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MSW SEMESTER IV DISASTER MANAGEMENT SUBJECT CODE: MSW 443 B
MODULE II DISASTER CLASSIFICATION TYPES
DISASTER RISK HAZARD DISASTER An overwhelming ecological destruction occurring on a scale sufficient to require outside assistance (Pan American Health Organization –PAHO-1980) Disasters are exceptional events which suddenly kill or injure large number of people (Red Cross) RISK
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The probability that a particular system or population will be affected by hazards is known as the “risk.” • • • • • • FAMINE Famine may be seen as "the regional failure of food production or distribution systems, leading to sharply increased mortality due to starvation and associated disease. (Cox 1981). • • • WHAT IS FAMINE? Lack of food during a long period of time in a region. A severe shortage of food resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death. HAZARD ―Hazard” refers to the natural event. A “hazard” is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. Hazard and vulnerability interact together to create Risk. NATURAL DISASTER
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Famine occurs when there is a severe shortage of food and people cannot find enough nutritious food to eat, resulting in widespread malnutrition and starvation. CAUSES OF FAMINE Poverty is the main cause of hunger. Every year, developing countries suffer what is known as a ‗hunger gap‘, which is the time just after crops have been planted, when food reserves have been used up. How do these periods of food shortages turn into famine?
IRELAND’S FAMINE HISTORY The Great Famine occurred between 1845 and 1848, and although it began as a natural disaster when potato blight (any disease that kills plants, especially crops) destroyed the staple (basic) crop, the situation was made much worse by the inaction of the Government of the day. The famine killed about one million people in Ireland and forced hundreds of thousands to emigrate to Britain and America. DROUGHT
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average rainfall. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. • • • • • • • • • DROUGHT An insidious, slow onset hazard of nature Originates from deficiency of precipitation resulting in water shortages for human, cattle and agricultural consumption 16 % of country’s total area is drought prone 68% of total sown area can be drought affected 50 million people are expected to be annually affected. DROUGHT - TYPES Meteorological Drought - reduction in rainfall for a specified period Hydrological Drought - depletion of water resources, stream flows, ground water, underground aquifers, etc.
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Agricultural Drought - impact of meteorological and / or hydrological droughts on crop yields. Famine Drought - extreme form of agricultural drought, which destroys food security to maintain as active healthy life. Causes of Drought Deficiency of Rain water. Dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Human Causes: Over exploitation of ground water resource Land use leading desertification Deforestation Over-cultivation Overgrazing Mismanaged irrigation
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IMPACT OF DROUGHT Malnutrition Health Problems Reduced quality of life Social Unrest Increase in petty crimes Rise in Indebtedness Impact of Drought Rise in price of food, fodder and water Conflict between water users Conflict between cattle owners and farmers Loss of life – particularly acute impact if the loss is of earning members Migration in search of livelihood and fodder for cattle and other animals
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DROUGHT – 2010 BIHAR SCENARIO DROUGHT SITUATION IN BIHAR : FEW FACTS Bihar is facing its second successive drought in 2010 Series of natural disasters over the last four years• • • • • 2007- witnessed severe floods in 22 districts of the State affecting 2.5 crore people; 2008- the breach of the Kosi embankment 2009- severe drought in 26 districts April 2010- Cyclonic storm killing > 100 people and devastation to property. Bihar is flood prone state; so this year‘s consecutive widespread drought has magnified the adverse impact.
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STATISTICS OF DROUGHT IN INDIA CLASSIFICATION OF DROUGHT Crop Area affected by drought in India 1996-2001 LET US SUM UP Disaster Risk Hazard Famine Causes of famine Ireland's famine history Drought Type of drought Causes of drought Impact of drought Bihar drought 2010 Statistics on drought situation
WHAT IS FLOOD? A great flowing or overflowing of water, especially over land not usually submerged. Overflowing of normally dry areas, often after heavy rains. An overflowing of water into land that is normally dry. Flood In the Bible, the covering of the earth with water that occurred during the time of Noah. What is Flood? Overflow situation unusually high stage in a river River overflow its banks and inundates the adjoining area. Significance: damage in terms of life, property and economic loss. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land What is Flood? Floods are caused when water rises above and beyond its normal place or course, causing areas to be submerged with water for prolonged or short periods of time. The danger this causes to people and buildings is called the flood hazard. They are caused primarily due to the peculiarities of rainfall in the country, and are the most frequent and often most devastating disaster in India. While the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers cause the largest floods in India, other areas in the west, east and south also experience floods. The most common kind of flood happens when a river overflows its banks, and water spreads on to the surrounding land, called a riverine flood. This is caused by rainwater or melting snow draining into the river faster than the river can discharge water into the sea. The amount of water that a river can hold before a flood starts is known as channel capacity. Flooding from heavy rainfall occur permanently, causing erosion, landslides, and severe damage to housing, agriculture, livestock and public infrastructure. Flood is a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. CAUSES OF FLOOD
dams and canals. Ganga and Meghana basins in the IndoGangetic-Brahmaputra plains in north and Northeast India. Sandstorms Storms 5. Ocean Storm 9. often seen during thunderstorms ) Types of Storms 1.. This combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds. Ice Storm 7. STORMS FORMATION OF STORM Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops. which carry 60 per cent of the nation’s total river flow. floods are common to all countries. In India it is spread over 15 states and about 47 per cent of India’s population resides in the basin. such as the cumulonimbus (a high mass of thick cloud with a flat base. Cyclones Storms 6. Tsunami‘s Storm 4. Tornados Storm 3.Heavy rainfall Huge snow melting Failures of dams. The most flood-prone areas are the Brahmaputra. Hurricanes Storm or Tropical Storm 2. barrages etc. Unlike cyclones. Landslides causing blockage of river Costal Flooding Tsunamis CAUSES OF FLOOD Blocking of river channels by land slides Narrowness of the river Change in the course of the river Inefficient engineering design in the construction of embankments. North and Eastern India are particularly prone to floods. Blizzard Storm 8. with a system of high pressure surrounding it. Fire Storm .
Sandstorms carry huge dust and wind from desert areas and occur in sandy areas. when a cyclone get low pressure in center then it release heat and moist air. Tornado storm come with darkness and violent. What is Tornado’s Storm? Tornado storm is the funnel shape cyclone with destructive strong wind. What is Tsunamis Storm? Tsunamis Storm is one the fatal storm for the world. Tsunamis Storm become the form of flood and storm both. Wind Storm What is Hurricanes Storm or Tropical Storm? Hurricane and tropical storm made upon dust and strong wind. Tsunamis Storm through ocean water in to cities and villages.10. Tornado is the name of destruction and it carries rain and thunder. Sandstorms height goes 10 to 50 feet high. Hail Storm 13. Hurricane storm is warm wind storm with humidity. Squall Storm 15. Tsunamis Storm begins from ocean. Dust Devil Storm 16. What is Sandstorms? Sandstorms are called as dust storm. and by this process Hurricane and tropical storm come. Hurricane is made. That‘s why Tsunamis Storm is very dangerous and fatal storm. Thunder Storm 14. . Hurricane and tropical storm come from ocean and when any place become in favor of hurricane then hurricane and tropical storm come. Snow Storm 11. when ocean gets lower pressure of air then it crosses its boundary and goes far away with water and storm. because it comes with huge dust and strong wind. Gale Storm 12.
