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com

**Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314
**

www.elsevier.com/locate/advengsoft

**Numerical characterization of the structural behaviour of the Basilica
**

of Pilar in Zaragoza (Spain). Part 1: Global and local models

a,* a,1 b,2

L.E. Romera , S. Hernández , J.M. Reinosa

a

Structural Mechanics Group, School of Civil Engineering, University of Coruña, Campus de Elviña, 15071 La Coruña, Spain

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, University of Coruña, C/Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol, Spain

Available online 30 April 2007

Abstract

The Basilica of Pilar, located in the city of Zaragoza, is one of the most famous Spanish temples. Several domes of this church contain

frescoes painted by Francisco de Goya, which have suﬀered damages in the past decades due to various pathologies. The frescoes of the

Regina Martirum dome are being restored at the present time. In this paper, we present a set of structural models of the entire temple and

local models of the Regina Martirum dome by discussing and comparing the obtained results. The main objective of the research was to

identify the current structural state of the church, its safety level and the relationship between the structural behaviour and the damages

observed. The behaviour of the main material used in the construction, brick masonry, was simulated ﬁrst with linear elastic isotropic

models and later with several non-linear isotropic models including brittle behaviour in tension and plastic behaviour in compression. In

addition, we consider the historical construction and the reinforcement works added to the structure in its history, with the purpose of

testing the ﬁnite element models by reproducing the pathologies described from the beginning of the current Baroque construction.

2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Historical buildings; Masonry; Structural models; Visualization; Finite element analysis; Non-linear material

1. The building and its history in XVII century when the Baroque church project was set

up by the Spanish architect Ventura Rodriguez. In addition

The Basilica of Pilar is one of the most important wor- a reorientation to the main axis of the temple took place

ship places in Spain. The actual temple is a large complex and part of the new construction was erected on terrain

brick masonry construction with rectangular plan of about taken to the adjacent river. Fig. 1a presents a sketch

100 m long and 70 m wide. Their construction process was describing the position of each building along the history

diﬃcult and took long time [1]. In the current site, a small and some plans; Fig. 2 shows several views of the actual

Visighotic chapel was ﬁrst built more than a thousand Basilica.

years ago; then later on, it became a Romanesque church The temple is composed of three longitudinal naves

with cloister that suﬀered after the Gothic enlargement. (Fig. 1b). The central one contains the main dome of circu-

Nevertheless, all the aforementioned constructions were lar design and double shell, and two more domes of ellipti-

small in size compared with the huge expansion taken place cal shape (Fig. 1d). The two lateral naves have eight more

domes placed at a second level, the Regina Martirum dome

belongs to this second level, located next to the central

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 981167000x1404; fax: +34 dome (Fig. 1c). Surrounding the principal naves there is a

981167100. series of chapels and rooms with up to 11 additional domes

E-mail addresses: lromera@udc.es (L.E. Romera), jreinosa@udc.es at the third lower level. The domes at the third level are

(J.M. Reinosa).

URL: http://caminos.udc.es/grupos/mmcte (L.E. Romera).

located between the 16 external buttresses and the four

1

Tel.: +34 981167000x1404; fax: +34 981167100. towers, of more than 90 m height, that mark the corners

2

Tel.: +34 981167000x3209; fax: +34 981337410. of the building and form the external perimeter. The

**0965-9978/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
**

doi:10.1016/j.advengsoft.2007.01.009

302 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

Fig. 1. Plans: (a) evolution of the worship site; (b) inferior top view; (c) front section BB for the Regina Martirum dome; (d) front section CC for the

elliptical dome.

central dome was erected by the middle of XIX century, • An extensive injection of cement grouting in the soil.

and the ﬁrst two towers of Pilar square façade were ﬁnal- • Foundation improvement with reinforced concrete

ized at the end of the XIX century while the towers of Ebro beams linking steel lining at pillars foundation.

river façade were erected in 1940. • Temporary support and steel reinforcement of central

arches and pillars.

2. Structural pathologies and past repairing works • External reinforcement of several tambours by rein-

forced concrete.

