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CHAPTER 1 Embedded Systems INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Each day, our lives become more dependent on 'embedded systems',

digital information technology that is embedded in our environment. More than 98% of processors applied today are in embedded systems, and are no longer visible to the customer as 'computers' in the ordinary sense. An Embedded System is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. The increasing use of PC hardware is one of the most important developments in high-end embedded systems in recent years. Hardware costs of high-end systems have dropped dramatically as a result of this trend, making feasible some projects which previously would not have been done because of the high cost of non-PCbased embedded hardware. But software choices for the embedded PC platform are not nearly as attractive as the hardware. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. Physically, Embedded Systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants.

In terms of complexity embedded systems can range from very simple with a single microcontroller chip, to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Definition of an Embedded System Embedded system is defined as, For a particular/specific application implementing the software code to interact directly with that particular hardware what we built. Software is used for providing features and flexibility, Hardware = {Processors, ASICs, Memory,...} is used for Performance (& sometimes security) There are many definitions of embedded system but all of these can be combined into a single concept. An embedded system is a special purpose computer system that is used for particular task. Features of Embedded Systems The versatility of the embedded computer system lends itself to utility in all kinds of enterprises, from the simplification of deliverable products to a reduction in costs in their development and manufacture. Complex systems with rich functionality employ special operating systems that take into account major characteristics of embedded systems. Embedded operating systems have minimized footprint and may follow real-time operating system specifics. The special computers system is usually less powerful than general-purpose systems, although some expectations do exist where embedded systems are very powerful and complicated. Usually a low power consumption CPU with a limited amount of memory is used in embedded systems. Many embedded systems use very small operating systems; most of these provide very limited operating system capabilities. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product, or increasing the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environment conditions such as very high temperature & humidity. For high volume systems such as portable music players or mobile phones, minimizing cost is usually the primary design consideration. Engineers typically select hardware that is just good enough to implement the necessary functions. For low volume or prototype embedded systems, general purpose computers may be adapted by limiting the programs or by replacing the operating system with a real-time operating system. Characteristics of Embedded Systems Embedded computing systems generally exhibit rich functionalitycomplex

functionality is usually the reason for introducing CPUs into the design. However, they also exhibit many non-functional requirements that make the task especially challenging: Real-time deadlines that will cause system failure if not met; Multi-rate operation; In many cases, low power consumption; Low manufacturing cost, which often means limited code size. Workstation programmers often concentrate on functionality. They may consider the performance characteristics of a few computational kernels of their software, but rarely analyze the total application. They almost never consider power consumption and manufacturing cost. The need to juggle all these requirements makes embedded system programming very challenging and is the reason why embedded system designers need to understand computer architecture.

Overview of an Embedded System Architecture Every Embedded system consists of a custom-built hardware built around a central processing unit. This hardware also contains memory chips onto which the software is loaded.

Application Software Operating System


The operating system runs above the hardware and the application software runs above the operating system. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including desktop computer. However these are significant differences. It is not compulsory to have an operating system in every embedded system. For small applications such as remote control units, air conditioners, toys etc. Applications of Embedded Systems Some of the most common embedded systems used in everyday life are Small embedded controllers: 8-bit CPUs dominate, simple or no operating system (e.g., thermostats)

Control systems:

Often use DSP chip for control computations (e.g., automotive engine control)

Distributed embedded control: Mixture of large and small nodes on a real-time Embedded networks (e.g., cars, elevators, factory automation) System on chip: ASIC design tailored to application area (e.g., consumer electronics, set-top boxes) Network equipment: Emphasis on data movement/packet flow (e.g., network switches; telephone switches) Critical systems: Safety and mission critical computing (e.g., pacemakers, automatic trains) Signal processing: Often use DSP chips for vision, audio, or other signal Processing (e.g., face recognition) Robotics: Uses various types of embedded computing (especially Vision and control) (e.g., autonomous vehicles) Computer peripherals: Wireless systems: Disk drives, keyboards, laser printers, etc. Wireless network-connected sensor networks and Motes to gather and report information Embedded PCs: Palmtop and small form factor PCs embedded into Equipment Command and control: Often huge military systems and systems of systems (e.g., a fleet of warships with interconnected Computers)

Home Appliances, intercom, telephones, security systems, garage door openers, answering machines, fax machines, home computers, TVs, cable TV tuner, VCR, camcorder, remote controls, video games, cellular phones, musical instruments, sewing machines, lighting control, paging, camera, pinball machines, toys, exercise equipment Office Telephones, computers, security systems, fax machines, microwave, copier, laser printer, color printer, paging Auto Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control, entertainment, climate control, cellular phone, keyless entry

TYPES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Based on functionality and performance embedded systems categorized as 4 types 1. Stand alone embedded systems 2. Real time embedded systems 3. Networked information appliances 4. Mobile devices

1. Stand alone embedded systems:As the name implies, stand alone systems work in stand alone mode. They take i/p, process them and produce the desire o/p. The i/p can be an electrical signal from transducer or temperature signal or commands from human being. The o/p can be electrical signal to drive another system an led or LCD display ex digital camera, microwave oven, CD player, Air conditioner etc

