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The capacity to perform an act, either innate or as the result of learning and practice. Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude testing. Combining adult learning theory and whole brain learning theory in the learning environment to achieve a faster learning rate. Short term debts incurred as the result of day-to-day operations. Monies due your organisation as the result of day-to-day operations. An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred. The degree of freedom from error or the degree of conformity to a standard. A measurement of what a person knows or can do after training. This is a continuous process of learning and reflection with the intention of getting something done. Learning is centred on the need to find a solution to a real problem. Reg Ravens is said to be the originator of “action learning” The six steps are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Formulate Hypothesis Design Experiment Apply in Practice Observe Results Analyse Results Compare Analysis
Accounts Payable Accounts Receivable Accrual Based Accounting
Achievement Action Learning top
A case study which has been programmed. Learners receive enough information to take them to their first decision point. The decision then takes them to the next frame, which explains the consequence of their decision. This process is continued until the maze has been completed. A word that conveys action/behaviours and reflects the type of performance that is to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable. A process of learning new ideas, skills and attitudes through what we do at work or in other behavioral situations. It is about learning from doing, performing, and taking action. The action can be either mental (e.g. reflection) or physical (e.g. case study). It uses such devices as games, simulations, introspection, role playing, etc. A learning principle that says participants learn more when they are
Active Learning top
actively involved in the process. Remember the saying “we learn more by doing”. Activity Step The step of learner activity based on the enabling objective. In achieving the activity the learner is carried through the teaching points and the teaching steps. Information about the current skills, knowledge, perspectives and environment of individuals in an organisation. Specifics about what people now do. Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differences. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may provide them with additional instruction as needed. An instructional or training method that applies programming principles to existing course materials, texts, manuals, etc. Learners are directed to specific areas within these materials that support course objectives; then directed to respond and given confirmation until they have progressed through the material and have accomplished predetermined objectives. Based on the work of Malcolm Knowles, adult learning principles refer to ways in which adult learning differs from child learning. Principles include difference in self-concept, importance of mutual respect, learning through discovery, responsibility for learning, ability to selfevaluate, difference in accumulated experience, the need to unlearn fixed habits, and the importance of applicability to real-life problems (“what’s in it for me.”) A list, plan or outline of things to be done before, during and after the training. An agenda is the road map that will lead to the achievement of the learning objectives. Everyone needs a plan and wants to know where you are leading them. A cognitive process in which an example or schema is used to map a new solution for a similar problem. First phase of any Instructional Design System. The purpose of this phase is to determine what the job holder must know or be able to do on the job and to determine training needs. A short story used to help illustrate a point, usually tailored to the needs of the learner The ability of an individual to acquire a new skill or show the potential for acquiring a skill when given the opportunity and proper training. A measurement process of the learning that has either taken place or can take place. Usually measured against stated learning outcomes: Predictive assessment attempts to measure what the learner might
Adaptive Branching (Adjustive Device)
Adjunct Program top
Adult Learning Principles
achieve given suitable training Attainment assessment attempts to measure what the learner knows or can do, and is usually related to the syllabus of a course the learner has followed Assets All real or intellectual property owned by the organisation that has a positive financial value. Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event. Also used to indicate a learning event where the interaction is delayed over time, such as a correspondence course. A feeling or emotion of a person that influences choice of action and response to stimulus. Defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, and situation). They encompass, or are often closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. Training or educational materials directed at both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight. Including: Flip charts, overhead transparencies, graphical presentations, computer-based presentations, slide presentations, videos and DVD’s are some examples of audio-visual aids. A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction. Software application used to produce media-based learning content. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Balance Sheet Bandwidth Barriers To Entry top A statement of assets and liabilities. Information carrying capacity of a communication channel. Conditions that create difficulty for competitors to enter the market. For example, copyrights, trademarks, patents, dedicated distribution channels and high initial investment requirements. A set of measurements (metrics) that seek to establish the current starting level of a performance. These measurements are usually established before implementing improvement activities. Any activity the learner will be expected to exhibit after training. The activity should be observable and measurable. It is the primary component of any objective. Belief that learning results in a change in the learner’s behavior. The focus of behaviorists is on the outputs of the learning process. The study of learning only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events, in contrast with subjective mental states.
analytical and quantitative).Block Of Instruction A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area. An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time when payment is received or expenses incurred. An individual’s preference for using one’s cognitive abilities. Services offered to commercial organisations. usually in the form of programmed text. This technique is used to problem solve and collect information by stimulating creative thinking through unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion. An instructional technique. There are two styles of thinking – right brain (intuitive. improper environment. and qualitative) and left brain (factual. engineering. and flawed incentives. such as: equipment maintenance. An instructional technique that transforms a learned response into a stimulus for the next desired response. Method of transferring learning content to many learners simultaneously. The transfer of monies into and out of an organisation. supplying of part time personnel. weak motivation. A documented description of a problem situation that contains enough detail to enable the learners to recommend a solution. Two or more directions in a program path can go from a decision point. In programmed instruction. etc. design and management consulting. The point at which revenues are equal to expenses. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Brain Dominance Brainstorming Branching Break-Even Point Broadcast Business Services top Bypassing Capital The financial investment required to initiate and/or operate an organisation. A group method for collecting ideas and suggestions from the participants. Programme and process where a learner completes prescribed training and passes an assessment with a minimum acceptable result. Case Study Cash Based Accounting Cash Flow Causes Certification Chaining . What gets in the way of individual and organisational performance? There are normally four kinds of causes: absence of skills and knowledge or information. in which the learner’s next step of instruction is determined by her response to a previous step. spontaneous. a technique that permits a student to skip certain portions of the material because of prior knowledge.
judgment. Cognitive also refers to attempts to identify a perspective or theory in contrast to emphasizing observable behavior. A process of organizing many tasks into groups for the purpose of deciding upon the optimal instructional setting mix for that group of tasks. A more radical departure from “cooperative learning”.Checklist A list of relevant items to be considered when preparing and conducting a training programme or activity. Engagement can be elevated through a variety of activities such as inducing cognitive dissonance. “I think”. skills. as the means through which learners acquire both lesson knowledge and deeper conceptual insight. The focus of cognitivists is on the inputs of the learning process. The intentional and purposeful processing of lesson content. demonstrates. directs. A knowledge. From the Latin cogito. Engagement. It involves learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus. who instructs. and reasoning. The mental processes of perception. A person. A task that requires more than one individual to complete with each individual performing a discreet part of the collective task. but which are inferred. or trait which is needed to succeed at a particular task or job. A list of critical knowledge. requires strategies that promote manipulation rather than memorization. posing argumentative questions requiring the development of a supportable position. memory. and traits needed to succeed Clustering top Coach Cognitive Cognitive Engagement top Cognitivists Collaborative Learning Collateral Collective Task Common Learning Objective Competency top Competency Model . Assets that can be pledged to guarantee a loan. in effect. Monitoring the groups or correcting “wrong” impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no authority on what the answer should be. Believe that learning occurs when learners are able to add new concepts and ideas to their cognitive structure by recognizing a relationship between something they already know and what they are learning. ability. abilities. not necessarily a known answer. A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) that is common to two or more tasks. and prompts learners. Cognitive theorists emphasize internal processes and knowledge representations which are impossible to observe directly. and causing learners to generate a prediction and rationale during a lesson. Also pertains to sequencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction. skill.