What is Firestorm? Firestorm is the natural form of storm. When both against winds get closed to each other then they create lower pressure in the form of storm. It creates trees down and very cold breezy condition. which occurs from forest fire. Ice Storm is bad storm of the world. Blizzard Storm creates huge snow falls and condition become very cold. Firestorm creates huge heat like bombing and explosion. What is Gale Storm? When extra tropical storm comes with 39-55 mph. blush fires and wild fires. Cyclones Storms come with strong wind with orange and yellow storms. Cyclones Storms are similar to Hurricane storm. What is Ocean Storm? Ocean Storm comes from Pacific Ocean. When surface temperature gets lower from freezing point and upper level of surface is having above freezing point temperature then rain can fall and it becomes the glaze. What is Hail Storm? . What is Ice Storm? Ice Strom occur mostly in winter season. it is called Gale Storm. What is Blizzard Storm? Blizzard Storm is come from extremely strong winds. Ocean Strom is caused of Pacific Ocean winds and against Pacific Ocean strong wind collation. It is destructive storm of the world. What is Snow Storm? Heavy snow falls approximate 5 centimeters per hour.What is Cyclones Storms? Cyclones Storm is made by Cyclones.
WHAT IS FLOOD? A great flowing or overflowing of water. Overflowing of normally dry areas.Hail Storm come with clouds and rain. What is Thunder Storm? Thunder Storm can cause of thunder and lightening. It is having strong wind. especially over land not usually submerged. Hail Storm cause of chunks (thick solid pieces) of ice. Flood In the Bible. often after heavy rains. What is Squall Storm? Squall Storm is the large storm and it is having 30Km/hr. An overflowing of water into land that is normally dry. What is Dust Devil Storm? Dust Devil storm come with dust and darkness. Thunder Storm creates huge wind and rain. It creates low pressure and strong wind in the surface. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land What is Flood? . What is Flood? Overflow situation unusually high stage in a river River overflow its banks and inundates the adjoining area. property and economic loss. Significance: damage in terms of life. the covering of the earth with water that occurred during the time of Noah. It is one of the regular thunder storms. speed. What is Wind Storm? Wind Storm come with strong winds without rain.
Flooding from heavy rainfall occur permanently. such as a river or lake. The danger this causes to people and buildings is called the flood hazard. causing areas to be submerged with water for prolonged or short periods of time. with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. They are caused primarily due to the peculiarities of rainfall in the country. dams and canals. . The amount of water that a river can hold before a flood starts is known as channel capacity.Floods are caused when water rises above and beyond its normal place or course. livestock and public infrastructure. which overflows or breaks levees. CAUSES OF FLOOD Heavy rainfall Huge snow melting Failures of dams. Landslides causing blockage of river Costal Flooding Tsunamis CAUSES OF FLOOD Blocking of river channels by land slides Narrowness of the river Change in the course of the river Inefficient engineering design in the construction of embankments. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water. barrages etc. The most common kind of flood happens when a river overflows its banks. east and south also experience floods. This is caused by rainwater or melting snow draining into the river faster than the river can discharge water into the sea. and water spreads on to the surrounding land. and are the most frequent and often most devastating disaster in India. causing erosion. other areas in the west. Flood is a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. landslides.. agriculture. and severe damage to housing. While the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers cause the largest floods in India. called a riverine flood.
Ice Storm 7. floods are common to all countries. In India it is spread over 15 states and about 47 per cent of India’s population resides in the basin. Gale Storm 12. North and Eastern India are particularly prone to floods. Dust Devil Storm 16. Tsunami‘s Storm 4. This combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds. Ocean Storm 9. when a cyclone get low pressure in center then it release heat and moist air. Hurricanes Storm or Tropical Storm 2. with a system of high pressure surrounding it. Hurricane is made.Unlike cyclones. Tornados Storm 3. Fire Storm 10. which carry 60 per cent of the nation’s total river flow. Hail Storm 13. Squall Storm 15. STORMS FORMATION OF STORM Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops. often seen during thunderstorms ) Types of Storms 1. . Cyclones Storms 6. Ganga and Meghana basins in the IndoGangetic-Brahmaputra plains in north and Northeast India. Wind Storm What is Hurricanes Storm or Tropical Storm? Hurricane and tropical storm made upon dust and strong wind. Blizzard Storm 8. Thunder Storm 14. such as the cumulonimbus (a high mass of thick cloud with a flat base. The most flood-prone areas are the Brahmaputra. Snow Storm 11. and by this process Hurricane and tropical storm come. Sandstorms Storms 5. Hurricane and tropical storm come from ocean and when any place become in favor of hurricane then hurricane and tropical storm come. Hurricane storm is warm wind storm with humidity.
Blizzard Storm creates huge snow falls and condition become very cold. Tsunamis Storm through ocean water in to cities and villages. Tornado is the name of destruction and it carries rain and thunder. What is Tsunamis Storm? Tsunamis Storm is one the fatal storm for the world.What is Tornado’s Storm? Tornado storm is the funnel shape cyclone with destructive strong wind. It is destructive storm of the world. because it comes with huge dust and strong wind. Tornado storm come with darkness and violent. What is Blizzard Storm? Blizzard Storm is come from extremely strong winds. Tsunamis Storm become the form of flood and storm both. Sandstorms carry huge dust and wind from desert areas and occur in sandy areas. Cyclones Storms are similar to Hurricane storm. Cyclones Storms come with strong wind with orange and yellow storms. When surface temperature gets lower from freezing point and upper level of surface is having above freezing point temperature then rain can fall and it becomes the glaze. What is Ice Storm? Ice Strom occur mostly in winter season. when ocean gets lower pressure of air then it crosses its boundary and goes far away with water and storm. What is Sandstorms? Sandstorms are called as dust storm. That‘s why Tsunamis Storm is very dangerous and fatal storm. Tsunamis Storm begins from ocean. Ice Storm is bad storm of the world. Sandstorms height goes 10 to 50 feet high. . What is Cyclones Storms? Cyclones Storm is made by Cyclones.
What is Wind Storm? . When both against winds get closed to each other then they create lower pressure in the form of storm. It is one of the regular thunder storms.What is Ocean Storm? Ocean Storm comes from Pacific Ocean. It creates trees down and very cold breezy condition. What is Firestorm? Firestorm is the natural form of storm. What is Snow Storm? Heavy snow falls approximate 5 centimeters per hour. blush fires and wild fires. Firestorm creates huge heat like bombing and explosion. What is Squall Storm? Squall Storm is the large storm and it is having 30Km/hr. which occurs from forest fire. Hail Storm cause of chunks (thick solid pieces) of ice. What is Thunder Storm? Thunder Storm can cause of thunder and lightening. it is called Gale Storm. What is Hail Storm? Hail Storm come with clouds and rain. What is Dust Devil Storm? Dust Devil storm come with dust and darkness. Ocean Strom is caused of Pacific Ocean winds and against Pacific Ocean strong wind collation. It creates low pressure and strong wind in the surface. It is having strong wind. speed. What is Gale Storm? When extra tropical storm comes with 39-55 mph. Thunder Storm creates huge wind and rain.
000 people were killed. Tremor: shaking of the ground • • • • • • • • • • Larger earthquakes usually begin with slight tremors but rapidly take the form of one or more violent shocks. 3. • Ahmedabad 26th January 2001 Improperly built high-rise buildings crumbled and cracked INDIA IS DISASTER-PRONE OVER 55% OF THE LAND AREA IS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES 12% TO FLOODS 8% TO CYCLONES 70 % OF THE LAND UNDER CULTIVATION IS PRONE TO DROUGHT What is an Earthquake? An earthquake in simple terms is a sudden trembling or shaking movement of the earth‘s surface. Richter scale: a scale which classifies the magnitude (force) of an earthquake Modified Mercalli scale: a scale which classifies the intensity (effects) of an earthquake Why do earthquakes happen? . at least 15 lakh injured. and end in vibrations of gradually diminishing force called aftershocks. Crust: the solid surface of the earth Most earthquakes are minor tremors. called the crust.8 lakh houses destroyed in the Gujarat earthquake of 26th January 2001. such as the Richter scale and the Modified Mercalli scale. Many bridges and roads were damaged.4 lakh buildings damaged. • • • NATURAL DISASTER EARTH QUAKE Gujarat Earthquake More than 13.Wind Storm come with strong winds without rain. and about 7. • • • • The magnitude and intensity of an earthquake is determined by the use of scales.
