Abstract This paper reviews the literature regarding the utilization of intelligence measurement and “Big Five” personality

dimensions in employee selection by organization. Both of the methods play significant role in assisting the organization to select the right employee to the job or task in the organization. Individual who has high intelligence is an indication of rapid learning, good in analyzing, well verbal capacity, able to think critically, which might lead to excellent job performance. The “Big Five” personality dimensions encompass extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness, which are the key criteria in selecting new employee. However, there is “grey area” in personality traits measurement.

I. Introduction Employee selection is the process of selecting the best candidate for the position or job. An effective employee selection requires the matching of the organizations requirements with the qualifications and personalities of the applicant. The process of employee selection involves many stages such as employee testing, background investigations and reference checks, preemployment information services, honesty testing, graphology and substance abuse screening. Careful selection of employee is vital because the performance of the employer often depends on the subordinates. It is also costly to recruit and hire employees. Hence, it is important to select the right candidate for the job so as to save time and cost. Besides, mismanaging hiring process has various legal implications that include equal employment, negligent hiring and defamation. However, in the research by Behling (1998), it is noticed that selection decisions are not always primarily determining the job candidate and the job. Behling (1998) stated that most human resource managers’ thinking and the process of employee selection involves matching of knowledge, ability and skill profiles. Human resource managers select employee by considering all aspects because the best candidate will only assure top employee performance. Since years ago, companies understand human resources are a source of competitive advantage in order to sustain and survive in the long term. Talents that are rare and able to 1

2008. and more knowledgeable. Schmidt even stated that: “Intelligence is the major determinant of job performance. and the improvements have high economic value to the firm” (Schmidt. analyzing ability. 2000). Intelligence is undeniable a critical element in performing a job (Byington & Felps. 2000). The last section which is section 3 is the summary or conclusion of this paper.perform works that are unable to perform by others are considered valuable assets to a company. inductive and deductive reasoning. and eventually able to perform better in their jobs. there are several criteria for companies to consider. and therefore hiring people based on intelligence leads to marked improvements in job performance. In order to select the right person among job applicants. which contribute to the company’s success and effectiveness. II. or known as IQ (Dickens. Dessler. the person is said to possess higher intelligence. which include personality and cognitive ability of the applicants. 2 . 2011. rapid learning. able to perform critical thinking. able to overcome problems even quicker. Intelligence According to Dickens (2008) cognitive ability refers to the mental ability of a person to understand new concepts faster. it is important for companies to carefully select and choose the members of the companies. intelligence is good to predict the applicant’s future job performance (Schmidt. enabling them to learn extra abilities over time. and numerical ability are also the abilities that can be found in person that has higher intelligence. There was a study proved that there is a positive relationship between IQ level and job performance. Therefore. This paper has been organized in the following way. Section 2 presents the literature review of intelligence or cognitive ability and “Big Five” personality dimensions. Possess good memory is strongly associated with academic performance. 2010). The higher the cognitive ability. People with higher intelligence level will tend to perform better in jobs in all fields and therefore. Schmidt. 2000). well verbal comprehension. Certain researchers believe that people that scored in intelligence tests are better in developmental resources. Literature review 1.

the authors reported that although not all the people agreed that the employees’ attitudes should be taken into account in employee selection. In this study which has done by Behling (1998). These three personality dimensions. innate potential. “Big Five” personality dimensions The “Big Five” personality or personality trait dimensions. the understanding of the relationship among the 3 . Nowadays. Furthermore. however. This contributes to job success. Ilies and Gerhardt (2002) mentioned that the personality dimensions of an individual do relate to tasks performed. Judge & 2001). The authors found out that in leader emergence. Instead. however there are also some who do not believe that big five frameworks is best in utilize for employee selection (Behling. and eventually led to the success as well as the effectiveness of the company (Schmidt. 2000). more procedural knowledge and skill. will lead to superior developmental opportunities and caused to development of job-relevant knowledge. The characters or the attitudes of the employees are considered as the key factors in selecting the personnel. these three variables did predict overall performance in specific occupations (Barrick. the eventually lead to superior job performance (Byington & Felps. selecting employees who possessed higher intelligence will be able to acquire more work which related to facts and principles. openness to experience. 1998). Bono. agreeableness. organizations start to use the personality’s measurement as one of the tools in employee selection. 2011). Judge. IQ testing has become a convincing tool for allocating scarce resources in the United States as well as other countries in the past century (Byington & Felps. did not predict overall performance for all types of jobs. Due to this reason. As according to the findings of Byington and Felps. emotional stability. individual productivity. based on the research which they have done. and conscientiousness are also apply to utilize in employee selection. openness to experience and agreeableness showed there are strong relationships among these two variables. 2010). extraversion. 2. according to Rothstein and Goffin (2006).Furthermore. they found out that the measurements of personality in employee selection would contribute to the job’s performance. which is intelligence. which consist of extroversion. some of the presidents supported this type of personnel’s selection. Some scholars think that personality traits are often parallel with job performance (Dessler. 2010). Moreover. Mount.