2. Real time embedded systems:-

In this type of an embedded system a specific work has to be complete in a particular period of time. Hard Real time systems: - embedded real time used in missiles Soft Real time systems: - DVD players

3. Networked information appliances:Embedded systems that are provided with n/w interfaces and accessed by n/w such as local area n/w or internet are called Network Information Appliances Ex A web camera is connected to the internet. Camera can send pictures in real time to any computers connected to the internet

4. Mobile devices:Actually it is a combination of both VLSI and Embedded System Mobile devices such as Mobile phone, Personal digital assistants, smart phones etc are special category of embedded systems


MICROCONTROLLER VERSUS MICROPROCESSOR A system designer using a general-purpose microprocessor such as the Pentium or the 68040 must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers externally to make them functional. Although the addition of external RAM, ROM, and I/O ports makes these systems bulkier and much more expensive, they have the advantage of versatility such that the designer can decide on the amount of RAM, ROM and I/O ports needed to fit the task at hand. A Microcontroller has a CPU (a microprocessor) in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and a timer all on a single chip. In other words, the processor, the RAM, ROM, I/O ports and the timer are all embedded together on one chip; therefore, the designer cannot add any external memory, I/O ports, or timer to it. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and number of I/O ports in Microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical.

CPU platform:

Embedded processors can be broken into two distinct categories: microprocessors (P) and microcontrollers (C). Microcontrollers have built-in peripherals on the chip, reducing size of the system. There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM, MIPS, Coldfire/68k, PowerPC, x86, PIC, 8051, Atmel AVR, Renesas H8, SH, V850, FR-V, M32R, Z80, Z8, etc. This in contrast to the desktop computer market, which is currently limited to just a few competing architectures. PC/104 and PC/104+ are a typical base for small, low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. These often use DOS, Linux, NetBSD, or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or VxWorks. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip (SoC), an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), for which the CPU core was purchased and added as part of the chip design. A related scheme is to use a fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA), and program it with all the logic, including the CPU. Embedded systems are based on the concept of the microcontroller, a single integrated circuit that contains all the technology required to run an application. Microcontrollers make integrated systems possible by combining several features together into what is effectively a complete computer on a chip, including: * Central Processing Unit * Input/Output interfaces (such as serial ports) * Peripherals (such as timers) * ROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program storage * RAM for data storage * Clock generator

By integrating all of these features into a single chip it is possible to greatly reduce the number of chips and wiring necessary to control an electronic device, dramatically reducing its complexity, size and cost.

* Size & Weight: Microcontrollers are designed to deliver maximum performance for minimum size and weight. A centralized on-board computer system would greatly outweigh a collection of microcontrollers. * Efficiency: Microcontrollers are designed to perform repeated functions for long periods of time without failing or requiring service. Based on the Processor side Embedded Systems is mainly divided into 3 types 1. Micro Processor: - are for general purpose eg: our personal computer 2. Micro Controller: - are for specific applications, because of cheaper cost we will go for these 3. DSP (Digital Signal Processor):- are for high and sensitive application purpose



The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. 8051 PIN DIAGRAM

AT89S52 Architecture consists of these specific features: 8 bit CPU with registers A (Accumulator) and B 16 bit Program Counter(PC) and Data Pointer (DPTR) 8 bit Program Status Word (PSW)

8 bit Stack Pointer (SP) Internal ROM of 8k Internal RAM of 128 bytes Four Register banks each containing eight registers Sixteen bytes, which may be addressed at the bit level Eighty bytes of general purpose data memory

32 I/O pins arranged as four 8-bit ports: P0,P1,P2,P3 Two 16-bit Timers/Counters: T0 and T1 Full duplex serial data Receiver/Transmitter : SBUF Control Registers: TCON, TMOD, SCON, SMOD, PCON, IP and IE. Two external and three internal interrupt sources. Oscillator and Clock circuits. Pin Description Pin ( 32 39 ) Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. As an open drain output port, it can sink eight LS TTL loads. Port 0 pins that have 1s written to them float, and in that state will function as high impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address and data bus during accesses to external memory. In this application it uses strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s. Port 0 emits code bytes during program verification. In this application, external pull ups are required.

Pin ( 1- 8 ) Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 1 pins that have 1s written to them are pulled high by the internal pull ups, and in that state can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current because of the internal pull ups. Alternate Functions of Port 1 used for In system Programmable

P.5 P.6 P.7

MOSI --------- Instruction Input MISO ---------- Data Output SCK ----------- Clk in

Pin (21 28) Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during accesses to external memory that use 16-bit addresses. In this application, it uses the strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s. Pin (10 17) Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. It also serves the functions of various special features of the 80C51 Family as follows: Port Pin Alternate Function P3.0- RxD (serial input port) P3.1 -TxD (serial output port) P3.2 -INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3- INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 -T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 -T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 -WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 -RD (external data memory read strobe) Pin 40 VCC: -Supply voltage Pin 20 VSS: -Circuit ground potential