The impact of the event is most traumatic because it affects large area. such as landslides.• • • • • • • • • Earthquake occurs due to sudden transient motion of the ground as a result of release of elastic energy in a matter of few seconds. and are not predictable or preventable. People are more likely to die or be injured where large numbers of people live close together. especially in urban or semi urban areas with concrete structures. transport etc. and where local buildings are not designed to resist earthquakes. • • Earthquakes in India The Latur (Killari). How are people affected by earthquakes? The effects of earthquakes are diverse. Over 10. Earthquakes are natural phenomenon. communication and power. occurs all on a sudden and unpredictable. 1993 is the most devastating earthquake in the world. but by the buildings that we live in. . and so have less time to prepare. Most of the damage is caused not by the earthquake itself. They can cause large scale loss of life and property and disrupts essential services such as water supply. without any warning time. Earthquakes are most dangerous when they happen at night. towns and cities but the aftermath leads to destabilize the economic and social structure of the nation. and huge ocean waves called tsunamis. They not only destroy villages. fires. sewerage systems.000 lives were lost in this earthquake and several villages were destroyed. They cause the most sudden of all disasters. The picture shows a high-rise building succumbing to the Gujarat earthquake in 2001 because the required structural engineering norms were not adhered to during construction and design of this building. earthquake of September 30. • • • • • An earthquake can cause other dangerous events. Maharashtra. About 95 per cent of people killed in an earthquake are killed by falling buildings. floods. This is because people may sleep through the first tremors (foreshocks). We can however reduce the damage that they can cause. Earthquakes happen without notice.
000 were injured. 2001. 7. .1-6. that occurred in disastrous earthquake in India‘s history. 3.4 Often felt. but rarely causes damage. 8 or greater Great earthquake.5 Generally not felt. A public act of violence by an unruly (Difficult to control or manage) mob (Large number of people). This event killed many people and damaged completely or partially about 48. Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions. but recorded. 6. often as a protest.1997 in the Jabalpur area.• The 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake which occurred in the Tehri region in Gharwal Himalaya shook the north-central India. This earthquake which caused widespread devastation in and around Jabalpur left 48 people dead and many injured and homeless. Madhya Pradesh. On January 26. Under 6. at least 20.000 houses Earthquake in India An earthquake of magnitude occurred on May 22. Nearly 400. Richter magnitude and its effects Richter Magnitude Earthquake Effects Less than 3.0-7. Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred kilometers across.0 At most slight damage to well-designed buildings. Riot a situation in which a group of people behave in a violent way in a public place. • • • • • • • • • • • MANMADE DISASTER RIOTS & BIOLOGICAL WARFARE RIOTS Man Made Disasters Man-made disasters are disasters resulting from man-made hazards It is considered as a Civil disorder that is typically used by law enforcement to describe forms of disturbance.4-5.000 houses were destroyed and twice as much damaged.000 people were dead and more than 200.9 Major earthquake.9 Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 kilometers across where people live. Can cause serious damage over larger areas. While the actual figures of death and injury remain uncertain. going by the official figures. The Bhuj earthquake of the State of Gujarat.
in which around 900 people died. This was followed by the 12 March 1993 Mumbai Blasting. The riots occurred on September 4. 1927. the Muslims this time stopped the . confusion. day of Laksmi Puja.A wild or turbulent (in which there is a lot of sudden change. However. in which 575 Muslims and 250 Hindus died. Mumbai Riots In December 1992 and January 1993. The riots started as a result of communal tension prevailing in the city after the Babri Mosque demolition on 6 December 1992 Riots in India The Nagpur riots of 1927 were part of series of riots taking place across various cities in British India during the 1920s. Hindus took out a procession like every year and passed in front of a mosque in Mahal area of Nagpur. It was the day of Laxmi Puja – a Hindu festival day during Diwali. On the morning of September 4. Law: A violent disturbance of the public peace by three or more persons assembled for a common purpose CAUSES OF RIOTS COMMUNAL TENSIONS CONFLICTING POLITICAL INTERESTS ANTIPATHY OVER LOW (A STRONG FEELING OF DISLIKE) MINIMUM WAGES RACIAL SEGREGATION Examples of some Famous Riots • Examples of well-known civil disorders and riots are: The Poll Riots in the UK in 1990 The 1992 Los Angeles Riots in which 53 people died The 2008 Greek Riots after a 15-year-old boy was fatally shot by police The 2010 Thai political protests in Bangkok during which 91 people died. disagreement and sometimes violence) disturbance created by a large number of people.
and attacked Gurudwaras.700 Sikh deaths however human rights organizations and newspapers report the death toll to be 10. It has been the site of communal riots in past.procession did not allow it to pass from the area. by two of her Sikh bodyguards in response to her actions during the preceding months. 1991. during Operation Blue Star . looted and set fire to Sikh homes. The violence in Delhi was triggered by the assasination of Indira Gandhi on 31 October 1984. because of their race or religion) particularly in Delhi . The violence terrified the Tamil populace (the ordinary people of a country or area) of Southern Karnataka forcing hundreds of thousands to flee in a matter of weeks.000-17. women. The violence began in June 1984. businesses and schools.000. and children. Riots in India 2006 Aligarh Riots Aligarh is a town with Hindu majority a large Muslim minority (politically dominating) in the northern Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. The rioting started on night of 5 April when according to some people. five to six people died as a result of rioting that began between Muslims and Hindus in the town on 5 April 2006. members of the Muslim community removed the decorations on a Hindu Temple temple on the occasion of Ram Navami. killed unarmed Sikh men. At least. The attacks mainly took place in the cities of Bangalore and Mysore and originated in the demonstrations organized against the orders of the Cauvery Water Tribunal appointed by the Government of India. Muslim youths took out a procession shouting Allahu Akbar and were armed with weapons. during which armed mobs belonging to Indian National Congress. Riots in India The 1984 Anti-Sikh riots 1984 Anti-Sikh pogrom (the organized killing of large numbers of people. when Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to attack Sikh Separatists in the Golden Temple. Riots in India The 1991 Anti-Tamil Riots of Karnataka refers to incidents of mob violence targeting Tamils which took place in Southern Karnataka on December 12–13. In the afternoon. The Government of India reported 2. Riots in India . when the Hindus were resting after morning procession.
the Sabarmati Express train was forcibly stopped and attacked by a large Muslim mob. When CPI(M) leaders tried to chase them away the angry villagers beat CPI(M) leaders and burnt their flags.000 rounds of bullets were fired by the police. They were shouted down and asked to provide foodgrains by the villagers.901 Hindus and 7.[ Riots in India Salem Riots of 1882 . 523 places of worship were damaged 298 dargahs. children and seniors returning from the holy city of Ayodhya— were burned alive. Preventive arrests of 17. Riots in India 2002 Gujarat violence Describes the Godhra Train Burning and resulting communal riots between Hindus and Muslims.616 Muslims were made. 205 mosques.000 Muslims and 10. The riots first happened in Burdwan. As a result. 61. On 27 February 2002 at Godhra City in the state of Gujarat. 17 temples. The attack prompted riots against Muslims on a large scale. The police opened fire to quell the mob. and 3 churches. Muslim-owned businesses suffered the bulk of the damage. Nearly 10.947 Hindus and 3. The riots started on 16 September 2007 in Radhamohanpur village in Bankura district.he 2007 West Bengal food riots Happened in West Bengal in India over shortage of food and widespread corruption in public distribution system. 223 more people were reported missing. That morning a few CPI(M)) leaders were lecturing the villagers on the dangers of the Indo-US nuclear agreement. in which 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed. Bankua and Birbhum districts but later spread to other districts.000 Hindus fled their homes. In total 27. killing 93 Muslims and 77 Hindus. 59 Hindu passengers — mostly women.651 Muslims were arrested.