The ﬁrst references to verify problems about ﬁssures in • Installation of inclined supports in tambours under the

arches, tambours and vaults, especially in elliptical domes, central and the elliptical domes, connecting them with

appeared in 1796, and also in 1804 some reports come into external buttresses.

view concerning structural problems in several arches and

vaults. In 1907 after the completion of the southern towers A few years ago other structural pathologies, in a smaller

symptoms of general ruin emerged, and then in 1927 cracks scale of previously mentioned, were observed. They were

of signiﬁcant size were visible in arches, pillars were out of signiﬁcant because they could aﬀect frescoes of one of the

their vertical orientation and important relative displace- most brilliant Spanish painters, Francisco de Goya. These

ments were observed in the Regina Martirum dome. In fact pathologies are:

a discontinuity of about 4 cm, located in the connexion

between the dome and its tambour, and throughout a third • Presence of humidity, small ﬁssures and loss of material

of a meridian could be observed in the Regina Martirum in frescoes of Regina Martirum dome (Fig. 5) and other

dome at the present time (Fig. 5b). Therefore, an ambitious domes.

programme of repairing works was approved under the • Cracks in several arches near the Santiago apostle

direction of the architect Teodoro Rı́os in 1927. The reha- chapel.

bilitation task continued until the beginning of the Spanish • Deterioration of masonry towers, especially in the tow-

civil war started in 1936 and after the war, it was resumed ers of square facade.

again to be completed in 1940 (Fig. 3). The most important

features of the restoration (Fig. 4) can be summarized as To determine if the damage of frescoes was due to struc-

follows. tural pathologies, and if this was the case, to outline the

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 303

**digital model of the complete church was generated by
**

using information from old blueprints and in situ measure-

ments and observations [4]. This model was used later as

geometrical bases for the development of the structural

models. The development of this geometrical model

(Fig. 7) allowed us to understand better the architectural

composition as well as the construction connectivity

between the components of the temple. The accomplish-

ment of the model was based on the idea that geometry

was as exact as possible, avoiding any simpliﬁcation that

could alter the structural behaviour and only eliminating

the non-structural elements.

From the geometrical model, the visualization model

(Fig. 8) and several structural models were developed

using ﬁnite elements techniques, in the ﬁrst place by means

of the linear theory and later considering the material non-

linearities. Due to the importance of repairing works exe-

cuted between 1927 and 1940, which avoided the collapse

of the temple, the ﬁrst structural model was created to

reﬂect the state of the construction previous to the afore-

mentioned reforms. The comparison of the results

obtained in this model with the available historical descrip-

tions of the pathologies that forced the repairing works,

has allowed us to verify the hypotheses of the structure

and the loads considered in the model. After verifying

the 1927 model, the necessary modiﬁcations were made

in a new model corresponding to the present structural

state, to simulate the repairing works and new structures

such as the river towers, which was again recalculated with

the same loads.

4. Structural models

**To develop the structural models the codes Cosmos/m
**

v.2.8 [5,6] and Msc.Marc2003 [7] have been used, combin-

ing several element types depending on the architectural

parts of the construction. Hexahedral and tetrahedron ele-

ments were used for modelling arches, pillars, tambours,

buttresses and soil foundation; whereas beam, bar and

quadrilateral or triangular shell elements were selected

for meshing domes, ﬂoors, walls and reinforcements struc-

tures of steel and concrete. The only temple parts not

included, due to their non-structural function, are the cover

system and the chapiters of domes and towers.

For each model, the ﬁrst version of linear solids and

shell elements with 4 or 3 nodes, and the second version

Fig. 2. The Basilica of Pilar in Zaragoza: (a) external view; (b) interior of quadratic solids and shells with 6–9 nodes were ana-

view of central dome; (c) longitudinal nave. lyzed. The latter mesh with quadratic elements is composed

of 82.000 elements and 140.000 nodes.

necessary actions to repair them, an extensive numerical In the transition areas, in order to reduce the number of

study was carried out [2,3]. elements, an incompatible mesh was used between tetrahe-

dron and hexahedral or between hexahedral and shell ele-

3. Methodology: cad and visualization ments in the central dome (Fig. 9). In order to assure the

displacement compatibility in the non coincident nodes,

The approach used in this study is described in the ﬂow- routines that impose kinematics restriction equations of

chart of Fig. 6. Due to geometrical complexity and the sig- the incompatible nodes have been developed. Considering

niﬁcant structural dimensions, ﬁrst of all, a detailed 3D the case represented in Fig. 9c, the restriction prevails by

304 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

Fig. 3. Outside views in 1939.