or organisation. A learning process in which learners embed declarative knowledge in highly domain specific rules or productions. animation and interactive exercises. or to advance your company over another. and reward performers. knowledge or experience to achieve a specific objective. Lines are drawn between associated concepts. or limitations in which the learner must exhibit the specified behavior. Training that is delivered via a computer as opposed to a trainer or paper-based format. Competency models often identify competencies which must be selected for (because they are innate or hard to train) and those which may be developed or learned through training or coaching. The key is to identify the action taken as it pertains to a certain event. skills and attitudes required to perform a set of skills called competencies. For example: He is competent to use a ladder in our building.in a job. A purposeful event designed to overcome the advantages of another company. A concept involves thinking about what it is that makes those things belong to that one group. A mental picture of a group of things that have common characteristics. Some models focus on baseline (minimal level) skills needed while others identify target competencies needed for mastery of performance. evaluate. Competent (Competency) Competitive Action top Compilation Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Computer-Based Training (CBT) – or ELearning Concept top Concept Map or Learning Map Condition . The arrangement of major concepts from a text or lecture into a visual arrangement. A competitive action can be for or against your company. and relationships between the connected concepts are named. job family. A generalization is a person’s idea of the relationships between two or more concepts. A concept is an idea about a group of things. These concept maps reveal the structural pattern in the material and provide the big picture. from the event then identify the goals and objectives of the parties involved. environment. The component of an objective that describes the situation. such as leadership and honesty. develop. The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction in which the system allows for remediation based on answers but not for a change in the underlying program structure. Concepts represent a group of solid objects. Sometimes called Mind Maps. Possessing sufficient or suitable skill. such as an airplane or book. graphics. CBT programmes usually incorporate a mix of text. or abstract ideas. Competency-Based Training Instruction that is organized around a set of learning objectives based upon the knowledge. Competency models can be used to select.
A programming principle that implies self-pacing within an instructional system. drawing a diagram. Contract Learning Also known as self-directed learning. This reinforces or rewards the learner during the entire learning situation. Controlled Pacing top Convenience Goods - Cooperative Learning Core Competencies Core Curriculum Corporate Image Advertising .. Goods often used by the consumer. in that learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer. Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of performance with respect to their goal. innermost or most essential part of what the trainee must know to do their job effectively. An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e. A curriculum in which all or some of the subjects or courses are based on a central theme in order to correlate the subjects and the theme. Those things that are essential and “must” be learned for an individual to accomplish the primary objectives of their job. filling in a form. and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment). A response that has been learned through employing a specific stimulus. magazines and most grocery products. A “corporate image” ad is designed to primarily promote the organisation and secondarily promote the products or services of the organisation. Involves the more conventional notion of cooperation.Conditional Branching Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfied. Giving each learner knowledge of the results of each exercise throughout the training process. cigarettes. This covers a broad spectrum of products including candy. Also see collaborative learning. The central. but the consumer is unwilling to spend “shopping time” to acquire them. It allows the learner to select the topics or competencies they want to learn.g. A term often used in the construction of elearning based materials Conditioned Response Conference Confirmation top Constraint Constructed Response Contextual Interference Various factors inhibit a quick and smooth mastery of a skill. It is a relatively new concept to trainers and learners. A group of people who get together to exchange information and ideas on a specific topic. drugs. newspapers. The information and learner activity are developed so that the learners can progress toward the criterion objectives according to their own learning ability.
then there is a positive correlation. either text. Learners pass or fail depending upon their attainment of the objectives and NOT in accordance with their rank or standing among peers. It has as its purpose the “shaking down” or “validating” of the curriculum and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining the approved learning objectives or training goals. then it is a negative correlation. computer program. The standard by which something is measured. The media. grouped into Cost Of Goods Cost Of Sales Counselling top Course Course Management Plan Course Map Course Trials Courseware Criterion top Criterion Referenced Instruction Critical Incident Technique . If the changes are in the same direction. the task or learning objective standard is the measure of student performance. In test validation. to develop teamwork. the other is likely to make a corresponding change. to cause students to set personal and professional goals. In evaluation it is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product. to inform students on how well or how poorly they are performing. Experts identify the critical job incidents and their products. and to help students resolve personal problems. Testing of the objectives as a learner progresses through the course of instruction. process. that when one changes. to assist students to reach required standards. A methodology of task analysis which determines the tasks to be included in instruction. that contains the instructional content of the course. trainers and students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that course.Correlation The relationship between two sets of data. A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. The direct costs involved in producing a product or service which usually includes labour and materials. The cost of goods plus the expenses involved in selling and delivering the product or service. A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities. A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a course. A document that includes the course description and the administrative directions for managing a course. If it is in the opposite direction. or CD-ROM. Also called “pilot course”. A leader/instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance. Sometimes called a training management plan. Incidents are edited for redundancy. or behavior. In training. it is the standard against which test instruments are correlated to indicate the accuracy with which they predict human performance in some specific area. A complete integrated series of lessons which are identified by a common title and/or number.
or considered by someone qualified to purchase it. frequently combining oral explanation with the operation or handling of systems. written or computer-based self-study program. Numbers and population. the size of the audience. A learning experience in which students observe and then participate in a sequence of events designed to teach a procedure. for example. Factors which will impact the effectiveness of the training. One that buys goods or services. The implementation of a training solution such as a workshop. The incidents are summarized and then validated by the experts for completeness. An instructional design where rules are presented followed by examples. equipment. web-based distance learning. location of the presentation etc. This is a useful means for obtaining a list of relevant. Variants are instructor-led training. or materials. When the training solution is implemented. The aggregate of courses of study given in a learning environment. and then classified as positive or negative incidents. Assets that can be converted quickly to cash. functions or activities. and books. One whose desires are fulfilled in monetary exchange. The decay rate can be stopped or slowed by having them use their new skills upon their return to the job. The amount of time it takes learners to forget what they have learned in training. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Cross-Training Current Assets Current Liabilities Curriculum Customer Customer Interaction Point Debt Service Decay Rate The regular payments required to keep a loan current. online laboratory.top similar tasks. real-world tasks to be included in instruction. a technique. Internally: An individual who is served by another individual with a specific series of tasks or desired outcome. Deductive Design Delivery Delivery Of Training top Demographic Information Demonstration DemonstrationPerformance Method . Any method of transferring offerings to learners. The emphasis is on forming conclusions. seen. or an operation. it is available to the learner and ready for use. Providing training in several different areas. A method for showing participants how to do a specific task or skill. A moment where a product or service may be used. All debts incurred in the normal day-to-day business and due within one calendar year. This provides backup workers when the primary worker is unavailable. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. job aid. CD-ROM.