Pin 29 PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external Program Memory. When the device is executing out of external Program Memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle (except that two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to external Data Memory). PSEN is not activated when the device is executing out of internal Program Memory. Pin 30 ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 of the oscillator frequency, for external timing or clocking purposes, even when there are no accesses to external memory. (However, one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory.) This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming. Pin 31 EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal Program Memory. Holding EA low forces the CPU to execute out of external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. In the 80C31, EA must be externally wired low. In the EPROM devices, this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP) during EPROM programming. Pin 18 XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier. Pin 19 XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

REGISTERS 8051 is a collection of 8 and 16 bit registers and 8 bit memory locations. These registers and memory locations can be made to operate using the software instructions. The

program instructions control the registers and digital data paths that are contained inside the 8051, as well as memory locations that are located outside the 8051. Register are used to store information temporarily, while the information could be a byte of data to be processed, or an address pointing to the data to be fetched. The vast majority of 8051 register are 8-bit registers. Generally there are two types of registers. They are General purpose Registers (GPRs) and Special Function Registers (SFRs) General Purpose Register

The 8 bits of a register are shown from MSB D7 to the LSB D0. With an 8-bit data type, any data larger than 8 bits must be broken into 8-bit chunks before it is processed.

The most widely used registers A (Accumulator) For all arithmetic and logic instructions

B, R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7 DPTR (data pointer), and PC (program counter)

16 bit General Purpose Register are Data Pointer (DPTR) and Program Counter (PC) The program counter points to the address of the next instruction to be executed. DPTR. As the name suggests, is used to point the data. It is used by a number of commands which allows the microcontroller to access external memory. When the microcontroller access external memory it will access at the address indicated by DPTR.

There are 128 bytes of RAM in the 8051 The 128 bytes are divided into three different groups as follows: 1) A total of 32 bytes from locations 00 to 1F hex are set aside for register banks and the stack 2) A total of 16 bytes from locations 20H to 2FH are set aside for bit-addressable read/write memory

3) A total of 80 bytes from locations 30H to 7FH are used for read and write storage, called scratch pad

Special Function Registers The program status word (PSW) PSW register, also referred to as the flag register, is an 8 bit register Only 6 bits are used These four are CY (carry), AC (auxiliary carry), P (parity), and OV (overflow) They are called conditional flags, meaning that they indicate some conditions that resulted after an instruction was executed. The PSW3 and PSW4 are designed as RS0 and RS1, and are used to change the bank. The two unused bits are user-definable

Timer/Counters The Atmel 80C51 Microcontrollers implement two general purpose, 16-bit timers/ counters. They can be used either as timers to generate a time delay or as a counter to count events happening outside the microcontroller. The microcontroller has two 16-bit wide timers. They are identified as Timer 0 and Timer 1, and can be independently configured to operate in a variety of modes as a timer or as an event counter. When operating as a timer, the timer/counter runs for a programmed length of time, then issues an interrupt request. When operating as a counter, the timer/counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. After a preset number of counts, the counter issues an interrupt request. Register pairs (TH0, TL0), (TH1, TL1), and (TH2, TL2) are the 16-bit counting registers for Timer/Counters 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Timer 0 Register The 16-bit register of Timer 0 is accessed as low byte and high byte. The low byte register is called TL0 (Timer 0 low byte) and high byte register is referred to as TH0

(Timer 0 high byte). These registers can be accessed like any other register, such as A, B, R0, R1, R2, etc. Timer 1 Register Timer 1 is also 16-bits, and its 16-bit register is split into two bytes, referred to as TL1 ( Timer 1 low byte ) and TH1 ( Timer 1 high byte ). These registers are accessible in the same way as the registers of timer 0. TMOD Register (timer mode) TMOD: Timer/Counter Mode Control Register. Not Bit Addressable.

Timer 1 GATE

Timer 0 When TRx (in TCON) is set and GATE=1, Timer/CounterX will run only while Into pin is high (hardware control). When GATE=0, control). Timer/Counter will run only while TRx=1 (software


Timer or Counter selector. Cleared for Timer operation (input from internal system clock). Set for Counter operation input pin). (input from TX

M1 M0

Mode selector bit. Mode selector bit.

M1 0 0 1

M0 0 1 0

Mode 0 1 2

Operating Mode 13-bit Timer (8048 compatible) (TH1) 16-bit Timer/Counter 8-bit Auto-Reload Timer/Counter (TL1). Reloaded from TH1 at overflow.

1 1

1 1

3 3

timer 1 halted. Retains count. (Timer 1) Timer/Counter 1 stopped.

TCON: Timer/Counter Control Register Bit Addressable.

The upper four Bits are used to Store the TF and

The lower 4 bits Are set aside for controlling the interrupt bits


TR bits of both

Timer1 overflow flag. Set by hardware when the Timer/Counter 1

timer 0 and 1 overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor vectors to the interrupt

service routine. TR1 Timer 1 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer/Counter 1 ON/OFF. TF0 Timer0 overflow flag. Set by hardware when the Timer/Counter 0 overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor vectors to the service routine.


Timer 0 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer/Counter 0 ON/OFF.


External Interrupt 1 edge flag. Set by hardware when External interrupt edge is detected. Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed.