Fig. 4. Repairing works: (a) foundation reinforcements; (b) steel bonds of tambours; (c) discharge arches.

imposing the following equations on the displace- ple was generated (Fig. 11) with all repairing works

ments of node s1 of the hexahedron and node t1 of the included. The results obtained by the actual state model,

tetrahedron: with soil properties enhanced due to injections of cement

X

nes X

net grouting and reinforced concrete beams linking steel cais-

ut 1 ¼ N hi ðxt1 Þus and us1 ¼ N ti ðxs1 Þut ð1Þ sons at pillars foundations, were almost identical to those

i¼1 i¼1 obtained with ﬁxed basement. Thereby, the soil was elimi-

where N hi ðxt1 Þ and N ti ðxs1 Þ are the interpolation functions nated from the current state model.

of the hexahedron and the tetrahedron particularized to Local models, with shell elements of variable thickness

the coordinates of nodes t1 and s1, respectively. or solid elements, of Regina Martirum dome are presented

In the unions between C1 type elements (shells and in Fig. 12. The dome has a diameter of 10.6 m and an angle

beams) and C0 elements (solid), all degrees of freedom have between the tambour and the lantern of 66.6, its thickness

been considered linked, by means of new attach coupling varies from 0.8 m in the lower part to 0.25 m in the upper

equations between the displacements of one line deﬁned part; the lantern thickness is about 0.7 m. To take into

by two nodes in solids elements, and the nodal displace- account the interaction with the rest of the temple, the ﬁnal

ments and rotations of shell and beam elements situated displacements obtained in the dome base, or in the tam-

in this line [8,9]. bour, from the global models have been imposed as kine-

The ﬁrst global model intended to represent the behav- matics constraints to the dome base in the local model,

iour of the temple before the repairing works started in along with the gravitational loads and the external weights

1927 is presented in Fig. 10 with the unﬁnished two towers that act on the dome. This approach is exact for linear

of the riverside. Due to the poor quality of the alluvial sed- analysis, although it introduces some error level in non-lin-

imentary soil next to the Ebro river, the surrounding ter- ear analysis. In any case, the results are better than those

rain was included in the model by means of a compatible with ﬁxed base dome and we consider that it allows us to

mesh of prismatic solid elements. After verifying the 1927 obtain one of the ﬁrst non-linear approaches of its behav-

model, a new one representing the current state of the tem- iour and the collapse load.

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 305

Fig. 5. Frescoes of Regina Martirum dome: (a) general view with presence of humidity; (b) old crack and loss of frescoes; (c) detail of a previous

restoration work; (d) ﬁssures detail.

Fig. 6. Flowchart of methodology.

Fig. 7. Geometrical model.

**4.1. Considered loads • Dead loads due to lanterns and spires in the upper part
**

of domes and towers, introduced as nodal force loads.

The loads were assumed to be static and composed of: • Uniform thermal load with DT = ±15 C in the whole

temple.

• Self weight of the structure. • Thermal gradient in the local models of Regina Martirum

• Dead loads due to the cover systems of the whole temple dome produced by a temperature diﬀerence of ±15 C

and domes, introduced as pressure loads. between the inner and the outer surface of the dome.

306 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

Fig. 8. Visualization model.

Fig. 9. Details of transitions: (a) between tetrahedrons and hexahedrons; (b) between shell and solids; (c) example of application of kinematics coupling.

Fig. 10. The 1927 structural model: (a) 3D view; (b) section of the elliptical dome; (c) top view of terrain; (d) top view of the entire model.

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 307

Fig. 11. Actual state model: (a) 3D view; (b) longitudinal section; (c) reinforcements of tambours; (d) steel reinforcements of central arches and pillars.

Fig. 12. Local models of Regina Martirum dome: (a) shell model with a part of the tambour; (b) solid model.

The weight of non structural elements on the upper part eses of the soil mechanical properties distribution were

of domes is important due to the use of metals like cop- used to take into account the possible diﬀerent behaviour

per or lead in the spires. In the case of Regina Martirum of the original sedimentary soil and the soil taken from

dome, the total vertical force on the lantern is about the Ebro river, with more reduced mechanical properties

630 kN, and 1.5 kPa for the pressure due to the cover (soil 2 in Table 1).

system. The principal masonry pillars, with cross-sectional

dimensions of about 6 m · 6 m, have been considered mas-

4.2. Material models sive in the models, however they were analyzed with

reduced elasticity modulus in several cases due to possible

In the linear models, the brick masonry [10,11], the soil, existence of a inner ﬁlled nucleus surrounded by masonry.

