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VCCA2011
Improvement of Distorted Born Iterative Method for Reconstructing of
Sound Speed
Cải tiến phương pháp lặp Born vi phân áp dụng vào ảnh siêu âm cắt lớp
Tran Duc Tan
a
, Gian Quoc Anh
b
a
Vietnam National University/University of Engineering and Technology
b
Nam Dinh University of Technology Education
eMail: tantd@vnu.edu.vn
Abstract:
Ultrasound imaging is widely used for medical
application. However, conventional ultrasound
imaging uses pulse echo method which can not
resolve structures that are smaller than the wavelength
of the incident wave. Inverse scattering of the
measured signal has a ability to characterize small
structures. The material properties such as sound
contrast are very useful to detect small objects. The
Born Iterative Method (BIM) and Distorted Born
Iterative Method (DBIM) are utilized to build a linear
relationship between the measured data and sound
contrast. DBIM can offer a fast convergence
compared to BIM. However DBIM is easier affected
by noise. This paper proposed a modified DBIM in
order to ensure both fast convergence and noise
reduction. An ensemble of measured ultrasound signal
has been combined to combat with noise. The
simulation result has proved that this method can
enhance the reconstruction’s quality without much
additional complexity.
Tóm tắt
Chụp ảnh siêu âm hiện được sử dụng rộng rãi cho các
ứng dụng y tế. Tuy nhiên, phương pháp hiện tại trong
các máy siêu âm là sử dụng các tín hiệu phản hồi có
nhược điểm là khó có thể tái tạo được các cấu trúc có
kích thước nhỏ hơn bước sóng. Kỹ thuật tán xạ ngược
thì lại cho phép thực hiện điều này. Người ta có thể
nhận biết các khối u lạ vì khi tín hiệu siêu âm truyền
qua thì tốc độ truyền sẽ thay đổi. Hai phương pháp lặp
Born (BIM) và lặp Born vi phân (DBIM) được ưa
chuộng bởi cho phép xây dựng mối liên hệ tuyến tính
giữa tín hiệu siêu âm đo được với sự khác biệt tốc độ
siêu âm khi truyền qua khối u. Phương pháp DBIM
cho tốc độ hội tụ nhanh hơn BIM nhưng DBIM lại dễ
chịu ảnh hưởng của nhiễu hơn BIM. Bài báo này vì
thế đề xuất giải pháp cải tiến DBIM để vừa có thể
đảm bảo hội tụ nhanh lại vừa giảm tác động của nhiễu
bằng cách sử dụng tổ hợp tín hiệu siêu âm thu được ở
các đầu đo. Kết quả mô phỏng đã cho thấy chất lượng
khôi phục ảnh đã được cải thiện rõ rệt mà gần như
không ảnh hưởng tới độ phức tạp của thuật toán.
Symbols
Symbols Unit Meaning
¸
Regularization parameter
N
t
Number of transmitter
N
r
Number of receiver
h mm Size of pixel
N Number of pixels in one
direction
c
o
( r
) m/s Velocity of the propagating
wave
c
1
( r
) m/s Velocity of the propagating
wave in the object
( ) r
O (rad/m)
2
Object function
( ) r p
inc
Pa
Incident field
( ) r p
Pa
Total pressure field
( ) r p
sc
Pa
Scatter field
c
Stopping error
k
0
rad/m Wave number
Abbreviation
DBIM Distorted Born Iterative Method
BIM Born Iterative Method
RRE Relative Residual Error
SVD Singular Value Decomposition
US Ultrasound
ROI Region of Interest
MSE Mean Square Error
Introduction
Conventional medical ultrasound scanners have been
widely used for imaging most of soft tissue in the
human’s body (see Fig. 1). The popular principle of
these kinds of scanners is Bmode imaging which is
based on the reflectivity and scattering amplitude in
the tissues. Bmode scanners can operate in real time
due to their low complexity. On the other hand,
inverse scattering has ability to detect the small size
tissue that Bmode ultrasound can not [4]. Thus, it
will be promising applications in tissue
characterization.
Initial approaches utilized the projection theory that
widely used in Xray and nuclear tomography [1], [2].
However, these raybased methods were not suitable
with diffraction properties of ultrasound propagation.
After that, the Born Iterative Method (BIM) based on
firstorder Born approximation has been introduced as
one of efficient diffraction tomography approaches
[5]. After that, the same authors has developed
Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM) in order to
improve BIM by using Green’s function updated each
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iteration. DBIM has been proved to outperform DIM
by its fast convergence. However, the limitation of
DBIM is that it more sensitive with noise.
H. 1 Illustration of pulseecho method that using linear
array transducer for obtaining a rectangular cross
sectional image [3]
In [13], authors performed edge detection during the
iterative process to speed up the convergence and
enhance the reconstruction’s quality. However, its
complexity is high and it is still highly sensitive to
noise.
This paper focus to reduce these disadvantages by
using an ensemble of measured ultrasound signals for
the modified DBIM. At the certain positions of a
transmitter and a receiver, we measured the scattered
pressure in K times instead of once as previous
methods. Thus, the noise can be reduced by averaging
technique while still ensure the fast convergence of
existing DBIM. The paper is organized as following:
Section 2 presents the working principle of DBIM and
modified DBIM when using ensemble measured data.
Consequently, a simulation has been performed in
Section 3 in order to analysis the effective of
proposed scheme. Lastly, Section 4 is remarks and
conclusions.
Material and Method
We set up a measurement configuration of
transmitters and receivers in order to obtain the
scattered data. At an instance, only one transmitter
and one receiver are active to obtain a corresponding
measured data value. This data was processed using
DBIM to reconstruct the sound contrast of scatters. In
this way, we can detect if there is any tissue in this
medium.
2.1 Distorted Born Iterative Method
We assume that there is an infinite space containing
homogeneous medium such as water whose
background wave number is k
0
. There is also an
object with constant density and a wave number k(r)
put inside this medium (see Fig. 2). Note that k(r)
depends on the space. The wave equation of the
system can be shown as:
( ) ( ) ( ) r p r p r p
sc inc
+ = (1)
Where ( ) r p
, ( ) r p
inc
, and ( ) r p
sc
are the total
pressure, incident pressure and scattered pressure
fields, respectively.
H. 2 Geometrical and acoustical configuration. The
region of interest (ROI) consists of the object need
to be reconstructed is centered at the origin of a 2D
space and discretized with N×N square pixels of
side h. The number of transmitters and receivers are
N
t
and N
r
respectively. With N
t
transmitter and N
r
receivers, we would have N
t
N
r
measurements.
This equation can be expressed in detail:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' ' '
0
r d r r G r p r r p r p
inc
}}