It is learning for growth of the individual. e. video tape. or intervention. job aid. flip charts. It enables workers to create better products. The process of determining the purpose. The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to obsolescence) of an organisation’s fixed assets. format. and the required skills and knowledge for a task are constructed and sequenced. It enables leaders to guide their organisations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. In some cases depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction. structure. The third of the Instructional System Design phases. but not related to a specific present or future job. CBT story board (script). The purpose of this phase is to develop and validate the instructional material (courseware).Dependent Learning Objective Skills and knowledge in one learning objective that are related to those in another learning objective. faster services.g. and instructional methods for a training program or learning intervention. Design specifications s usually include the following sections: Background or context Target audience Purpose Learning Objectives Requirements Constraints Modules & Topics Growth of people to acquire new horizons. and so forth. The development phase follows the design phase. It includes creation of any materials involved in a training program. tests. and more competitive organisations. A technique for evaluating a proposed design A written document summarizing the design blue print for a training or learning intervention which helps to guide the design team. trainer’s( instructor’s) leader’s guide. technologies. such as coaching. objectives. or viewpoints. Instructional design in which the student is presented information and Depreciation Design Of Training/Learning Intervention Design Phase top Design Review Design Specifications (Design Specs) Development Development Of Training/ Learning Intervention top Development Phase Developmental Need Didactic Design . A gap between an individual’s current skill/knowledge/ability level and the level required for effective performance success in the future. OJT. trainee (participant) workbook. In order to master one of the learning objectives. The second of the Instructional System Design phases. The learning objectives. it is first necessary to learn the other. etc. hand outs. Development results in the finished products needed to deliver training.
Often used for qualifications rather than work based learning In testing. etc. etc. elearning etc. and change management procedure for a given project. Differential Feedback Test response feedback specific to the multiple choice answer selected by the student. telephone sales. business partners. Students take courses from a variety of sources (and delivery modes) to customize a program of study. A way of delivering training/information electronically. Many programmes have a level of classroom based activity integrated. Students learn by doing and experiencing. Voice Mail. One of several models available for use in selecting tasks for training.asked to respond to questions. Telephone. Often is used synonymously with online learning. A written document which describes the background. tasks are identifies as critical based on The difficulty. Satellite TV. direct mail sales. The provision of a structured learning programme delivered remotely from the learners. workbooks. The path your product follows to be delivered to the end user. The ability to choose between two closely related responses to a specific stimulus. retail outlets. Internet. Intranet. benefits. Media may include books. rather than relying only on the trainer/ facilitator. Difficulty-ImportanceFrequency Model Direct Sales Method Discovery Learning Discrimination Distance Learning top Distracter Distributed Learning Distribution Channel Distribution Method Distributor Document Of Understanding (DOU) . Videotape. CD-ROM. video. LAN (local area network). Using this model. Electronic Mail. An organisation that purchases your products for resale to their customers who are usually retail outlets. cable TV. Methods include audio tape. direct mail or telephone sales. assumptions. purpose. scope. vending machines. time frames. importance. resource requirements. It includes a “sign-off” section which should be signed and dated by the sponsor. This may be through distributors. and frequency of job task performance. deliverables. and other key project resources once the project parameters have been finalized. incorrect answers provided as choices in multiple choice or matching type test items. The distributor expects to receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution service. project manager. self service outlets. Selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using advertising.
It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable. tools. and organisation. light. E-Learning Elements Enabling Learning Objective (ELO) Equity Ergonomics Evaluation top Evaluation . each requiring a different type of evaluation: *Improve the instruction (formative evaluation) *Promote individual growth and self-evaluation (evaluation by both trainer and learner) *Assess the degree of demonstrated achievement (summative evaluation) *Diagnose future learning needs (of both trainer and learner) *Enhance one’s sense of merit or worth (learner) *Identify or clarify desired behaviours (trainer) Testing and comparing results. procedures. etc. The process of gathering information in order to make good decisions. Components of a task or the smallest meaningful activity that describes what an individual is expected to be able to do A statement in behavioural terms of what is expected of the student in demonstrating mastery at the knowledge and skill level necessary for achievement of a Terminal Learning Objective (TLO) or another ELO. evaluating and managing solutions to those problems. ideas. involved in all aspects of human learning. being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards. implementing. integrated process involving people. Training people to do a different job. and devising. sound. A percentage ownership of an organisation. and includes both subjective (opinion) input and objective (fact) input. usually in the form of stock. portfolio assessment. The use of innovative technologies and learning models to transform the way individuals and organisations acquire new skills and access knowledge. Evaluation can take many forms including memorization tests. and self-reflection. An approach to job design that focuses on the interactions between the person and the environmental elements such as the work station. devices. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations.Duty A combination of related tasks equal a duty and duties combine to form a job. There are at least six major reasons for evaluating training. It is broader than testing. for analyzing problems. Efficiency A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z E-Book Offerings that organize text and graphics into on-line lessons or chapters like traditional print books. or to increase their potential. Education top Educational Technology A complex.