the steel and concrete reinforcements have been considered After carrying out linear analysis, several non-linear

as linear and isotropic materials with their properties materials were considered for the brick masonry (Fig. 13)

shown in Table 1. In the 1927 model, two diﬀerent hypoth- and the soil of 1927 model. In all models, brick masonry

308 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

**Table 1 5. Numerical results
**

Linear material properties

E (kPa) m a (m/Cm) c (kN s2/m3) The results of the 1927 model are presented ﬁrst, fol-

Masonry 4.5 · 106 0.1 1 · 105 1.8 lowed by the results of the actual state model and the local

Soil 1 2.5 · 106 0.3 1 · 105 – Regina Martirum dome.

Soil 2 1.0 · 105 0.3 1 · 105 –

Pillars 2.25 · 106 0.1 1 · 105 1.8

Concrete 3.0 · 107 0.2 1 · 105 2.4 5.1. The 1927 model

Steel 2.1 · 108 0.3 1.2 · 105 7.85

Considering linear material, a uniform soil of type 1 and

only self weight and dead loads, maximum vertical dis-

was simulated as an isotropic material, with brittle behav- placements reaches 2.41 · 102 m in towers and central

iour in tension and linear in compression (model 1 in dome, principal stresses ﬁeld reaches maximum values of

Fig. 13). Moreover, the possibility of plastic behaviour in 719 kPa for tensile stresses, and 3300 kPa for compressive

compression (model 2 in Fig. 12) was considered using an stresses (Fig. 14). Both values surpass the allowable range

elastoplastic Mohr–Coulomb linear model [12]. For the for masonry.

soil, an elastic perfectly plastic Drucker–Prager model Table 2 shows values of maximum principal tensile and

was used. compressive stresses in each one of the following structural

Material model 1 was programmed inside the Cosmos/ elements: pillars and arches, towers, buttress, tambours,

m code, and it was applied to the global temple model only vaults, domes and the Regina Martirum dome. If an elas-

for solid elements using a smear-crack approximation [13] toplastic material soil model is used, with usual parameters,

because of the diﬃculties of implementing this type of plastic areas appear under several pillars, increasing move-

models in shell typologies. In each non-linear iteration ments and stresses.

and for every Gauss point of integration, the possibility The main cause of these signiﬁcant values is the exces-

of cracking perpendicular to the principal tension stress sive size and weight from the central dome and the square

was checked out. Once the crack is open, its direction is towers. The construction of the central dome imposes lon-

ﬁxed, in another words, the possibility of rotation of the gitudinal and transversal rotations (global axis X and Y in

ﬁssures once opened at increasing load levels is not Fig. 14b) to the tambours of second level domes and

considered. increases the stresses in arches, and similarly the interaction

Material model 2 was applied only to the local analysis between the square towers and the rest of the Basilica tend

of Regina Martirum dome modelled with solids elements to produce horizontal movements in towers, a loss of ver-

using the non-linear ﬁnite element analysis code ticality, and high tensile stresses in their connection with

Msc.Marc2003. In order to apply this material model, it the temple. Slender elements, like vaults, connected with

required us to work with only solid elements in the global pillars and arches of central dome suﬀer very high tensile

model, which was not a possible solution considering all and compressive stresses.

the existing domes and vaults. For this reason, a local solid Fig. 15 shows membrane and top face principal tensile

model with solid elements of Regina Martirum dome was stresses for Regina Martirum dome, and the maximum

developed. principal tensile stresses developed in tambours. The tem-

For the material parameters used in both models, a typ- ple stresses distribution agrees with the general description

ical value range of similar historical brick masonry struc- of structural damages at that time, with their maximum

tures obtained from bibliography [14,15] was considered. values in arches and vaults surrounding the central dome,

A parameter variation study of results concerning the value and with important tensile stresses in the base of several

range was performed as well. A gypsum mortar with very domes tambours, especially in the elliptic ones. Fig. 16

low resistance under tension is commonly used with the shows the cracking results obtained from non-linear mate-

masonry. The used values are indicated in the results. rial analysis using material model 1, assuming a limit ten-

**Fig. 13. Non-linear material models.
**

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 309

Fig. 14. The 1927 model with linear materials: (a) vertical displacements (m); (b) resultant displacements (m) on deformed shape (scale 1000); (c) principal

tensile stresses (kPa); (d) principal compressive stresses (kPa).