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL WARFARE? the use of bacteria or viruses or toxins (a Poisonous substance) to destroy men. which experienced some of the worst violence. animals or food. The use of disease-producing micro organisms. kill. riots followed. and/or weaken enemy's resistance to attack and reduce the will to wage war. leaving more than 200 people dead and hundreds more injured a day after militant Hindus destroyed a 16th-century mosque in the northern town of Ayodhya.Bacteria-are small free-living organisms . 1992 NEW DELHI. animals. or organic biocides to cause death or injury to humans. Riots in India AT LEAST 200 KILLED IN INDIA AS MUSLIM-HINDU RIOTS RAGE By EDWARD A. many when police opened fire on rampaging mobs. GARGAN. Dec. 8 -India's towns and cities were swept by rioting between Muslims and Hindus on Monday. Tuesday. toxic biological products. 59 people were killed. (Special to The New York Times)Published: December 8.The riots are believed to have originated by the objection of Hindus to the construction of a mosque by the Muslims of the Sevvoypettai area of the city of Salem on the path of a Hindu religious procession. Biological agents that may be employed on the modern battlefield pose an immediate threat to personnel exposed to them.Viruses-are organisms which require living cells in which to replicate . or plants. Potential Agents Biological agents that may be used as weapons can be classified as follows: . The use of harmful bacteria as weapons of war BIOOGICAL WARFARE Biological warfare is the intentional use of disease causing organisms and/or toxins to injure. Our survival and success in combat involving these weapons requires a thorough understanding of how they can be used and what we can do to protect ourselves. In Bombay alone. When the Hindus of Salem insisted upon their right to continue their procession through the mosque.
5 and 10 microns in diameter (b) Inhalation of agent aerosols provides a direct pathway to the systemic circulation (c) Natural process of breathing causes a continuing influx of biological agent to exposed individuals (2) Ingestion.Toxins.are poisonous substances produced and derived from living plants.. . or have significantly increased in number. Mist (a cloud of very small drops of water in the air just above the ground. Intact skin provides an excellent barrier against infection. fungi. animals. some toxins may also be produced or altered by chemical means etc/ Routes of Exposure (1)Respiratory exposure (a) Aerosol delivery systems aim to generate invisible clouds with particles or droplets between . Deaths of animals in the region from unknown causes or from the same diseases as human victims. or microorganisms.Microorganisms which have characteristics common to both bacteria and viruses carried by parasites . unnatural for the area. such as bacteria. Consumption could result in exposure and disease. or viruses. Categories and Definitions of Biological Agents Pathogens: Are disease producing microorganisms. An unusual. Toxins: Are poisons naturally produced through the activities of living organisms. Large number of insects that are unusual. mycoplasma. (3) Dermal exposure. Produced by plants. Mucous membranes and damaged skin constitute breaches in this normal barrier through which agents may pass. unknown. Food and water supplies may be contaminated by an aerosol delivered attack. rickettsia. or uncommonly seen disease or syndrome for the particular geographical area. that make it difficult to see) or fog sprayed by slow moving aircraft or helicopter. micro organisms and animals Indicators of a Biological Warfare Attack Mysterious illness in both the soldier and civilian population which approaches epidemic numbers.
000 people died and about 570. negligence or incompetence. List of Industrial Disasters Chemical industry – – – December 3. About 20.000 suffered bodily damage.Artillery shells which explode with less powerful explosions than High Explosion rounds Let us Sum Up? Man Made Disaster Riots Causes of Riots Major riots happened in India and abroad Biological warfare Potential Agents Routes of Exposure Categories and Definitions of Biological Agents Indication of a Biological Warfare Attack THANK YOU • • • • • INDUSTRIAL DISASTER WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL DISASTER? Industrial disasters are mass disasters caused by industrial companies. The disaster caused the region's human and animal populations populations severe problems to the present. – During the construction of a water intake tunnel for the city of Chicago. 1984: The Bhopal Disaster in India is the largest industrial disaster on record. 1909: Chicago Crib Disaster. a fire broke out on a temporary water crib used to access an intermediate point along the tunnel. A faulty tank containing poisonous methyl isocyanate leaked at a Union Carbide plant. . either by accident. • • Construction industry January 20.
– – An explosion occurred at a British Petroleum refinery in Texas City. An estimated 145 workers were killed and 166 injured. killing over 300 miners • Causes of Industrial Accidents . 1860: – – Pemberton Mill was a large factory in Lawrence. Energy industry March 23. It is the third largest refinery in the United States and one of the largest in the world. Thirteen people were killed and 42 injured when a dust explosion occurred at a sugar refinery owned by Imperial Sugar.– – – • • • • The fire began in the dynamite magazine and burned the wooden dormitory that housed the tunnel workers. processing 433. 1965: – 1965 Dhanbad coal mine disaster took place in Jharkhand. Over 100 were injured. United States. Manufacturing industry January 10. California. 29 men were burned beyond recognition. Georgia. Massachusetts that collapsed without warning. Defense industry July 17. 2005: Texas City Refinery explosion. Texas. 2008: The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth. India. A guns explosion that killed 320 people occurred at the Port Chicago Naval Magazine in Port Chicago. • • Mining industry May 28. 1944: Port Chicago Disaster. and approximately 60 men died. and 15 were confirmed dead – • • • • • • Food industry February 7.000 barrels of crude oil per day and accounting for 3% of that nation's gasoline supply. 46 workers survived the fire by jumping into the lake and climbing onto ice floes or the spoil near the crib.
At the time. organizations. and other maladies resulting from exposure to the toxic gas • • • • . Bhopal Gas Tragedy The gas drifted over the densely populated neighbourhoods around the plant. 3. 1984. This can be a result of – – Employee negligence But employers. and product manufacturers can also be liable for the causes of industrial accidents. • • • Bhopal Gas Tragedy Bhopal disaster. Some half a million survivors suffered respiratory problems. about 45 tons of the dangerous gas methyl isocyanate escaped from an insecticide plant that was owned by the Indian subsidiary of the American firm Union Carbide Corporation. it was called the worst industrial accident in history. The final death toll was estimated to be between 15. On Dec. chemical leak in 1984 in the city of Bhopal.000. killing thousands of people immediately and creating a panic as tens of thousands of others attempted to flee Bhopal. India.• Causes of industrial accidents can be divided in to two broad categories: – – Unsafe conditions Unsafe acts • • • • • • • • • • • Unsafe Conditions Insufficient workspace lighting Excessive noise Slippery or unsafe flooring Extreme temperature exposure Inadequate protection when working with machinery or hazardous materials Unstable structures Electrical problems Machine malfunction or failure etc Unsafe acts Actions or failures to act which result in injury. eye irritation or blindness.000 and 20. Madhya Pradesh state.
In 1998 the former factory site was turned over to the state of Madhya Pradesh. especially a government. Investigations later established that substandard operating and safety procedures at the understaffed plant had led to the catastrophe.• • • Many were awarded compensation of a few hundred dollars.― Militancy Insurgency An attempt to take control of a country by force Fighting against the government or armed forces of their own country An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority. one that occurs primarily within a state. which gives this definition. Army / Marine Corps Insurgency Field Manual. not between states.S. Recovering property by legal process BIOLOGICAL WARFARE WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL WARFARE? . especially when one have the legal right to do so." • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Militancy Insurgency Rising in revolt against established authority. Militancy Insurgency Group Discussion on the causes and Effects of Militancy Insurgency Eviction What is Eviction? To force some body to leave a house or land. and one that contains at least some elements of civil war. • • • Militancy Insurgency What is Militancy Insurgency? According to The U. Rebelling against the leadership The United States Department of Defense (DOD) defines it as "An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict. – "Insurgency is typically a form of internal war.
