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of Forestry P.O. Box 128 Shashemane Ethiopia email@example.com
Poverty and food insecurity è ≈ 50 % of the population below poverty line Subsistence-oriented smallhoder system Agriculture 85 % employment è 57.2 % GDP; 95 % foreign exchange earning Over 85 % total energy requirement èbiomass Per capita fuelwood consumption 90 – 280 kg/a Per capita dung consumption 450 – 1100 kg/a 700000 tons of grain = amount of annual food deficit at best of times
> 3 % population increase è land/man ratio declines by 1.7 % annually (50 % in 30 yrs) 50 % of fertile highlands highly eroded èNatural resources degradations Extremely high deforestation rate (6 % of the high forest/a) Excessive soil loss to erosion (300 - 400 t/ha) 1.9 to 3.5 billion tons of soil lost for good per annum Excessive emaciation of sloping lands Irreversible loss 1.17 to 78 million tons of som 0.39 to 5.07 million tons of N 1.17 to 11.7 million tons of P 27 mill ha of 60 million ha significantly eroded 14 million ha seriously eroded 2 million reached irreversible point 20000 to 30000 ha abandoned every year By 2010 10 million ha incapable of crop prod. Soil and nutrient displacement cost $106 million/a by 1994
Ethiopia’s Forest Resources
Environmental illusion or a tactic to demonstrate severity of deforestation Recent empirical data Annual deforestation rate: During 1950s ≈ 800 000 ha (Pojonen & Pukkala 1990)
67 carpentry shops with 58 high power wood processing machines in Awassa (494 employ) Several sawmills established in Shashemane Location of the forest (bordering two regions) Lawlessness (poor law enforcement) Discontinuity of efforts Deforestation and Environmental Degradation Proximate causes .300 000 ha (AUA 1986) Between 1986 and 1990 ≈ 163 600 ha (Reusing 1998) Between 1990 and 2000 ≈ 40 000 ha (FAO 2003) Annual plantation rate: Between 1890s to 1993 (total) ≈ 200 000 ha (2000 ha) Between 1993 and 2003 ≈ 1600 ha Net deforestation during the 1990s ≈ 38 400 ha/yr Consequences of Deforestation Severe degradation of land resources Soil erosion Diversion of cow dung to fuel Water resources degradation Siltation of ponds and lakes Increased run off and short dry season flows Worsening rural livelihood conditions More time in search of fuel and construction wood Increased expenditure on alternative sources Declining crop yields èmalnutrition Debilitates national economy (infrastructure development) Forest Resources of Wondo Genet Forest around WGCF cover 120 ha plantation & 500 ha natural forests Threatened with: Forest fires Extensive illegal logging Encroachment of agricultural practices deep inside Collection of various forest products (fuelwood) Lack of appropriate silivicultural practices Increasing wood demand and other products Overstocking of furniture enterprises in Awassa and Shashemane towns In 1994. Between 1967 and 1979 ≈ 200 000.
4 km. 1998 Overflow size 50 to 300 m (1200 ha) Villages on E & S parts were severely affected Shrinkage and drying-up of lake Severe socio-economic and ecological consequences Costs of Deforestation (Siltation) Dike construction in 1978 è4.5 million birr Length 3. 2-3 m high (80 000 md) Dike strengthening in 1998 è2. 210 households lost farms (105 ha farmland submerged) . 2-3 m wide. Clearance for croplands Unwise cropland management & cropping patterns Excessive removal of biomass & diversion of dung and crop residue to fuel use Overgrazing and trampling damage Other causes Rapid population growth Unclear land ownership patterns Frequent institutional restructuring Backward agricultural technology Weak bottom-up planning process Lack of coherent and strong land-use and forest policy Lake Awassa Catchment Location: 6o N latitude and 38o E longitude Located between Oromia and SNNPR (Sidama) Altitude ranges between 1650 and 2700 m Agro-ecology: 55 % midland.5 mill birr (46 000 md) In 1998 a total of 62 households destroyed. 45 % highland Population: 240 000 (1994) Area of the lake: 94 km2 Depth: 22 m Length and width 16 km & 9 km respectively The once Lake Cheleleka is now dying Challenges to Lake Forest destruction è Erosion and loss of soil fertility Siltation of the lake (last two decades) Reduced water holding capacity Excessive overflow during peak periods (flooding) First overflow/flooding started in 1978.