**Table 2 to be a possible origin, with approximately 1/6 of the base
**

1927 model: maximum principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3) of the temple on a soil of poor quality. This distribution is

in several parts of the model

agreed with the terrain taken from the adjacent river

P1 (kPa) P3 (kPa) described in the historical introduction. In these conditions

Pillars and arches 719 3300 a distribution of tensile stresses with maximum values up to

Towers 177 1261 1300 kPa were obtained in the dome, coincident with the

Buttresses 583 784

Tambours 493 1599

direction and the position where real ﬁssure is located.

Uniform thermal loads were applied imposing a con-

M B M B stant temperature of ±15 C in all nodes of the temple,

Vaults 653 1265 1277 1033 the same temperature in the soil surface and a linear vari-

Domes 301 280 712 694 ation to 0 C (temperature for zero stress) in the lower soil.

Regina Martirum dome 169 265 513 635

Their eﬀect is less important than the gravitational ones,

In shell elements membrane (M) and bending (B) values are indicated fundamentally maximum tensile and compressive stresses

separately.

appear in connections between towers and the basilica,

and in some perimeter walls, which are coincident with ﬁs-

sile cracking stress rcr = 150 kPa, a residual stress of 10% sures that are opened and closed at the present time based

of the previous value rres = 0.1rcr, an unloading module on the temperature variations. Stresses in domes due to

of elasticity of 10% of the linear value Es = 0.1E, and a uniform thermal eﬀects are low, for the Regina Martirum

retention shear factor of 0.01 for open cracks. It is dome the maximum values are 41 kPa/53 kPa for princi-

observed that the cracks begins in arches and later progress pal membrane tensile and compressive stresses respectively,

fundamentally along the tambours of the elliptic domes. and 68 kPa/28 kPa for principal bending.

The ﬁssure of the Regina Martirum dome, mentioned in

the introduction, which was later repaired, does not appear 5.2. Actual state model

clearly in the previous results. After working with several

hypotheses of diﬀerentials movements, a distribution of For the actual state model with linear analysis, the

properties of the terrain represented in Fig. 17 is considered sequential application of the repairing works allowed us

310 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

Fig. 15. Stress results (kPa): (a) principal tensile stresses in tambours; (b) Regina Martirum dome: principal membrane tensile stresses; (c) Regina

Martirum dome: principal tensile stress in top face.

Fig. 16. Percentage of integration cracked in solid elements: (a) 3D view; (b) top view.

to check their relative eﬀect, and we found it especially sig- for tensile stresses in arches keystone, and to 1125 kPa

niﬁcant in the case of the foundation works and steel lining for compressive stresses in pillars basement. The maximum

of pillars and arches. Considering the global model with value of the local tensile stress appears in the tower connec-

linear material properties and all the rehabilitation works tions with the main temple with a value of 467 kPa.

applied, maximum vertical displacements decreases to Table 3 shows values of maximum principal tensile and

0.76 · 102 m in towers and central dome, and stresses compressive stress in each one of the structural elements

ﬁeld in masonry decreases to maximum values of 173 kPa and its variation with respect to the results of the 1927

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 311

Fig. 17. Model with two diﬀerent types of soils: (a) variation of soil properties; (b) maximum principal tensile stresses in Regina Martirum dome (kPa).

Table 3

Actual state model: maximum principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3) in several parts of the model

P1 (kPa) P3 (kPa)

Pillars and arches 173 (76%) 1125 (66%)

Towers 83 (53%) 888 (30%)

Buttresses 52 (91%) 723 (8%)

Tambours 176 (64%) 622 (64%)

M B M B

Vaults 184 (72%) 365 (71%) 581 (55%) 591 (43%)

Domes 147 (51%) 246 (12%) 540 (24%) 608 (12%)

Regina Martirum dome 89 (47%) 246 (7%) 423 (18%) 580 (9%)

In shell elements membrane (M) and bending (B) values are indicated separately. The reduction percentage with respect to the values of the 1927 model is

indicated between parentheses.

Table 4

tional loads or thermal gradient are shown in Table 4.

