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# apter 4

**rmulation· of Basic Equations r Single-Phase Flow
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'. chapter presents the basic equations that describe the transport .smzie-pnase fluid through a porous medium. These mathematical describe the physical processes of interest in the reservoir in the form of partial-differential equations (PDE's) that con" the dynamic relationships between the fluid, the porous me" and the flow conditions present in the system. In this chapter, a mathematical model that describes the most important as" single-phase-fluid flow. The model equations are expressed coordinate systems and are developed for the most com" case. Later in the chapter, we reduce the comprehensive, differential equation to several special cases that are simple of the original model. Fig. 4.1 highlights the formulation step development of a reservoir simulator. boring streamlines will define a proper, orthogonal volume element . in 'curvilinear coordinates. Sec. 4.3 shows that it is necessary to define a representative elemental volume to be able to write a mass-balance equation. The continuum approach must be used to define the properties of the elementary volume. and the fluid flowing through it. This approach simply treats the porous medium as a continuum concerning rock and. fluid properties (such as porosity, permeability, fluid viscosity, and fluid density) assigned to the control volume. These properties describe the overall behavior of the porous medium and the fluid contained in it. Fig. 4.6 shows the application of the continuum principle to define the porosity of the representative elementary volume. Applying the continuum approach results in the macroscopic definition of the control volume. The representative elemental volume attempts to summarize the system's macroscopic behavior by taking into consideration the net average of the microscopic effects. To express the flow of fluids through porous media mathematical" Iy, it is necessary to use the following three fundamental laws or rules. 1. The principle of conservation of mass (Eq, 2.174), which states that the total mass of fl uid entering a volume element in the reservoir must equal the net increase. in the mass of the fluid in the element plus the total mass of fluid leaving the element. 2. An equation of state (EOS) (Eq. 2.9 I) that describes the density of a fluid as a function of temperature and pressure. 3. The constitutive equation (Eq. 2.23), which describes the rate of fluid movement into or out of the representative elementary volume.

**Continuity Equation in Various Flow Geometries
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continuity equation (differential mass-conservation equation) be developed by writing a mass-balance equation over a control (stationary volume element) through which the fluid is The shape of the volume element depends on the coordisystem used [0 describe the flow problem. The coordinate sysshould conform as closely as possible to the flow geometry deby the equipotential lines and streamlines that are, in tum, by the shape of the physical boundaries and distribution of properties. Figs. 4.2 through 4.4 show three flow geomecommonly used in reservoir modeling. Note that, for homogerock properties, streamlines are defined by the physical ,OmmI1MII'Q of the volume element in each coordinate system. .It should be noted that rectangular. cylindrical. and spherical flow represent relatively simple, well-defined flow patterns. rectangular coordinate system represents rectilinear flow syswhile both the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems curvilinear flow systems. In these two curvilinear 8YSflow elements are relatively simple patterns formed from WW·U<:;'.lll"U orthogonal geometric elements, such as cylinders and When equipotential lines and streamlines are nonuniformand asymmetrically distorted by the irregularly defined physical or heterogeneous reservoir properties, a generalized coordinate system may be more convenient: Fig. 4.5, a well is located at a distance from an infinite line source (x presents this situation. Any quadrilateral element enclosed a pair of neighboring equipotential lines and a pair of neighOF BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE

FLOW

**4.3 Derivation of Generalized Flow Equations
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4.3.1 Flow Equation in Rectangular Coordinates. The continuity equation isa mathematical expression of material balance. It can be developed by considering the flow of mass through a control volume, as discussed in Sec. 2.4.1 for the simple case of one-dimensional (I D) flow. Because this section is concerned with developing the flow equation in rectangular coordinates, the control volume (shown in Fig, 4.7), is a rectangular prism with dimensions Ax. Ay, and Az, with its sides parallel to the principal directions oftlie rectangular coordinate system and its center at (x, y, z), For this rectangular prism, one can write a mass-balance equation for a single fluid flowing in the x, y, and z directions, At thex-8xl2 face oftherectangular prism, the fluid flow rate and density are 'h: -11x12 and Px - lu/2, respectively. Similarly, at the y - 8yl2 and z- 8z/2 faces. of the rectangular prism. the fluid flow rates and densities are 57

zl2.1-Formulation q_\. (b) 2D flow. In other words. py + 6.FORMULATION t'lONUNEAR PAFiTIAl. and density._Rectangular floW geometry and volume element details. respectively. multiplication of the flow rate.: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS NONLINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS PRESSUAE. pz -6. at the x+ t!J. .x/2. /110) + ms = mo. and (c) 3D flow.. step in development of a reservoir simulator (redrawn from Ref.x/2. and q~ + 6. tm.. .X/2. Likewise. 58 x direction only. 4.174.. the flow rates and densities can be expressed as ~ + tJ. 4. x. and zdlrections. For the control volume shown in Fig.yl2. 4. .7.2. y +t!J. p. 1). Py -6y/2 and qz ..7 shows a crosshatched arrow indicating that an additional amount of fluid may be injected into (or produced from) the control volume ata mass rate of qm(mlt). qy + 6. q. BASIC APPLIED RESERVOIR SIMULATION .y/2. 4.)'/2. _ tJ."·1 J ~ (c) Fig.. (a) 1D flow.y/2. 1. 2..1) Obviously. gives the amount of mass entering (or leaving) the control volume per unit time because Fig.zl2 faces of the control volume. and z +t!J. we use a positive sign for injection and a negative sign for production.ln this book. AND WELL RATES NUMERICAL RESERVOIRSIMULATION PROCESS MULTIPHASE FORMULATION Fig. (4./2./2> pz + M/2·. one can write a mass-balance equation in the form of Eq.x and y directions only. . fL: (b) z z . we consistently use a positive sign to indicate the fluid entering the control volume and a negative sign to indicate the fluid leaving the control volume. z ~. Px + 6. SATURATION DISTRIBUTIONS.tJ.