A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e. *Level three answers the question. This phase is actually conducted during and between all the other phases. This means that in an evolutionary approach. and then determines Facilitator . which is entirely deterministic. and standard interviews. *Level one is how participants feel about training (reaction). and other attributes). synthesizing ideas.Evaluation Hierarchy (Four Levels Of Evaluation Model) Donald Kirkpatrick identified the evaluation model most widely recognized today in corporate training organisations. tracking ideas and progress. The fifth of Instructional System Design phases. attitude. A person who makes it easier for learners to learn by attempting to discover what a learner is interested in knowing. This is often accomplished with pre-testing and post-testing. tentative or short term goals may be specified. This level is often measured with attitude questionnaires. A method for developing training programs. “Do people use the information on the job?” This level addresses transference of new skills to the jobs (behavior change). behavior. performance objective. It includes both deterministic and incremental systems. rating forms. The purpose of this phase is to determine the value or worth of the instructional program. in contrast to the systems approach. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Evaluation Instrument Evaluation Phase Evolutionary Approach Exercise Experiential Learning Extrapolation top Face-To-Face Facilitation Learners and trainers are in the same location at the same time. Facilitation assists a group in discovering its own insights.. and needs. The Kirkpatrick Model addresses the four fundamental behaviour changes that occur as a result of training. Evaluation instruments include tests. learning. *Level two determines if people memorized the material (learning). This is often accomplished by observation. A structured experience in which the participants are involved. and keeping the group on course by balancing preplanned goals with spontaneously occurring needs. The process of helping a group to accomplish its own goals by encouraging and leading discussion. A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student to experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training session. A sub-level of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop sufficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the subject matter under study. inventories. This approach is particularly appropriate for situations where there is limited past experience from which to draw guidance.
Organizing instruction such that tasks that relate to the same procedures or equipment are presented together. Gaming is typically an enjoyable learning method for the student. Study of human learning where understanding is based upon insight. and identifying possible resources.the best way to make that information available to the learner by providing the knowledge. The day-to-day cost of doing business that is pre-committed. The “front end” phase of the design process in which the job is analyzed. systems. such as salaries. Also called long term assets. The focus of discussion between trainer and learner. existing courses are reviewed. etc. tasks are selected for training. utilities. these are usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the organisation’s day-to-day business operations such as plants. providing ideas. Responding in the same manner to several different stimuli. Competition should be controlled so that all participants feel like winners at the end. The rules for games should be clearly defined for all participates to understand. usually ISO A1 in size. suggesting alternatives. lease expenses. and the instructional setting tentatively determined. Tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target Fishbowl Fixed Assets top Fixed Costs Flip Chart Formative Assessment Front-End Analysis top Functional Grouping Gaming Generalizations Gestalt Gross Profit Group Trial . The choices and the consequences resemble real-life situations. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Games Discovery exercises where participants learn by experience. or materials which enable the learner to perform a task more effectively. Revenues less cost of sales. equipment. An easel with large sheets of paper for presenting or collecting written lists or ideas. A technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and risks. A group process using a discussion group and an observer of the group. and the players are reinforced for various decisions. This is done by listening. task performance measures are constructed. asking questions. Feedback Providing individuals or learners with information about the nature of an action and its result in relation to some criterion of acceptability. insurance. furniture and property. as a result of which both parties review their objectives or approach.
The instruction is delivered to the learners during this phase. but a trial-and-error approach frequently involving the act of learning. The value of the sum of attitudes. A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps. summarize action items for the audience to follow up on and supply supporting data you don’t want to clutter your visual aids. A learning experience in which students participate in an instructorcontrolled. criterion test performance. and knowledge and competencies of people in an organisation. The fourth of the Instructional System Design phases. It is the renewable part of intellectual capital and is the source of creativity and innovation. not a direct step-by-step procedure. designing costeffective interventions to close performance gaps. and time to complete the course. planning for future improvements. A problem solving approach. simulators. human capital is owned by the individuals who have it. Handouts will reinforce important information. implementing the interventions. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Icebreaker top Implementation Phase A quick game or exercise designed to get participants settled or mixing with each other. Student practice on actual equipment. during or after the presentation. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Handouts top A written summary of the presentation that is distributed to the audience before. An organized learning experience. or training aids. interactive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an instructional objective. conducted in a definite time period. Unlike structural capital. There is no fixed minimum time for a unit. skills. Group-Paced Instruction Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest (Lockstep) student. and evaluating the financial and non financial results. to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth. Guided Discussion Method Hands-On Hard Skills Heuristic Routine Human Capital Human Performance Improvement (HPI) Human Resource Development (HRD) . Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes. Guidance Package A complete self-instructional package that guides the learner through various methods and media to achieve specific learning objectives and directs the learner activities in the performance of a task.population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates.
and individual video monitors. An initial estimate of what the instruction should do. reinforcement. a statement of revenues and expenses. A portion of material to which the student makes a response. temperature controlled classroom equipped with individual desks. Instruction applies to both training and education. and the medium used to present the information. It is a stage in the instructional process that represents progress in the student’s mastery. The approach used to present information in a manner that achieves learning. Approaches include tutorial. The procedures applied to an instructional goal in order to identify the relevant skills and their subordinate skills and information required for a learner to achieve the goal. well lighted. The delivery of information to enable learning. A self-contained instructional unit that includes one or more learning objectives. items. etc. appropriate learning materials and methods. and branching complexity. chairs. simulation. The philosophy. An example is: a clean. methodology. a Socratic lecture technique. Aspects of instructional strategies include the order of presentation. For example a traditional instructor led instructional strategy may be accomplished using the lecture method. Clear statements of behaviour that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instruction. and approach used to deliver information. or segments (steps). feedback. A component of the instructional strategy defining a particular means for accomplishing the objective. A subject to be taught is broken down into frames. or workplace location. It is assumed that students cannot take later steps in a given sequence before taking the earlier step and that each segment or item represents a step forward. testing strategies. Some courseware aspects include question strategy. Also called “method of instruction”. and what it should look like. level of interaction. level of interaction. gaming.Income Statement Also called Profit & Loss statement or P&L. and associated criterion-reference measures. and a defined step-by-step questioning procedure. The location and physical characteristics of the area in which instruction takes place. a field. Inductive Design Instruction Instructional Analysis Instructional Concept Instructional Design Instructional Goals Instructional Method top Instructional Module Instructional Setting Instructional Step Instructional Strategy . The setting can be in a classroom. An instructional design where examples are presented and then followed by the rule. The process by which knowledge and skills are transferred to students. remediation. a laboratory.