Stress results in Regina Martirum dome with ﬁxed base: maximum

principal tensile (P1) and compressive stresses (P3), in membrane (M) and Comparing the results for gravitational loads with those

bending (B) obtained for the dome in 1927 model and actual model,

P1 (kPa) P2 (kPa) we can check the eﬀect of global structural displacements

in dome stresses. As it is logical stresses grow when the base

M B M B

movements are increased, and reach its minimum value

Gravitational loads 50 240 395 488 when the base is ﬁxed. In Fig. 18 we can see the diﬀerent

Thermal gradient (+15) 43 2 99 412

vertical displacements and tangential rotation imposed in

the dome in each analysis. With respect to the model with

model. Reduction in stress is general, and especially impor- the ﬁxed base, maximum membrane tensile stresses are two

tant in pillars, arches, tambours, and vaults, with reduc- times bigger in the actual state model and four times in

tions of the maximum values superior to 50% checking 1927 model; whereas decrements in maximum bending

out the eﬃciency of restoration works. and maximum compressive stresses, located in the upper

In the Regina Martirum dome, and similarly in the rest part of the dome near the connection with the lantern,

of domes, maximum principal membrane tensile stresses are smaller because the origin of these stresses are mostly

decrease about 50%, whereas maximum principal bending the vertical gravitational loads of the dome, which are iden-

stresses and membrane compressive stresses decreases tical in the three cases.

about 20%. In the case of thermal gradient produced by a tempera-

ture diﬀerence of ±15 C between the inner and the outer

surface of the dome, results obtained in the local models

5.3. Local models shows that tensile and compressive membrane stresses are

much lower than those obtained for gravitational loads,

For shell dome models with one part of the tambour but bending compressive stresses have similar maximum

(Fig. 12a), the results considering a ﬁxed base and gravita- values located in the central part of the dome.

312 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

Fig. 18. Movements in the base of Regina Martirum dome: (a) origin of angles; (b) comparison of vertical displacements Uz (m) and tangential rotations

hT (rad).

Fig. 19. Local model of Regina Martirum dome: (a) equivalent cracking deformation after collapse; (b) variation of maximum principal tensile stress in

the cracked area.

Considering non-linear material model 2, a local analy- Es = E/8, crushing strain eap = 0.004, retention shear factor

sis of Regina Martirum dome modelled with solids ele- for open crack G = 0.01, cohesive parameter c = 200 kPa,

ments was carried out, with the displacements obtained and internal friction angle / = 40. The collapse takes

at the dome base from the global linear material model place at a value of maximum tensile stress rcr = 70 kPa,

imposed as constraints to the dome base in the non-linear lower than the common value of 100 kPa, but considered

local model. suﬃciently closed.

To study the collapse limit behaviour of the dome, Fig. 19 shows the equivalent deformations of cracking

instead of increasing the external loads above their actual and the variation of the principal tensile stress in the node

value, a collapse mechanism was found by varying the where the cracking begins, displaying the stress discharge.

material non-linear parameters with current gravitational The loads are linearly applied in 200 steps, and the collapse

loads. Considering the cracking stress as variable and tak- of the dome takes place in step 197. Fig. 20 shows the

ing reasonable common values for the rest of the parame- equivalent elemental plastic strains, obtained in the step

ters: elastic modulus E = 4.5e6 kPa, poisson coeﬃcient before the collapse. The cracking process begins in step

m = 0.1, speciﬁc weight c = 1.8 T/m3, discharge modulus 100, and later the plastiﬁcation process in step 140, concen-

L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314 313

Fig. 20. Local model of Regina Martirum dome: (a) vectorial value of the main cracking deformation; (b) equivalent plastic deformation after collapse.

trating itself in the upper zone of application of the loads on their deterioration degree and their spacing distribu-

coming from spire. For all cases, we consider a cracking tion, in order to determine the security level of the struc-

stress of 75 kPa. ture as well as assuring our assumptions. Also it was

proposed that it is necessary to install some instruments

6. Conclusions to measure movements and ﬁssure openings periodi-

cally, especially in the Regina Martirum dome. Further-

• The previous realization of a detailed geometrical model more, it would be advisable to install instruments, to

allowed us the generation of a complete FEM model determine the thermal loads and their variation.

with parametric meshing. • With respect to numerical simulations in the future

• The study has permitted us to reproduce the historical development, the following improvements are proposed:

pathologies of the basilica numerically, and to check – Consideration of orthotropic behaviour of the

out the eﬃciency of restoration works done in the past masonry in the linear and non-linear models.

by the architect Teodoro Rı́os between year 1927 and – Use of a reduced rigidity matrix in the contour of the

year 1940. Regina Martirum dome base which replaces the dis-

• The use of linear models as a previous step to possible placements imposed in the non-linear analysis of the

analyses considering more realistic non-linear models, dome.

allows us to comprehend the real structural behaviour, – Application of a non-linear material model with dis-

with less cost and complexity as compared to those of tributed cracking in tension and plasticity to the com-

the non-linear cases. plete model of the temple.

