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Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 www.elsevier.com/locate/advengsoft

Numerical characterization of the structural behaviour of the Basilica of Pilar in Zaragoza (Spain). Part 1: Global and local models

L.E. Romera

a b

a,*

´ , S. Hernandez

a,1

, J.M. Reinosa

b,2

Structural Mechanics Group, School of Civil Engineering, University of Coruna, Campus de Elvina, 15071 La Coruna, Spain ˜ ˜ ˜ ´ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, University of Coruna, C/Mendizabal, 15403 Ferrol, Spain ˜ Available online 30 April 2007

Abstract The Basilica of Pilar, located in the city of Zaragoza, is one of the most famous Spanish temples. Several domes of this church contain frescoes painted by Francisco de Goya, which have suﬀered damages in the past decades due to various pathologies. The frescoes of the Regina Martirum dome are being restored at the present time. In this paper, we present a set of structural models of the entire temple and local models of the Regina Martirum dome by discussing and comparing the obtained results. The main objective of the research was to identify the current structural state of the church, its safety level and the relationship between the structural behaviour and the damages observed. The behaviour of the main material used in the construction, brick masonry, was simulated ﬁrst with linear elastic isotropic models and later with several non-linear isotropic models including brittle behaviour in tension and plastic behaviour in compression. In addition, we consider the historical construction and the reinforcement works added to the structure in its history, with the purpose of testing the ﬁnite element models by reproducing the pathologies described from the beginning of the current Baroque construction. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Historical buildings; Masonry; Structural models; Visualization; Finite element analysis; Non-linear material

1. The building and its history The Basilica of Pilar is one of the most important worship places in Spain. The actual temple is a large complex brick masonry construction with rectangular plan of about 100 m long and 70 m wide. Their construction process was diﬃcult and took long time [1]. In the current site, a small Visighotic chapel was ﬁrst built more than a thousand years ago; then later on, it became a Romanesque church with cloister that suﬀered after the Gothic enlargement. Nevertheless, all the aforementioned constructions were small in size compared with the huge expansion taken place

Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 981167000x1404; fax: +34 981167100. E-mail addresses: lromera@udc.es (L.E. Romera), jreinosa@udc.es (J.M. Reinosa). URL: http://caminos.udc.es/grupos/mmcte (L.E. Romera). 1 Tel.: +34 981167000x1404; fax: +34 981167100. 2 Tel.: +34 981167000x3209; fax: +34 981337410. 0965-9978/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2007.01.009

*

in XVII century when the Baroque church project was set up by the Spanish architect Ventura Rodriguez. In addition a reorientation to the main axis of the temple took place and part of the new construction was erected on terrain taken to the adjacent river. Fig. 1a presents a sketch describing the position of each building along the history and some plans; Fig. 2 shows several views of the actual Basilica. The temple is composed of three longitudinal naves (Fig. 1b). The central one contains the main dome of circular design and double shell, and two more domes of elliptical shape (Fig. 1d). The two lateral naves have eight more domes placed at a second level, the Regina Martirum dome belongs to this second level, located next to the central dome (Fig. 1c). Surrounding the principal naves there is a series of chapels and rooms with up to 11 additional domes at the third lower level. The domes at the third level are located between the 16 external buttresses and the four towers, of more than 90 m height, that mark the corners of the building and form the external perimeter. The

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Fig. 1. Plans: (a) evolution of the worship site; (b) inferior top view; (c) front section BB for the Regina Martirum dome; (d) front section CC for the elliptical dome.

