Hội nghị toàn quốc về Điều khiển và Tự động hoá - VCCA-2011

VCCA-2011
Cải tiến bộ điều khiển mờ cấp cao
cho bài toán điều khiển độ ấm nhà kính

A Development on Advanced Fuzzy Based Controller Design for
Humidity Control of Greenhouse
Minh Duc Nguyen
1
, Viet Boi Chau Luong
2
, Tuong Quan Vo
3
1
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam
(Email: ng.minhduc258@gmail.com)
2
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam
(Email: boichau.luong@gmail.com)
3
Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, HCMUT, Vietnam
(Email: vtquan@hcmut.edu.vn)

Tóm tắt
Ngày nay, nhà kính không còn là một khái niệm lạ
trong nông nghiệp. Tuy nhiên, điều hòa khí hậu trong
nhà kính còn gặp nhiều khó khăn. Nhiều thông số cần
được điều khiển chẳng hạn như nhiệt độ, độ ẩm tương
đối, độ chứa hơi, lượng khí carbon dioxide trong
không khí ... Trong đó, khó khăn nhất là điều khiển độ
ẩm tương đối. Trong bài báo này đề cập đến bộ điều
khiển mờ thông thường và bộ điều khiển mờ nâng cao
được sử dụng cho máy tăng ẩm và máy hút ẩm. Bộ
điều khiển mờ nâng cao là tự điều chỉnh các thông số
đầu ra dựa trên sai số và đạo hàm của sai số của các
biến điều khiển.

Abstract
Nowadays, greenhouse is not longer a strange
conception in agriculture. The plants in a greenhouse
impose their own needs. However, climate control for
protected crops has many difficulties. There are many
parameters are controlled such as temperature,
relative humidity, humidity ratio, carbon dioxide in
the air… Among protecting all of them, relative
humidity is the hardest parameter to control. In this
paper, Conventional Fuzzy Controller (CFC) and
Self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller (STFLC) are used
for the humidifier and dehumidifier. The Self-tuning
Fuzzy Logic Controller is adjusted the output scaling
factor on-line by fuzzy rules according to the current
trend of the controlled process. The rule-base for
tuning the output-scaling factor is defined on error
and change of error of the controlled variable.
Keywords
Greenhouse, Conventional Fuzzy Controller,
Advanced Fuzzy Controller, Self-tuning Fuzzy
Controller, humidity.
Nomenclature
¢
in
% indoor relative humidity
¢
o1
% outside relative humidity type 1
A
cc
m
2
surface area of cooling coils
A
gap
= 0.02m
2
area of gaps of wall
A
hc
m
2
surface area of heating coils
c
p
kJ/kg.
o
C specific heat capacity of moist
air
d
ac
kg/kg humidity ratio of air flow
passing over cooling coils
d
h
kg/kg humidity ratio of supply air flow
by humidifier
d
in
kg/kg humidity ratio of indoor air
d
o
kg/kg humidity ratio of outdoor air
F
o1
m
3
/s volume flow rate of air blowing
from outside to inside
G kg mass of dry indoor air
G
d
kg/s mass flow rate of supply dry air
flow by dehumidifier
G
h
kg/s mass flow rate of supply dry air
flow by humidifier
G
o
kg/s mass flow rate of air blowing
from outside to inside
G
w
kg/s mass flow rate of added water
vapor
h
cc
kW/m
2
.
o
C average convective heat-transfer
coefficient of cooling coils
h
hc
kW/m
2
.
o
C average convective heat-transfer
coefficient of heating coils
i
h
kJ/kg enthalpy of supply air by
humidifier
i
in
kJ/kg enthalpy of indoor air
i
w
kJ/kg enthalpy of added water vapor
p = 1 bar pressure of air
p
hmax
bar saturation vapor partial pressure
at indoor temperature
t
ac

o
C temperature of air flow passing
over cooling coils
t
ah

o
C temperature of air flow passing
over heating coils
t
cc

o
C surface temperature of cooling
coils
t
h

o
C temperature of supply air by
humidifier
t
hc

o
C surface temperature of heating
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coils
t
in

