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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN STATUS GIZI ANAK BALITA DI KECAMATAN KELIMUTU KABUPATEN ENDE FLORES PROVINSI NUSA

TENGGARA TIMUR

Tesis Untuk Memenuhi Sebagian Persyaratan Mencapai Derajad Sarjana S-2

Minat Utama Gizi dan Kesehatan Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Jurusan Ilmu-ilmu Kesehatan

Diajukan Oleh: Yoseph Woge NIM : 16794/PS/IKM/05 Kepada

SEKOLAH PASCA SARJANA UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA YOGYAKARTA 2007

INTISARI

Latar Belakang : Anak balita merupakan golongan yang rentan terhadap kurang energi dan protein (KEP). Dampak krisis ekonomi menyebabkan peningkatan jumlah penderita kurang gizi. Hasil SUSENAS tahun 2003 status gizi balita (BB/U) gizi buruk 8,3%, gizi kurang 19,2%. Prevalensi gizi buruk Kab. Ende ; 8,7%. Faktor penyebab langsung gizi kurang asupan makanan, dan penyakit infeksi, antara lain malaria, batuk/TBC, cacingan, dan diare. Penyebab tidak langsung al. pendidikan dan pekerjaan orang tua. Tujuan : Mengkaji hubungan faktor asupan energi, protein; penyakit infeksi (malaria, TBC, kecacingan, diare); pendidikan dan pekerjaan orang tua terhadap status gizi anak balita di Kec. Kelimutu Kab. Ende Prop. NTT. Metode : Jenis penelitian observasional rancangan cross-sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kec. Kelimutu bulan Januari-Maret 2007. Sampel anak balita berumur 6 59 bulan, n=92. Pemilihan sampel secara sistematic random sampling. Variabel bebas : asupan energi dan protein dengan metode food recall; penyakit infeksi (malaria, batuk biasa, kecacingan, diare), pekerjaan, pendidikan orang tua dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Variabel terikat status gizi indeks BB/TB. BB diukur dengan dacin, TB dengan Mikrotoise dan Papan Pengukur Panjang Badan. Hasil : Status gizi anak balita (BB/TB) 34,8% kurus. Asupan energi dan protein kurang (34,8%, dan 31,5%). Uji statistik Chi-Square antara status gizi anak balita dengan asupan protein diperoleh nilai p=0,001, OR=4,5; dengan energi diperoleh p=0,000; OR=8,5. Anak balita mengalami gejala malaria 57,6%, batuk 93,5%, cacingan 55,4%, diare 55,4%. Hasil uj statisti antara status gizi balita dengan gejala penyakit infeksi malaria (p=0,014; OR=3,2), kecacingan (p=0,021; OR=2,9) dan diare (p=0,001; OR=4,6). Orang tua sebagai petani 88-93,5%, pendidikan orang tua : SD 57,6-68,5%.Tidak ada hubungan status gizi balita dengan tingkat pendidikan ayah dan ibu (p=1 dan p=0,53); dengan pekerjaan ayah dan ibu (p=0,142 dan p=0,661). Kesimpulan : Ada hubungan asupan energi, protein, gejala penyakit infeksi (malaria, kecacingan dan diare dengan status gizi anak balita. Tidak ada hubungan status gizi anak balita dengan pendidikan, dan pekerjaan orang tua. Kata Kunci : Status gizi, anak balita, BB/TB, energi, protein, penyakit infeksi.

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ABSTRACT Background: Children under five years ald are sensitive to energy and protein deficiency. Economic crisis has brought impact to increased number of undernourished people. The result of national economic and social survey 2003 shows that nutrition status of children under five based on weight/age is 8.3% malnutrition and 19.2% undernourishment. The prevalence of malnutrition at Ende District is 8.7%. Factors directly cause undernourishment are lack of food intake and infection such as malaria, cough/tuberculosis, suffering from intestinal worms, and diarrhea. Other indirect factors are parents' education and jobs. Objective: To identify relationship between factors of energy and protein intake, infection caused by malaria, tuberculosis, suffering from intestinal worms, diarrhea, parents' education and jobs and nutrition status of children under five at Subdistrict of Kelimutu, Ende, Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur. Method: The study was observational with cross sectional design carried out at Subdistrict of Kalimutu in January - March 2007. Samples were as many as 92 children under five of 6 59 months old selected using systematic random sampling technique. Independent variable were energy and protein intake measured using food recall methods; infection (malaria, cough/tuberculosis, suffering from intestinal worms, diarrhea), parents' education and job obtained from interview using questionnaire. Dependent variable was nutrition status based on weight/height. Weight was measured using scales whereas height was measured using microtoise and height/length measuring board. Result: Nutrition status of children under five (weight/height) was 34.8% skinny. Energy and protein intake was 34.8% and 31.5% lacking. Chi Square statistical test between nutrition status of children under five and protein intake showed p=0.001; OR=4.5, and energy intake showed p=0.000; OR=8.5. Children had symptom of malaria (56.6%), common cough ( 93.5%), intestinal worms (55.4%), diarrhea (55.4%). The result of statistical test between nutrition status and symptoms of malaria was p=0.014; OR=3.2, intestinal worms was p=0.021; OR=2.9 and diarrhea was p=0.001; OR=4.6. As much as 88 93.5% of parents worked as farmers and 57.6 68.5% had elementary school education. There was no relationship between nutrition status of children under five and fathers' and mothers' education (p=1 and p=0.53); and fathers' and mothers' jobs (p=0.142 and p=0.661) Conclusion: There was relationship between energy and protein intake, symptoms of infection (malaria, intestinal worms and diarrhea) and nutrition status of children under five. There was no relationship between symptoms of tuberculosis education and jobs of parents and nutrition status of children under five. Keywords: nutrition status, children under five, energy intake, protein intake, infection, malaria, intestinal worms, diarrhea.

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