central dome was erected by the middle of XIX century, and the ﬁrst two towers of Pilar square facade were ﬁnal¸ ized at the end of the XIX century while the towers of Ebro river facade were erected in 1940. ¸ 2. Structural pathologies and past repairing works The ﬁrst references to verify problems about ﬁssures in arches, tambours and vaults, especially in elliptical domes, appeared in 1796, and also in 1804 some reports come into view concerning structural problems in several arches and vaults. In 1907 after the completion of the southern towers symptoms of general ruin emerged, and then in 1927 cracks of signiﬁcant size were visible in arches, pillars were out of their vertical orientation and important relative displacements were observed in the Regina Martirum dome. In fact a discontinuity of about 4 cm, located in the connexion between the dome and its tambour, and throughout a third of a meridian could be observed in the Regina Martirum dome at the present time (Fig. 5b). Therefore, an ambitious programme of repairing works was approved under the ´ direction of the architect Teodoro Rıos in 1927. The rehabilitation task continued until the beginning of the Spanish civil war started in 1936 and after the war, it was resumed again to be completed in 1940 (Fig. 3). The most important features of the restoration (Fig. 4) can be summarized as follows.

• An extensive injection of cement grouting in the soil. • Foundation improvement with reinforced concrete beams linking steel lining at pillars foundation. • Temporary support and steel reinforcement of central arches and pillars. • External reinforcement of several tambours by reinforced concrete. • Installation of inclined supports in tambours under the central and the elliptical domes, connecting them with external buttresses. A few years ago other structural pathologies, in a smaller scale of previously mentioned, were observed. They were signiﬁcant because they could aﬀect frescoes of one of the most brilliant Spanish painters, Francisco de Goya. These pathologies are: • Presence of humidity, small ﬁssures and loss of material in frescoes of Regina Martirum dome (Fig. 5) and other domes. • Cracks in several arches near the Santiago apostle chapel. • Deterioration of masonry towers, especially in the towers of square facade. To determine if the damage of frescoes was due to structural pathologies, and if this was the case, to outline the

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digital model of the complete church was generated by using information from old blueprints and in situ measurements and observations [4]. This model was used later as geometrical bases for the development of the structural models. The development of this geometrical model (Fig. 7) allowed us to understand better the architectural composition as well as the construction connectivity between the components of the temple. The accomplishment of the model was based on the idea that geometry was as exact as possible, avoiding any simpliﬁcation that could alter the structural behaviour and only eliminating the non-structural elements. From the geometrical model, the visualization model (Fig. 8) and several structural models were developed using ﬁnite elements techniques, in the ﬁrst place by means of the linear theory and later considering the material nonlinearities. Due to the importance of repairing works executed between 1927 and 1940, which avoided the collapse of the temple, the ﬁrst structural model was created to reﬂect the state of the construction previous to the aforementioned reforms. The comparison of the results obtained in this model with the available historical descriptions of the pathologies that forced the repairing works, has allowed us to verify the hypotheses of the structure and the loads considered in the model. After verifying the 1927 model, the necessary modiﬁcations were made in a new model corresponding to the present structural state, to simulate the repairing works and new structures such as the river towers, which was again recalculated with the same loads. 4. Structural models To develop the structural models the codes Cosmos/m v.2.8 [5,6] and Msc.Marc2003 [7] have been used, combining several element types depending on the architectural parts of the construction. Hexahedral and tetrahedron elements were used for modelling arches, pillars, tambours, buttresses and soil foundation; whereas beam, bar and quadrilateral or triangular shell elements were selected for meshing domes, ﬂoors, walls and reinforcements structures of steel and concrete. The only temple parts not included, due to their non-structural function, are the cover system and the chapiters of domes and towers. For each model, the ﬁrst version of linear solids and shell elements with 4 or 3 nodes, and the second version of quadratic solids and shells with 6–9 nodes were analyzed. The latter mesh with quadratic elements is composed of 82.000 elements and 140.000 nodes. In the transition areas, in order to reduce the number of elements, an incompatible mesh was used between tetrahedron and hexahedral or between hexahedral and shell elements in the central dome (Fig. 9). In order to assure the displacement compatibility in the non coincident nodes, routines that impose kinematics restriction equations of the incompatible nodes have been developed. Considering the case represented in Fig. 9c, the restriction prevails by

Fig. 2. The Basilica of Pilar in Zaragoza: (a) external view; (b) interior view of central dome; (c) longitudinal nave.

necessary actions to repair them, an extensive numerical study was carried out [2,3]. 3. Methodology: cad and visualization The approach used in this study is described in the ﬂowchart of Fig. 6. Due to geometrical complexity and the signiﬁcant structural dimensions, ﬁrst of all, a detailed 3D

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Fig. 3. Outside views in 1939.