4 gives a. .I'/2!!J. = WI' Eq..5a) . .. respectively... !!J. rand 8 directions only. . 4. .3 to give w..(rpAxAyAZp ' ~t A.xllyA<. .t.: FORMULATION OF BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE . y.. With these definitions.l'HY/2 Wx = mx!!J.yAZ and noting that~'i¥l<A:iT4~i. ._·":/2!!J...(pU"A.7) Dividing Eq.7 through by Ax. . the mass flow rate.. . .)X-8x/2 + (pU..3-Cylindrical flow geometry and volume element detal [S i (a) 10 flow. .A"}X+Ilx/2 .p ).. . Ax. .. wx..5c) FLOW S9 ... .rAI.A".. ••••••••••••. and z dlrect[ons.. . equation over Substituting w.4a) .. r direction only. mIL 2t. .. . .+'" . we can write a mass-balance a finite period of time. " I ' of a- I (rpAxAyM.6c) [CW). .l'A\. iii.yM... 4.' •••• w)' "" myAXAZ (4. and (c) 3D flow. r. . (4. Ay. . .... (4.. .(¢llx!!J._"y/z!!J... .• '.6a) (4.. 4. ). :::: cpu. 4. .6.. 8..6b) (4..p Because mass flux.yllz ::::mxA.... .The definition mass flux can be stated in terms of density and volumetric velocity as ..3) In Eq.5 into Eq. 4. (4.4b) C4. (b) 20 flow._a.t] = a.. .A. . . . .4c) = .~ is the bulk volume of the control element gives .pu. .... .. (4.pu.. has the dimensions can be defined as ).t + (w). .t+ {w)..5b) (4. (4.l'AY).6. 4.[(pu.. . and w.. .. The new definitions.\'O ::::m. . . . a ::::(rp!!J. wY' and wZ' can be substituted into Eq. (4.p c )(+8. and z directions.Fig... ' : '. and Az = areas perpendicular to flow along the x.

andstreamlines. 2}. . .. r direction only. (4.t-O BASIC APPLIED RESERVOIR SIMULATION .(a) e r (c) Fig. (a) 10 flow. and (c) 3D flow. .-O Fig. describing the flow into a well from an infinite line source at a uniform poten· tlal {after Ref. (b) 20 flow. 4.y.5-Equlpoten~ialline·s. 60 . lim {[ AT-O l!.4-Spherical flow geometry and volume element details. r.:-O l!. look at an instant of time as the control volume shrinks to the infinitesimal.8) Now take the simultaneous limits over time and space.TtA.). that is. <P. (J. rand (J directions only.<lx-lu/2 Ax ll. 4. x _ (pU.r/2 - (PU. and e directions. III.

12is written per unit bulk volume of the reservoir.. ...1 _~_. ..13 in this book. we will retain the formgiven in Eq. . 4. 1+.. (4.11) Therefore.. }.j..z(Pu.::. Although this is a mathematical approximation.. (4. (4.. gives . y+-. on the other hand.. . 61 OF BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE FLOW . z.7-Control volume in rectangular coordinates.. .13. .Az)l1z + ~n..2. 4. This equation is a common fonn of the continuity equation or the mass-conservation equation in three dimensions.-.12 by the bulk volume. 4.. .ax pu.. . . .. F(s + 6.. y. . (4. . .....2' )'+1' 4'1 I-T 41) z .. Eq.2..y + Ay. .s/2) - 8s-0 6..z + Az) at lim f{t lI.... .13 is thatEq..9... q"..10) °O~----------~-------------V-O-~-U-M-E_' / I I REPRESENTATIVE E~EMENTARY VO~UME . . 4..12 and introduce the bulk volume at the level of finite-difference equations. . 8. 3).9) Although some authors prefer to keep the PDE as given in Eq. £f == {x. f(s . 4.As/2) S .ay a( ) a (PUr ) .(-o + M) !1t . ..12) MUltiplying Eq.. 4. SOURCE/SINK TERM EXTERNAL AI Ay AI) ( 1--..13.y..9 can be written as .. . and t. rl!~. 4.y. y..y(PUyAy)l1y ..Z. we deliberately carried the area terms inside the parentheses. r"-. .)puxAr)& ... Eq... it makes it possible to accommodate changes in formation thickness in the x. provides a basis for including the cross-sectional areas perpendicular to the flow direction in the harmonic averaging of the transmissibility terms as discussed in Sec. respectively). . .. Vb..f(t) . and z directions..g--I"JAssignment of porosity with representative elemen. The only difference between Eqs.... volume and (b) elementary· volume (redrawn from Ref. 4. (4. . For the spatial variables.. .s=x. 4. . .12 and4..-_ HOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM -a = lim S af ..z+ Az) (X. Fig_4. we can recognize the definition of the first-order partial derivative with respect to the space and time coordinates (x. . . 1+2 2 1 ( 4l. and for time. Qc I a 'l"P at (A.... .I OOIoUIN OF MiCROSCOPIC I EFFECT I +++I DOMAIN OF' CONTINUUM _~ HETEROGENEOUS MEDIUM In Eq. ...13) ..ill(pu: ) + QcVb = a . In Eq..