o
C temperature of indoor air
t
o

o
C temperature of outdoor air
t
o1

o
C outside temperature type 1
v
wind
m/s outside wind speed
1. Introduction
We find that the climate in the crop have a great
influence on the growth of plants, capacity growth,
productivity, quality and of tree maintenance
procedures. Environmental control is a central feature
of modern production systems. There is so much
research on the theory and application the related
issues of environmental control Greenhouse has been
done by many researchers (Jones, 1984 [Error!
Reference source not found.]; Gates and Overhuts,
1991 [9]; Stanghellini and van Meurs, 1992 [10];
Taylor, 2000 [11]; Zolnier, 2000 [12]). Most research
has focused on the analysis and control of
environmental conditions inside the glass based on the
concept of energy and material model reasons.
Many kinetic models for greenhouse environmental
developed and documented in the literature, the model
the kinetics of these are non-linear model with
variables mainly air temperature and relative humidity
for (or absolute humidity), concentrations of carbon
dioxide also mentioned. Noise impact on the climate
glass all tastes from solar radiation, outside
temperature (the phenomenon of thermal conductivity
and heat transfer), but the frequency the noise is very
low. Indeed, temperature and humidity are closely
associated with each other through the law of non-
linear thermodynamics. Therefore, we designed a
controller that is strong enough to control system for
greenhouse is difficult.
2. System Modeling
Humidifier has two systems: atomizing system and air
handling unit. Water passes through an atomizing
system to become water vapor. This water vapor will
be added to the air.
Following [1], the humidity ratio of supply air flow
by humidifier is
w
h in
h
G
d d
G
(1)
Following [1, 2], the temperature of supply air flow
by humidifier is
in in w h w h
h in
p
d i i d i i
t t
c
(2)
The air in a dehumidifier first passes over a series of
cooling coils (the evaporator) and then immediately
over a set of heating coils (the condenser) and then
back into the room as dryer air with its temperature
elevated.
Following [1, 2], the humidity ratio of air flow
passing over cooling coils is
1.006
2500.77 1.84
cc cc in cc
in ac
d
ac
ac
h A t t
i t
G
d
t
(3)
Following [1, 2], the temperature of air flow passing
over heating coils is
1.006 1.84
hc hc hc ac
ah ac
d ac
h A t t
t t
G d
(4)
Therefore, the temperature t
d
and the humidity ratio d
d

of supply air flow by dehumidifier are
d ah
t t (5)
d ac
d d (6)
According law of energy conservation, if we choose
the sampling time is one second, the indoor
temperature and humidity ratio at the step k are
1
h h d d o o
in h d
in
o
t k G k t k G k t k G k
t k G k G k G k
t k
G k G k
(7)
1
h h d d o o
in h d
in
o
d k G k d k G k d k G k
d k G k G k G k
d k
G k G k
(8)
The indoor relative humidity is
max
0.622
in
in
h
d p
d p
j (9)
3. Controllers Design
In Controller, there are two inputs:
- The system error is defined as the difference
between the plant output y(k) and the set point
r(k) at the step k is :
e k y k r k (10)
- The change rate of error at the step k is
1 de k e k e k (11)
And two outputs, as the inputs of the plant:
- For humidifier: the mass flow rate of water vapor
G
w
(kg/s).
- For dehumidifier: the volume flow rate of supply
air F
d
(m
3
/s)
3.1. Conventional Fuzzy Controller (CFC)
The structure of CFC is shown in Fig.1. The input
range for e and de are based on the load disturbance.
The output ranges for G
w
and F
d
are base on the max
power of humidifier and dehumidifier. The language
variables description of inputs and outputs are shown
in Table 1. The fuzzy membership functions for
inputs and outputs are shown in Fig.2. Table 2 lists 49
language fuzzy rules for the CFC.
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Conventional
Fuzzy
Controller
Plant
du/dt
G
w
F
d
de r
y
e

Fig.1. Structure of Conventional Fuzzy Controller
Table 1. Language variables description
Inputs Output
NB Negative Big ZE Zero 1
NM Negative Medium VS Very Small 2
NS Negative Small S Small 3
ZE Zero SB Small Big 4
PS Positive Small MB Medium Big 5
PM Positive Medium B Big 6
PB Positive Big VB Very Big 7

-20 -10 0 10 20
0
0.5
1
Error
NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5
0
0.5
1
Change of Error
NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