Interrupt 1 type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify falling edge/low level triggered External Interrupt.


External Interrupt 0 edge flag. Set by hardware when External Interrupt edge is detected. Cleared by hardware when interrupt is processed.


Interrupt 0-type control bit. Set/cleared by software to specify falling edge/low level triggered External Interrupt.


The 8051 serial port is full duplex. In other words, it can transmit and receive data at the same time. Unlike any other register in the 8051, SBUF is in fact two distinct registers - the write-only register and the read-only register. Transmitted data is sent out from the writeonly register while received data is stored in the read-only register. There are two separate data lines, one for transmission (TXD) and one for reception (RXD). Therefore, the serial port can be transmitting data down the TXD line while it is at the same time receiving data on the RXD line. The TXD line is pin 11 of the microcontroller (P3.1) while the RXD line is on pin 10 (P3.0)

Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous method transfers a block of data (characters) at a time, while the asynchronous method transfers a single byte at a time. It is possible to write software to use either of these methods, but the programs can be tedious and long. For this reason, there are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. These chips can be commonly referred to as UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-transmitter) and USART ( Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter). The 8051 chip has a built-in UART.

Asynchronous Serial Communication and Data Framing Start Bits and Stop Bits In the asynchronous method is character is placed between start and stop bits, this is called data framing. In asynchronous communication, at least two extra bits are transmitted with the data word; a start bit and a stop bit. Therefore, if the transmitter is using an 8-bit system, the actual number of bits transmitted per word is ten. In most protocols the start bit is a logic 0 while the stop bit is logic 1. Therefore, when no data is being sent the data line is continuously HIGH. The receiver waits for a 1 to 0 transition. In other words, it awaits a transition from the stop bit (no data) to the start bit (logic 0). Once this transition occurs the receiver knows a data byte will follow. Since it knows the data rate (because it is defined in the protocol) it uses the same clock as frequency as that used by the transmitter and reads the correct number of bits and stores them in a register. For example, if the protocol determines the word size as eight bits, once the receiver sees a start bit it reads the next eight bits and places them in a buffer. Once the data word has been read the receiver checks to see if the next bit is a stop bit, signifying the end of the data. If the next bit is not logic 1 then something went wrong with the transmission and the receiver dumps the data. If the stop bit was received the receiver waits for the next data word, i.e.; it waits for a 1 to 0 transition.

Goes out first

Baud Rates in the 8051

11.0592 MHz

XTAL oscillator

12 frequency

Machine cycle 921.6 kHz


28800 Hz

Timer 1

By UART To timer 1
To set the Baud rate

XTAL = 11.0592 MHz: The frequency of system clock = 11.0592 MHz / 12 = 921.6 kHz The frequency sent to timer 1 = 921.6 kHz/ 32 = 28,800 Hz (a) 28,800 / 3 = 9600 where -3 = FD (hex) is loaded into TH1

(b) 28,800 / 12 = 2400 where -12 = F4 (hex) is loaded into TH1 (c) 28,800 / 24 = 1200 where -24 = E8 (hex) is loaded into TH1

SBUF SBUF is an 8-bit register used solely for serial communication in the 8051. For a byte of data to be transferred via the TxD line, it must be placed in the SBUF register. Similarly,

SBUF holds the byte of data when it is received by the 8051s RxD line. SBUF can be accessed like any other register in the 8051. The moment a byte is written into SBUF, it is framed with the start and stop bits and transferred serially via the TxD pin. Similarly, when the bits are received serially via RxD, the 8051 deframes it by eliminating the stop and start bits, making a byte out of the data received, and then placing it in the SBUF. DATA TRANSMISSION: Transmission of serial data bits begins anytime data is written to sbuf. TI " (SCON) set to 1 when data has been transmitted and signifies that " SBUF " is empty and that another data byte can be sent.

DATA RECEPTION: Reception of serial data will begin if the receive enable bit (REN) in SCON is set to ' 1 ' for all modes. For mode ' 0 ' only RI must be cleared to 0. Receiver interrupt flag ' RI ' (in SCON) is set after data has been received in all modes. Setting of ' REN ' bit is a direct program control that limits the reception of unexpected data. SCON (Serial Control ) Register









Mode 0: Serial data enters and exits through RxD. TxD outputs the shift clock. 8 bits are transmitted/received (LSB first). The baud rate is fixed at 1/12 the oscillator frequency. Mode 1: 10 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (1). On receive; the stop bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON. The baud rate is variable.

Mode 2: 11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). On Transmit, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be assigned the value of 0 or 1. Or, for example, the parity bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into TB8. On receive; the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud rate is programmable to either 1/32 or 1/64 the oscillator frequency. Mode 3: 11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). In fact, Mode 3 is the same as Mode 2 in all respects except baud rate. The baud rate in Mode 3 is variable. In all four modes, transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a destination register. Reception is initiated in Mode 0 by the condition RI = 0 and REN = 1. Reception is initiated in the other modes by the incoming start bit if REN = 1. SM2 Enables the multiprocessor communication feature in Modes 2 and 3. In Mode 2 or 3, if SM2 is set to 1, then Rl will not be activated if the received 9th data bit (RB8) is 0. In Mode 1, if SM2=1 then RI will not be activated if a valid stop bit was not received. In Mode 0, SM2 should be 0.