Fig. 4. Repairing works: (a) foundation reinforcements; (b) steel bonds of tambours; (c) discharge arches.

imposing the following equations on the displacements of node s1 of the hexahedron and node t1 of the tetrahedron: nes net X X ut 1 ¼ N h ðxt1 Þus and us1 ¼ N t ðxs1 Þut ð1Þ i i

i¼1 i¼1

where N h ðxt1 Þ and N t ðxs1 Þ are the interpolation functions i i of the hexahedron and the tetrahedron particularized to the coordinates of nodes t1 and s1, respectively. In the unions between C1 type elements (shells and beams) and C0 elements (solid), all degrees of freedom have been considered linked, by means of new attach coupling equations between the displacements of one line deﬁned by two nodes in solids elements, and the nodal displacements and rotations of shell and beam elements situated in this line [8,9]. The ﬁrst global model intended to represent the behaviour of the temple before the repairing works started in 1927 is presented in Fig. 10 with the unﬁnished two towers of the riverside. Due to the poor quality of the alluvial sedimentary soil next to the Ebro river, the surrounding terrain was included in the model by means of a compatible mesh of prismatic solid elements. After verifying the 1927 model, a new one representing the current state of the tem-

ple was generated (Fig. 11) with all repairing works included. The results obtained by the actual state model, with soil properties enhanced due to injections of cement grouting and reinforced concrete beams linking steel caissons at pillars foundations, were almost identical to those obtained with ﬁxed basement. Thereby, the soil was eliminated from the current state model. Local models, with shell elements of variable thickness or solid elements, of Regina Martirum dome are presented in Fig. 12. The dome has a diameter of 10.6 m and an angle between the tambour and the lantern of 66.6°, its thickness varies from 0.8 m in the lower part to 0.25 m in the upper part; the lantern thickness is about 0.7 m. To take into account the interaction with the rest of the temple, the ﬁnal displacements obtained in the dome base, or in the tambour, from the global models have been imposed as kinematics constraints to the dome base in the local model, along with the gravitational loads and the external weights that act on the dome. This approach is exact for linear analysis, although it introduces some error level in non-linear analysis. In any case, the results are better than those with ﬁxed base dome and we consider that it allows us to obtain one of the ﬁrst non-linear approaches of its behaviour and the collapse load.

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Fig. 5. Frescoes of Regina Martirum dome: (a) general view with presence of humidity; (b) old crack and loss of frescoes; (c) detail of a previous restoration work; (d) ﬁssures detail.

Fig. 6. Flowchart of methodology.

Fig. 7. Geometrical model.

4.1. Considered loads The loads were assumed to be static and composed of: • Self weight of the structure. • Dead loads due to the cover systems of the whole temple and domes, introduced as pressure loads.

• Dead loads due to lanterns and spires in the upper part of domes and towers, introduced as nodal force loads. • Uniform thermal load with DT = ±15 °C in the whole temple. • Thermal gradient in the local models of Regina Martirum dome produced by a temperature diﬀerence of ±15 °C between the inner and the outer surface of the dome.

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Fig. 8. Visualization model.

Fig. 9. Details of transitions: (a) between tetrahedrons and hexahedrons; (b) between shell and solids; (c) example of application of kinematics coupling.

Fig. 10. The 1927 structural model: (a) 3D view; (b) section of the elliptical dome; (c) top view of terrain; (d) top view of the entire model.

