return stroke. “Current and voltage induced on telecommunication cables by a lightning stroke.
. 22. dissertation. Hermosillo. 1993. Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems. Nucci.Sc. 1992.” Radio Sci. Cooray is the Swedish member of Task Force 1 (lightning location). 1988. Lundquist. Sept. p. 1989.. Task Force 2 (interaction of electromagnetic ﬁelds with power lines).” J. Nucci. de la Rosa. 244–245. vol. vol. [17] V. Cooray. He has conducted experimental and theoretical research work in electromagnetic compatibility. [27] C. FCC Rep. and C. 1994. 1995. and Task Force 3 (lightning interception) of CIGRE-WG 33. [5] V. He holds the cochair of the working group on Terrestrial and Planetary Noise of Man-Made and Natural Origin of the URSI Commission E. Feb. degree in electricity science from the University of Uppala.” J. [9] K. [22] P. “Concerning the horizontal electric ﬁeld of lightning.
[21] A. 8. Mazzetti. UURIE: 223-89. 392–399.” IEEE Trans. and C. pp. Ming and V. 1986. Electrostat. Y. Sweden.. doing research in the ﬁeld of high-voltage power cables and optical ﬁbers for telecommunications. [24] V. [12] Y. vol. Rubinstein. M. Cooray. 274. F. 1987. M. Nucci. vol. and discharge physics in relation to high-voltage engineering. 1969 and 1975. Cooray and Y. Bureau Standards. Sweden. “Calculating lightning-induced overvoltages in power lines: A comparison of two coupling models. “Lightning-induced voltages on overhead power lines—Part I: Return-stroke current models with speciﬁc channelbase current for evaluation of the return stroke electromagnetic ﬁelds. 18. [26] K.D. 88–92. Agrawal. Rachidi. FL. P. “Transient response of multiconductor transmission lines excited by a nonuniform electromagnetic ﬁeld. 75–102. 10 641–10 652. Boulder. Mazzetti. [13] V. 1997.. 757–768. and electromagnetic compatibility. “Accuracy of approximate transmission line formulas for overhead wires. Rachidi. [16] M. Compat. vol. and C. Ianoz. vol. “Lightning-induced over-voltages on overhead lines. 119–129.” Radio Sci. Nucci. Phys. electromagnetic wave propagation. 1994. M. F. Zeddam and P. Ianoz.” Ann.” IEEE Trans. degree in physics (ﬁrst class honors) from the University of Colombo.” IEEE Trans. Hermosillo and V. Geophys. “An experimental test of a theory of lightning-induced voltages on an overhead line. Sweden. [8] Z. Norton. “Propagation effects caused by a rough ocean surface on the electromagnetic ﬁelds generated by lightning return strokes. pp. pp. Uppsala. 1993. Budapest. Electromagn.
Viktor Scuka received the B. Mazzetti. Electromagn. Nucci. “The propagation of electromagnetic waves in wireless telegraphy. Cooray and S. Conf. Dr. degrees in electricity science from Sweden. respectively. Thomson. From 1975 to 1983 he was employed as a Scientist in electrophysics at Ericsson Cables. 5. M. pp.D. 38. Nov. [11] V. Mazzetti. 1991. Rachidi. 1976. J. lightning physics. FL. Ming. “The polarization of down-coming ionospheric radio waves. In 1989. CO. A. 1994. 27. 396–397. Electromagn. “Voltages induced on a test power line from artiﬁcially initiated lightning: Theory and experiment. and the Philosophy Licentiate and Ph. 1989. Bannister. 529–537. vol. 1948. Univ. [23] . 4. Electromagn. 405–415. 4. Sept. Sundyber. Mar. 1983.. [20] C. high-voltage techniques. A. vol. BC.. 73–85. [4] F. pp.Sc. Univ. no. pp. vol. “Calculation of fault rates of overhead power distribution lines due to lightning-induced voltages including the effect of ground conductivity. vol.” IEEE Trans. D. pp. has been the Department Head. [25] E. Electromagn. July 1993. Res. Aug. in 1976. pp. 1986.” Internal Rep. A. discharge physics. Slovenia. He has authored and coauthored more than 100 scientiﬁc papers. pp. pp. [6] C. p. Sri Lanka. 75–86. 179–182. “Attenuation and distortion of transient surges propagating on a single horizontal overhead line over a ﬁnitely conductive plane. A. pp.. no.” IEEE Trans. 1996. [3] M. C. vol. R. Cooray. Jan. he became a Professor at Uppsala University and.D. A. Cooray. C. Cooray and F.” Electromagn.. “Effects of propagation on the return stroke radiation ﬁelds. J. “Effects of propagation on the rise times and the initial peaks of radiation ﬁelds from return strokes.” IEEE Trans. 30.. Cooray.” Electra. 60047. Cooray.” IEEE Trans. Hungary. vol. lightning and transient protection. Sommerfeld. and S.” in 22nd Int. 186. [18] C. A. and E. Compat. “Horizontal ﬁelds generated by return strokes. paper no. 1995. vol. Compat. Price. [10] V. V. He is the author of more than 200 scientiﬁc publications dealing with atmospheric electricity. pp.” IEEE Trans. 29. Compat. “Shapes and amplitudes of the initial peaks of lightning-induced voltage in power lines over ﬁnitely conducting earth: Theory and comparison with experiment. Sunde. M. vol. 1989. Antennas Propagat. 39. M. Rachidi. J. 330–338. 35..” Radio Sci. no. H. Nov. Wait.. K. since 1990.. 161. 36. pp. in 1982. Compat. Electromagn. Vancouver. Scuka was Vice Chairman from 1990 to 1993 and chairman from 1993 to 1996 of URSI Commission E—electromagnetic noise and interference and is a member of several international scientiﬁc organizations. pp. Compat. 5. no. 1135–1153. “Applications of complex image theory. Chen and K. 1994. vol.. 31.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. [14] V. Cooray. vol. 343–354. 99.” Radio Sci. 37. Gainsville.. Aug. pp.. Uppsala University.. 376–383.. Electromagn. A. Dr. Damrau. [19] V. “Coupling models for lightning-induced overvoltage calculations: A comparison and consolidation. “Inﬂuence of lossy ground on lightning-induced voltages on overhead lines. New York: Dover. pp. Antennas Propagat. 1942. M. Tzeng.” Radio Sci. [7] A. R. in 1958.” Ph. 1926. vol. He is currently an Associate Professor at the Institute of High-Voltage Research. Aug. 22. R3b-06. Medelius. Sept. Lightning Protection. pp. 81. May 1980. Ianoz.” Nat. Feb. Ianoz. pp. no. “Comparison of two coupling models for lightning induced overvoltage calculations. 605–616.
Vernon Cooray received the B. Compat. lightning physics. and C. Electromagn. [15] J. 250–264. F.” in IEEE/PES Summer Meet. 21.