Agreeableness is said to be a very important requirement in jobs related to interpersonal interactions. not stress-prone. Hence. Emotional stability is also known as neuroticism. Various personalities did affect the performance of an individual in different jobs. Hurts and Donovan (2000) are agreed upon the utility of the “Big Five” personality dimensions in employee selection. Mount & Judge. There is also another study stated that the personality dimensions were related to the management performance by Rothmann and Coetzer (2003). 1998).personality characteristics and the job performance has increasingly being concerned of the industrial-organizational psychologists throughout the globe nowadays. Field and Giles (2003) also supported that the recruiters should hire the employees based on the extroversion personality for sales representatives. not anxious and not worrisome while those who are persistent. Individuals who are emotionally stable are those who are not temperamental. An emotionally unstable person can be said to be a person who is angry. depressed. anxious. 2011). they are unlikely to be in the 4 . 2001). The level of emotional stability affects the happiness and conduct of a person. insecure and worried (Behling. In short it is the converse of emotional stability. Individuals who are highly neurotic are realized to be unable to effectively work on their own. it is found that emotionally stability has relatively low correlations with employee selection. With better personality or the right attitudes. emotional. for instance feeling psychologically secure. With these personalities. organized and achievement-oriented are known as conscientious individuals (Barrick. calm and relaxed (Ivancevich. From the research by Barrick& Mount (1991). another big five personality dimensions is the tendency to experience positive emotional states. hardworking. it is said to be a very critical requirement in jobs related to customer service while extroversion is said to be very vital in jobs related to sales as well as management. The authors also added this is due to the meaningful relationship incurred between the characteristics of an employee and the job performance. the employees are able to perform well in their work and task creativity. & Matteson. for instance it would be expected that individuals who are emotionally stable and are high in conscientiousness are liable to perform well. the employees are believed to perform better than those who are weak on these characteristics. Researchers normally make intuitive sense on findings. efficient. For openness to experience. Kanopaske. Emotional stability. Cole.

The construct of conscientiousness includes the achievement tap traits and dependability. Some examples of achievement tap traits are planful. the overall relationship is smaller than the effect for conscientiousness. thorough and responsible are said to be conscientious (Ivancevich. locus of control and others if included in emotional stability. These individuals are said to have exclude themselves from the organization. individuals with low emotional stability may have “selected out” based on their own interests or perceptions of their emotional stability. results also suggested professional jobs require that individuals who are worrying. 1991). Many measures of neuroticism are too narrow to capture the true breadth of the construct. results by Barrick. the validity of the construct in predicting job performance is considerably higher. the traits. since they are found to be better performers in professional jobs. These individuals also have a tendency to persevere. persistent and hardworking while instances of dependability include careful. In year 2001. work hard and enjoy achieving and accomplishing things. which is beyond the “critical unstable” range. the predictive value of any differences can be minimized if the individuals possess sufficient emotional stability. nervous. emotional and high-strung. organized. Conscientiousness is a feature of personality that appears to tap important traits to the accomplishment of work tasks in all jobs.organization. The validity of the emotional stability in predicting job performance appear to be distinguishable from zero. results showed that there is no linear relation between emotional stability and job performance. In other words. Kanopaske& Matteson. Those individuals with traits associated with 5 . In the research by Fisher & Boyle (1997). for instance self-esteem. The most significant big five personality dimensions in the study by Barrick and Mount (1991) is conscientiousness. Mount & Judge for emotional stability and employee selection showed the lowest validity as compared to the other four big five personality dimension. organized. However. Individuals who are dependable. emotional stability is found to be negatively strongly related to job performance. thorough and responsible (Barrick& Mount. This may be due to the pressures to high performance in professional jobs that led to the neurotic traits of individuals. Hence. One of the possible reasons to explain the relatively low validity for emotional stability is the measurement and conceptualization of the construct. Therefore. this personality dimension is an essential for employee selection. Moreover. Furthermore. 2011).