Food and water supplies may be contaminated by an aerosol delivered attack. The use of disease-producing micro organisms. . Potential Agents Biological agents that may be used as weapons can be classified as follows: Bacteria-are small free-living organisms Viruses-are organisms which require living cells in which to replicate. and/or weaken enemy's resistance to attack. Our survival and success in combat involving these weapons requires a thorough understanding of how they can be used and what we can do to protect ourselves. or organic biocides to cause death or injury to humans. animals. Consumption could result in exposure and disease. some toxins may also be produced or altered by chemical means etc. kill. Intact skin provides an excellent barrier against infection. The use of bacteria or viruses or toxins (a Poisonous substance) to destroy men. BIOOGICAL WARFARE Biological warfare is the intentional use of disease causing organisms and/or toxins to injure. or plants. animals. animals or food. Microorganisms which have characteristics common to both bacteria and viruses carried by parasites Toxins.are poisonous substances produced and derived from living plants. Routes of Exposure (1) Respiratory exposure Aerosol (Spray) delivery systems aim to generate invisible clouds with particles or droplets between 5 and 10 microns in diameter Inhalation of agent aerosols provides a direct pathway to the systemic circulation Natural process of breathing causes a continuing influx of biological agent to exposed individuals (2) Ingestion. toxic biological products. Biological agents that may be employed on the modern battlefield pose an immediate threat to personnel exposed to them. or microorganisms. Mucous membranes and damaged skin constitute breaches in this normal barrier through which agents may pass. (3) Dermal exposure.
that make it difficult to see) or fog sprayed by slow moving aircraft or helicopter. unnatural for the area. rickettsia. or have significantly increased in number. San Diego: Greenhaven Press." Opposing Viewpoints: Biological Warfare. "Introduction. Artillery shells which explode with less powerful explosions than High Explosion rounds References William Dudley. fungi. such as bacteria.com/biological-warfare-article/41700>. Mist (a cloud of very small drops of water in the air just above the ground. or viruses.enotes. Produced by plants. fungi. rickettsia. Large number of insects that are unusual. micro organisms and animals Indicators of a Biological Warfare Attack Mysterious illness in both the soldier and civilian population which approaches epidemic numbers. mycoplasma. mycoplasma. August 2004. Toxins: Are poisons naturally produced through the activities of living organisms. Categories and Definitions of Biological Agents Pathogens: Are disease producing microorganisms. An unusual. such as bacteria. Produced by plants. <http://www. Ed. or uncommonly seen disease or syndrome for the particular geographical area. unknown. 22 November 2011. Toxins: Are poisons naturally produced through the activities of living organisms. micro organisms and animals Categories and Definitions of Biological Agents Pathogens: Are disease producing microorganisms. MODULE V: ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT . Deaths of animals in the region from unknown causes or from the same diseases as human victims. William Dudley. 2003. or viruses.
The Center is sponsored by HUDCO. Government of India. NCDM is setup in Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) with the objectives of : providing training programs for senior and middle level administrative government officials and to sensitize them for disaster mitigation.P. Department of Atomic Energy and AICTE. NCDM is also the nodal agency for coordinating relief and rehabilitation work during natural calamities. A Natural Disaster Management Control Room has been set up at Krishi Bhavan. New Delhi.IIT Kanpur. Ministry of Agriculture. U. Telecom Commission. New Delhi Has been established by the Ministry of Agriculture. Disaster Management Authorities & Institutions in India: Central Disaster Management Authority: It is the apex body for natural disaster management and mitigation. Coordinate the research activities in different aspects of disaster management at national level. For effective implementation of relief measures in the wake of natural calamities. For planning for disasters and Emergency preparedness training. the Disaster Management Institute. . Government of India has created few institutes that offer short-term courses. A National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) has been set up at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. Railway Board. Bhopal set up after the gas tragedy conducts awareness programs for NGOs and the public at large National Center for Disaster Management. National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering. Similarly. Notable amongst them being the National Center for Disaster Management (NCDM) set up by the Indian Institute of Public Administration and the Centre for Disaster Management set up by Y S Chavan Academy of Development Administration conduct workshops and seminars for civil servants and government officials. the Government of India (GOI) has set up a Standing National Crisis Management Committee under the chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary GOI.
social and economical challenges of relief and reconstruction of facing them. Risk Analysis and Disaster Management Plan is a safety and contingency management plan to safeguard people and property from disasters. DMI strives to become a premier centre for disaster mitigation and prevention by assisting and strengthening the decision making process and making the critical and objective analysis available to the policy makers. The NICEE-India at IIT Kanpur will eventually aim at being responsible for acquiring and disseminating information and capacity building of the neighbouring nations. Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) The Government of Gujarat (GOG) established the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority on February 8. Environment Protection Training and Research Institute. risk analysis. Disaster Mitigation Institute. mitigation and management of disasters. offers training. NICEE-India will meet the needs of the country in terms of ―information‖ on Earthquake Engineering. EPTRI has an MoU with Process Safety Centre of Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT). identification of major hazards. Hyderabad. Hyderabad EPTRI was set up by Government of Andhra Pradesh with the assistance and support of Government of India. . Bhopal. famine and cyclones. Disaster Management Institute. EPTRI provides training and consultancy in Risk Assessment and Safety Control. 2001 to co-ordinate the comprehensive earthquake recovery program. research and consultancy services on subjects related to prevention. floods. drought. Government of India had also taken the initiative for EPTRI‘s technical collaboration with Swedish International Development Agency under bilateral assistance. M. onsite and off-site emergency planning. The Disaster Management Institute established by the MP government in the backdrop of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. Gujarat Disaster Management Institutes mission is to equip the disaster victims — individuals or groups or agencies — with the resource to develop progressive solutions to physical. Ahmedabad. The GSDMA is registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act. In the wake of Gujarat Earthquake of January 2001 this Institutes provides real life example of the need and necessity of such an institute. It organizes training for working managers and government officials relating to the areas of management of natural disasters such as earthquakes.P. etc.
Centre for Disaster Management (CDM). environmental impact assessment. Training programmes on Management of Earthquakes. The CDM is collaborating with the IGNOU to launch a PG Diploma in Disaster Management in English. Pune. reduce the chance of a calamitous event. Maharashtra The Centre for Disaster Management was set up at Yashada (Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration). Government of India. killing over 10. sustainable development. Disaster mitigation includes activities that prevent a disaster.000 people. Bhopal offers the twoyear Master of Disaster Control to graduates or working professionals through distance learning. pollution control and monitoring with the idea of optimal development of a global sustainable society. Joint Assistance Centre. Sikkim Sikkim Manipal University of Health. The Institute is engaged in training. Barkatullah Vishwavidyalaya. Central Board of Secondary Education. New Delhi The Council of the Boards of School Education is interested in a plan for providing formal training in disaster management to students in senior classes which could take the form of . Sikkim Manipal University of Health. Gurgaon. Medical and Technological Sciences in association with the Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment offers the Master's in Disaster Mitigation for graduates (any discipline). and allied topics are conducted at CDM periodically. Haryana The Joint Assistance Centre (JAC) was established in New Delhi as an All India Voluntary Agency for assistance in disaster situations in 1970 in the aftermath of the terrible cyclone of November 1977 that devastated the Chirala-Divi region of Andhra Pradesh. PRT Institute of Post Graduate Environmental Education & Research. research and consultancy in the areas of disaster management. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Workshop on Community participation in Disaster Management. New Delhi PRT Institute of Post Graduate Environmental Education & Research. Gangtok. (in association with Institute of Open & Distance Education. risk analysis. Pune with the support of the National Disaster Management Division. Hindi and Marathi. or lessen their damaging effects. Tadong. Medical and Technological Sciences.
