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UN: Basic Objectives, Principles & Organization Three fold import to Charter: 1.

Outline to all subsequent UN relationships & programs 2. Multilateral treaty w/obligations & requirements, thus addition to international law 3. Written constitution: organizational structure, principles, powers, functions

Objectives of the UN Things to keep in mind: Nothing guarantees actual fulfillment! Reflect optimism (50 nations w/common interests) Vague and general do provide shape for the organization A. Primary Goal = Maintain International Peace & Security ?? How?? Means: 1. Peaceful settlement of disputes 2. Collective measures for: a. Prevention b. Removal Of threats to peace or acts of aggression 3. Instruments: a. Primarily Security Council, b. Also General Assembly, Intl Court of Justice

So not shockingly Collective Security main purpose (see Sidebar below) B. Secondary Goal: Promote international economic & social cooperation Instruments: 1. Economic and Social Council (EcoSoC) 2. General Assembly 3. Specialized agencies 4. Consultation w/NGO C. Third professed purpose: promote human rights for all peoples

1. Lack specific definition or meaning in Charter

2. No implementation guidelines Thus, Import of UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) no dissention in Genl Assembly (abstaining: Soviet Bloc, Saudi Arabia, South Africa) Instruments for implementation in Charter: 1. General Assembly 2. Economic and Social Council D. Other Purposes also vague, warm & fuzzy (though vagueness can be important why?) 1. Develop friendly relations among nations (shift from a culture of war) 2. Act as a center for harmonizing action for more specific goals a. Venue for discussion b. Resources for coordination 3. Take measures to strengthen universal peace 4. Practice tolerance, living together and in peace (the good neighbor policy) 5. Establish justice and respect for international law perhaps one of the more relevant vague goals (b/c mere notion)

Key Principles of UN Charter ? Do these help/hinder objectives? A. Sovereign equality of members 1. Legal status, not re: size, wealth, power 2. Limited institutional inequality re: Security Council 3. Intl Law principles of equality, & voting rights (1 state 1 vote) ? Role of individual sovereignty of members? B. Peacefulness

1. Refrain from force, threat of force 2. Settle disputes peacefully 3. Support UN enforcement/refrain from aiding others 4. Aid in enforcement against non-members C. Good Faith Fulfillment 1. Members will fulfill all obligations in Charter 2. Tempered by right to interpret Ex) domestic jurisdiction clause D. Other Principles throughout Charter 1. Human Rights & Self-determination 2. Self-Defense (collective, regional or otherwise) 3. Registration of treaties & international agreements (noninvoking of unregistered) 4. Supremacy Clause: Obligations under Charter take precedence over other international obligations 5. Juridical Capacity immunity and instruments of UN SIDEBAR: Collective Security Concept, Background and Issues I. Roots in UN Charter Art #1 to maintain international peace and securityto take effective collective measures Art #24 Security Council has the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security Art #25 members agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the council Art # 42 Security Council has authority to take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security II. International Security Theory Behind It A. Problem not new Ex) Immanuel Kant (1784)

* Humankind must step from the lawless condition of savages into a league of nations Early recognition that war is a problem to be overcome Attempts Concert of Europe, League of Nations, and the United Nations Also, many regional organizations (e.g. NATO forces in Bosnia) B. Collective Security 4 Key Tenets: 1. All countries foreswear use of force except for defense 2. All agree that peace is indivisible; attack on one is attack on all 3. All pledge to unite to halt aggression and restore peace 4. All agree to supply whatever materiel or personnel necessary to form a collective security force Interpretation Issues: 1. How to tell aggressor from victim??? 2. What is defensive (preemption vs. prevention?)? Collective Security mostly a goal, rare examples of effective practice 1. UN intervention in Korea (1950-1953) 2. Persian Gulf (1990-1991) C. Peacekeeping * Deploys international force under aegis of an international organization (e.g. UN) to prevent fighting, usually as a buffer. Force is neutral, invited by one of the combatants. Serve to defuse potential explosive situation (Often on borders) Usually: 1. Take place in LDCs 2. Utilize forces from non-aligned/smaller powers e.g. Canada 80% of actions, Scandinavia also frequent

D. Peacemaking (?) * Involve heavily armed UN forces with the authority to restore and maintain peace.

Intervene where conflict had broken out Also, deploy to imperiled countries before conflict breaks out Therefore, aggressor risks attacking the UN (invoke collective security measures) 2 problems facing peacemaking: 1. Member countries often do not support politically or financially If one Security Council veto power 2. When authorized, often narrow scope and few resources (troops) Also, Where and When to get involved? III. Some Criticisms A. Neocolonialism B. Undermines Sovereignty Esp. if UN involved in internal civil wars C. Lack of Effectiveness IV. Future? Recognize: A. Benefits everyone to prevent or contain crisis B. Previous shortcomings not an inherent failure of UN : Kofi Annan UN has been asked to do too much with too little