or occurring within the confines of an organized structure. The ISD process includes analysis. and appropriate motivation to gain the student’s attention. email. target population. Situated near the inside of a body (groups supporting direct customer interactions). It provides links to learning resources outside of the course. The act or process of interacting. interactive media. trains or instructs an individual or a group of people. A major section of a lesson designed to establish a common ground between the presenter and students. teleconferencing. as. compact disc. Any relationship between leadership.Instructional Systems Design (ISD) top A formal process for designing training. This is also called goodwill. A ratio for evaluating sales effectiveness. be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training. bulletin boards. Non-physical assets such as patents. It is accessed using a Web browser and is protected from unauthorized access by other Internet users via a firewall. and overview. Mutual or reciprocal action or influence. and evaluation. motivation step. Relating to. or employees with a common purpose to achieve business objectives and serve customer needs. why the student is studying the material. and to lead the student into the body of the lesson.) to support learning. An umbrella term that includes both computer-based and multimedia training. to point out benefits to the student. etc. the interaction of an individual and a product on each other. etc. trademarks. modem. teams. The person who teaches. A segment of instruction that reviews recent learning to reinforce prior information. Intranet A company’s internal network which is based on Internet technology. development. A segment that provides a general statement of the course content. Related or belonging to or existing within the management process. such as references. implementation. satellite. The use of technology (computers. a customer base. usually contains attention step. to capture and hold attention. managers. brand recognition of your products. and discussion groups. design. For a given accounting period divide total revenue for the product by the average retail value of the Introduction Inventory Turnover . Instructional Technology Instructor Intangible Assets Interaction Interactive Training Interim Summary Internal top Internal Partnership Internet-Based Training Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the internet or intranet. Also known as Systems Approach to Training (SAT). to outline the lesson and relate it to the overall course.
manuals. A job consists of responsibilities. duties. May be printed or on-line. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement. duties. and attitudes required to perform the job correctly. and responsibilities associated with a job. A device designed for use on the job and providing guidance on the performance of a specific task or skill. skills. An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. and tasks. It identifies and organizes the knowledge. A reiteration of key points of content in a knowledge-level lesson designed to enhance a learner’s ability to remember facts. It is used as an employment tool for classifying work and for selecting employees. and rated. and tasks that are defined and can be accomplished. Involving Question A question asked to the audience to involve the group and learn what they are interested in learning about. Knowledge Mapping A learning method similar to outlining that consists of drawing out . A method of providing training when it is needed. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction. Job Aid (Performance Aid) Job Analysis Job Description Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Just-In-Time Training (JITT): Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Knowledge Specific information required for the student to develop the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of the jobs. qualifications. Breaking down the complexity of a person’s job into logical parts such as duties and tasks.product inventory. and storing knowledge and experiences of individual workers and groups within an organisation and making it available to others in the organisation. Knowledge Level Summary Knowledge Management Capturing. measured. Often these are paper-based and posted on the wall in plain sight or in a small reference notebook. decals. A formal statement of duties. They can also be. cards. organizing. or other recording systems. This is accomplished by gathering task activities and requirements by observation. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Job top What a person does at work to satisfy an employer’s needs and expectations in exchange for pay. An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. Used in situations where it is not feasible or worthwhile to commit the procedure to memory before on-the-job activity. etc. interviews.
A combination of software tools perform a variety of functions related to online and offline training administration and performance management. The analysis of each task or subject area to determine what the learner must do upon completion of training. or experience. gaining knowledge. behaviour (action). and what skills and knowledge must be taught in order to meet the end-of-training requirement. and standard of task performance for the training setting. A decrease of learned skills over a period of time. A relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality. Knowledge acquired by systematic study in any field. the instructional materials are geared to the students abilities. how well the learner must be able to do it. instruction. An instructional process in which the content is determined by the students needs. A curve reflecting the rate of improvement in performing a new task as a learner practices and uses her newly acquired skills.(Mind Maps) circles and connecting them with lines while writing words in the circles and on the lines. Infrastructure platform through which learning content is delivered and managed. nuggets. Learner Centred Instruction Learning Learning Learning Activities Learning Analysis Learning Curve Learning Decay Learning Hierarchy Learning Management System (LMS) Learning Object top Learning Objective . training components. that can be measured. Includes Reusable Information Objects (RIOs). or developing behaviour through study. A reusable chunk of information that is media independent. Decay can be retarded by the conduct of sustainment training. educational objects. and chunks. skills. Events intended to promote trainee learning. A graphic display of the relationships among learning objectives in which some learning objectives must be mastered before others can be learned. content objects. A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction. that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. and the instructional design makes the students active participants. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Lead-Off Question top A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of students at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussion. It prescribes the conditions.
A composite of the cognitive. affective. fair. abilities or attitudes) and applying them to improve product or service quality. and conduct of the training. etc. that contains the instructional content of the course. interacts with. The media. Any Web site that offers learners or organisations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources. A way of generating a quantitative value (numerical) to a qualitative questionnaire (e. good. instructional media material requirements. in a limited manner. A segment of instruction that contains a learning objective and information to be imparted to the student. affective and psychomotor behaviors for the purposes of test design invented by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues. trademarks. Kolb etc A classification of cognitive. equipment. The methods that students use to learn.Learning Organisation Continually learning new KSA’s (knowledge. either text. very good. sales literature. Included in this definition are perceptual modalities. A one-way communication from the lecturer to the group. It provides specific definition and direction on learning objectives. and personality patterns. computer program. An agreement between two organisations allowing one to sell the other’s products or services and to use their name. A written guide for trainers plans in order to achieve the intended learning outcomes. or CD-ROM. copyrights. poor. and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives. Learning Package (Courseware) Learning Portal Learning Step Learning Strategies Learning Style top Learning Style Inventory – LSQ Learning Taxonomy (Bloom’s Hierarchy): Lecture Lesson Lesson Plan Licensing Agreement Lickert Scale Lifelong Learning Linear Liquidity . A logical and incremental change The percentage of an organisation’s assets that can be quickly converted into cash. The concept of ‘continuous personal development’ through student centred (self-actualized) learning.g. A test or questionnaire which compares an individuals preference against a given model – Honey & Mumford. and responds to the learning environment. skills. excellent). A sub-unit of a learning objective derived when the learning objective is analyzed into its component parts. information processing styles. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test taking strategies.