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Fig. 11. Actual state model: (a) 3D view; (b) longitudinal section; (c) reinforcements of tambours; (d) steel reinforcements of central arches and pillars.

Fig. 12. Local models of Regina Martirum dome: (a) shell model with a part of the tambour; (b) solid model.

The weight of non structural elements on the upper part of domes is important due to the use of metals like copper or lead in the spires. In the case of Regina Martirum dome, the total vertical force on the lantern is about 630 kN, and 1.5 kPa for the pressure due to the cover system. 4.2. Material models In the linear models, the brick masonry [10,11], the soil, the steel and concrete reinforcements have been considered as linear and isotropic materials with their properties shown in Table 1. In the 1927 model, two diﬀerent hypoth-

eses of the soil mechanical properties distribution were used to take into account the possible diﬀerent behaviour of the original sedimentary soil and the soil taken from the Ebro river, with more reduced mechanical properties (soil 2 in Table 1). The principal masonry pillars, with cross-sectional dimensions of about 6 m · 6 m, have been considered massive in the models, however they were analyzed with reduced elasticity modulus in several cases due to possible existence of a inner ﬁlled nucleus surrounded by masonry. After carrying out linear analysis, several non-linear materials were considered for the brick masonry (Fig. 13) and the soil of 1927 model. In all models, brick masonry

308 Table 1 Linear material properties E (kPa) Masonry Soil 1 Soil 2 Pillars Concrete Steel 4.5 · 106 2.5 · 106 1.0 · 105 2.25 · 106 3.0 · 107 2.1 · 108 m 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3

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5. Numerical results

a (m/°Cm) 1 · 10À5 1 · 10À5 1 · 10À5 1 · 10À5 1 · 10À5 1.2 · 10À5 c (kN s2/m3) 1.8 – – 1.8 2.4 7.85

The results of the 1927 model are presented ﬁrst, followed by the results of the actual state model and the local Regina Martirum dome. 5.1. The 1927 model Considering linear material, a uniform soil of type 1 and only self weight and dead loads, maximum vertical displacements reaches À2.41 · 10À2 m in towers and central dome, principal stresses ﬁeld reaches maximum values of 719 kPa for tensile stresses, and À3300 kPa for compressive stresses (Fig. 14). Both values surpass the allowable range for masonry. Table 2 shows values of maximum principal tensile and compressive stresses in each one of the following structural elements: pillars and arches, towers, buttress, tambours, vaults, domes and the Regina Martirum dome. If an elastoplastic material soil model is used, with usual parameters, plastic areas appear under several pillars, increasing movements and stresses. The main cause of these signiﬁcant values is the excessive size and weight from the central dome and the square towers. The construction of the central dome imposes longitudinal and transversal rotations (global axis X and Y in Fig. 14b) to the tambours of second level domes and increases the stresses in arches, and similarly the interaction between the square towers and the rest of the Basilica tend to produce horizontal movements in towers, a loss of verticality, and high tensile stresses in their connection with the temple. Slender elements, like vaults, connected with pillars and arches of central dome suﬀer very high tensile and compressive stresses. Fig. 15 shows membrane and top face principal tensile stresses for Regina Martirum dome, and the maximum principal tensile stresses developed in tambours. The temple stresses distribution agrees with the general description of structural damages at that time, with their maximum values in arches and vaults surrounding the central dome, and with important tensile stresses in the base of several domes tambours, especially in the elliptic ones. Fig. 16 shows the cracking results obtained from non-linear material analysis using material model 1, assuming a limit ten-