paramilitary organizations. group discussions. administrative services. Relief. National Civil Defence College. causes and effects). Nagpur. Nodal Agencies for Management of Disasters in India Floods : CWC. New Delhi IGNOU (through distance education) and Pune University (Diploma) offer Disaster Management courses after Plus Two/ equivalent. Nagpur. Indira Gandhi National Open University. Disaster preparedness. conducts various courses in Civil Defence and Disaster Relief Management. area surveys. Prevention.classroom lectures. Ministry of Water Resources Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Directorate Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Directorate Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs . etc. Disaster Management training is useful for NGOs or social work students or volunteers providing support and rehabilitation measures during disasters (natural and man-made). Such programmes provide knowledge on: Disasters (the meaning. civil defense personnel. Maharashtra National Civil Defence College. relief workers. risk assessment and even mock exercises to cover a daily drill. significance. personnel of home guards. scientists. Since natural calamities tend to be unavoidable and earthquakes unpredictable. factors. environmentalists etc as well as functionaries of rural development and primary health centres. which may be completed within six months to two years. Reconstruction and Rehabilitation. Mitigation. efforts have to be made to withstand the aftermath of catastrophes.
nic.com/risk_analysis_disaster.edu/ http://www.org/courses http://www. the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act.in http://www. Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy Mine Disasters : Department of Mines References http://www.htm http://www.sikkimmanipal.net & http://www.net.southasiadisasters.nicee. to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India.net/ http://www.org/aboutus.ecology.htm http://www.eptri. • • • • CHAPTER-1 PRELIMINARY It extends to the whole of India.nic.org email@example.com http://www.in/prog-offered. "capacity-building" includes— (i) Identification of existing resources and resources to be acquired or created . headed by the Prime Minister of India.in http://ncdcnagpur.gsdma. and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by respective Chief Ministers of the States.vsnl.org http://www.edu/introduction.yashada.htm • • NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005 INTRODUCTION On 23 December 2005. According to the Act "affected area" means an area or part of the country affected by a disaster. which envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA).technologyindia.ncdm-india.html http://www.
mishap. and destruction of. Capacity-building. or damage to. a district board. Preparedness to deal with any disaster Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster Evacuation. property. environment. arising from natural or man made causes. National Plan • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . cantonment board. for rendering essential services or. by whatever name called. District Plan and Local Authority "District Authority" means the District Disaster Management Authority constituted under subsection (1) of section 25. or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to. coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for— Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences. with the control and management of civic services. National Executive Committee. • • DISASTER ―Disaster" means a catastrophe. municipalities. town planning authority or Zila Parishad or any other body or authority. ―District Plan‖ means the plan for disaster management for the district prepared under section 31 ―Local authority‖ includes Panchayat raj institutions. organising. or degradation of.(ii) Acquiring or creating resources (iii) Organisation and training of personnel and coordination of such training for effective management of disasters. within a specified local area. Mitigation. National Authority. calamity or grave occurrence in any area. for the time being invested by law. and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area DISASTER MANAGEMENT ―Disaster management" means a continuous and integrated process of planning. rescue and relief Rehabilitation and reconstruction District Authority.
• • • • • • • • • • . "State Executive Committee" means the Executive Committee of a State Authority constituted under sub-section (1) of section 20. impact or effects of a disaster or threatening disaster situation. materials and provisions State Authority. "National Executive Committee" means the Executive Committee of the National Authority constituted under sub-section (1) of section 8. “State Government” means the Department of Government of the State having administrative control of disaster management and includes Administrator of the Union territory appointed by the President under article 239 of the Constitution. Powers and functions of National Authority.• • • • • • • • • • “Mitigation" means measures aimed at reducing the risk. services. Preparedness. Appointment of officers and other employees of the National Authority. Meetings of National Authority under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister. CHAPTER 2 OF NDMA Establishment of National Disaster Management Authority. State Plan "State Authority" means the State Disaster Management Authority established under subsection (1) of section 14 and includes the Disaster Management Authority for the Union territory constituted under that section. “State Plan” means the plan for disaster management for the whole of the State prepared under section 23. Resources ―Preparedness" means the state of readiness to deal with a threatening disaster situation or disaster and the effects thereof ―Reconstruction" means construction or restoration of any property after a disaster ―Resources" includes manpower. Reconstruction. Constitution of advisory committee by National Authority. “National Plan” means the plan for disaster management for the whole of the country prepared under section 11. Constitution of National Executive Committee. State Government. State Executive Committee. "National Authority” means the National Disaster Management Authority established under sub-section (1) of section 3.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Constitution of subcommittees Powers and functions of National Executive Committee. National Plan Guidelines for minimum standards of relief. Constitution of State Executive Committee. CHAPTER 3 OF NDMA Establishment of State Disaster Management Authority. Meetings of the State Authority Appointment of officers and other employees of State Authority Constitution of advisory committee by the State Authority Powers and functions of State Authority Guidelines for Minimum standard of relief by State Authority. Constitution of subcommittees by State Executive Committee Functions of the State Executive Committee. . State Plan. Relief in loan repayment. Powers and functions of State Executive Committee in the event of threatening disaster situation CHAPTER 4 OF NDMA Constitution of District Disaster Management Authority. Powers of Chairperson of District Authority Meetings Constitution of advisory committees and other committees Appointment of officers and other employees of District Authority Powers and functions of District Authority District Plan Plans by different authorities at district level and their implementation.
mitigation. State Governments. the Central Government shall take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of disaster management. military and air forces. international organisations and governments of foreign countries for the purposes of this Act Establish institutions for research.• • • • Powers and functions of District Authority in the event of any threatening disaster situation or disaster CHAPTER 5 OF NDMA Measures by the Government for Disaster Management Central Government to take measures – – Subject to the provisions of this Act. capacity-building and preparedness by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India Ensure that the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India take necessary measures for preparedness to promptly and effectively respond to any threatening disaster situation or disaster Co operation and assistance to State Governments. National Authority. other armed forces of the Union or any other civilian personnel as may be required for the purposes of this Act Co ordination with the United Nations agencies. training. Measures to be taken by the Central Government • Co ordination of actions of the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India. Ensure the integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation by Ministries or Departments of the Government of India into their development plans and projects Ensure appropriate allocation of funds for prevention of disaster. and developmental programmes in the field of disaster management Such other matters as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of securing effective implementation of the provisions of this Act. State Authorities. The Central Government may extend such support to other countries affected by major disaster as it may deem appropriate. as requested by them or otherwise deemed appropriate by it. Deployment of naval. governmental and non-governmental organisations in relation to disaster management. Responsibility of every Ministry or Department of the Government of India • • • • • • • • • • .
mitigation. rules and regulations. capacity building. capacity building and preparedness Provide assistance to the National Authority and State Governments for— – – – – Drawing up mitigation. mitigation or preparedness Allocate funds for measures for prevention of disaster. preparedness and capacitybuilding in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority Integrate into its development plans and projects. Its roles and responsibilities in regard to promptly and effectively responding to any threatening disaster situation or disaster The present status of its preparedness to perform the roles and responsibilities specified in subclauses (iii) and (iv) The measures required to be taken in order to enable it to perform its responsibilities specified in sub-clauses (iii) and (iv) Measures to be taken by State Governments . preparedness and response plans.• • • Take measures necessary for prevention of disasters. mitigation. its policies. the measures for prevention or mitigation of disasters in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority Respond effectively and promptly to any threatening disaster situation or disaster in accordance with the guidelines of the National Authority or the directions of the National Executive Committee in this behalf Review the enactments administered by it. data collection and identification and training of personnel in relation to disaster management Carrying out rescue and relief operations in the affected area Assessing the damage from any disaster Carrying out rehabilitation and reconstruction • • • • • • • • • • • Disaster management plans of Ministries or Departments of Government of India The measures to be taken by it for prevention and mitigation of disasters in accordance with the National Plan The specifications regarding integration of mitigation measures in its development plans in accordance with the guidelines of the National Authority and the National Executive Committee Its roles and responsibilities in relation to preparedness and capacity building to deal with any threatening disaster situation or disaster. with a view to incorporate therein the provisions necessary for prevention of disasters.
