DISASTER MANAGEMENT

KTVR KPET

UNIT FOUR: DEVELOPMENT PLANNING ON DISASTER

As per the Syllabus       Implication of development planning Financial arrangements Areas of improvement Disaster preparedness Community based disaster management Emergency response.      

According to our Omnibus Development Planning & Its Disaster Implications Financial Arrangements for Disaster Management Areas of Improvement in Disaster Management Community Based Disaster Management Role of Media in Disaster Management Emergency Response to Disasters

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND DISASTER IMPLICATIONS
Effect of Disasters on Development * Counter Disaster Plans * Planning for Safe National Development

1. EFFECT OF DISASTERS ON DEVELOPMENT Disasters have a significant effect on the development of any nation. Therefore it is imperative to understand the disaster implications while making national or local development plans. The effect of the disasters on development can be studied under two broad heads (A) Effects on Contemporary Development  Loss or Destruction of crops which are vital for consumption/export  Loss of livestock, through an outbreak of animal disease or rural wildfire  Loss of Land due to salinity and inundation  Damage to harbors, public buildings and other maritime facilities  Damage to aircraft and airport facilities may pose serious constraints  Damage of roads and bridges may curb important construction programs  Loss of human lives which can never be compensated The overall effect of disaster on contemporary progress and development may therefore be halted or even aborted. The effects of disaster on contemporary development may be
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compared with that of the effects of a heart attack, in that it takes some time before the patient can resume business as usual. (B) Effects on Long-Term Development The effects of disaster on long term development should be understood in four levels, The first effect on long-term programs which arises from disaster impact is the economic and material loss, which is likely to cause delays in commencing and/or continuing such programs. A second major effect may be on the development planning process. Most countries nowadays work to planned periods of development, such as a series of 5-year national development plans. Disaster can seriously upset this sequence of planning and implementation by either disrupting the current plan or by making it difficult to forecast development progress, A third effect on national development may emanate from limitations which apply to normal international assistance programs. A funding nation/agency may agree to undertake a 3-year program on development. If a significant disaster strikes at the halfway stage of such a program, there will be obvious loss factors. A fourth effect is the reaction of development partners to the setbacks caused by disaster. For example, the havoc caused by a cyclone has destroyed 70 % of ongoing infrastructure in a particular area. The effort of 4 years was undermined and not many people were ready to start the project again. Thus it is clear that disaster can have far-reaching repercussions on a national development. It can also pose serious restrictions on national image. Therefore, that there needs to be a prudent connection between development and disaster management policy. In this regard, the national development planners should always plan for counter disaster plans whilst planning for national development. There should be a plan to understand and evaluate disaster implications. 2. COUNTER DISASTER PLANS

Definition
A counter disaster plan is a legal planning document that provides a clear and coherent approach to counter disasters that may emanate from development activities, along with clear allocation of responsibilities, budgetary provisions and training focus.

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Purpose The purpose of counter disaster planning is to anticipate future situations and requirements, thus ensuring the application of effective and coordinated countermeasures. Counter Disaster Plan Levels Counter Disaster Plans have to be made at various levels namely National Level State Level/Intermediate Level Local Level/Community Level National Level Most countries like India have national development to a series of time-period plans like our five year plans. In the five year plans, many nations include disaster aspects in their planning cycles. There is also importance on environmental protection in today’s national plans. Therefore, since many disaster events are environmentally related, there is a strong case for linking disaster and the environment where national planning is concerned. For many countries like India, it is not usually practicable to manage disasters directly from a national level in a very large country because of distance and other factors. In this case, the plan which applies to the national level is likely to be broadly concerned with coordination, mobilization, and deployment of national resources, requests for international assistance, and so on, rather than detailed management action. Intermediate level In most cases, the plan at intermediate government level will fall into one or two broad categories. If the national plan is the main action plan (i.e., for a small country), the plan at intermediate level will tend to be more concerned with local implementation measures rather than major decision making. The intermediate plan will therefore tend to be a smaller projection of the national plan. If, alternatively, the intermediate level plan constitutes the main action plan, (for a large country like ours), the plan will obviously need to be more comprehensive and autonomous. This will particularly apply to aspects such as warning, information management, decision making and control, and coordination capability. Community Level At community or local level, plans obviously tend to cover a range of detailed countermeasures. The plan should outline the co-ordination of various existing services (e.g., police, fire brigade, ambulance service, etc) and facilitation of the participation of NGOs, and community members,
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Components of a Counter Disaster Plan
The counter disaster plan in turn has to be divided into several sub plans namely • A main plan or main action plan that contains the primary parts of the plan, such as the threat, the main requirements for dealing with the threat, resources, organization, direction and coordination, warning, operational implementation of the plan, counter-disaster operations, recovery policy, postdisaster review, etc. • Sub-plans are part of the main plan but which may be required to amplify parts of the main plan that need special consideration (e.g.,welfare, evacuation, public information, and so on). • Special plans may be required to deal with special contingencies such as an outbreak of an exotic animal disease, which would require specialist personnel and procedures. Such special plans would normally be designed to work in harmony with the main plan and use the overall counter-disaster organization as necessary.