. :"'S"olution.. .27) Y + oz a (II and w.t]. 4. Therefore. .. .23 through 4..1 presents the units ofall variables and functions in flow equations. press the qm term as a volumetric rate rather than a mass rate. enter the values off3c and ac and the value of i'c in the definition of potential. In arriving at Eq. .. A simple way to express this relationship is through the fluid formation volume factor (FVF)..{}!lz)r_t!. p so and P = densities of the fluid at standard and reservoir eonditions.. PP a()· L3 l(m) .13. (4.. At. a.r/2]At.~l temlS on the left side are :x (p" A¥. ..17.Z) as shown in Fig.. • .. write the left side for each direction over a short np.. 2.' ..(.. Again. IfEq. porosity is assumed to be a function of pressure and qsc = flow rate at the surface conditions.. 4.615 at B . Write Eq.r/2 = (4..' (4. 19b) Ar-Ar/2 = (r6.. which relates the superficial velocity of the fluid to the potential gradient at the inflow and outflow faces of the control volume...>..19b into Eq. (4. E.(W)r+Ar/26. . 2. 4. . compressible) or pressure dependency of the rock and fluid properties....) . (4....... Then Eq. = (4.t].27 gives (m.. . • . .. .. We again write the mass-balance equation as expressed in Eq. .Z)r+t!. (4..13 isdimensional!y consistent. Eq.. (4. 4)~'isdirb~nsjomdly consistent.{}.1 .. .17) 1.1S into Eq.. and the dimensions of the right side are ac v.....ISc) without an external source/sink term.. bore.1Sb) specifications and external conditions are incorporated in the form boundary conditions as is done in classic well-test analysis. Before substituting Eqs.. Vb is in cubic feet... which is the volume at reservoir conditions divided by the volume at standard conditions. .(f3 A~k)' aCf»~ ~ c~ ~ ac(purAr)r_t!.. . . . we will exFlow Term/or the r Direction.mJr = [(W)r_Ar/~t . The continuity equation In cylindrical coordinates can be obtained by considering a. . B = FVF..13 is written to describe fluid flow in porous media. ..80. the velocity terms can be expressed with Darcy's law. 1 ~ • ~ •••••••••••• Flow Term for the (mj'- e Direction. 4.". .... 4. = A9UIJ/2 = ArM. . 4.{t~)q"... and 4. the other terms are as they appear in Table 4.i(v t L')v .r 8Cf»ru: ax pB ax • 1.... '''-'IJI:'ilnn!!l'''i\j a (¢) the dimensionsortne ~: ~(L3iL3 T) qm term are = (T)' (m) T' (4.2. ..26) (4. .25) . B = Psc P' (4. kx• kyo and kz are in darcies.16) Example 4... . . This is done to conform with industry standard measurement practices .... at B ..(rpUrAe6. and. The areas perpendicular to flow along the r direction can be written : _11L _ q"'(T) = a. In this form. 4. .. and Ar+L1r/2 = (rA{}t!. (1.15) Table 4. 4. Now substitute Eqs.. 4.r/2' I'c Azkz #B aCf» Tz & + qsc = Vb a a. expressed by Eq. . (p) Combining Eqs..20 is written in terms of pressurerather than potential (assuming horizontal flow and ignoring the gravitational forces in the rno)r = ac[(rpUrA{}Az)r_1lr/2 . (4. . .the outer boundaries of the drainage volume are concentric ...ac Ft B .127Ayky ay #B aCf» ay 6.(~3)p$c(~) ...\. that is. and the constitutive equation into the continuity equation.20 is the most generalfonn of the single-phase-flow equation... 4..Z)r+t!.17 and 4. ..... Now incorporate the remaining two fundamental laws.·u'l(!· . ..2 . . In these cases. .. The Example 4. .17.VIP 62 = Vp)..20 makes no assumptions regarding the fluid type (incompressible. slightly compressible.!! where velocities are expressed in RBID-ft2 [m3/(d' m2)]..22:. .. -...22...3.(t) .. .( 1. '. mO}9 = ({W)O_49/26.. . mass flow rates along the r direction become W.20... Using Table 4. 4.13 to obtain _§_ b Then... To simplify the appearance of the equation.1S... cylindrical element whose center is (r. .. Eq.. respectively. .. .4.y + 1_(1.1 under customary units. Accordingly. . The.uat~onin Cy~drical Coordinates.t. .. ..'.14) + 1_ (p' az A:k~ C pB ap) 8z & + _ 'Vb qsc ..23) (m.1.-L1r/2 = (fl c~ Axkx 8Cf»ru: b + _E. of time.. dimensions ofthe-differentl. . Solution. 4. Show thatEq.. ..:. - Eq. define the areas perpendicular to flow along the 9 direction as AO-L19/2 z direction. . . 4..' In Eq. and all .•••• . In this equation. . . • ..Flo~ Eq. 4.8. Eq. it takes the form . '. . . Because Eq.(W)B+M/2t!.... the EOS. . . _ (4.r+L1r/2 .24) (4. az 127AZkt 8Cf»& pB az + qsc = l 5. 4.r/2 .. .20 in field units is '. '.. . . a well is located at the center of a cyHndrical drainage volume so that the well.. 4.19a) (4. 4.20) ac(pUrAr)r+t!. ' flow equation as expressed in cylindrical coordinates is used exclusively for single-well simulation problems...1..r/2· ... Rememberthat an BaS relates the density of a fluid to pressure and temperature.30)' BASIC APPLIED RESERVOIR SIMULATION ... That is. 4.20 in customary units._. that measure and express produced fluids in volumetric units rather than mass flow rates.127A"k..18a) rectangular coordinates is often avoided in cylindrical coordinates cause the well is at the center of the drainage area and the . Note that the external source/sink term that is included as qm in .. L3/L3 T L3 (4....

