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EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Storage Networking:
Fibre, iSCSI, NAS

Graeme Holmes
Cristie Data Products Ltd

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Agenda
EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

The Need For SAN

Storage Technologies

Storage Management

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EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

The Need for SAN

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The Need for SANEXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Server consolidation

Non-disruptive capacity increase

More efficient resource utilisation

Reduction in hardware/licencing costs
Reduced footprint

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Current Situation EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Direct Attached Storage
Locally attached disk
SCSI protocol

Islands of Storage
Available storage on server B cannot
be utilised by server A
• Limited, disruptive scalability

• High Management Costs

• Inflexible

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DAS - Scalability EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Limited to the servers predetermined
capacity

External expansion with SCSI is
limited to 15 devices per channel
12M Distance limitation

Expensive, disruptive to scale

High management costs

Still has over/under utilisation issues

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Centralised storage - NAS
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Network Attached Storage

Consolidate File Servers
No need to buy servers to add capacity

File level storage only
Databases require block-level storage

Storage traffic moves onto LAN

Limited scalability
Management

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Centralised Storage - SAN
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Dedicated Storage Network optimised for
I/O block transfers

Centralised storage management

Block level storage
File & applications

Storage traffic off the LAN

Flexible and scalable
Any server can have access to any
available storage

Non-disruptive scalability

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SAN Benefits EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Grows storage independently of
servers

Centralised high-availability storage
reduces storage management
overhead

Scalable - Supports thousands of
interconnected devices

High aggregate bandwidth, multiple
paths
2Gig, 4Gig fibre, Gigabit Ethernet

Application clustering possible on
wider scale

Disaster Recovery

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SAN - Disaster Recovery
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To assure continued operations, data
can be mirrored within the –
• same subsystem
• to adjacent subsystem
• to a subsystem in a remote
location

• Storage mirrored or replicated
• Block level transfer

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Fibre, iSCSI and NAS

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Fibre Topologies EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Point-to-point

Only two FC devices
connected directly together

No sharing of media - devices
each benefit from total link
bandwidth

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Fibre Topologies
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Arbitrated Loop

127 addresses or 126

devices per loop

Blocking, shared media

100MB/sec speed.

Lowest cost Fibre protocol

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Fibre Topologies EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Switched Fabric

Connect millions of devices

Non-shared media

200MB/sec between nodes

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Other Protocols EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Methods of connecting FC islands

FC-IP: Fibre Channel over TCP/IP – tunnelling protocol
that encapsulates and transports FC frames over
TCP/IP

iFCP: Internet Fibre Channel Protocol – allows
connection of FC devices over TCP/IP at any distance

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Fibre SAN Management
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Heterogeneous Environments, Shared
Storage

Management Achieved by:
• Port Zoning at the switch level
• LUN masking within the storage array.

Zones prevent devices outside zone from
communicating into zone.

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Benefits of Fibre SAN
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Massively scaleable

High Performance
I/O intensive applications
Backup

Centralises management of storage

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Considerations EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

High hardware and software costs

High implementation costs

New skills required

Distance limitation for Disaster Recovery

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iSCSI

A serious alternative?

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iSCSI - What is it?EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Final specification approved early 2003

Encapsulates block-level SCSI commands in a TCP/IP frame

iSCSI storage NIC connects storage resources over Ethernet

A method of creating Storage Networks over IP

Two key components
Initiator: an iSCSI driver embedded in the server
Target: a gateway device that routes data between server & storage

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iSCSI EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

User 1 User issues a request for data to a local server

2 The SCSI command is
encapsulated in TCP/IP & transmitted
over IP Network

IP Network

IP packet IP packet

iSCSI iSCSI
Initiator Storage
Server Target
Adapter Device
Adapter

3 The packet is decapsulated
separating the SCSI commands

5 The data request is again encapsulated in TCP/IP 4 The SCSI commands are received by the
then returned Internal SCSI Controller, and the data
is retrieved.

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iSCSI Benefits EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Leverages existing investment in technology and skills

Relatively low implementation costs

Similar speeds to fibre channel
10 Gig Ethernet, 40 Gig announced

No distance limitations

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Considerations EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Relatively new standard

Lower performance than FC

Perceived as less secure than fibre channel
OK for controlled environments
IPSec required for large LAN deployments

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TCP Off-load EnginesEXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

iSCSI on standard NIC’s
Uses CPU for TCP & iSCSI processing

Software iSCSI with TCP offload
TCP processing by TOE card

Hardware iSCSI
TCP & iSCSI processing by TOE card

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Off-load Engines EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

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EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

NAS

Where does it fit?

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NAS EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

File-based storage architecture

Resources attach directly to LAN

NAS Headers
NAS device which uses portion of SAN storage

File Server, Home Directories, image storage etc

File level storage only
Databases require block-level storage

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NAS Advantage EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Familiar technology
Minimal training

Relatively low-cost way of adding disk space

Provides some flexibility
Additional units can be easily added

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Fibre or iSCSI?
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Performance vs Cost

High performance requirements for business applications –
Implement FC + iSCSI

Existing FC SAN costly to expand –
Use iSCSI storage to cater for non-intensive applications, migrate from FC to iSCSI

Reduce Storage TCO
Implement iSCSI SAN

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Storage virtualisation
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Pooling of disparate systems into single consolidated
view – a storage pool
Removes LUN limitation and resizing issues
Also enables snapshotting, replication etc
Re-deploy existing storage arrays

In band – Feature rich

Out of band – Out of data path

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Storage Management
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Disparate systems, protocols, vendors leading to

Increased management overhead

SNIA* developed SMI-S# (Bluefin)

*Storage Networking Industry Association
#Storage Management Initiative Specification

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SMI-S - what is it? EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Create common interface enabling software and hardware work
together

Common Information Mode (CMI) and Web Based Enterprise
Management (WBEM) used to describe common storage models
and functions

Vendors write interfaces to allow their hw/sw to share data

Reduction in number of storage management tools required

EMC, HP, IBM, CA, HDS backed

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Summary EXPERTS IN DATA STORAGE

Fibre SAN
Best performance
High cost, new skills
iSCSI SAN
Simpler implementation
Leverage existing investment in technology and skills
Virtualisation
Lower storage TCO
Improve data availability
NAS
Mixed NAS/SAN environments
Storage Management
New standards being developed

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Thank you

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