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A commodity market facilitates trading in various commodities. It may be a spot or a derivatives market. In spot market, commodities are bought and sold for immediate delivery, whereas in derivatives market, various financial instruments based on commodities are traded. These financial instruments such as 'futures' are traded in exchanges.
2. What are commodity futures?
A commodity futures contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell the commodity at a future date at today's future price. Futures contracts differ from forward contracts in the sense that they are standardized and exchange traded. In other words, the parties to the contracts do not decide the terms of futures contracts; but they merely accept terms standardized by the Exchange.
3. Is the concept of trading in commodity futures new in India?
Commodity futures market was very much there in earlier times in India. In fact it was one the most vibrant markets till the early 70s. But due to numerous restrictions the market could not develop further. Now that most of these restrictions have been removed, there is enormous scope for the development and growth of the commodity futures market in the country.
4. Who regulates the commodity market?
Forward Markets Commission (FMC) regulates commodity market.
5. Which are the major commodity exchanges in India?
There are 24 regional & three national level commodity exchanges in India. There are to trade in all permitted commodities. The National Level commodity exchanges are: Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd, Mumbai (MCX) National Commodity and Derivative Exchange, Mumbai (NCDEX) National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd, Ahmedabad (NMCE)
6. Why invest in commodities?
Transparency and Fair Price Discovery: Trading in commodity futures is transparent and a process of fair price discovery is ensured through large-scale participation. The large participation also reflects views and expectations of a wider section of people concerned with that commodity. Online Platform: Producers, traders and processors, exporters/importers get an online platform through MCX / NCDEX for price risk management. Hedging: It provides a platform for producers to hedge their positions according to their exposure in physical commodity. No Insider Trading: Dealing in commodities is free from the evils of insider trading. Besides, there are no company specific risks as those seen in stock markets. Simple Economics: Commodity trading is about the simple economics of demand and supply. More the demand for a commodity higher is its price and vice versa.
Commodity Futures market have Clearing Houses. Hedgers. Investors. g.Trade on Low Margin: Commodity Futures traders are required to deposit low margins. which again varies across exchanges and commodities. 7. c. Commodity financers. Hedgers. textile mills. d. c. Who invests in commodities? a.g. refiners. which guarantee that the terms of the contracts are fulfilled. Hence. speculators. roughly 5 to 10% of the total value of the contract. Evolved Pricing: The rise in participation would decrease the risk of cartelisation. h. thereby eliminating the counter party risk. h. Producers / Farmers. a. Importers / Exporters. d. jewelers. ensuring a holistic view on the commodity. arbitrageurs. Large scale consumers. jewelers. e. Agricultural credit providing agencies. refiners. It would also ensure bringing the market closer to both. For e. Wide Participation: The emergence of online trading would enable growth in the commodity market. much akin to the one seen in the equity market. e. Commodity financers. Investors. g. speculators. b. Producers / Farmers. textile mills. Corporates having risk exposure in commodities. The low margin. arbitrageurs. Importers / Exporters. Seasonality Patterns: Quite often provide clue to both short and long term players. pricing would be more practical and less irrational leading to Fair Price Discovery Mechanism. Corporates having risk exposure in commodities. f. Large scale consumers. For e. the user and the trader. b. No Counter party Risk: Much like the exchanges in the equity market. Agricultural credit providing agencies. facilitates the taking of large positions at lower capital. . f. much lower compared to other asset classes.g.
Copper. Silk. Brent Crude Others Rubber. Castor Oil. NCDEX Metals. Jeera. Aluminium Zinc ingots Fibre Kapas. On Saturday the trading hours are 10. Steel Flat. Refined Soy Oil. Cottonseed Oilcake. Red Chilli. Cashew Kernel.55 pm (Agri-commodities up to 5 pm only) from Monday to Friday.00 am to 11. Sarbati Rice. Nickel. Give the Comparison between Commodities and Equities? Commodity Futures Regulator Exchanges Assets Sales Tax Delivery Quality Applicable Working Days Timing FMC MCX.2. Cardamom Metals Steel Long. Urad. Yellow Peas` Grains Rice. Cottonseed.00 pm. Guar gum. Cashew. Basmati Rice. 10. Long Staple Cotton.30 pm & 10 am . Groundnut Oil. Mustard Seed. Medium Staple Cotton Pulses Chana. Do physical deliveries happen in commodity futures exchanges? The exchanges. Oil & Oilseeds Mustard Seed Oil. Turmeric. NSE Stocks Not Applicable Cast Settlement Applicable Mon to Fri 10 am . 11.55 pm Equity Futures SEBI BSE. Sugar. Wheat. Sugar. Maize. Jeera Energy Crude Oil. Steel. in order to maintain the futures prices in line with the spot market. Gur. Yellow Peas. Coffee. Crude Palm Oil. Energy & Agro Commodities Applicable Physical / Cash Settlement Not Applicable Mon to Sat 10 am . What are the tradable commodities? Bullion Gold and Silver Castor Seeds. have made available provisions of settlement of contracts by physical delivery. Tur. They also make sure that the futures and spot prices coincide during the settlement so that the fair price discovery mechanism is in place.00 am to 2. Tin. . Soy Seeds. Natural Gas. Soy meal. What are the trading hours? Commodity Exchanges (MCX and NCDEX) function from 10.11. Spices Pepper.8.00 pm (Sat) 9. Guar Seed.3.
Are options also allowed in commodity derivatives? Options in goods are presently prohibited under Section 19 of the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act. 1952.. 18. the settlement date may be five to seven days after the expiry as per contract specifications and exchange rules.e. However the market expects the government to permit options trading in commodities soon. BOI. MCX has tied up with HDFC Bank. 14. . The sales tax is applicable only if a trade results into delivery for the seller. 15. Each participant will be trading in that particular quality only. How many months contract will be available for futures trading? The MCX is providing different number of contracts for different commodities.12. The contracts that are not assigned for delivery will be settled in cash. August. 16. Is Sales Tax Registration Compulsory? Those who want to give (seller) physical delivery need to have sales tax registration number 19. No exchange or person can organize or enter into or make or perform options in goods. April. Each participant will be trading in that particular quality only. 13. However there is always a provision for delivery in commodity futures trading to ensure that the future prices are in conformity with the underlying. UBI and IndusInd Bank for providing clearing and settlement facilities. Is Sales Tax applicable on all trades? If the trade is squared off sales tax is not applicable. However in case of delivery. The quality specification of each commodity is mentioned in the contract. next working day after the trading day. The market lot for delivery is different for few commodities (higher than the trading lot). June. How do I know which quality is being traded in futures as Commodities have many qualities? The quality specification of each commodity is mentioned in the contract. For example. How will the clearing and settlement take place? The clearing and settlement will take place through institutions/banks arranged by the exchanges. What is the settlement date? MTM will be cash-settled by exchange on T+1 basis i. However provisions vary from exchange to exchange and commodity to commodity. The sales tax is applicable at the place of delivery. in gold there are six contracts in a year (February. UTI Bank. Normally it’s the seller’s responsibility to collect and pay the sales tax. the buyer/seller has to express his intention for delivery about five to seven days before the expiry. The settlement procedure is also available on the related exchange site. October and December) but at a time only three contracts are open for trading. The right for delivery is normally with the seller. Is delivery mandatory in commodity futures contract trading? It's not mandatory. 17.