.

\

÷ O + =
(2)
Where G
0
(.) is the homogenous Green function,
and ( ) ( )
2
0
2
k r k r ÷ = O
is the object function need to
be reconstructed from scattered data.
One of the effective solutions to solve the equation (1)
by discreting is Method of Moment (MoM). The
pressure in the grid points (see Fig. 2) can be
computed in vector form with size N
2
×1:
( ) ( )
inc
p D C I p O ÷ = . (3)
And the exterior points give scatter signal:
( ) p D B p
sc
. . O = (4)
Where B is the matrix with Green’s coefficient
G
0
(r,r’) from each pixel to the receiver, C is the
matrix with Green’s coefficient G
0
(r,r’) among all
pixels, I is identity matrix, and D(.) is an operator
that transform a vector into a diagonal matrix. The
detail of calculation of B and C can be found in [8].
There are two unknown variables p and O in
equations (3) and (4). In this case, the first Born
A
0
A
1
Transmitter
Receiver
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approximation has been applied and the forward
equation (3) and (4) can be rewritten [7]:
( )
O A =
AO = A
.
. .
M
p D B p
sc
(5)
Where ( ) p D B M . . = .
For each transmitter and receiver, we will have a
matrix M and a scalar value
sc
p A . Realize that
unknown vector O has N×N variables which are
equal to the number of pixels in ROI. The object
function can be computed by iterations:
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ÷ ÷
A + =
n n n
O O O (6)
Where
) (n
O and
) 1 ( ÷ n
O are object functions at
present and previous steps, respectively; O A can be
found by solving Tikhonov regularization problem:
2
2
2
2
min arg AO + AO ÷ A = AO
AO
¸ s
sc
M p (7)
Where
sc
p A is the (N
t
N
r
×1) vector contains the
difference between measured and predicted scattered
ultrasound signals; s M is system matrix (N
t
N
r
×N
2
)
formed by N
t
N
r
different matrixes M ; and ¸ is the
regularization parameter that needs to be carefully
selected [6].
2.2 Modified Distorted Born Iterative Method
In practice, we can measure the scattered signal
measure
sc
p by subtract the total field in case of with
and without object inserted in the medium [9].
However, we can not ignore the noise here which can
be assumed as Gaussian noise. Thus, the exact
formula of vector
sc
p A when using N
t
N
r
measurements is:
n p p p
sc sc
measure
sc
+ ÷ = A (8)
Where n is the (N
t
N
r
×1) noise vector.
From equation (8) we can see that DBIM is more
affected by noise than BIM. By increasing the
numbers of transmitter or receivers, we may only
obtain quick convergent but noise reduction. The time
consuming will even be higher if using large number
of measurements. However, at the certain positions of
a transmitter and a receiver, we can measure the
sc
s
p A in K times. Thus, we will obtain an ensemble
of measured data
sc
s
p A which have KN
t
N
r
components. After that, the measured data of
scattering should be averaged before brought to
modified DBIM:
sc
i
K
i
average
sc
p
K
p A = A
¿
=1
1
(9)
This technique is called signal averaring applied in
the time domain in order to increase the signal to
noise ratio (SNR) by the square root of the K. All
three conditions are ensured in this case:
+ Scattered pressure signal and noise are uncorrelated.
+ Signal strength can be controlled at the same value
in the replicate measurements.
+ The measurement noise is random with a mean of
zero and a constant variance.
Consequently, the regularization problem should be:
2
2
2
2
min arg AO + AO ÷ A = AO
AO
¸ s average
sc
M p (10)
After that, the following iteration call DBIM should
be carried out to reconstruct object function O :
Algorithm 1. Modified DBIM
1: Choose an initial
( ) 0
O and
( ) inc
p p =
0
2: While (n < N
max
) or (RRE < c ) do
{
3: Calculate two matrices B and C ; p and
sc
p
correspond to
( ) n
O using equation (3) and (4).
4: Calculate the vector average
sc
p A
5: Calculate RRE correspond to
( ) n
AO using (10)
6: Calculate a new
( ) 1 +
O
n
by using (5)
7: n=n+1;
}
Where N
max
is the maximum number of iterations,
c is stopping error determined by noise floor [11],
and RRE is relative residual error:
measure
sc
average
sc
p
p
RRE
A
= (11)
For simulation purposes, measure
sc
p can be computed
by applying the ideal object function to (5) and adding
random noise.
Simulations
The modified DBIM reconstruction has been tested by
numerical simulation. The table below summarize the
scenario’s simulation.
Table 1. Simulation parameters
Parameters Values
Frequency of ultrasound signal F=1 Mhz
Number of pixels N×N, N=20
Number of transmitters N
t
=40
Number of receivers N
r
=20
Noise 5%
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The radius of the cylinder R= ì 5
Number of ensemble K=5
Speed of sound contrast 2%
We assume that there is a cylindrical tissue in the
center of the medium. Figure 3 shows the ideal object
function that can be expressed as:
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s