. (4. .1589873 1..rArLi°J. _ mo).21584x1Q-3 5. E) /3e Yc ac ·MultipIY. . .:/2 ]Lit.3) + (pu. Eq.91369233 0.0 tt2 darcy cp RS/sct" RS/STB** scf/STS psia psi/ft psilft scf/D STS/D RS/(D-tt2) ft3 Ibmfft3 32.rArAOAz d (4...1-VARIABLES USED IN FLOW EQUATIONS AND DARCY'S LAW System of Units Quantity Length Area Permeabiiity Phase viscosity Gas FVF aILiquid FVF Solution-gasfoiJ ratio Pressure Pressure gradient Phase gravity Gas flow rate Liquid flow rate Volumetric velocity Gridblock bulk volume Phase density Gravitational acceleration Compressibility Absolute temperature Relative permeability . .37 by rLirA8tl.:/2 . sid m3 is measured at 15°C and 100 kPa. .. .:j2 = A. (4.696 psia.um2 Pa·g m3/std m3" m3/sld m3 std m3jstd m3 kPa kPaim kPaim sid m3jd std m3jd m3/(d·m3) m3 kg/m3 9.3048 0.0 0. . Ciose. .8066352 m/s2 kPa-1 K Conversion Factor" 0._<ull]Lit Ac-<l.62059 22.02831685 16. .r A k .. .(~)'J = Vb [(rpp )rH.0 1. (4.001 5. (puzrArLiO)z+<l.+<I.4x10-6 10-3 1 9. .0 1.::: .8/2 ]Lit.(pueArLiZ)O_8e/2 _ (rpurMAz).3) mJ8 . . . .z.y.7103717 0. (4.62059 0..37) _ (pu. . (4. = [(W):_lli:/2Lit _ (W)c+<l. Bw Rs cP. . p VcP.cusiomary unit by conversion factor 10 obtain metric unit.rLirLiO). •••••••••• c' • • • • • • • •• _1 (rpurirHr/2 (4.174 ft/s2 Bg 8o. .35) FORMULATION Of BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE FLOW 63 . . . .1801175 6. (pueLirLiz)O+ll.:/2At]. qlA Vb p g c T psr" OR fraction fraction fraction dimensionless day rad 1. _ ma and 1I7a terms together into a mass-balance statement... bring all the Ill.[(rpUrMAztHr/2 . 4. . ...127 0.•.:/2 . .614583 IV 1> S Z .+<l.~~rosity ·:: Phase saturation .36) Now.J.09290304 0. + Lit)·~ m.02863640 0. .t fraction fraction fraction dimensionless day rad 86.01846 0. qgse qsc....33 can be used to redefine Eq.3048 0._ar/2 + (pueArAZ)6+ .u Customary Unit ft Metric Unit m m2 .29 can be written as (lIlj _ where the bulk volume of the element is defined as (see Example 4. 'lwsc U. ..0 1. .pompressibility factor Time Angle Transmissibility conversion factor '$'ravity conversion factor Volume conversion factor Symbol x. . Vp y qsc. _ (~p ). Im..:::a"~PueArLiZ)O_lle/2 _..0 1..34) r rl _ (rpUr)'_MIZ] Ar Mass-Accumulation [ma(t Term.31) .. Flow Term/or the z Direction.33) Dividing Eq.55555556 1.894757 22.32) .zLit yields Eq. 4. 4.::: rMLiO. .i9/2 This time the area perpendicular to flow along the z direction is written as (see Example 4.:/2 . ··STB and·sct are measured at 60°F and 14.5519314 1.·. .32 as (mj _ mo\ = ac[ (puordrLiO)~_<l.1450377 0. 4.TABLE 4.0 1.