REN Enables serial reception. Set by software to enable reception. Clear by software to disable reception. TB8 The 9th data bit that will be transmitted in Modes 2 and 3. Set or clear by software as desired. RB8 In Modes 2 and 3, is the 9th data bit that was received. In Mode 1, it SM2=0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In Mode 0, RB8 is not used. TI (Transmit Interrupt) This is an extremely important flag bit in the SCON register. When the 8051 finishes the transfer of the 8-bit character it raises the TI flag to indicate that it is ready to transfer another byte. The TI bit is raised at the beginning of the stop bit.

RI (Receive Interrupt) This is an extremely important flag bit in the SCON register. When the 8051 receives data serially via RxD, it gets rid of the start and stop bits and places the byte in the SBUF register. Then it raises the RI flag bit to indicate that a byte has been received and could be picked up before it is lost.

INTERRUPTS An interrupt is a special feature which allows the 8051 to provide the illusion of "multitasking," although in reality the 8051 is only doing one thing at a time. The word "interrupt" can often be substituted with the word "event." An interrupt is triggered whenever a corresponding event occurs. When the event occurs, the 8051 temporarily puts "on hold" the normal execution of the program and executes a special section of code referred to as an interrupt handler. The interrupt handler performs whatever special functions are required to handle the event and then returns control to the 8051 at which point program execution continues as if it had never been interrupted.

Interrupt Service Routine For every interrupt, there must be an interrupt service routine (ISR). Or interrupt handler. When an interrupt is invoked, the microcontroller runs the interrupt service routine. For every interrupt, there is a fixed location in memory that holds the address of its ISR. The group of memory locations set aside to hold the addresses of the ISRs is called interrupt vector table. Six Interrupts in 8051 1. Reset : When the reset pin is activated, the 8051 jumps to address location 0000 2. Two interrupts are set aside for the timers: one for the Timer 0 and one for Timer1. 3. Two interrupts are set aside for hardware external interrupts : one for INT0 and one for INT1 4. Serial communication has a single interrupt that belongs to both receive and transmit. Enabling Interrupt (IE) Register All interrupt are disabled after reset We can enable and disable them bye IE EA EA IE.7 -ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0

If EA=0, disables all interrupts, no interrupt is acknowledged If EA=1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit.


IE.6 IE.5

Not implemented, reserved for future use. Enables or disables Timer2 overflow or capture interrupt (8052 only)



Enables or disables the serial port interrupt.


IE.3 IE.2 IE.1 IE.0

Enables or disables Timer 1 overflow interrupt. Enables or disables external interrupt 1. Enables or disables Timer 0 overflow interrupt. Enables or disables external interrupt 0.

Interrupt Priority (IP) Register 0= lower priority, 1= higher priority, reset IP=00H Lower priority ISR can be interrupted by a high priority interrupt. A high priority ISR can not be interrupted. Low-priority interrupt wait until 8051 has finished servicing the high-priority interrupt.









--PT2 PS PT1 PX1 PT0 PX0

IP.7 IP.6 IP.5 IP.4 IP.3 IP.2 IP.1 IP.0

Reserved Reserved Timer2 interrupt priority bit (8052 only) serial port interrupt priority bit. Timer 1 interrupt priority bit. external interrupt 1 priority bit. Timer 0 interrupt priority bit. external interrupt 0 priority bit.

CHAPTER4 BASIC REQUIRMENT The following are the basic five requirements of microcontroller 1. Power Supply 2. Crystal Oscillator 3. Reset 4. SIP Resistor 5. Resistor for EA Pin 1. Regulated Power Supply In mains-supplied electronic systems the AC input voltage must be converted into a DC voltage with the right value and degree of stabilization. The common DC voltages that are required to power up the devices are generally in the range of 3 VDC to 30 VDC. Typically the fixed types of DC voltages are 5V, 9V, 12V, 15V and 18V DC. POWER SUPPLY MODULES: STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER BRIDGE RECTIFIER WITH FILTER VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Transformer Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. A step down power transformer is used to step down the AC voltage from the line voltage of 110 VAC or 220 VAC i.e, it converts higher voltage at the input side to a lower voltage at the output.

Rectifier There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. The bridge rectifier is the most important and it produces full-wave varying DC

Bridge rectifier Alternate pairs of diodes conduct, changing over the connections so the alternating directions of AC are converted to the one direction of DC. Filter

Output: full-wave varying DC (using all the AC wave)

Filtering is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. The diagram shows the unfiltered varying DC (dotted line) and the filtered DC (solid line). The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC, and then discharges as it supplies current to the output.

Typically 1000 f capacitor is used in microcontroller of 8051.