each State Government shall take all measures specified in the guidelines laid down by the National Authority and such further measures as it deems necessary or expedient. Officers and other employees of the National Institute • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER VIII OF NDMA National Disaster Response Force. Establishment of funds by State Government. direction.Subject to the provisions of this Act. and in accordance with the guidelines or directions of the National Executive Committee and the State Executive Committee Review the enactments administered by it. Allocation of funds by Ministries and Departments. . National Mitigation Fund. Control. for the purpose of disaster management • • Responsibilities of departments of the State Government Take measures necessary for prevention of disasters. CHAPTER IX OF NDMA FINANCE. its policies. rules and regulations with a view to incorporate therein the provisions necessary for prevention of disasters. capacity-building and preparedness Respond effectively and promptly to any threatening disaster situation or disaster in accordance with the State Plan. the measures for prevention of disaster and mitigation Allocate funds for prevention of disaster. ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT National Disaster Response Fund. preparedness and capacitybuilding in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority and the State Authority Integrate into its development plans and projects. mitigation. etc. mitigation or preparedness CHAPTER VI of NDMA • • • • • LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS • CHAPTER VII of NDMA National Institute of Disaster Management. mitigation.
CHAPTER XI OF NDMA MISCELLANEOUS Prohibition against discrimination. . in certain circumstances. etc.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Emergency procurement and accounting. Bar of jurisdiction of court.. etc. etc. Punishment for false warning. Payment of compensation. Offence by companies. Penalty for contravention of any order regarding requisitioning. Power to issue direction by Central Government. vehicles. Cognizance of offences. Direction to media for communication of warnings. Powers to be made available for rescue operations. etc. Power of requisition of resources.. Authentication of orders or decisions. Annual report. Failure of officer in duty or his connivance at the contravention of the provisions of this Act. etc. Offences by Departments of the Government. Delegation of powers. Punishment for misappropriation of money or materials. Punishment for false claim. for rescue operations. etc. Making or amending rules. Previous sanction for prosecution. CHAPTER X OF NDMA OFFENCES AND PENALTIES Punishment for obstruction. provisions.
30.• • • • • • • • • Act to have overriding effect. Power to remove difficulties. In Uttarkashi earthquake. and other specifications should be used in providing health and medical care? • • • • • • • • • • • • . In India as high as 70% of livestock is owned by 67% of small and marginal farmers and by the landless people. The health management of Human Beings and Animals Standards of health and medical care address not only what care is given. A comprehensive set of standards for health and medical care specifies the following: A comprehensive set of standards for health and medical care during Disasters What? What types of interventions. Power to make regulations. as against 8. Power of Central Government to make rules. 1982 there had been 11. but to whom.468 cattle lost against 243 human deaths. by whom. Similarly in Orissa cyclone during the 4th of June.515 human deaths. HEALTH MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN BEINGS AND ANIMALS – HEALTH CARE DELIVERY DURING DISASTER Statistics of Loss of Human beings and Livestock during disasters The cyclone in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Rules and regulations to be laid before Parliament. when. 3100 cattle heads were lost as against 770 human lives. and under what circumstances or in what places. Between 1953-1990 we lost 1. (loss of other animal are not being projected).056 other livestock.146 cattle and 3.02. Action taken in good faith. concrete steps towards disaster management of livestock and other animals are yet to be taken. Power of State Government to make rules. It is noticeable that even though animals are the main source of livelihood to the poorest of the poor and to the landless.44. 1977. clinical protocols.905 cattle against 1532 human lives because of earthquakes. Immunity from legal process. of November 14 to 20. caused an estimated loss of 2. standing orders.
The effect of the Super Cyclone (Orissa. a very few of them practice mock drills on them. October 1999) on drinking water quality . • • • • • • • • .Concerns Though some of the major hospitals have their mass casualty management plan. reservoirs and ground water used as drinking water sources get contaminated during disasters.) should be in place for the provision of health and medical care? Lack of safe drinking water Lack of safe drinking water is the cause for a large number of deaths in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Defence Laboratory. Water quality monitoring at site is thus needed that can provide information necessary to implement appropriate treatment methods. Providing drinking water to the victims is thus a vital issue in disaster management operations. Jodhpur has developed a potable water testing kit which is best suited for this purpose. A very few hospitals are well-equipped and staffed to handle large-scale trauma patients. etc. lakes. hospital.A case study Health Management of Human Beings during disaster . alternate care site. In several parts of the Country the transportation system is not proper to render health services in a fast pace. The quality of rivers.• • • • • • • • • • • To whom? Which individuals should receive health and medical care according to their condition or likelihood of response? When? With what urgency should health and medical care be provided? By whom? Which individuals are certified and/or licensed to provide care within a defined scope of practice and other regulations? Where? What facility and system standards (pre-hospital. Microbiological quality of water is the main concern as it generally deteriorates during any disaster scenario.
vaccine producing institutes. responsible care. For this purpose. including proper shelter. movement of lifeline service vehicles. the chief medical officer/Civil Surgeon is responsible to implement and coordinate health sector activities. management. monitoring and implementation of the emergency activities in the state as laid down in the state health sector contingency plan. The detail information about key personnel involved in disaster management at State.‖ Disaster management structure in health sector in India The Emergency Medical Relief Division of Directorate General of Health Services in the Ministry. humane handling. He has details of information about officer involved in-disaster management at PHCS. District and Central level is available with him. central government hospitals and national institute of communicable diseases and director. The objective of the coordination is to review crisis situations from time to time and meet those needs. Delhi‘s road traffic system is in such a bad shape that in case of a large-scale disaster. and fire brigades would be terribly affected. State level Usually a joint director or a deputy director of the state health services under director of health services is responsible for crisis management. coordination. District and State level. such as ambulances. The Director. In case of manpower deployment during emergencies. the initial re-deployment of medical team is done by the chief medical officer of the affected districts from non-affected districts under his jurisdiction.of Health & Family Welfare is the technical unit exclusively meant for management of crisis situations. continuous dialogue and communication are maintained with them. nutrition. Animal Welfare during disaster ―Animal welfare is a human responsibility that encompasses all aspects of animal well-being. stores division under the central government. Emergency Medical Services & Relief (EMR) coordinates with the other health sector partners like director of Health Services of the state governments.• • • • The Roads of the country especially in Metro Cities is having problems of traffic jam. • • • • • • • • • District/PHC level • At district level. which State Governments cannot meet. malaria unit. Emergency Medical Services and Relief. The Division is headed by the Director. • . disease prevention and treatment.
Muzaffar Ahmed Advisory Committee of NDMA . Shashidhar Reddy . the director (EMR) on behalf of the central government is responsible to do the same from central government institutions. the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act. multi-disaster and technology-driven strategy for disaster management through collective efforts of all Government Agencies and Non-Governmental Organisations Introduction On 23 December 2005. Jyoti Rao IAS(Retd. Maj Gen JK Bansal 4. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS National Vision of NDMA To build a safer and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic. which envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) Composition of NDMA The Prime Minister of India is the Chairperson of the National Authority. Bhattacharjee 5. The Chairperson of the National Authority may designate one of the members nominated as the Vice Chairperson of the National Authority.• • Subsequently. Dr. In case further supplementation is required. M. SINHA 8. P. pro-active. the state governments mobilizes the additional manpower from other non-affected districts state directors of health services. J. Dr.) 7. T Nanda Kumar 6. K. There are 7 other members nominated by the Chairperson of the NDMA. Manmohan Singh (Prime Minister) Chairman 2. Members of NDMA 1. B.Vice Chairman 3.