at radius r Ar +tlrf2 = (r+ /:!"r/2)/:!"zM.[ I (rpur)r+Ar/2 - I a (.. .r-O " t 6. . .. Eq.~t. (4. A.z ( 2 J 4 5 6 7 ( r-T' &-T' I+T Ar ~O ~I) r-T' 9!-T' z+T ~rA9 ~) (Ar 8-T. all» 1a -. Ar + s-n./:!"e.42) a( fez all» 6. . Ar _ tlrJ2 at radius r .. Ar-tlrJ2 =2n(r- /:!. . . . = lim al [.40 and setting P = Psc/ B gives At this stage of the development.:-o Lu-O (1'p )1]. 4. . n(r k. 8 (Ar III8+-..3 . Similarly. . B. . . 4. (4. Obtain the expression that defines the 8 component of the velocity term in radial-cylindrical coordinates. Ae (4.r. (4.9/2 (P!l~)9-6. z-AZ) r+-. In other words.: . 1 or Ar _ tlrJ2 = (r. To calculate the area of the inner boundary..46) BASIC APPLIED RESERvoiR SIMULATION . (r .Z2n . obtain an expression that defines the bulk volume. .8. .r/2)/:!. z+T r+T' L\8 6%) ( ~r ~I) r+T' 9!-1"'z+'1 M (~r dO .0-0 t. .39 reduces to 1. . (pp )J+t..z. 4. .1-0 11m - (rjJurlr_6.(¢p a. .. . . .ac at (rp) . and I:!. Find the expressions that define the areas perpendicular to the flow along the r. Solution.. .9 represents the top view of the control volume of Fig: 4..6/2 e. Table 4.r/2 r Ilr .3) as . 1. kz. . take the simultaneous limits as /:!"r. ke.Ar(2)&M. .. . and --. Because the control volume exposes only /:!"8121r fraction of this area.8. r. . . . + /:!"r/2 - . Z.8-Control volume in cylindrical coordinates. B Pc..43) (4.44) will be . . . 4.AB II AO AZ) 9--.. (4./:!"r/2..- AZ) 2 (. . 4. . u..AI) r-T' &-1"'z-T (r ~r -2"' &1-&8 T'z-. Consider the plan view of the two concentric cylinders with a height of /:!"z.] and . .. (4. and Ye' 1 (PIlO)O+6.:: or 'rPcpB Tr + 7i oe _1a (a pB ali all» pc ko + fJz PopB Tz.. + A(/2) ·2 .:: M Example 4. z-- Fig. and z directions of the control volume of Fig. (4. . Darcy's law gives the superficial-velocitycomponents in radialcylindrical coordinates the 8 component see Example 4.39) After taking the limits and applying the definition of a partial derivative.M/2) n 2 = 2m/:!.38) liz = - Pc~ ~~.41 a) . 2./:!"r!2 is e. . . .. _ tlrl2.. /:!"z.:. the values of ac.. 4.:-0 t. . : (4. k. . .{J')i Tr' 64 . . .r-O 6. and t.. Also. . it is necessary to calculate the inner surface area at radius r.. . .1 gives the units for fer. . . /:!"t J. Il>.9-0 0. iiClJ' . . . co'nsider the ringshaped area.40 is the continuity equation for three-dimensional (3D) radial-cylindrical coordinates' without an external source/sink term. 4.4tc) Substituting these expressions of velocity into Eq.Ar r+-. .40) Eq.4tb) = _L [(¢P )'H' . . . . .. The crosshatched section in Fig.45) (for • To find the area perpendicular to the z direction. . which is 2n(rIlrl2)t!. (4. . 1'. as shown in Fig.9.' (4.t approach zero.