Technique invented by Tony Buzan following research on note taking procedures which proved that if a learner writes down own key words then retention was maximized. The percentage of the total sales (from all sources) of a service or product represented by the sales made by your organisation. that is. (A representation of a process or system that show the most important Market Life Cycle Market Penetration Pricing Strategy Market Share Mastery Material Goods Measurement Media Meta Skills Mind Mapping top Model . and creating new schemas. recalling relevant schemas. your sales divided by total sales Meeting all of the specified requirements for a specific performance. If near term income is not critical and rapid market penetration for eventual market control is desired. adding the new information to the old schemas. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Long Term Assets Long Term Liabilities Management The act. Normally raw or processed materials such as coal or steel that will become part of the purchaser’s end product. film. but provided in a complete package to be useable in its current state. A tool used to provide feedback to the learner and the trainer to determine where the learner is in relation to the ultimate goal or objective. A suitable revision or presentation of information which the reader knows will change over time. These skills include chunking or organizing new information. The period of time that a substantial segment of the buying public is interested in purchasing a given product or service form. computers. Also called fixed assets. Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new information in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced).e. then you set your prices very low. etc. debts that are not due until at least one calendar year in the future. Skill in managing. or control: management of a crisis. management of front line workers.Living Document top A state based publication refined and improved over time under single topic or scope. equipment. furniture and real estate.g. All debts that are not current liabilities. executive ability. slides. i. these are usually non-liquid assets that are integral to the organisation’s day to day business operations such as plants. supervision. or practice of managing. manner. e. The person or persons who control or direct a business or other organisation. The means by which material is presented to learners. handling.
Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Needs There are two kinds of needs when training a group: 1) What the group thinks they need. It describes any application that uses multiple media (graphics. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Objective A statement communicating the specific goals to be achieved.variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system. nationalities or cultures. A method used to determine training needs by reviewing work tasks. It is important to resolve any conflicts before beginning the training. and 2) What the trainer thought the group needed. Needs Analysis Net Profit Net Worth Networking Norm-Referenced Measurement . sound. Assets minus liabilities. A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way. audio. Mixed races. A learning principle that says participants learn best when they are motivated. Module Motivation Motivational Device Multicultural Multimedia Multimedia Training top Multiple-Sense Learning A learning principle that says that learning is far more effective if the participants use more than one of their five senses. Information in different formats including text. but multimedia is primarily thought of as any application that uses high-bandwidth media (audio and video) and is most often delivered on CD-ROM. identifying performance factors and objectives. and defining training objectives and recommendations. The process of determining a student’s achievement in relation to other students. An instructional system that incorporates all or various instructional methods and media. text. video and animation to support computer-based applications. The material must be meaningful and worthwhile to the participant not only to the trainer. Getting to know other participants and learning from them. A stand-alone unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning objectives. animation. video). Total revenues less total expenses. Modeling The process of observing and mapping the successful behaviours of other people. graphics.
printed circuits. Formal training for learning the skills and knowledge to perform a job that takes place in the actual work environment. visual. transistors. kinesthetic. forgings. auditory. A process that refers to all the participation of all the functional areas of the organisation in the training design activity. See job aid. etc. The accomplishment of a task in accordance with a set standard of completeness and accuracy. Observer On-Site Sales Method On-The-Job-Training (OJT) Open-Ended Test Item A question that can be answered in a variety of ways. Learning style that refers to the primary way our bodies take in and perceive information. Examples are screws. The intent is to enhance the design with the input of all the key stakeholders. Involving close cooperation between parties having specified and joint rights and responsibilities. and tactile (VAK). Also called over training. bolts. It is used with an overhead projector. Such a process should ensure that the final outcome of the design meets the needs of the stakeholders. Learning where no feedback is provided to a user’s response. Electronic projector that projects overhead transparency images onto a wall or screen. castings. the elimination of subjective bias by limiting choices to fixed alternatives. Products that will normally become a part of the purchaser’s end product. electric motors. Two or more groups joined together by mutual agreement for a specific desired result.Objectivity In testing. It is the process by which professional’s partner with clients to identify Participative Design Partnership Parts/Sub Assembly Goods Passive Learning Perceptual Modality Performance Performance Aid Performance Analysis . Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Participant A person attending a training program or involved in any group process. Overhead Projector top Overhead Transparency Sheet of transparent film with information written on it. Selling directly to the end user using a sales force that calls on the prospect at their home or place of business. (Open-Ended Response) Over Learning Practice beyond what is required for retention. Someone who watches a group process and gives feedback on it.
A statement of the conditions. implementing the interventions. This includes time traveling to the training activity. The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a task performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard. time of actual training. it is a systematic process of integrating practices from a vast breadth of fields such as instructional technology. designing and developing cost-effective and ethicallyjustifiable interventions to close performance gaps. Performance Consultant A role which is responsible for identifying and addressing the performance needs of people in an organisation. organisational development. Learners prove competency by actual performance of the objectives to the established standards. feedback. Questionnaires and examinations are normally piloted before they are used. Performance Deficiency The inability of a unit or individual to perform the required tasks to the established standard. Performance Gap Performance Improvement The delta between desired and actual performance. Testing something before sending it to the target population. Also referred to as human performance technology. planning for future improvements in human performance. The total time involved in training personnel once they are designated as students. Technologies designed to enhance human performance and capabilities in the workplace. learner’s behaviour (action). This is a generic term and may be either a criterion objective or an enabling objective. and employee selection. human factors. and standard. Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency via taskbased learning objectives written with an action verb. and through study of individuals and the organisation. It is the process by which we determine when and how to use education and information resources. Performance analysis is a systematic and systemic approach to engaging with the client. Performance Criteria/Standard Part of a learning objective that describes the observable learner behavior (or the product of that behavior) that is acceptable as proof that learning has occurred.top and respond to opportunities and problems. A systematic process of discovering and analyzing human performance improvement gaps. to determine an appropriate crossfunctional solution system. time awaiting instruction. and evaluating the financial and non financial results. time from termination of Performance Measures Performance Objective Performance Technology Performance-Based Instruction Piloting top Pipeline . motivation. A criterion for prescribing the desired learner performance.
or measuring. Initial practice occurs while the student is acquiring skills. and attitudes necessary to successfully perform one or more training objectives. balance sheets. A single unit. Practice enables the student to perform the job proficiently. The volume of products or services that can be produced by an organisation using current resources. and affective skills. cognitive. Ability to perform a specific behaviour (e. or one that is worth reaching or achieving. A “product comparison” ad compares the features of your product or service with those of one or more competitive products or services with the intent of showing yours to be more feature rich than the competition. acquired in the training phase. EPSS. A “product benefits” ad is designed to acquaint the prospect with the strengths of the product or service and the benefits resulting from those strengths. Ways of delivering information to help promote learning. They include audio. online help. video.. interactive television. Familiarity with directions. Point An objective or purpose to be reached or achieved.g. and others Financial forms (invoices. may include more than one training activity. rating.training until reporting back to the workplace. skills. types of items. A technique used during a training session that permits students to acquire and practice the knowledge. teleconferencing. The influence of previous experience in taking a test for the second time or more. multimedia. Repeated and systematic performance to gain proficiency using the psychomotor. P&L statements.) based on future expectations. as in counting. etc. and questions when taking a test again usually helps the examinee to score higher. Practical Exercise Practice Practice Effect Presentation Methods Pro Forma Product Benefits Advertising Product Comparison Advertising top Product Family Advertising Production Capacity Proficiency . task. CBT. A “product family” ad is designed to convince the prospect that they have a wide range of functionality to choose from today and after they buy they will not be locked into a single product or service environment in the future. learning objective) to the established performance standard in order to demonstrate mastery of the behaviour. Practice effect is greatest when the time interval between the test and retest is short and when the same form is administered. proficiency practice occurs at intervals after training so that the skills may be refreshed.