Model Counter Disaster Plan A Model Counter Disaster Plan may include the following chapters
Introduction Aim of the plan Definitions Relationship with other plans Main requirements for dealing with disasters Emergency powers Counter-disaster resources Organization Preparedness measures Communications Operational direction and coordination Warning arrangements Operational implementation of plan Counter-disaster (or response) operations Precautionary measures Recovery Post-disaster review Support measures Viability of the plan

The plan should do well to include the following annexes
List of Definitions List of Resources Functional Diagram of Organization Allocation of Roles and Responsibilities to Resource Guidelines for International Assistance Arrangements Communications Detailed Information on Warning Precautionary Measures on Receipt of Warning Guidelines on Training and Public Awareness Format for Departmental Standard Operational Procedures Duties and Responsibilities of National Disaster Management Office

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3. PLANNING FOR SAFE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT As a nation, India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters because of its unique geo-climatic conditions. Also India is a very fast developing nation. Therefore in the pace of the development, great care should be taken to avoid or counter disasters. Many development programmes that go into promoting development at the local level have been left to the general exercise of planning without any interventions. To ensure that development programmes pass the test of disaster mitigation, a unique concept called Environment Impact Assessment was framed from the year 1994. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a techno-managerial process where the impacts of any development process are forecasted and the process is then allowed to continue on the basis of magnitude, nature and duration of these impacts. Today, Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an effective and important tool to ensure environmentally sustainable development. It is the process in which environmental factors are integrated into Project Work planning and decision-making so as to achieve ecologically sustainable development. Apart from EIA, measures need also to be taken to integrate disaster mitigation efforts at the local level with the general exercise of planning, and a more supportive environment created for initiatives towards managing of disasters at all levels: national, state, district and local. The need of the hour for any country is sustainable development. Sustainable Development is defined as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is a development with equal regards to environment, society and economy. As India is headed towards sustainable development, it is necessary to chalk out a multi-pronged strategy for total disaster management, on the one hand, and initiate development efforts aimed towards risk reduction on the other hand. Only then can we look forward to “sustainable development.

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS
Introduction * General Financing * Financing through Five Year Plans * HPC/FC Suggestions of Financing