If the fluid is incompressible. The time dependency of Eq. Furthermore. .." .llz. fraction of this ring-shaped element appears in our control volume. .10-4) component 6.57) where l = rde.... ...... Az +!!.... viscosity is also constant. the density is constant: in other words. .50) ..r!!. . 4.52a) .. . ... .53) For an anisotropic (kt . to arrive at Eq.r d velocity...57.Y = A.. 2" 6. y.rj2) /!. .&12 = r!!. ... . (4. ---~" se ~e •.55 represents a steady-state-flow problem as long as the boundary conditions are independent of time. .e = O. + gz (P(. I I I I I I I I .. .. x- .' ....48) ... .. . (4. 4. I I .z/2 = r!!... "2 Fig.. The following sections modify the general flow equation according to the dependency of the fluid density on pressure. Furthermore. '.. .l I' (4.51) 2) id The control volume represents A8127t fraction of the above volume. ... Accordingly.47) (4..!!. = k) as well as homogeneous.9-Plan view of two concentric . .. . 4. so mal expansion is significant.. if therOF BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE FLOW 3) 4) -a' + -a 2 + -a2 + ·pc kV b a xy Z a2p a2p a2p /lqsc = 0..rAz.4 Differerit Forms of Flow Equations The previous sections of this chapter developed the flow equations for a homogeneous (single-phase) fluid without specifying whether the fluid was incompressible. Fig. 4.A. for an ideal incompressible fluid. . If thennal effects going up the well bore are negligible. We continue to consider only single-phase flow. . which passes through the center of the control volume. 4.58) and if no well is within the domain of interest (qsc = 0).. This indicates that Eq. Eq. 4..10 shows that II(! is tangential to the control volume along Arc d-e. _---_ .We cantlse 7t(r :.. Because the area along the z direction does not change.. If the gravity terms are neglecte.. slightly compressible. .r at the Fig.. I I I 2' .55 does not contain any porosity term because the reservoir rock is also treated as incompressible. --- - .. if the medium is isotropic (kx = Icy = k.52b) It is clear that the solution of Eq. The total volume between the two concentric cylinders is f /!"rj2) /!.59 is called the Laplace equation. and uniform) medium.55 also implies that a pressure surface (isobaric map) over the reservoir develops instantaneously and remains intact as long as the boundary conditions are not changed with time. Of compressible.. .. » The area perpendicular to the e direction . 4.1 Incompressfbje-Fluid-Flew Equation. therefore.55) or Az . . are (4. ea 2...20 is removed when B is treated as constant for incompressible fluids (also porous medium is assumed to be incompressible). . In other words. .. (4. is a rectangle and is simply A6·_1J. cylinders.56) _ a ~ dcfJ Pc J.. 2..Z + M. (4. .. I . .z 2 2 = 27tr/!.7t(r .kz !~)!!. 4..z. . Eq. .49) (4.56 becomes kr. the po~_ntial g~d~ent (Eq. Furthermore.8 27t (4.6/2 = A6+Mj2 = IlrM.e ky ¢. ~ . d.. Vb = A"llx = Ay!!.. (4. 65 ... . .) but homogeneous (kn ky.. a similar strategy to calculate the bulk volume of the control element. . I.. 0.55 will have pressure as the dependent varia le..15) becomes equivalent to pressure gradient VtIl = Vp) and Eq. . the constant is something other than unity. I .. Eq.. •. is Note that. From Darcy's law...59 describes the pressure distribution p = p(x. -I I I \ I . we obtain 4..r!!.55 is independent of time..20 can be rewritten as Az - &/2 = 27trtxr !!. Eq.. " (4. Vb = 27trArAZ~ ie 8. B is constant. .. 4. (4. 4... . .....4. . . 4. 4. 4... .8.. (4.... 4. 4..I . .59) 5) g6) Eq. az2 a2p + f3cVb {lqsc = O. only !!. .. Again.. whatever crosses the physical boundaries into the reservoir must displace an equivalent volume from the reservoir. we ?btain . z) in the flow field of an incompressible fluid in a homogeneous and isotropic medium where there is no external source/sink term (well).. . . . or Vb = rllrll8l'.. This implies that incompressible-fluld flow does not allow for accumulation or depletion.. One interesting observation from Eq. .z . Eq..54) kt ax2 alp + ky iJy2· a2p + k. or .8/2.. j .8... (4. B = ] . .

' . . Eq. distrib~~ion.. .. 4.the 'Example4. .. 4. Chap. 4. assume that fluid compressibility is small and remains constant within the pressure range of interest.. The effect of k IS not reflect~d on thepress.20. . . (4. . yields dIfferentIal terms a2p/C/x2 "have :. or make further modification by substituting Eq. After this analysis one can describe the flow problem as ID incompressible-fluid flow in a horizontal... ax2 = C..65) which is _ i)1p ax2 = - /3. and Vb in Eq.55 is (assuming Vet> = Vp) . . .62) (/3.. homogeneous. .':":.P )] ax f3.. . 4.-. .. 4.Axk. . (4. After examining the given mathematical formulation. . i)x a2p .""""" '4. . '. describe the flow problem to the fullest extent..Jrr. a plax2.t.70) Although this development assumes an' incompressible porous medium. 4.'..tqsc =0 .. we have f3cA"k.2= C represents a ID flow problem.66 a( . . . ... where c = fluid' compressibility. .. .67) where C>O. . + i)z f3c pB o( Azkz i)c:I» Tz ~z + qsc = aeRO Vb¢c i)p = at· Vp) yields (4. the FVF can be approximated as in Eq. Eq.. .. .72 then becomes . If the system is homogeneous.x i)ip + f..x a +. 4. ..fl=k~2)' . . it can be safely assumed that [1 + c(p .c (op)2 i)x (4. .63) + i)z Pc pB Tz ~z: + qsc . The following PDE describes a specific fluid-flow problem in a porous medium. _.64) (4. .. Because the entriesf. . .55. We can start with the most comprehensive form of the incompressible flow equation.. (f3 A. therefore.. 4.81.1. . ~. . . 4. as shown in Eq. i)p) i)x f3cAxkx ax /J. 4. .k.flow is through a horizontal medium. .kx.62.69. i)y Y where C>O. Consequently. Eq. substituting for B on the right side with Eq.73) (4.. v..' r: sc IJq = ---a. (4.. 4. must be a negative entry (implying production) for the equation to hold. in one dimension and try to reduce it to the form of Eq. . but only on flow rate.ThiSimplies that 'thedistribut!on of P IS governed bythegeometncal configuration ~f the reservoir and theirnpo:sed boundiuyconditions. the flow-rate entry. i)y ( f3cAyk .61 have the same dimensions. . and ... ignoring the depth gradients (Vc:I> ..68) In many cases. ... Again.k. Example 4. B=Bo/[1 +c(p-p~]. qse.60 and 4.While.Q.x + .71) .f:i9) BASIC APPLIED RESERVOIR SIMULATION . The flow equation for a slightly compressible fluid then becomes cfnsistent. (4.rhidimensipns So!ution. .S . . 4.69 on the left side and treating p as a constant..Vb 3 C-p STBID [std mId]. .z p .72) At this point.rlf3ckVb term are (L2) (L3) (milt) (LJ/t) = (..aeBo at· Azkz i)p) _ Vbrpc op . . (4. . .4.2 Slightly-Compressible-Fluid-Flow Equation... Eq.t ax2/J. . 2.:lx /3ekx Vb #qs< =C • (4. . 4.pO)] "" 1 for slightly compressible fluids because c is very small. 8 allows for the change of porosity with pressure.72. . . _ In one-dimension..66) Expanding the derivatives on the left side gives c i) (' i)p) [I + c(p . ax i)y C pB i)p)/J.at· Vb¢W i)p . Obviously.'#8 Axkx i) ( ap)!J. Eq. and assuming incompressible porous medium..S9isthati~does no~contairany pemte. + f3. . . .A. . Solution. ..62 and 4. . .67 are all positive entries.61) Because Eqs. (4. one can either keep the B terms on the left side. a play2.60) (4.~~f)\Ilth~tE~:4 8 isdimen~ionallY . . porous medium that has a production well producing at a rate of qsc = . .'yq. . . Returning to the general form of the flow equation. . (~~.. For slightlycompressible liquid flow. (4.66 indicates that _ . . i)2p/i)x. . Therefore.Q..5.rm..kx i)x ~x Comparing Eqs.58 is dimensionally consistent. ..abiHtYt~. . f3ek. iJp) ay ~y iJ a + az ( f3cAtkz '-ilz ) /J. .the dimensions of the pq.) Lt 32 • (4.