• Numerical models of the present state of the temple

showed that the current structural situation of Regina Acknowledgements

Martirum dome is satisfactory and there is no risk of

pathologies considering that the resistance to tension Special thanks to A. Sánchez, I. Valcarce, J. Cascales

of the brick masonry is superior to 100 kPa. In the rest and P. Loscos, former research assistants of the University

of the temple the structural situation is similar, except in of Coruña, for their contribution to this study.

the southern towers, where the existing compressive

stresses due to its high elevation and the environment References

have deteriorated the brick masonry. They should be

[1] Rı́os T, y Rı́os ST. El Pilar de Zaragoza. CAI ed. 1983. p. 185–212 [in

under observation to control their behaviour. Spanish].

• The obtained results are based on simpliﬁed material [2] Romera LE, Hernández S, Reinosa JM. A comprehensive structural

models with theoretical material parameter values study of the Bası́lica of Pilar in Zaragoza (Spain). In: Brebbia CA,

obtained from the extensive existing bibliography. Torpiano A, editors. Structural studies, repairs and maintenance of

Because of the type of construction, its great dimen- heritage architecture IX; 2005. p. 103–13.

[3] Romera LE, Hernández S, Reinosa JM. Análisis del comportamiento

sions, and the expanded temporary extension, it would estructural de la bası́lica del Pilar de Zaragoza. Revista Int de

be useful a future campaign of tests to determine accu- Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingenierı́a

rately the mechanical properties of the masonry based 2005;21(3):139–49 [in Spanish].

314 L.E. Romera et al. / Advances in Engineering Software 39 (2008) 301–314

**[4] Hernández S, Romera LE. Computer modelling of the Bası́lica of Oñate E, Lourenço PB, editors. Structural analysis of historical
**

Pilar in Zaragoza (Spain). In: Brebbia CA, editor. Structural studies, constructions II. Possibilities of numerical and experimental tech-

repairs and maintenance of heritage architecture VIII; 2003. p. 597– niques. CIMNE; 1998. p. 57–92.

606. [11] Molins C. Characterization of the mechanical behaviour of masonry.

[5] Cosmos/m v.2.8. Finite element analysis system: I) user guide, IV) In: Roca P, González JL, Marı́ AR, Oñate E, editors. Structural

advanced modules. Structural Research & Analysis Corporation, CA; analysis of historical constructions. Possibilities of numerical and

2003. experimental techniques. CIMNE; 1997. p. 86–122.

[6] Romera LE, Hernández S, Mosquera A. Análisis estático y dinámico [12] Fanning PJ, Boothby TE. Three-dimensional modelling and full-scale

de estructuras con el programa Cosmos/m v.2.8. La Coruña: Tórculo testing of stone arch bridges. Comput Struct 2001;79:2645–62.

Ediciones; 2003 [in Spanish]. [13] Crisﬁeld MA. Non-linear ﬁnite element analysis of solids and

[7] MSC. Marc 2003. Vol. A – Theory and user information, Santa Ana: structures. Advanced topics, vol. II. John Wiley & Sons; 1997.

MSC Software Corporation; 2003. [14] O’Gara M. Modelling and behaviour of masonry walls in ﬁre. In: Bull

[8] Bathe KJ. Finite element procedures. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, JW, editor. Computational modelling of masonry, brickwork

Inc.; 1996. and blockwork structures. Saxe-Coburg Publications; 2001. p. 143–

[9] Cook RD, Malkus DS, Plesha ME. Concepts and applications of 176.

ﬁnite element analysis. John Wiley & Sons; 1989. [15] Griﬃth MC, Lam NTK, Wilson JL, Doherty K. Experimental

[10] Lourenço PB. Experimental and numerical issues in the modelling of investigation of unreinforced brick masonry walls in ﬂexure. J Struct

the mechanical behaviour of masonry. In: Roca P, González JL, Engrg 2004;130(3):423–32.

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