1. INTRODUCTION The term financial arrangements refer to the various arrangements made to finance all phases of disaster management namely mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery for effective and timely management of disasters at all levels. It can be
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classified under three heads namely 1. General Financing of Relief Expenditures 2. Financing through Five Year Plans 3. HPC/FC Suggestions of Financing 2. FINANCING OF RELIEF EXPENDITURES The policy arrangements for meeting relief expenditure related to natural disasters are, by and large, based on the recommendations of successive finance commissions. The two main windows presently open for meeting such expenditures are the 1. National Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) 2. National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF). The Calamity Relief Fund is used for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm. Of the total contribution indicated, the Government of India contributes 75 per cent of the total yearly allocation in the form of a non-plan grant, and the balance amount is contributed by the State Government concerned. The State Governments are encouraged to collect contributions from major industrialists and professionals to meet out their demands in case of an impending or existing disaster A total of more than Rs.11000 crores was provided for the Calamity Relief Fund from 2000-05. Apart from the CRF, a National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) scheme came into force with effect from the financial year 2000-01. NCCF is intended to cover natural calamities like cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm, which are considered to be of severe nature requiring expenditure by the State Government in excess of the balances available in its own Calamity Relief Fund. The assistance from NCCF is available only for immediate relief and rehabilitation. Any recons-truction of assets or restoration of damaged capital should be financed through re-allocation of Plan funds. There is need for defining the arrangements in this regard. An amount of about Rs.2,300 crore has already been released to States from NCCF. 3. FINANCING OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT THROUGH FIVE YEAR PLANS Although not specifically addressed in Five Year Plan documents in the past, the Government of India has a long history of using funds from the Plan for mitigating natural disasters. Funds are provided under Plan schemes i.e., various schemes of Government of India, such as for drinking water, employment generation, inputs for agriculture and flood
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control measures etc. There are also facilities for rescheduling short-term loans taken for agriculture purposes upon certification by the District/State administration. At the occurrence of a calamity of great magnitude, funds flow from donors, both local and international, for relief and rehabilitation, and in few cases for long-term preparedness/preventive measures. Funds for the latter purposes are also available from multilateral funding agencies such as the World Bank. These funds form part of the State Plan. In the five year plan, there are also a number of important ongoing schemes that specifically help reduce disaster vulnerability. Some of these are: Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP), Flood Control Programmes, National Afforestation & Ecodevelopment Programme (NA&ED), Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP), Crop Insurance, Sampurn Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY), Food for Work Scheme etc. 4. HPC/FC SUGGESTIONS OF FINANCING These methods include the initiatives proposed by Power Committee (HPC) on Disaster Management, as well as by the Eleventh Finance Commission regarding Financing of disaster management mainly under the five year plan. The HPC took an overview of all recent disasters (natural as well as manmade) in the country and identified common response and preparedness mechanisms on the basis of a series of consultations with a number of government, non-government, national and international agencies and media organizations. An important recommendation of the Committee was that at least 10 per cent of plan funds at the national, state and district levels be earmarked and apportioned for schemes which specifically address areas such as prevention, reduction, preparedness and mitigation of disasters. The Eleventh Finance Commission too paid detailed attention to the issue of disaster management and, in its chapter on calamity relief, came out with a number of recommendations, of which the following three suggestions have a direct bearing on the Plan (1) Expenditure on restoration of infrastructure should be met from the plan funds on priority basis. (2) Medium and long-term measures should be devised by the concerned Ministries of the Government of India, the State Governments and the Planning Commission to reduce, and if possible, eliminate, the occurrences of these calamities. (3) The Planning Commission, in consultation with the State Governments and concerned Ministries, should be able to identify works of a capital nature to prevent the recurrence of specific calamities. These works may be funded under the Plan.
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AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT
Disaster Management is not a one of process and over a period of time it requires constant review and suggestions for improvement. Under the instructions of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has studied the planning and execution of disaster risk reduction in India and has come up with the following suggestions. The areas of improvement have been identified using extensive studies supported by balanced scorecard approach. The areas of improvement encompass suggestions to strengthen the existing system and also chart a few new paths in the system. (1) The existing disasters cause widespread havoc and therefore increase in the planned expenditure on disaster mitigation and prevention measures in addition to the CRF is required. (2) The quantity and quality of training related to disaster risk reduction has to be improved. In this regard, a dire need is felt to have some important publications and audio-visual training modules related to disaster management. (3) The documentation of disaster events of the country has to been done in a better manner. (4) There is also an urgent need for strengthening the disaster management pedagogy by creating disaster management faculties in universities, rural development institutes and other research organizations. (5) There is a need for establishment of control rooms at district levels with state of the art video teleconferencing facility. (6) There is also an increasing need for effective utilization of information, communication and space technologies in disaster mitigation and preparedness. (7) The country should work more towards forging international cooperation in disaster management. (8) All development schemes in vulnerable areas should include a disaster mitigation analysis, whereby the feasibility of a project is assessed with respect to vulnerability of the area and the mitigation measures required for sustainability. This is in the lines of Environmental Impact Assessment. (9) The structural mitigation of hazards like construction of retrofitted individual disaster resistant structures for earthquake-resistant buildings or flood control
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structures like dykes, levees, etc. should be done in a massive scale. The mitigation measures on individual structures can be achieved by design standards, building codes and performance specifications. Mitigation measures should also include the regulation in land use and site planning activities. (10) The role of insurance of structures in disaster-prone areas is a potentially important mitigation measure as it brings quality in the infrastructure & consciousness and a culture of safety by its insistence on following building codes, norms, guidelines, quality materials in construction etc. (11) Being the first responder in every disaster management situation, however, each state needs to build a team of dedicated trained, skilled personnel, make provision for specialized equipments, efficient communication network, and relevant, intelligent and easily accessible database. (12) With the kind of economic losses and developmental setbacks that the country has been suffering year after year, it makes good economic sense to spend a little extra in a planned way on steps and components that can help in prevention and mitigation of disasters through many funding schemes.

COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Definition * Need * Advantages & Disadvantages * Features * Strategies * Examples

1. DEFINITION CBDM or CBDRR is described by the International Institute for Disaster Management as “an approach that involves direct participation of the people most likely to be exposed to hazards, in planning, decision making and operational activities at all levels of disaster management responsibility." 2. NEED FOR COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT  2005 Hyogo Framework for Action states that “strengthening community level capacities to reduce disaster risk at the local level is especially needed”  Members of a community are the immediate victims of adverse effects of a disaster.  They have the best knowledge about their local surrounding in terms of the most disaster-prone areas  They should be used for training because local residents may be hesitant to accept non-native people training programmes.

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3. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES Advantages Ownership and Sustainability Addresses the Immediate Needs of Communities User Friendly Provides Knowledge and Skills Disadvantages Fear Lack of Resources Misleading Information Lack of Proper Training Gender Bias 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FEATURES OF COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT Vulnerability causes disasters Indigeneous knowledge and local capacities People’s Empowerment Content Specificity No Quick Fixes Puts Premium on Organising Committees

5. STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES 1. Community Risk Assessment 2. Disaster Management Orientation 3. Disaster Preparedness Training 4. Community Disaster Response Organisation 5. Counter Disaster Planning 6. Community Specific Warning Systems 7. Evacuation Plan and Drills 8. Emergency Response Training 9. Mitigation Plans 10. Documentation of indigenous knowledge 6. EXAMPLES FOR COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMMES 1. UNICEF CBDRR Programme in Kolkata 2. Social Transformation Models, Tsunami Affected Villages in TN & AP 3. SEEDS India, Tsunami Affected Areas 4. Community Based Disaster Risk Management, Rudraparyag, Uttaranchal

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ROLE OF MEDIA IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
From the point of view of disaster management, we know it involves four phases of activity: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Although the media may play a role all four phases, interacting with the public and with disaster response personnel in a variety of ways, they are least important in disaster mitigation and probably most important in the response phase. In the mitigation phase, the media can show a series of programmes promoting the spirit of always preventing disasters than handle them. It can also reflect on new and old disasters and insist the public that mitigation is the best way around. In the preparedness phase, television and radio normally play the major roles, disseminating warnings, weather information, and evacuation instructions and airing official bulletins. If the onset of a disaster is slow, newspapers can also help to transmit preparedness information. Effective personal relationships between journalists and public officials can greatly facilitate the dissemination of disaster warnings. During the response phase, emergency managers undertake the immediate, largely local effort to cope with the disaster as it unfolds. In this phase, the media become one of the most important sources of local and national information about the crisis. Aside from spreading information about the emergency, the media can continue to work in a disseminator role, seeking official information about what happened and how citizens can best respond and giving help and advice to victims. Television crews can be expected to cover action on the spot, to record relief efforts, and to document damage to property and the number of persons in need of aid. Radio and newspapers can also help to publicize officials' instructions and to record relief efforts. In the recovery phase of an emergency, the media can often provide documentation of the impact of a disaster or of a relief operation. Hour-by-hour coverage can be especially valuable in the absence of information from established formal channels. In addition to continuing to provide information and advice to victims and others in the wake of disasters, the media may also use editorials and analytic columns to assess the seriousness of the emergency and the effectiveness of the relief effort.

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Definition * Need * Aspects/Stages * Problem Areas * EOC Centre

1. DEFINITION Emergency Response activities are those activities that have to be done during and immediately following a disaster. They are designed to provide emergency assistance to victims of the event and reduce the likelihood of secondary damage. 2. NEED Effective emergency response to the disaster is critical mainly to: • limit casualties, • alleviate hardship and suffering, • restore essential life support and community systems, • mitigate further damage and loss, and • provide the foundation for subsequent recovery. 3. ASPECTS/STAGES The five basic aspects or stages of response to an emergency or disaster are (i) Notification/ Warning (ii) Immediate Public Safety (iii) Property Security (iv) Public Welfare (v) Restoration. The length of each stage depends upon the emergency situation. The main aspects of emergency response can be further split into the following aspects • Search and Rescue To search for and rescue persons who may be trapped in buildings and under debris, isolated by floodwaters, or need rescuing for any other reason. • Treatment and care of victims To dispose of the dead. To render first aid. To ensure identification tagging of casualties. To identify needs in terms of medical treatment, hospitalization and deal accordingly • Evacuation To determine whether persons need to be evacuated from the stricken area immediately, or whether such a requirement is likely to arise later.