A learning principle that tells us that the things that are learned last Recency . Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Profit Margin Profitability Strategy Programmed Learning top Project Project Management Project Plan Prompt Proprietary Technology Quiz A short test administered by the instructor to measure achievement on material recently taught or on any small. Direct quotes from credible people or organisations to help support your training concept. deliverables. guarantees immediate feedback concerning whether or not the material was learned properly and allows the learner the pace with which she can go through the material. These actions take into consideration “future market demands. “The art and science of planning. especially one characterized by sympathetic understanding. and other contributing elements that could change the cost per transaction. responsibilities and timeframe’s. The technology may be integral to the product or service being offered or it may be used in the production of the product or service. A word or signal that initiates or guides behaviour. Technology that is unique and legally owned by an organisation. performing and successfully completing special ‘one time’ work efforts. used to evaluate level of success. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Quotation Rapport A relation. newly completed unit of work.” (Stacy Goff and Associates. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).” cost of goods. The total revenues less total expenses incurred A series of specific actions taken to improve influencing factors that change profits certain period. A procedure that provides information to the learner in small steps. and one or more objectives. Training to develop and maintain a given level of skill in the individual or team performance of a particular task. or mutual trust. Role/Responsibility Matrix. emotional affinity. etc. A project has dedicated resources. a cue. unique work effort that produces a change in the organisation.Proficiency Training Training conducted to improve or maintain the capability of individuals and teams to perform in a specified manner. 1993) A document that breaks the project down into specific activities. Different forms include Gantt Charts. a specific start and end date. A specific. better. faster and cheaper.
The way in which one person or thing is connected with another: the relation of manager to employee. Return on Investment. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability. the group to demonstrate ways to handle specific situations or problems. store and “recreates” information coming into the brain. Reductionism top Reinforcement A meaningful way to study complex subjects by dividing it up into smaller components. selection among alternatives (multiple choice). A particular type of connection existing between people related to or having dealings with each other. etc. Retained earnings are used to improve the value of the organisation through development and /or promotional programs. Relation Relationship Relevant Remedial Loop Remediation Request For Proposal (RFP) Response top Retained Earnings Rhetorical Question ROI Role-Playing Segmented Training . Any behavior that results from a stimulus or stimuli. or with. the solution of a complex problem. A document submitted to consultants which requests a proposal to address a specific problem. the manipulation of buttons or keys. In instruction. information. Net Profit divided by Net Worth. training aids. case studies and other materials must be relevant and appropriate to the participant’s needs if they are going to be effective. A question asked to the group with an obvious answer. Modification of existing formal courses into discrete portions. Supplemental course materials to correct a learner’s understanding or to reinforce the learning objective. An adjustive device that allows remedial instruction for learners. A learning principle that tells us that all the training.are those best remembered by the participants. the way in which a human processes. The condition or fact of being related. relevance of one to another. connection or association. Acting out of specific situations in front of. it designates a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Schema In learning psychology. This device is an excellent way to get the audience’s attention. Profits retained by the organisation rather than disbursing to the shareholders. Encouragement or praise given to participants to keep their interest or increase their motivation. connection. A logical or natural association between two or more things.
Learning initiated and directed by the learner. and criterion steps into the most appropriate order for effective learning. and time to complete Self-Paced Learning Seminar top Sequencing Sequential Training Service/Product Mix Session Shaping Shocking Statement Simulation Simulation Sitting With Nellie Skill Skimming Pricing Strategy Small Group Trial top . Arranging the teaching points.Self Teaching Packages Self-Directed Learning Self instructional study units sent to the learner’s location. A complex sequence of practical activities. The term is used by some organisations now to include computer-based. etc. A try out of a training course on a representative sample of the student target population to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction in regard to error rates. telephone. Discredited form of training where the learner observes an expert performing the tasks. Sometimes these are problem-solving sessions where the participants have similar needs or problems identified. teaching steps. Examples of this type of service would be: fast food. web-based and multimedia training. Any single presentation that deals with one specific topic. It may last from a few minutes to a few days depending upon the subject. An instructional strategy used to teach problem solving. To generate quick cash and are not concerned for significant market penetration and control. Computer-based training is an excellent method for supporting this type of learning. procedures. catering. then you set your prices very high. criterion test performance. An exercise designed to create a real-life atmosphere. is distinct in that the quality of the service is often more important than the product received. The ordering of training so that the learning of new or more complex skills/knowledge is built on and reinforces previously learned material. Any representation or imitation of reality. The process of gradually changing a student’s behaviour until it conforms to the desired behaviour. often to achieve a given output. or operations by immersing learners in situations resembling reality. Any meeting for exchanging information and holding discussions. while involving both service and product. This type of statement will help capture the audience’s attention and elevate their interest in the subject. This business. Participants take responsibility for their learning and learn-at-theirown-speed.
The part of a discrimination-type situation that tells the learner how to work the exercise. Important or essential in relation to a plan of action: to recruit more… Highly important to an intended objective: The staff discussed strategic marketing factors. retention. A road map that provides guidance and direction to lead us to an established objective or goal. A summary document which describes progress relating to accomplishment of a goals within the target time frame. The event. A series of pictures which support the action and content that will be contained in an audiovisual sequence. signal. She must have recent job experience. The science and art of using all the resources of an organisation to execute approved plans as effective as possible. otherwise. situation.the course. Status Report Stimulus Stimulus Instruction Story board Strategic Strategic Relations top Strategic Relationships Strategy Subject Matter Expert (SME) Suggestopedia . An agreement between two or more organisations to conduct specified business processes in a joint manner. Her experience and knowledge of the job designates her as a technical expert. a plan of action resulting from strategy or intended to accomplish a specific objective. Sole Proprietorship Standards An organisation that is owned by a single individual. Standards define the level of quality expected after an area or object has been cleaned. the science and art of business management as applied to the overall planning and conduct of large-scale operations. Sometimes called Super Learning or Accelerated Learning. her knowledge of the task may be outdated by new procedures or equipment. or cue to which a response must be made. and performance. condition. Also called trials or tryout. Anything that provokes behavior. A rule or principle that is used as a basis for judgment. She must know what is critical to the performance of the task and what is nice-to-know. A philosophy that uses learners’ holistic natural talents to provide them the highest probability of maximizing their learning. Standards represent the “measuring sticks” used in establishing productivity and performance guidelines. Usually related to technology development and/or marketing and distribution efforts. The mutual dealing or connections or communications among persons or groups in a manner important or essential to a plan of action. small group. or the stem to a discrimination type exercise. Methodology developed by Georgi Lozanov. A person who can perform a job or a selected group of tasks to standards.