.

\

÷
= O
R r if
R r if
c c
r
0
1 1
2
0
2
1
2
e
(12)
Where e is radial frequency,
0
0
c
k
e
= is the wave
number in reference medium, c
1
is the speed of the
sound in the object (cylinder here) and R is radius of
the object.
The incident field for a Bessel beam of zero order in
2D is given by:
( ) 
.

\

÷ =
k
inc
r r k J r p
0 0
(13)
Where J
0
is the 0
th
– order Bessel function and
k
r r ÷
is the distance between the transmitter and the k
th
point in the ROI.
0
5
10
15
20
0
10
20
0
2
4
6
8
x 10
5
(a)
5 10 15 20
5
10
15
20
(b)
H. 3 Ideal object function of simulated scenario (no noise
contamination) in mesh mode (a) and image mode
(b)
In order to prove the high performance of the
proposed scheme, we will compare the
reconstruction’s quality between conventional DBIM
and modified DBIM.
Figures 4 and 5 show the conventional DBIM
reconstruction at the first and fourth iterations,
respectively. After the first BIM iteration, the object
function could not be estimated correctly yet. After
four iterations, this object function has been
reconstructed successfully.
H. 4 Object function at 1
st
conventional DBIM
reconstruction
H. 5 Object function at 4
th
conventional DBIM
reconstruction
Figure 6 shows the modified DBIM reconstruction at
the fourth iteration. It is easy to see that the quality of
reconstructed image in this figure is outperformed the
one shown in Fig. 5 because the speckles are great
reduced.
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H. 6 Object function at 4
th
modified DBIM reconstruction
Figure 7 is the reconstructed comparisons among the
ideal, conventional DBIM (without improvement) and
modified DBIM (with improvement). The curve
reconstructed by modified DBIM can tracked the
ideal with a mean square error (MSE) that is below
10%. Other wise, difference between the ideal and
conventional DBIM is obvious.
H. 7 Comparison between ideal and final reconstructed
object functions (with and without improvement)
Another way to evaluate the performance of the
system with/without improvement, we define the
speed error as:
ideal
tion reconstruc ideal
c
c c
Err
÷
= (13)
Where
ideal
c and
tion reconstruc
c are ideal and
reconstructed velocities of ultrasound signal in N
2
pixels.
Figure 8 shows error comparison of two schemes with
and without improvement using MonteCarlo
methodology [12]. It is obvious that by applying the
modified DBIM, the reconstructed quality has been
strongly improved. It also can be seen that after 4
th
DBIM iteration, the error performances are saturated
due to noise background. It means that even if we
continue to increase the DBIM iterations, we can not
improve the reconstruct quality anymore.
H. 8 Performance comparison of conventional and
modified DBIM
Conclusions
Sound contrast reconstruction can be applied in
diagnosis to detect cyst, tumor, etc. This paper has
successful by averaging the ensemble of measured
signals and applying to DBIM in order to improve the
reconstructed quality of sound contrast. A Monte
Carlo simulation of sound contrast reconstruction has
been performed to prove the ability of this method.
The DBIM is chosen here to solve the inverse
scattering problem due to its fast convergent compare
to BIM [10]. Furthermore, its disadvantage which is
noise sensitivity has been solved in this work.
References
[1] J. Greenleaf, S. Johnson, W. Samayoa, and F.