erosion resistance under forest cover) Moderation of soil temperature extremes (surface litter cove. moisture retention. porosity. 3 water wells. 117 houses. 22 goats overflowed and/or destroyed Property loss estimated at 4. 4 shops.3 million birr Severe gulley formation in the w and s parts Formation of deep and wide (4-70 m) gullies Family separation and/or wildlife shelter 16 000 ha of land affected Over-flooding of roads (Bushulo to Shamena 6 km) Destruction of Faidherbia albida ecosystem (5 ha peri-urban forest) è 200 000 birr Loss of aesthetic values of the landscape Extinction of sensitive woody species from the area Severe gullies of farmlands & highways/roads Blockage of highways by silt Rampant damage to crop fields by silt & flood Traffic accidents Loss of aesthetic values of the landscape Permanent loss of valuable tree species from the catchment Extinction or out-migration of wild animals è degradation of biodiversity Reduction in the quality of human life Role of Trees in Watershed Maintenance Maintenance or increase of organic matter Nitrogen fixation Nutrient uptake (?) Atmospheric input (wet and dry deposition) Reduction of losses from the soil! Protection from erosion (surface litter & vegetation) Nutrient retrieval (enhanced nutrient-use efficiency) Physical properties of soil Maintenance/improvement of physical properties (soil structure. 2 tea rooms. 3 mills.3 million birr Total loss estimated at 150. crown shade reduce temperature) Chemical properties Reduction of acidity (release of bases through litter fall) Reduction of salinity/sodicity (improved drainage & leaching) Shading reduces loss of organic matter by oxidation . 6 km road. 1 store. 4 bakeries.
Agricultural residue 9 % Dung not significant 5 % total energy freely collected (BLT & dung) 84 % purchase fuelwood Dung users only 7 % (90 % freely collected) Main fuel collectors: children 2 trips/week è50 minutes each Women: once/ week è 100 minutes Way Ahead Start conservation work from uphill Evict illegal settlers & promote rehabilitation works Extensive tree planting (farmlands. charcoal 20 %. Electricity 5 % Sisal 11 %.6 % Hh energy consumption: wood 56 %.7:44 GJ/a Mean monthly energy expenditure/hh 67.38 birr (mean monthly income 493 birr) Awassa Town (1999) Biomass fuel accounts 89 % energy consumed Kerosene 6 %.Awassa Town (1988) Mean biomass fuel inflow rate 750 G J/day ≈ 273 TJ or 13 699 tons of wood equivalent/a 3 961 MJ or 198 kg of wood /capita. open areas. annum Donkey carts transport nearly 90 % inflow Major: wood. sisal 11 %. BLT 7 % Modern to traditional fuels/hh: 8.) & area enclosure Establish and strengthen soil and water conservation works in all sites Farmers’ training and demonstration of the role of trees/shrubs in agricultural ecosystems Improved participation of farmers Genuine and committed policy supports!! . BLT. etc. sisal & charcoal è 99. degraded forest lands.
6 22. 1995 Ethiopian Calendar Land Use Cultivated a.9 100 (%) 44 . 13 Table 1. Perennial Grazing Land Forest Land Cultivatable Land Bare and Waste Land Others Total Area Hectares 40417 24588 15829 14752 2438 20810 6320 7263 92000 16 2.6 6. Land Use Pattern of Awassa Zuria Woreda.9 7. (Rift Valley Lakes Project) By: Institute of Biodiversity Conservation (IBC) June 2005 Pg.From : Site Action Plan For the Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Awassa Lake’s biodiversity. Annual b.