was simulated as an isotropic material, with brittle behaviour in tension and linear in compression (model 1 in Fig. 13). Moreover, the possibility of plastic behaviour in compression (model 2 in Fig. 12) was considered using an elastoplastic Mohr–Coulomb linear model [12]. For the soil, an elastic perfectly plastic Drucker–Prager model was used. Material model 1 was programmed inside the Cosmos/ m code, and it was applied to the global temple model only for solid elements using a smear-crack approximation [13] because of the diﬃculties of implementing this type of models in shell typologies. In each non-linear iteration and for every Gauss point of integration, the possibility of cracking perpendicular to the principal tension stress was checked out. Once the crack is open, its direction is ﬁxed, in another words, the possibility of rotation of the ﬁssures once opened at increasing load levels is not considered. Material model 2 was applied only to the local analysis of Regina Martirum dome modelled with solids elements using the non-linear ﬁnite element analysis code Msc.Marc2003. In order to apply this material model, it required us to work with only solid elements in the global model, which was not a possible solution considering all the existing domes and vaults. For this reason, a local solid model with solid elements of Regina Martirum dome was developed. For the material parameters used in both models, a typical value range of similar historical brick masonry structures obtained from bibliography [14,15] was considered. A parameter variation study of results concerning the value range was performed as well. A gypsum mortar with very low resistance under tension is commonly used with the masonry. The used values are indicated in the results.

Fig. 13. Non-linear material models.

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Fig. 14. The 1927 model with linear materials: (a) vertical displacements (m); (b) resultant displacements (m) on deformed shape (scale 1000); (c) principal tensile stresses (kPa); (d) principal compressive stresses (kPa).

Table 2 1927 model: maximum principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3) in several parts of the model P1 (kPa) Pillars and arches Towers Buttresses Tambours 719 177 583 493 M Vaults Domes Regina Martirum dome 653 301 169 B 1265 280 265 P3 (kPa) À3300 À1261 À784 À1599 M À1277 À712 À513 B À1033 À694 À635

In shell elements membrane (M) and bending (B) values are indicated separately.

sile cracking stress rcr = 150 kPa, a residual stress of 10% of the previous value rres = 0.1rcr, an unloading module of elasticity of 10% of the linear value Es = 0.1E, and a retention shear factor of 0.01 for open cracks. It is observed that the cracks begins in arches and later progress fundamentally along the tambours of the elliptic domes. The ﬁssure of the Regina Martirum dome, mentioned in the introduction, which was later repaired, does not appear clearly in the previous results. After working with several hypotheses of diﬀerentials movements, a distribution of properties of the terrain represented in Fig. 17 is considered

to be a possible origin, with approximately 1/6 of the base of the temple on a soil of poor quality. This distribution is agreed with the terrain taken from the adjacent river described in the historical introduction. In these conditions a distribution of tensile stresses with maximum values up to 1300 kPa were obtained in the dome, coincident with the direction and the position where real ﬁssure is located. Uniform thermal loads were applied imposing a constant temperature of ±15 °C in all nodes of the temple, the same temperature in the soil surface and a linear variation to 0 °C (temperature for zero stress) in the lower soil. Their eﬀect is less important than the gravitational ones, fundamentally maximum tensile and compressive stresses appear in connections between towers and the basilica, and in some perimeter walls, which are coincident with ﬁssures that are opened and closed at the present time based on the temperature variations. Stresses in domes due to uniform thermal eﬀects are low, for the Regina Martirum dome the maximum values are 41 kPa/À53 kPa for principal membrane tensile and compressive stresses respectively, and 68 kPa/À28 kPa for principal bending. 5.2. Actual state model For the actual state model with linear analysis, the sequential application of the repairing works allowed us

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Fig. 15. Stress results (kPa): (a) principal tensile stresses in tambours; (b) Regina Martirum dome: principal membrane tensile stresses; (c) Regina Martirum dome: principal tensile stress in top face.