Regulator This is a simple DC regulated supply project using 7805 voltage regulator to obtain a variable DC voltage range from 5V to 15V

Pin out of the 7805 regulator IC. 1. Unregulated voltage in 2. Ground 3. Regulated voltage out If you need other voltages than +5V, you can modify the circuit by replacing the 7805 chips with another regulator with different output voltage from regulator 78xx chip family. The last numbers in the the chip code tells the output voltage. Remember that the input voltage must be at least 3V greater than regulator output voltage ot otherwise the regulator does not work well. Crystal Oscillator The 8051 uses the crystal for precisely that: to synchronize its operation. Effectively, the 8051 operates using what are called "machine cycles." A single machine cycle is the minimum amount of time in which a single 8051 instruction can be executed. although many instructions take multiple cycles. 8051 has an on-chip oscillator. It needs an external crystal that decides the operating frequency of the 8051. The crystal is connected to pins 18 and 19 with stabilizing capacitors. 12 MHz (11.059MHz) crystal is often used and the capacitance ranges from 20pF to 40pF. A cycle is, in reality, 12 pulses of the crystal. That is to say, if an instruction takes one machine cycle to execute, it will take 12 pulses of the crystal to execute. Since we know the we can calculate how many instruction cycles the 8051 can execute per second: 11,059,000 / 12 = 921,583

11.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for most of the common baud rates for the UART, especially for the higher speeds (9600, 19200).

Reset RESET is an active High input When RESET is set to High, 8051 goes back to the power on state.The 8051 is reset by holding the RST high for at least two machine cycles and then returning it low. Initially charging of capacitor makes RST High, When capacitor charges fully it blocks DC.

SIP Resistor Sip Resistor is a single in pack Resistor (i.e.,) 8 resistors connected in series. Basically SIP resistor is a 9 pin connector first pin is for power supply to the entire 8 resistors in SIP.

Generally SIP Resistor is used to close the open drain connections of Port 0.

In System Programming (ISP):In-System Programming (ISP) is the ability of some programmable logic devices, microcontrollers, and other programmable electronic chips to be programmed while installed in a complete system, rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system. (or) In-system programming is a valuable feature that allows system firmware to be upgraded without disassembling the embedded system to physically replace memory. Most Maxim 8051-based microcontrollers can be reprogrammed from a PC or laptop via an inexpensive RS-232 serial interface and a few logic gates The primary advantage of this feature is that it allows manufacturers of electronic devices to integrate programming and testing into a single production phase, rather than requiring a separate programming stage prior to assembling the system. This may allow manufacturers to program the chips in their own system's production line instead of buying preprogrammed chips from a manufacturer or distributor, making it feasible to apply code or design changes in the middle of a production run.

CHAPTER 5 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY INTRODUCTION: An LCD or a liquid crystal display consists of liquid crystals between electrodes. The arrangement consists of polarization filters which are aligned perpendicular to each other. This arrangement doesnt allow any visible light if there was no liquid crystal between the filters. This arrangement is aligned in between transparent conductors. When sufficient voltage is applied to a certain pixel, the crystal at that pixel aligns such that no light passes through it. Therefore that particular pixel appears dark. If such an electric field is applied for a longer period, the alignment of the crystal change, and the quality of LCD degrades. In a bigger LCD display, to provide voltage sources to each pixel, the rows and column lines are multiplexed. PIN DESCRIPTION OF THE LCD:



INTERFACING LCD TO MICROCONTROLLER The LCD is generally interfaced in 8-bit mode or 4-bit mode. in this project LCD is connected in 4-bit mode the interface connections of LCD with microcontroller are as follows RS of LCD is connected to p0.0 of microcontroller EN of LCD is connected to p0.1 of microcontroller D4 of LCD is connected to p0.4 of microcontroller D5 of LCD is connected to p0.5 of microcontroller D6 of LCD is connected to p0.6 of microcontroller D7 of LCD is connected to p0.7 of microcontroller In 8-bit mode, the complete ASCII code is sent at once along with the control signals. But in 4-bit mode, the data is divided into two parts, i.e. MSB & LSB, and are called upper nibble & lower nibble.

The control signals are RS, R/W & E. RS is used to select the internal registers i.e. data register & command register. R/W is used to set the mode of LCD to read mode or write mode. E is used as chip select and is used to push the data internally to the corresponding registers. To transfer the data/command in 8-bit mode, the data is written to the 8-bit data bus after selecting the required register and setting the mode to write mode. The E signal pin is then given a high to low signal to transfer the data. To transfer the data/command in 4-bit mode, the higher nibble is first written to the MSB of the data port and the E is given a high to low signal. After a little delay or when the LCD is not busy, the lower nibble is transferred in the same procedure.



Piezo Electric buzzers are Solid state devices that produce an Audible signal when powered. _ They are basically made up of piezo crystal. _ The fundamental property of Piezo crystal states that when a voltage is applied to the crystal in a particular plane. It enters into oscillations. _ A simple oscillator circuit is used to make these signals audible. Piezo electric buzzers operate right from 3V up to 24V DC. Similar to the LED drive, a transistor driver is used for driving the load. The other advantage with this scheme is that the drive voltage can be much higher than the operating voltage of the microcontroller. A protection diode is included in all inductive load circuits to prevent the back emf from damaging the driving transistor & subsequently the microcontroller.