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• Shelter To provide shelter for victims whose housing has been destroyed or rendered unusable. This may involve: – making urgent repairs to some housing, – issuing tents and/or tarpaulins to provide means of temporary shelter, and – accomodating groups of homeless people in community buildings such as schools. • Food To organize and distribute food to disaster victims and emergency workers. To estimate damage to crops and food stocks. To estimate food reserves and available (including unharvestedcrops) • Communications To reestablish essential radio, telephone, and mobile network links. • Clearance and access To clear key roads, airfields, and ports to allow access for vehicles, aircraft, and shipping; also to prepare helicopter landing sites. • Water and power supplies To reestablish water and power supplies, or to make temporary arrangements for them. To provideing potable water after treating water in water-purifying equipment • Temporary subsistence supplies To provide supplies such as clothing, disaster kits, cooking utensils, and plastic sheeting, to enable victims to subsist temporarily in their own area, thus helping reduce the need for evacuation. • Health and sanitation To take measures to safeguard the health of people in the stricken area and to maintain reasonable sanitation facilities. • Public Information To keep the stricken community informed on what they should do, especially in terms of self-help, and on what action is on hand to help them. To prevent speculation and rumor concerning the future situation • Security To maintain law and order, especially to prevent looting and unnecessary damage. • Construction requirements To estimate high-priority building repair and replacement requirements.

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• Disaster welfare inquiry To make arrangements to handle national and international inquiries concerning the welfare of citizens and residents, including tracing of missing persons. • Maintenance of public morale Depending on cultural and other local circumstances, to make arrangements for counseling and spiritual support of the stricken community. This may involve religious bodies, welfare agencies, and other appropriate organizations. 4. PROBLEM AREAS IN RESPONSE Some of the major problem areas relevant to emergency response are listed below. The disaster manager should accept the possibility of these problem areas and be prepared for the same.              Inadequate Preparedness Poor Warning Slow Activation of the Response System Effects of Impact and Crisis Pressure (Octopus Effect) Difficulties in Survey of Damage and Assessment of Needs Inaccurate and/or Incomplete Information from Survey Poor Information Management Inadequate Relief Commodities Logistics Problems Poor Coordination of Response Operations Inadequate Public Awareness Dissatisfaction of the people Problems with the Media

5. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTRE (EOC) A well-equipped Emergency Operations Centre(EOC) or Emergency Control Room (ECR) is to be set up from which all emergency response activities will be executed. The need for directing the operations at the affected site, the need for coordination at the district headquarters and the need for interaction with the State Government to meet the conflicting demands at the time of disaster is the responsibility of the Relief Commissioner and his team at the EOC. In the EOC/ECR, the Relief Commissioner and his team and to perform the following functions:
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§ Collection and compilation of information from the affected area § Documenting information flow § Decision making regarding resource management § Allocation of task to different resource organization § Supply of information to State Government The ECR may have senior representatives in the capacity of Desk Officers from the following key resource agencies: § Search, Rescue & Evacuation desk - Police and Fire Services § Logistics & Welfare desk § Medical desk § Infrastructure desk The Desk Officers should maintain constant contact with the State Crisis Group members and the other district heads to ensure quick decision-making. During an emergency response, 14 essential support function should be maintained in the EOC/ECR ESF No. 1 – Communication ESF No. 2 – Public Health and Sanitation ESF No. 3 – Power ESF No. 4 – Transport ESF No. 5 – Donation ESF No. 6 – Search and Rescue ESF No. 7 – Public Works and Engineering ESF No. 8 – Food ESF No. 9 – Information and Planning ESF No. 10 – Relief Supplies ESF No. 11 – Drinking water ESF No. 12 – Shelter ESF No. 13 – Media ESF No. 14 – Helplines

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