0 0.025
0
0.5
1
G
w
ZE VS S SB MB B VB
0 0.12
0
0.5
1
F
d
ZE VS S SB MB B VB

Fig.2. Membership functions of input and output CFC
Table 2. Rule of Conventional Fuzzy Controller
G
w
F
d
Error
NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
C
h
a
n
g
e

o
f

E
r
r
o
r
NB 7 1 6 1 5 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 1 5
NM 7 1 6 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 1 5
NS 6 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 5 1 6
ZE 6 1 5 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 6
PS 5 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 6
PM 5 1 4 1 2 1 1 3 1 5 1 6 1 7
PB 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 4 1 6 1 7 1 7
3.2. Advanced Fuzzy Controller (AFC)
Advanced Fuzzy Controller has two fuzzy controllers.
They are Direct Fuzzy Logic Controller (DFLC) and
Self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller (STFLC). The
structure of AFC is shown in Fig.3.
Direct Fuzzy
Logic
Controller
Plant
du/dt
GwN
FdN de r
y
e
Ge
Gde
eN
deN
GuHum
GuDehum
Gw
Fd
Self-tuning
Fuzzy
Logic
Controller
Fig.3. Structure of Advanced Fuzzy Controller
DFLC is most similar to CFC but the ranges of inputs
and outputs are different. In DFLC, the inputs (e
N
,
de
N
) and outputs (G
wN
, F
dN
) are normalized based on
Eqs.(12-15).
max
20
N
e e
e
e
(12)
max
0.5
N
de de
de
de
(13)
min
max min
0
0.025 0 0.025
w w w w
wN
w w
G G G G
G
G G
(14)
min
max min
0
0.12 0 0.12
d d d d
dN
d d
F F F F
F
F F
(15)
The rule for DFLC is the same with CFC. The fuzzy
membership functions for inputs and outputs are
shown in Fig.4.
-1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
0
0.5
1
Error
NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
-1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
0
0.5
1
Change of Error
NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

0 0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6 0.75 0.9 1
0
0.5
1
G
w
ZE VS S SB MB B VB
0 0.15 0.3 0.45 0.6 0.75 0.9 1
0
0.5
1
F
d
ZE VS S SB MB B VB

Fig.4. Membership functions of input and output of DFLC
The rule base STFLC is developed to tune the
DFLC’s inputs and outputs gains. The inputs are e
and de and outputs are Ge, Gde, Gu
Hum
, Gu
Dehum
. Its
inputs are the same with CFC’s, both range and
membership functions. The ranges for outputs are
based on the ranges for inputs and outputs of CFC.
The membership functions of inputs and outputs are
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shown in Fig.5. The rule of STFLC is shown in Table
3.
Table 3. Rule of STFLC for Ge and Gde
Ge Gde Error
GuHum GuDehum NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
C
h
a
n
g
e

o
f

E
r
r
o
r

NB
1 4 2 3 5 3 7 7 5 1 4 1 3 1
1 4 2 3 5 3 7 7 5 1 4 1 3 1
NM
2 3 5 2 6 4 6 6 6 1 5 1 4 1
2 3 5 2 6 4 6 6 6 1 5 1 4 1
NS
5 2 6 3 4 5 5 5 4 2 6 1 5 1
5 2 6 3 4 5 5 5 4 2 6 1 5 1
ZE
7 2 6 3 5 5 7 4 5 5 6 3 7 2
7 2 6 3 5 5 7 4 5 5 6 3 7 2
PS
5 1 6 1 4 2 5 5 4 5 6 3 5 3
5 1 6 1 4 2 5 5 4 5 6 3 5 3
PM
4 1 5 1 6 1 6 6 6 4 5 2 2 3
4 1 5 1 6 1 6 6 6 4 5 2 2 3
PB
3 1 4 1 5 1 7 7 5 3 2 3 1 4
3 1 4 1 5 1 7 7 5 3 2 3 1 4
0 0.2
0
0.5
1
Ge
ZE VS S SB MB B VB
0 4
0
0.5
1
Gde
ZE VS S SB MB B VB

0 0.03
0
0.5
1
Gu
Hum
ZE VS S SB MB B VB
0 0.16
0
0.5
1
Gu
DeHum
ZE VS S SB MB B VB

Fig.5. Membership functions of input and output STFLC
4. Simulation Results
Using the mathematical model of the plant our
proposed approaches has been tested. From the initial
condition t
in
(0) = 27
o
C, ¢
in
(0) = 65%. The target is to
follow a control reference set to ¢
ref1
= 40% and ¢
ref2

= 80%.