Infrared sensor

As the infrared sensor device, PZT(Lead[Pb:Plumbum] Zirconate Titanate) is used. This material has the nature that the electric charge in the surface is divided into the positive electric charge and the negative electric charge in the usual condition.(Spontaneous polarization) The distribution of the electric charge is disordered when the infrared rays lash this material and the voltage occurs. The infrared sensor outputs the change of this voltage. The infrared sensor has the kinds such as the single type, the dual type, the quad type. The dual type is often used to detect the move of the person, vehicle or the animal.

The two identical shape elements are used for the dual-type sensor. And, it is put for the pole of the element to become opposite. When the change of the infrared quantity occurs, being simultaneous with the element which was put in this way, because the occurring voltage is opposite, it denies each other and the voltage doesn't appear in the output. The output voltage changes only when there is a difference in the quantity of the infrared rays which enter both elements. Because the same change occurs to both elements even if the infrared quantity of the background in the place to detect with the sensor changes, little change of the output occurs even if it occurs. When the person or the animal crosses the sensor, the quantity of the infrared rays which enter both elements becomes not equal and the change of the voltage appears in the output.

The body of the human being or the animal is emitting the infrared rays. This circuit is the circuit to detect the change of the infrared rays by the infrared sensor and to work the relay. Because the Fresnel lens is put to the infrared sensor, the move of the person in the very narrow range can be detected. The important part is the pyroelectric infrared sensor. I used the pyroelectric infrared sensor(RE814S) which is made by the NIPPON CERAMIC company.

It uses the window comparator and the movement where little change occurs makes not detect.

IR LED A new range of broadband IR LEDs is now distributed by Scitec Instruments.

Typical emission bandwidth is 0.5 mm and power levels at 10s to 100s of microwatts depending on duty cycle etc. An electroluminescent IR LED is a product which requires care in use. IR LEDs are fabricated from narrow band heterostructures with energy gap from 0.25 to 0.4 eV. That's why the bias used to initiate current flow is low compared to the well known visible or NIR LEDs. Typical forward bias is V~0.1- 1 V only for mid-IR LEDs!


Remote Control Night Vision Traffic Automotive Lighting Switch Home Lighting Switch


Infrared with Large angle Low Power Consumption Longer Life Time I.C. Compatible

Typical Electrical & Optical Characteristics (Ta=25 Deg. C)

DC forward voltage : VF (IF =20mA) 1.2V-1.4 Typ, 1.6VMax DC reverse current : IR (VR =5V) 100uA Power Output(Po) : Iv (IF =20mA) BI01 : 15 +/- 10mW Wavelength : Iv (IF =20mA) 940nm Outer Dimension: 5mm

PIR Sensor General Description The PIR (Passive Infra-Red) Sensor is a pyroelectric device that detects motion by measuring changes in the infrared levels emitted by surrounding objects. This motion can be detected by checking for a high signal on a single I/O pin. Features Single bit output Small size makes it easy to conceal Compatible with all Parallax microcontrollers 3.3V & 5V operation with <100uA current draw

Application Ideas Alarm Systems Halloween Props

Quick Start Circuit Note: The sensor is active high when the jumper (shown in the upper left) is in either position.

Module Dimensions

Theory of Operation Pyroelectric devices, such as the PIR sensor, have elements made of a crystalline material that generates an electric charge when exposed to infrared radiation. The changes in the amount of infrared striking the element change the voltages generated, which are measured by an on-board amplifier. The device contains a special filter called a Fresnel lens, which focuses the infrared signals onto the element. As the ambient infrared signals change rapidly, the on-board amplifier trips the output to indicate motion.

Calibration The PIR Sensor requires a warm-up time in order to function properly. This is due to the settling time involved in learning its environment. This could be anywhere from 10 60 seconds. During this time there should be as little motion as possible in the sensors field of view. Sensitivity The PIR Sensor has a range of approximately 20 feet. This can vary with environmental conditions. The sensor is designed to adjust to slowly changing conditions that would happen normally as the day progresses and the environmental conditions change, but responds by making its output high when sudden changes occur, such as when there is motion.


RIDE will reference to RIDE6 software which supports 8051, XA and other derivates. For ARM, ST7 and STM8 family the software is RIDE7. RIDE is a fully featured Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that provides seamless integration and easy access to all the development tools. From editing to compiling, linking, debugging and back to the start, with a Simulator, ICE, Rom Monitor or other debugging tools, RIDE conveniently manages all aspects of the Embedded Systems development with a single user interface.


Multi-file Editor RIDE is based on a fast multi-document editor designed to meet the specific needs of programming. The various methods, menus, commands, and shortcuts are all fully compliant with the Microsoft specifications for Windows 2000, XP and NT. Classic commands, such as string search and block action are integrated. Advanced features such as Matching Delimiter (parenthesis, brackets), Grep (multi-file search) and Indenter are integrated as well. The customizable color-highlighting feature is very useful

to indicate specific syntactic elements as they appear in the source file: keywords, comments, identifiers, operators, and so on. The color-highlighting feature is automatically keyed to the intrinsic file type (which means, it works differently for C and assembler).This permits the user to identify quickly and easily those parts of the code responsible for syntax errors. - top Project Manager: The project manager creates links between the various files that includes a project and the tools necessary to create that project. A project is dedicated to a particular target: 8051, XA, or other microcontrollers. The linker manages object and library files, and output format conversion as necessary.