Fig. 16. Percentage of integration cracked in solid elements: (a) 3D view; (b) top view.

to check their relative eﬀect, and we found it especially signiﬁcant in the case of the foundation works and steel lining of pillars and arches. Considering the global model with linear material properties and all the rehabilitation works applied, maximum vertical displacements decreases to À0.76 · 10À2 m in towers and central dome, and stresses ﬁeld in masonry decreases to maximum values of 173 kPa

for tensile stresses in arches keystone, and to À1125 kPa for compressive stresses in pillars basement. The maximum value of the local tensile stress appears in the tower connections with the main temple with a value of 467 kPa. Table 3 shows values of maximum principal tensile and compressive stress in each one of the structural elements and its variation with respect to the results of the 1927

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Fig. 17. Model with two diﬀerent types of soils: (a) variation of soil properties; (b) maximum principal tensile stresses in Regina Martirum dome (kPa).

Table 3 Actual state model: maximum principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3) in several parts of the model P1 (kPa) Pillars and arches Towers Buttresses Tambours 173 83 52 176 M Vaults Domes Regina Martirum dome 184 (72%) 147 (51%) 89 (47%) (76%) (53%) (91%) (64%) B 365 (71%) 246 (12%) 246 (7%) P3 (kPa) À1125 (66%) À888 (30%) À723 (8%) À622 (64%) M À581 (55%) À540 (24%) À423 (18%) B À591 (43%) À608 (12%) À580 (9%)

In shell elements membrane (M) and bending (B) values are indicated separately. The reduction percentage with respect to the values of the 1927 model is indicated between parentheses.

Table 4 Stress results in Regina Martirum dome with ﬁxed base: maximum principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3), in membrane (M) and bending (B) P1 (kPa) M Gravitational loads Thermal gradient (+15°) 50 43 B 240 2 P2 (kPa) M À395 À99 B À488 À412

model. Reduction in stress is general, and especially important in pillars, arches, tambours, and vaults, with reductions of the maximum values superior to 50% checking out the eﬃciency of restoration works. In the Regina Martirum dome, and similarly in the rest of domes, maximum principal membrane tensile stresses decrease about 50%, whereas maximum principal bending stresses and membrane compressive stresses decreases about 20%. 5.3. Local models For shell dome models with one part of the tambour (Fig. 12a), the results considering a ﬁxed base and gravita-

tional loads or thermal gradient are shown in Table 4. Comparing the results for gravitational loads with those obtained for the dome in 1927 model and actual model, we can check the eﬀect of global structural displacements in dome stresses. As it is logical stresses grow when the base movements are increased, and reach its minimum value when the base is ﬁxed. In Fig. 18 we can see the diﬀerent vertical displacements and tangential rotation imposed in the dome in each analysis. With respect to the model with the ﬁxed base, maximum membrane tensile stresses are two times bigger in the actual state model and four times in 1927 model; whereas decrements in maximum bending and maximum compressive stresses, located in the upper part of the dome near the connection with the lantern, are smaller because the origin of these stresses are mostly the vertical gravitational loads of the dome, which are identical in the three cases. In the case of thermal gradient produced by a temperature diﬀerence of ±15 °C between the inner and the outer surface of the dome, results obtained in the local models shows that tensile and compressive membrane stresses are much lower than those obtained for gravitational loads, but bending compressive stresses have similar maximum values located in the central part of the dome.

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Fig. 18. Movements in the base of Regina Martirum dome: (a) origin of angles; (b) comparison of vertical displacements Uz (m) and tangential rotations hT (rad).

Fig. 19. Local model of Regina Martirum dome: (a) equivalent cracking deformation after collapse; (b) variation of maximum principal tensile stress in the cracked area.