We test three fuzzy controllers:
- Fuzzy1: Conventional Fuzzy Controller
- Fuzzy2: Advanced Fuzzy Controller with self-
tuning Gde
- Fuzzy3: Advanced Fuzzy Controller with self-
tuning Ge, Gde, Gu
Hum
, Gu
Dehum
First, the controllers are tested without disturbance.
The simulation results for both references are
represented in Fig.6-7. In Fig.6, at the beginning,
error is negative big. So the dehumidifier runs with
max power. But there are some differences when error
is negative small. The settling time of Fuzzy3 is the
least. In Fig.7, the errors of Fuzzy2 and Fuzzy3 are
close to zero. The error of Fuzzy1 is about 1.75.
Second, we consider the response of the system
within disturbance. Disturbance is the effect of
outside air. There are two kinds of disturbances:
normal disturbance and unpredictable disturbance.
Normal disturbance is the change of outside
temperature, relative humidity and wind speed in a
day (following Table 4). The equations of them are
shown in below:
( )
( )
( )
1
1
1 1
27.5 7.5sin
78.5 7.5sin
0.02 2.8 sin
o t
o
o gap wind w
t wt
w t
F A v w t
¢
¢
¦
= +
¦
¦
= +
´
¦
= = + (
¦
¸ ¸ ¹
(16)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Time (s)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y
(
%
)


Fuzzy1
Fuzzy2
Fuzzy3

Fig.6. Response of Ref = 40 % without disturbance
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
Time (s)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y
(
%
)


Fuzzy1
Fuzzy2
Fuzzy3

Fig.7. Response of Ref = 80 % without disturbance
Unpredictable disturbance is the suddenly change of
temperature t
o2
(
o
C), relative humidity ¢
o2
(%) and
volume flow rate of air F
o2
(m
3
/s) when someone
opens door or the weather becomes heavy.
Disturbance signals are in the form given in Fig.8.
In Fig.9-10, Fuzzy1 and Fuzzy2 take more time to
response than Fuzzy3.
We evaluate the quality of the controllers through
three parameters:
- Settling time
- Error
- Sum of square error
( ) ( )
2
1
n
i
real i ref i
SSE
n
=
÷ (
¸ ¸
=
¿

with n = number of samples

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0 240 480 720 960 1200
15
20
25
30
Time (s)
t
o
2
(
o
C
)
0 240 480 720 960 1200
80
95
Time (s)
P
h
i
o
2
(
%
)
0 50 290 530 770 1010 1200
0
5
10
Time (s)
F
o
2
(
m
3
/
s
)

Fig.8. Unpredictable Disturbance Signals
Table 4. Relative Humidity and Temperature of Ho Chi
Minh City in year
Month
Average RH
(%)
Max Average
Temperature
(
o
C)
Min Average
Temperature
(
o
C)
1 73.8 32 21
2 71.1 33 22
3 71 34 23
4 73.7 34 24
5 80.7 33 25
6 83.7 32 24
7 84.2 31 25
8 84.5 32 24
9 86 31 23
10 85.2 31 23
11 81.7 30 22
12 77.8 31 22
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
Time (s)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y
(
%
)


Fuzzy1
Fuzzy2
Fuzzy3

Fig.9. Response of Ref = 40 % within disturbance
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
Time (s)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

H
u
m
i
d
i
t
y
(
%
)


Fuzzy1
Fuzzy2
Fuzzy3

Fig.10. Response of Ref = 80 % within disturbance
Table 5. Performance characteristics of system with three
Fuzzy Controllers
Settling time (s)
Error (%)
SSE
Fuzzy1 Fuzzy2 Fuzzy3
W
i
t
h
o
u
t

D
i
s
t
u
r
b
a
n
c
e

Ref = 40 %
213 175 107
0.5 0.1 0.15
5.0772 4.7607 4.8755
Ref = 80 %
140 100 62
1.10 0.10 0.03
2.4961 1.3167 1.0541
D
i
s
t
u
r
b
a
n
c
e

Ref = 40 %
264 234 155
1.00 0.52 0.63
26.5230 22.0187 21.1630
Ref = 80 %
130 150 120
1.10 0.45 0.20
3.1697 2.0932 1.3749
5. Conclusion
In this paper, we simulated the greenhouse humidity
system and the fuzzy controllers. Conventional Fuzzy
Controller and Advanced Fuzzy Controller are both
satisfactory the requirement (error < 2%). But the
performance (Table 5) of Advanced Fuzzy Controller
is better: the setting time is smaller and the setting
error is less. We can choose Advanced Fuzzy
Controller for the fulfillment of complex task of
adaptive set point tracking and disturbance rejection
of a greenhouse humidity system.
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779

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