skill level. The smallest essential part of a job. Involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained. The total collection of a population that is scheduled to enter a given instructional program. a statement of fact or a procedural step in the performance of a task. They are often used to collect information related to a Training Needs Analysis. The closer the resemblance. Has an identifiable start and end point and results in a measurable accomplishment or product. The degree to which the test resembles the actual task performed. the higher the fidelity of the test. expertise or behaviour in a given area. It facilitates training program design by providing a description of the fundamental elements of a job. This usually involves the determination of how well an individual item Target Population Task Task Analysis Task Selection Model Teaching Point Team Building Terminal Behaviour Test top Test Test Fidelity Test Item Analysis . A device or technique used to measure the performance. A way of determining a participant’s level of knowledge. The smallest increment of information to which a learner may be expected to respond. The process of evaluating single test items by any of several methods. the team develops a sequential list of tasks. a small group of (3-10) subject matter experts convene to identify the various tasks to be performed. A model used to apply statistically valid task selection models to identify critical individual tasks. the precise information you want a learner to know or respond to. It usually involves quantification of results — a number that represents an ability or characteristic of the person being tested. and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks. System Approach To Training (SAT) Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Tabletop Analysis top Using a facilitator.Survey A process of gathering information to determine whether or not there is a training need. A training program designed to assist a group of people to work together as a team while they are learning. skill. See Instructional Systems Design (ISD). The behaviour which the learner is to demonstrate after the learning experience. Through brainstorming and consensus building. or knowledge of a learner on a specific subject matter.
presentation environment. Jack Phillips measures training evaluation at Level 5 = return on investment (ROI) which compares the benefits (financial and other) of the training intervention compared with the cost of the intervention. and other considerations. A person who directs the growth of learners by helping them become qualified or proficient in a skill or task. section. It is used by the curriculum designer to develop the instructor guides. A summary describing how the required training is to be accomplished in terms of type of training. Kirkpatrick’s says that the effectiveness of a training intervention can be evaluated at four different levels. and facilitating techniques to accomplish the learning objectives. * Level 1 = Reaction/ satisfaction * Level 2 = Learning * Level 3 = Application of learning on the job * Level 4 = Results. An item to enhance training. presentation techniques. knowledge. It provides course learning objectives. Uses coaching. The name of a product or service that has been legally registered as the property of an organisation. slides. Helps to engage visual. task or job. and schematics. and topic titles and statements of rationale to explain or justify the training. location. Planned learning to develop needed skills. as in some art. auditory and kinesthetic senses. Topical Outline Trademark Train Trainer top Training Training Aid Training Concept Training Evaluation Level 5 (ROI) Training Evaluation Levels 1 – 4 top Training Needs Analysis A process to determine what people need to learn and how training .separates examinees. presentation media. May include charts. pipeline. To discipline or instruct as in the performance of tasks. An outline of the topics to be included in the instructor guide. instructing. and its correlation with some criterion of measurement. To prepare someone to accomplish an objective. To make proficient by instruction and repeated practice. How did the training intervention impact actual business results (both quantitative and qualitative)? Training Need The difference between what the employee can do now and what they are required to do in order to carry out their job effectively and efficiently. a listing of part. Topic The basic organisational unit of instruction covering one or more closely related learning objectives. its relative difficulty value. and ability to improve performance in one’s current job. profession or work.
The result of the analysis is training needs report which identifies prioritized training/learning needs and interventions needed to reduce key performance gaps. In theory. and generally involves some questioning. It is self-paced. they are content-related and criterion-related validity. Also. and options for review.g. Although there are several types of validity and different classification schemes for describing validity there are two major types of validity that test developers must be concerned with. The potential within an organisation to incorporate all aspects of management. An instructional programme that presents new information to the student efficiently and provides practice exercises based on that information. The degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. what is important to the group? Different organisations have different value systems. Design elements that repeat a segment of a lesson differently to enhance learning. Interactive instruction that asks questions based on the information presented.may help. accommodates a variety of users. A lesson design used to teach an entire concept. Transfer Of Training The ability of persons to effectively apply to the job the knowledge and skills they gain in dissimilar learning situation. the learning in one situation that facilitates learning (and therefore performance) in subsequent similar situations. sales and distribution into their business operations. An external supplier or consultant who provides a product or service for a fee. Even different departments within an organisation can have different values. Also. cockpit simulator). A variant of job rotation in which a separate work area is set up for a learner so that the actual work situation does not pressure the learner. Answers the question. (e. the less vulnerable an organisation is to outside forces. production. the greater the vertical integration. Tutorial Validity top Values Varied Repetition Vendor Vertical Integration Vestibule Training Video Clip . requests student responses. a process through which a course is administered and revised until learners effectively attains the base line objectives. A short section of video to visually help the participants learn. branching. and evaluates student responses. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Validation A process of testing the effectiveness of instruction by administering the criterion test immediately after the instruction.
simplify instruction.or Intranet-based training. A handout that contains procedures and exercises designed to assist the learner in achieving the learning objectives. The cash available to an organisation for day-to-day operations.Visual Aids top Supportive visual information used to enhance learning. The purpose of visual aids is to arouse and maintain interest. Webbased training (WBT) is a popular term for instruction that is delivered over the Internet or a company’s intranet. A smooth white-surfaced board that can be written on with a special whiteboard marker. Training programme where the participants learn by doing and interacting Whiteboards Work Sample Workbook Worker Efficiency Working Capital Workshop top . The use of number of random samples to determine the frequency with which certain activities are performed. Index -> A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Web Based Instruction (WBI) Web-Based Training (WBT) Web-based Instruction is delivered over public or private computer networks and displayed by a Web browser. Sometimes referred to as Internet. Performance on a work sample is frequently used as a criterion against which prediction devices in evaluation are validated. A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that compares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time to complete it. accelerate learning and improve aid retention.
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