Fig Project Manager Tree-structured projects ease the management of the most complex applications (bank switching, flash, multi-processor, multi-module...). The Project Make command directs the integrated "make" utility to build or rebuild the target programs for the current project. To avoid wasting time, each source file will be translated by its associated tool only if any of its dependencies are found to be out of date. Dependency analyses, even directly or indirectly included files, are automatic. Options can be defined as global (for all the files) or as local (for a specific node or file).

Individual attributes can be set for any file in the project. Similarities between the different tools make migration from one processor family to another immediate and easy, permitting multi-processor projects. The Message Window and the On-line Help: The message window displays all warning, error, and progress messages generated during the processing of files associated with each project. Clicking on an error string in the message window automatically positions the cursor at the point of that error in the source code window. The Online help system is context-sensitive and provides information on nearly all aspects of RIDE. A specific help file is supplied with each tool driven by the IDE ('C' Compiler, Assembler, Linker, and RTOS). Online menu hints appear on the status line whenever you select a menu command.

Fig Message The Script Language: Most RIDE commands can be run from a script file. Scripts are written in a C-like language, and are interpreted at execution time. With the script language, most repetitive tasks can be done automatically thus speeding up operations and reducing the probability

of errors. Scripts are very useful for Hardware Testing (board, emulator) and to initialize the system to a known status, but can also be conveniently used for other tasks such as creating very complex breakpoints or redirecting some output to a file to run a 'batch' debug session. Context Saving: When a project is closed, the whole associated context is saved (open file list, window size and position etc.). Settings associated with the debugger are also saves such as breakpoints, watches etc... Integrated High-level Debug: RIDE provides a fully integrated source-level debugging environment. All information necessary is derived from the translators used to accomplish each step of the process. This includes mundane aspects such as "path names", and source code specific information such as details of complex data types. With the simple click of a mouse button, the user can select among several powerful capabilities: simulate, monitor, or emulate. The fast smooth integration given by RIDE promotes a feeling of familiarity and ease of use, while providing a level of comfort and efficiency that reduces the most difficult and complex applications to tasks that are easily managed. This seamless progression of the "code-translate-link-debugtest" cycle is the result of perfect communication between the programming tools and the debugger. This is the heart of RIDE.

Integral Simulation: RIDE includes simulation engines for most 8051, and XA derivatives. The simulator/debugger is cleanly integrated into the presentation Windows. A wide range of 'views' can be selected to provide flexible direct examination of all memory spaces as well the all internal peripherals. The simulation engines perform detailed and faithful simulations (including IDLE or Power down modes), of all peripherals (including interrupt and watchdog events) present on the selected component. Advanced Features RIDE provides a rich variety of 'views' into an application. These views or windows are associated with control commands like complex breakpoints or high level trace recording. - top

ISP 3.0 Introduction This ISP Programmer can be used either for in-system programming or as a standalone spi programmer for Atmel ISP programmable devices. The programming interface is compatible to STK200 ISP programmer hardware so the users of STK200 can also use the software which can program both the 8051 and AVR series devices. Hardware The power to the interface is provided by the target system. The 74HCT541 IC isolates and buffers the parallel port signals. It is necessary to use the HCT type IC in order to make sure the programmer should also work with 3V type parallel port. The printer port buffer interface is same as shown in figure 1. For the -controller a 40pinZIFsocketcanbe used. This programmer circuit can be use to program the 89S series devices and the AVR series device switches are pin compatible to 8051, like 90S8515. For other AVR series devices the user can make an adapter board for 20, 28 and 40 pin devices. The pin numbers shown in brackets correspond to PC parallel port connector. Software The file contains the main program and the i/o port driver. Place all files in the same folder. The main screen view of the program is shown in figure 3. Also make sure do not program the RSTDISBL fuse in ATmega8,

ATtiny26 and ATtiny2313 otherwise further spi programming is disable

and you will need a parallel programmer to enable the spi programming. For the fuses setting consult the datasheet of the respective device.

For the auto hardware detection it is necessary to






DB25connector, otherwise the software uses the default parallel port i.e. LPT1. Following are the main features of this software, Read and write the Intel Hex file. Read signature, lock and fuse bits. Clear and Fill memory buffer. Verify with memory buffer. Reload current Hex file. Display buffer checksum. Program selected lock bits & fuses.

Auto detection of hardware. Note: The memory buffer contains both the code data and the for the devices which have eeprom memory. The eeprom eeprom data address


in buffer is started after he code memory, so it is necessary the hex file should contains the eeprom start address after the end of code memory last address i.e. for 90S2313 the start address for eeprom memory is 0x800. The software does not provide the erase command because the function is performed automatically during device programming. If you are required to erase the controller, first use the clear buffer command then program the controller, this will erase the controller and also set the AVR device fuses to default setting.

Fig Main screen of the program ISP-Pgm Ver 3.0a