z.78 becomes . (r oP) r (4.. (4. . 4. . Eq. .87 can be written as . is a very small number for slightly compressliquids and that pressure gradients are also relatively small their squares become even smaller). Eq. (4.87) Substituting for (II B) = [I + c (p . .80) (4. In contrast to the incompressible-fluid flow equatiori.z. and realizing that p c (aor)2 . . Eq. use the chain rule to write at iJ¢ iJ¢ iJp = iJp ai' (4.. .side. Ia r ar {. recalling that (4..On the left and right sides of the equality sign. Eg.. . t .... . pressure gradients are small..79 are not diffusional flow but laminar Darcy flow. and t. When porosity becomes a function of pressure.'" kr' and A. we cannot bring the ¢ term out of the time derivative on the right side of the equation... Example 4. .. as Example 4. and treat kr as a constant. ... With the same analogy. (4.77) : Eq._+-+... (4..a k --r ¢#c op at' .85) ar· r ar a (ap) = f3cack ¢JtC iJp at· . .76) Invoke the approximation that# is constant for a slightly compressible liquid. Solution.. the coefficient (¢Jtc)J(jJc ac k).r =Ay ==A~.+-p a2p a2p· ay2 OZ2 c [(ap)l - ox (OP)2] +(0. ... .77 represents the flow of a single-phase. . . . slightly compressible in a heterogeneous and anisotropic formation. for in = .79 yields a pressure surface that is a function of the independent variables x. . 4. + c(p r/-'''#8° p )] 0 a iJr} p (4. . .84) for a small compressibility. Write the flow equation in lD (r direction) radialcylindrical coordinates for a slightly-compressible liquid in an incompressible.p°)]lBo to obtain assumption becomes more explicit if Ax = Ay . . at . ..13.79 is also known as the diffusivity equation.78) This equation forms the basis of the classic pressure-transient-analysis theory. ky.. sivity equation because of the mathematical analogy to diffusional flow..j B but do not remove ¢ to the front of the. 4.. Slart by . .pO)]! BO and making the necessary manipulations on the left. . . proceed by substituting for p == p.6. flow is horizontal. z.a kr [I . Obviously... ""'~''''b the square of pressure-gradient terms yields c(p . assuming that [1 +c(p-pO)]= I. MiJt. . substitute B-1 = [1 + c( p . 'I' ap} at . . .o2p a2p . that appears on the right side is often referred to as the inverse of the hydraulic diffusivity constant. . In writing this equation we assumed that fluid properties are constant. and ne. [1 + . 11.po)]l1... resulting . I YIelds r <i.89. . .82) 1h2 a.iJ¢ ° a. . .83) Again. ..74. this is true if op/os < I psi/ft [kPalm] for s = x. (V/.c. to Eq. . . It should be realized. that the flow dynamics described in Eq. the slightlyCompressible-flow equation describes a time-dependent problem so that the solution of Eq. 4. we can concentrate on the right side. .. . = ¢#c ap f3 kV f3 k a' 0 c b "a.!riting Eq. sions as the diffusivity constant.90) 67 . c. validity of this assumption becomes obvious when one recalls compressibility.2. porous medium (kr = constant). therefore../ac)(alat)(rjJp). .. carry the differentiations on both sides of the equation. differential operator. . . ". .ar (r iJp) or r rjJ#c ca" -at' + c(op) 2 ar ... ..7. . (4.. . . . . however. For a homogeand isotropic formation. a2p .:}. .42 in the r direction only and assuming that V4> ==. Furthermore. ... this group reveals that the (Aack)f(¢itc) group has the same dimen. and gravitational effects are negligible. ..p+ . 4. Rewrite the slightly-compressible-flow equation in ID rectangular coordinates for situations when the pore volume varies with pressure. . The net effect of this on the slightly-compressible-flow equation (when written only in the x direction) is . A quick check on the dimensionality of .. (479) .y. (4. pore compressibility is zero..0)" +-oz· oy . . c. Solution. . (4. . 4.88) Now. 4. . . this equation can be simplified to obtain ~ialp ~ oy2 or ar (4. . 4. 4~79 is called the diffu. its variation with time needs to be considered in the flow equations.j3-k _ ap (4. homogeneous. Vp . . .. y. .81) FORMULATION OF BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE FLOW: ==- #Vu{ [I+c(p-p)]-+A. . ax2 ay2 oz· = {3. Starting with the original form of the right side of Eq. . if there is no external source/sink (well) in the system. 4.86) + a2p 02 + z 8 M. . ..89) With Eq.4. This condition may be in areas of high velocities around wellbores.