Duck: Algebraic reconstruction of spatial
distributions of acoustic velocities in tissue from
their timeofflight profiles. Acoustical
Holography, vol. 6, 1975, pp. 71–90.
[2] J. Greenleaf, S. Johnson, S. Lee, G. Herman,
and E. Wood: Algebraic reconstruction of
spatial distributions of acoustic absorption
within tissue from their twodimensional
acoustic projections. Acoustical Holography,
vol. 5, 1974, pp. 591–603.
[3] Jensen, J.A: Linear description of ultrasound
imaging systems, International Summer School
on. Advanced Ultrasound Imaging, 1999, pp. 1
74.
[4] W.C. Chew, G.P. Otto, W.H. Weedon, J.H. Lin,
C.C. Lu, Y.M. Wang, and M.Moghaddam:
Nonlinear Diffraction TomographyThe Use of
Inverse Scattering for Imaging. Int. J. Imaging
Sys. Tech., vol. 7, 1996, pp. 1624.
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[5] A. Devaney: Inversion formula for inverse
scattering within the Born approximation.
Optics Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, March 1982, pp.
111–112.
[6] Gene H. Golub, Per Christian Hansen, and
Dianne P. O'Leary: Tikhonov Regularization
and Total Least Squares. SIAM Journal on
Matrix Analysis and Applications. Vol. 21 Issue
1, Aug. 1999.
[7] R. J. Lavarello and M. L. Oelze: Tomographic
Reconstruction of ThreeDimensional Volumes
Using the Distorted Born Iterative Method.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol.
28, 2009, pp. 16431653.
[8] Lavarello Robert: New Developments on
Quantitative Imaging Using Ultrasonic Waves.
University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign,
2009.
[9] R. Lavarello and M. Oelze: A study on the
reconstruction of moderate contrast targets using
the distorted born iterative method. IEEE
Ultrasonics Symposium, 2007.
[10] Andrew J. Hesford and Weng C. Chew: Fast
inverse scattering solutions using the distorted
Born iterative method and the multilevel fast
multipole algorithm. Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America, Vol. 128(2), 2010, pp. 679
690.
[11] Martin, R.: Noise power spectral density
estimation based on optimal smoothing and
minimum statistics. IEEE Transactions on
Speech and Audio Processing, Vol. 9, 2001, pp.
504 – 512.
[12] Kalos, Malvin H.: Whitlock, Paula A. Monte
Carlo Methods. WileyVCH. ISBN 978
3527407606, 2008.
[13] Osama S. Haddadin, Sean D. Lucas, Emad
S.Ebbini, Solution to the inverse scattering
problem using a modified distorted Born
iterative algorithm, Proceedings of IEEE
Ultrasonics Symposium, 1995, pp. 1411  1414.
Tran Duc Tan was born in
1980. He received his B.Sc.,
M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees
respectively in 2002, 2005, and
2010 at the University of
Engineering and Technology
(UET), Vietnam National
University Hanoi, Vietnam
(VNUH), where he has been a
lecturer since 2006. He is
author and coauthor of several
papers on MEMS based sensors and their application.
His present research interest is inDSP applications.
Gian Quoc Anh received the
B.S. degree in physics from
VNUUniversity of Sience in
2003 and M.S. degree in
electronics and
telecommunication
technology from VNU
University Engineering and
Technology in 2010. He is
currently a lecturer in the
Faculty of Electrical and
Electronics, Nam Dinh
University of Technology Education. His research
interests are applications of digital signal processing
and embedded systems.
803
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