Considering non-linear material model 2, a local analysis of Regina Martirum dome modelled with solids elements was carried out, with the displacements obtained at the dome base from the global linear material model imposed as constraints to the dome base in the non-linear local model. To study the collapse limit behaviour of the dome, instead of increasing the external loads above their actual value, a collapse mechanism was found by varying the material non-linear parameters with current gravitational loads. Considering the cracking stress as variable and taking reasonable common values for the rest of the parameters: elastic modulus E = 4.5e6 kPa, poisson coeﬃcient m = 0.1, speciﬁc weight c = 1.8 T/m3, discharge modulus

Es = E/8, crushing strain eap = 0.004, retention shear factor for open crack G = 0.01, cohesive parameter c = 200 kPa, and internal friction angle / = 40°. The collapse takes place at a value of maximum tensile stress rcr = 70 kPa, lower than the common value of 100 kPa, but considered suﬃciently closed. Fig. 19 shows the equivalent deformations of cracking and the variation of the principal tensile stress in the node where the cracking begins, displaying the stress discharge. The loads are linearly applied in 200 steps, and the collapse of the dome takes place in step 197. Fig. 20 shows the equivalent elemental plastic strains, obtained in the step before the collapse. The cracking process begins in step 100, and later the plastiﬁcation process in step 140, concen-

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Fig. 20. Local model of Regina Martirum dome: (a) vectorial value of the main cracking deformation; (b) equivalent plastic deformation after collapse.

trating itself in the upper zone of application of the loads coming from spire. For all cases, we consider a cracking stress of 75 kPa. 6. Conclusions • The previous realization of a detailed geometrical model allowed us the generation of a complete FEM model with parametric meshing. • The study has permitted us to reproduce the historical pathologies of the basilica numerically, and to check out the eﬃciency of restoration works done in the past ´ by the architect Teodoro Rıos between year 1927 and year 1940. • The use of linear models as a previous step to possible analyses considering more realistic non-linear models, allows us to comprehend the real structural behaviour, with less cost and complexity as compared to those of the non-linear cases. • Numerical models of the present state of the temple showed that the current structural situation of Regina Martirum dome is satisfactory and there is no risk of pathologies considering that the resistance to tension of the brick masonry is superior to 100 kPa. In the rest of the temple the structural situation is similar, except in the southern towers, where the existing compressive stresses due to its high elevation and the environment have deteriorated the brick masonry. They should be under observation to control their behaviour. • The obtained results are based on simpliﬁed material models with theoretical material parameter values obtained from the extensive existing bibliography. Because of the type of construction, its great dimensions, and the expanded temporary extension, it would be useful a future campaign of tests to determine accurately the mechanical properties of the masonry based

on their deterioration degree and their spacing distribution, in order to determine the security level of the structure as well as assuring our assumptions. Also it was proposed that it is necessary to install some instruments to measure movements and ﬁssure openings periodically, especially in the Regina Martirum dome. Furthermore, it would be advisable to install instruments, to determine the thermal loads and their variation. • With respect to numerical simulations in the future development, the following improvements are proposed: – Consideration of orthotropic behaviour of the masonry in the linear and non-linear models. – Use of a reduced rigidity matrix in the contour of the Regina Martirum dome base which replaces the displacements imposed in the non-linear analysis of the dome. – Application of a non-linear material model with distributed cracking in tension and plasticity to the complete model of the temple. Acknowledgements ´ Special thanks to A. Sanchez, I. Valcarce, J. Cascales and P. Loscos, former research assistants of the University of Coruna, for their contribution to this study. ˜ References

´ ´ [1] Rıos T, y Rıos ST. El Pilar de Zaragoza. CAI ed. 1983. p. 185–212 [in Spanish]. ´ [2] Romera LE, Hernandez S, Reinosa JM. A comprehensive structural ´ study of the Basılica of Pilar in Zaragoza (Spain). In: Brebbia CA, Torpiano A, editors. Structural studies, repairs and maintenance of heritage architecture IX; 2005. p. 103–13. ´ ´ [3] Romera LE, Hernandez S, Reinosa JM. Analisis del comportamiento ´ estructural de la basılica del Pilar de Zaragoza. Revista Int de ´ ´ ´ ´ Metodos Numericos para Calculo y Diseno en Ingenierıa ˜ 2005;21(3):139–49 [in Spanish].

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