their product will yield a much smaller term whose contribution to the summation within the brackets will be negligible. .. The nonlinearity arises from the strong dependency of J18' Bg.3 Compressible-Fluid-Flow Equation. Starting with Eq. .. One option is to assume ideal-gas behavior.. . Eq. and Z (compressibility factor) on pressure.C T .' (4.•.. cg = lip (see . Dividing the entire equation by .104) For an ideal gas (2= 1 andJ1g is constant)..99) (4.2. ...4. ...x + . . . (4. (4. 4. 4. ...a c l_(l!.(13 ~ Ayk).83).5 discusses the appropriate procedures to handle the expansion of the accumulation term.gPSCT sc (4. substitute for the velocity terms and use Eq. "': ...92) (4. . (eeR =0).101 into Eq. Therefore.. 4...• ax Ax ... (4. 4. consider only 1D flow and substitute Bg:::: PscTZlac1'scP with Eq. = C + cRtjJ° N. . resulting in a material conservative formulation.. the final form of the slightly compressible flow equation in 1D rectangular coordinates is ax f3cA k .••. . 4..g 1 ap2 f3cack p..gcg f3cQc k at'..107) Again for an ideal gas.103) 4..----a. the dependent variable.35 for pressure-dependent porosity.I. PseTZ ax l.at' .. and treatjz as a constant.102.. 4.. . . Simply substitute forBg in Eq... (4.. ap)AY ax p.. (f3c Ayk\..100 yields the final form of the compressible flow equation. ap + B J1Q" ..p ap).gBg ax ay pgBg iJy = VbtjJTSC P. ... . 4...2.. ap)!!. To simplify the development.191 for qmg and Eq. .With Eq. cp..... to obtain (4.8. a( ap) ° _ VutjJp.••.95) where Ct Ct = total compressibility of the liquid and the formation.108) (4.96) Example 4. This form of the compressible-flow equation has applications in low-pressure gas reservoirs (usually up to 500 psia) BASIC APPI. . . ..102) with the units as reported in Table 4..104 simplifies to ~a f3cA xkxp"(IX x a( (Jp) Ax + qgse--Ta.83 for Bg...e.105) = ~u e aa (tjJPgIC). (13 ax " P.. 2..91) Assuming that porosity is independent of pressure and substituting for the gas-phase FVF (as expressed by Eq.. . (4.106) For a homogeneous porous medium with no well.2. ..100) which is the 1D form of the diffusivity equation in the pressuresquared form...Q_ PscT at Z (l!...13.88 can now be expressed as .. set 2= 1.IED RESERVOIR SIMULATION 68 . . Can you recognize the resulting equation? Solution.. the real-gas law is used as an EOS to express the variation of the density of gas with pressure... .102 is a nonlinear PDE and can only be solved numerically... 8.97) and Pc = pgsc/Bgae. . Eq. .102 is possible in several ways.X + qgsc = VutjJTse. 2.93) B :::: Psc1Z g Qc Tscp' (4.2. .98) = VbtjJ . iJp2 . (f3c A. Example 2.) Z' .. Sec.c.k . For gas flow it is impossible to assume constant compressibility and viscosity. . the treatment of the accumulation (time-derivative) term is critical for a mass-conservative formulation. (4. .) (4. p.99 assumed that Qgsc/Qc yields VII> = Vp. g Axk . Tt' :::: RtjJ at· C atjJ iJp on the right side ofEq.. In numerical reservoir simulation. . .. .>./ a2p2 ax2 = <pp..1. Therefore. 2. 4. ~ 0 ~ .102. .• (4. acTs<.) at Z· ... 2. at· (4. therefore. t a. The right side of Eq. Linearization of Eq.4). .101) .t 1. 4.2. yi~lds ~~ :::: CRtjJ°. then .(13 ~ Axkx ~IB8~ ap)'AX + .g~~ ap)AY a2p2 ax2 = tjJp. (4.. (4.94) Because both c and CR are small terms. 4. . at (e. Eq.