# Photonic Devices and Systems, Lecture 27

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Optical Amplifiers The Basic Idea

From Fundamentals of Photonics, by Saleh and Teich

Two Basic Parts:

1. Gain Medium 2. Pump

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Lecture 27 2/10 Optical Amplifiers in Fiber Optic Communications from Introduction of Lightwave Communication Systems. by Papannaredy 2 .Photonic Devices and Systems.

by Saleh and Teich 3 .Photonic Devices and Systems. Lecture 27 3/10 Ideal versus Real Optical Amplifiers Amplifier performance is characterized by: • • • • • • Amount of gain Bandwidth and shape of gain curve Gain saturation Phase shift Time response Noise From Fundamentals of Photonics.

Lecture 27 4/10 Note: For a plane wave traveling in free-space: E ( z ) = E (0) e − jkz = E (0) e −j 2π z λ0 = E (0) e −j 2πν z c so the phase at z is proportional to z. This is a consequence of the Kramers-Kronig relations.Photonic Devices and Systems. In the real world n is a function of frequency in a gain medium. For an ideal optical amplifier: E ( z ) = E (0) e 1 gz 2 e −j n 2πν z c with a constant refractive index n. 4 . so the phase is also proportional to z.

Photonic Devices and Systems. by Rolf Hummel 5 . Lecture 27 5/10 The Lorentz Model Figures from Electronic Properties of Materials.

Lecture 27 6/10 The Kramers-Kronig Relations The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant are related through the Kramers-Kronig relations.Photonic Devices and Systems. ω ′ Im ε r (ω ′ ) dω ′ 0 ′2 − ω 2 π ω ∞ Re ε ( ω ′ ) − 1 2ω r Im ε r (ω ) = − P∫ dω ′ 0 ′2 − ω 2 π ω Re ε r (ω ) = 1 + 2 P∫ ∞ There are useful variations of these: n (ω ) = 1 + α (ω ′ ) dω ′ 0 ω ′2 − ω 2 π ∞ ∆α ( ω ′ ) c ∆n (ω ) = P ∫ dω ′ 0 ω ′2 − ω 2 π c P∫ ∞ and also: ∆n (ω ) = − c P∫ ∞ π 0 ∆g (ω ′ ) dω ′ 2 2 ω′ − ω If we induce gain in an amplifying medium. we also induce a change in the refractive index. 6 .

Photonic Devices and Systems. Lecture 27 7/10 Causality and the Kramers-Kronig Relations From Optical Properties of Solids. by Frederick Wooten 7 .

Photonic Devices and Systems. Lecture 27 8/10 Radiative Processes Absorption hν hν = E2 − E1 Spontaneous Emission hν = E2 − E1 Stimulated Emission hν = E2 − E1 8 .

This won’t work! Ninv = ( N 2 -N1 ) Pump Power Net absorption is small here. Lecture 27 9/10 Pumping Schemes Two-Levels E2 hν p = hν = E 2 -E1 E1 Suppose we try to increase N2 with strong light at hν to create a population inversion (N2 – N1).Photonic Devices and Systems. but there is no gain. 9 .

Photonic Devices and Systems. Lecture 27 10/10 Three-Levels Good. easier to get a large inversion 3 Fast Decay 2 hν p = E3 -E0 hν = E2 − E1 1 Fast Decay 0 Example: Nd:YAG 10 . we can create a population inversion 3 Fast Decay 2 hν p = E3 -E1 hν =E 2 -E1 1 Example: Ruby Four-Levels Better.