conscientious individuals appear to be trait-oriented motivation variable that industrial-organizational psychologists have long researched for. However. 6 . obligation and persistence normally perform better than those who do not. In addition. The mean correlation between conscientiousness and employee selection from Fisher and Boyle’s (1997) research was positive. In the case of task performance. Kisamore. The results supported the previous research by Barrick& Mount (1991). effort. This means that the applicants could fake their responses and caused some bias in employee selection. conscientiousness was not as valuable as compared to Barrick and Mount’s (1991) research. Also. Manson. Nevertheless. the applicants can fake. McFarland (2003) agreed that in the hiring process. persistence and attention to detail that may beneficially impact performance on certain jobs. However. It is found to be consistent relations with all job performance criteria for all occupational groups. According to Birkeland. Barrick.a strong sense of purpose. The authors also suggested two ways to overcome this problem: faking warning and the forced-choice method. Brannick and Smith (2006) also reported that the applicants would respond in a manner that make them look quailed for the positions and good impression as well as the increment in getting the job from the human resource management. conscientiousness may increase time on task. Rothstein and Goffin (2006) commented that hiring based on the personality dimensions may face some faking. Mount. The results emphasized the importance of conscientiousness as a fundamental individual difference variable that has numerous implications for work outcomes. it should also occupy a central role in theories seeking to explain job performance. and Judge (2001) found that conscientiousness has the highest validity among the big five personality dimensions. the research also suggested that the consequences of faking in personality dimensions are unlikely to be critical enough to counteract the utility and importance of personality test in employee selection. and at the very least faking may as well alter the result of the employee selection. Moreover. in the research.

able to think critically. However. Although there are some researchers found that emotionally stability has low correlation with employee selection. the “Big Five” personality is another method that been applied in employee selection by organization. but there are some professional job that prefer candidate that has emotional instability like worry. Another personality traits such as emotionally stable and high in conscientiousness also found correlated to job performance. employer might able to predict the future job performance of the candidate. organized. competent in verbal comprehension and inductive and also deductive reasoning. 7 . and hire candidate with good intelligence will able to boost up the economic value of the firm. and conscientiousness. There are some researchers suggest to overcome this problem through faking warning and forced-choice method. Individual that said to be conscientious by researchers are those who are dependable. There are several of personality dimensions in “Big Five” such as agreeableness. In contrast. It found to be has the highest validity in employee selection among big five personality dimension. researchers suggested the outcomes of faking personality dimensions are unlikely to undermine the significant role in employee selection. Agreeableness is the personal trait that has significant influence on the job and also interpersonal interactions. nervous. emotional stability. The first method that been reviewed is the cognitive ability or intelligence. overcome problem in quicker way. While openness to experience and extroversion are significant requirement in customer service and sales related job. Conclusion This paper has review methods that firms utilize in selecting new employee. thorough. and high-strung due to they are found able to perform well in professional jobs. Through utilizing cognitive ability measurement in employee selection. It is relate to learn new things faster.III. openness to experience. extroversion. Furthermore. and responsible due to they tend to work hard and enjoy achieving and accomplishing given task. researchers also found that hiring based on personality traits may face faking issue where candidate could fake their responses to make qualify for the job and create good impression during interview. the organization will able to recruit candidates that has better personality or good attitude which eventually able to perform well in job. Some researchers found that measuring candidate personality during employee selection.

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