National Executive Committee The National Executive Committee shall consist of the following Members. The Secretary to the Government of India in charge of the Ministry or Department of the Central Government having administrative control of the disaster management is the Chairperson. Roles and Functions of NDMA Lay down policies on disaster management Approve the National Plan Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan. Purpose of the Creation of NDMA To lead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India. Roles and Functions of NDMA Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster. or the mitigation.There is an advisory committee of NDMA consisting of experts in the field of disaster management and having practical experience of disaster management at the national. . Roles and Functions of NDMA Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the Purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects. plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. State or district level to make recommendations on different aspects of disaster management. NDMA as the apex body is mandated to lay down the policies. or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the threatening disaster situation or disaster as it may consider necessary Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management. Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for disaster management.
Thank You • • • • • • • STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY MATHEW CP SDMA Every State in India has a department known as State Disaster Management Authority for Disaster Management. power.Members of the NEC The Secretaries to the Government of India in the Ministries or Departments having administrative control of theAgriculture. space. The Chairperson of the State Authority will nominate the Vice Chairperson from the members. science and technology. is nominated by the Chairperson of the State Authority. rural development. The National Plan shall be prepared by the National Executive Committee having regard to the National Policy and in consultation with the State Governments and expert bodies or organisations in the field of disaster management to be approved by the National Authority The National Plan shall include Measures to be taken for the prevention of disasters. or the mitigation of their effects Measures to be taken for the integration of mitigation measures in the development plans Measures to be taken for preparedness and capacity building to effectively respond to any threatening disaster situations or disaster Roles and responsibilities of different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in respect to the measures specified in the Disaster Management Act 2005. environment and forests. health. The Chief Minister of the State is the Chairperson. drinking water supply. telecommunication. urban development. . finance. Other members. not exceeding eight. water resources and The Chief of the Integrated Defence Staff National Plan A plan for disaster management for the whole country is called as National Plan. atomic energy. defence.
The State Plan prepared by the State Executive Committee under subsection (2) shall be approved by the State Authority. State Plan There shall be a plan for disaster management for every State to be called as the State Disaster Management Plan.• • • • • • The Chairperson of the State Executive Committee shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the State Authority ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF SDMA Lay down the State disaster management policy Approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority Approve the disaster management plans prepared by the departments of the Government of the State. District and the site of the disaster. Roles and Functions of SDMA Co ordinate the implementation of the State Plan Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures Review the development plans of the different departments of the State and ensure that prevention and mitigation measures are integrated therein. DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (DDMA) Apex body at the district level Disaster management would involve many layers of participating organization. • • • • Review the measures being taken for mitigation. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the departments of the Government of the State for the purposes of integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation in their development plans and projects and provide necessary technical assistance. The State Plan shall be prepared by the State Executive Committee having regard to the guidelines laid down by the National Authority and after such consultation with local authorities. • • • • • . district authorities and the people's representatives as the State Executive Committee may deem fit. capacity building and preparedness by the departments of the Government of the State and issue such guidelines as may be necessary. • • • • . The three focal levels would be State.
coordinating and implementing body for DM at the District level Take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and SDMA. the National Plan. the State Plan and the District Plan Roles and Functions of DDMA The DDMA will also ensure that the guidelines for prevention. mitigation. • • • • • • • • • • • • . LOCAL INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT LOCAL AUTHORITIES Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI). a local authority shall – – Ensure that its officers and employees are trained for disaster management. rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected areas and Prepare DM Plans in consonance with the guidelines of the NDMA.• • • • • • • • DDMA The DDMA will act as the planning. Roles and Functions Subject to the directions of the District Authority. the State Policy. Roles and Functions of DDMA Prepare the District DM plan for the District Monitor the implementation of the National Policy. Municipalities District and Cantonment Boards Town Planning Authorities Roles and Functions These bodies will ensure capacity building of their officers and employees for managing disasters Carry out relief. SDMAs and DDMAs. preparedness and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all the Departments of the State Government at the District level and the local authorities in the District.
State Authority and the District Authority The local authority may take such other measures as may be necessary for the disaster management. • . Voluntary Organisations (VOs) and Disaster Preparedness VOs play a vital role in the shaping and Implementation of Disaster Management Programmes. Contributing immensely towards various development programs. Government and community. VOs may provide innovative and alternative cost effective models for Disaster Management. less rule bound. • • Strength of Voluntary Organisations Dissemination of knowledge regarding local conditions and close communication with the local communities enabling them to assess local needs of the people and motivating them and enlisting their ready participation in the development programmes Flexibility of approach.– • Ensure that resources relating to disaster management are so maintained as to be readily available for use in the event of any threatening disaster situation or disaster Roles and Functions – Ensure all construction projects under it or within its jurisdiction conform to the standards and specifications laid down for prevention of disasters and mitigation by the National Authority. with much wider outreach. – • • • INTERVENING PARTIES IN DISASTER – VOLUNTARY AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS MATHEW C. They can mobilize people for constructive community work and often reach the most marginalized and vulnerable sections of society and contribute to the socio-economic development of the country. no rigid guidelines as in the government scheme. NGOs can play a great role for Coordination. This enables them to innovate do action research and come out with strategies really related to local needs.P. Community Based Disaster Preparedness for all sorts of hazards is the key to VOs preparedness plan. Collaboration and Networking amongst themselves.
In the paradigm shift in disaster management from post-disaster relief to pre-disaster preparedness. NGOs have more competitive advantages and flexibility of operations in fields like awareness generation. In instances where other activities like reconstruction of houses etc are undertaken. Professional and innovative interventions of NGOs for disaster preparedness and mitigation at community level are now an increasing trend. community level preparedness and capacity building of communities. efforts were made to promote people‘s Participatory bodies like PRIs. mitigation and improved emergency response capacities in the country.. procedures. For the small and localized NGOs the initial response is in the form of rescue and medical relief. and regulations for structural safety for disaster management and mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into development projects • • Recognizing the need of the hour.• Voluntary Organisation can easily access local needs of the people and interact with them directly. This is followed by a longer period of reconstruction activities of the physical infrastructure like roads. while only a few prolong their presence in the areas for restarting some developmental activities. During 9th Five Year Plan. some financial aid and other assistance are provided to the affected people to start their traditional economic pursuits. SHG and NGOs. they are usually dependant on support from the large relief agencies and international aid. the main purpose is to provide material relief and rescue operations during times of disaster including medical relief. while the Government agencies have their core competencies in formulating rules. community buildings. a National NGO Task Force on Disaster Management was established by NDMA in 2006 and several meetings of this Task Force were held to discuss strategies for consolidating and clarifying the Role of NGOs in DM • • For large relief agencies and NGOs. which are not located in the disaster prone areas withdraw after the initial phases of relief and reconstruction. drinking water facilities etc and continuation of medical aid. houses. • Most of the larger agencies. They are flexible in approach and have low administrative cost structure. In some instances. • National Disaster Management Guidelines Role of NGOs in Disaster Management .
including traditional coping strategies Facilitate formation and participate in district level task forces. Advocate for establishment of SDMA. Facilitate formation and participate in State level task forces. during and after disasters.NGO Advisory Committee Facilitate formation and participate in National level NGO and other task forces. state and National levels Detailed assessment of current needs and capacities at all levels Training and mock drills Establish linkages with stakeholders for hazard monitoring. Information & Knowledge Management and communication INTERVENING PARTIES IN DISASTER GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS .National Disaster Management Authority • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Role of NGOs in Disaster Preparedness Assist in identifying the basic needs of people affected by disasters and ensure that these are met. Process and share Data during and after disaster. Advocate for establishment of DDMA-NGO Advisory Committee. Collect. Advocate for participatory processes to plan for possible relief camp locations in the event of disaster Formation of Task Forces at Community Level Establishment of coordination mechanisms. document and disseminate best practices. develop. district. Reaching out to the communities to be better prepared for responding to disasters. Facilitate. Research. Contingency planning at community. support and establish mechanisms for information dissemination before. Manage.
High Powered Committee on Disaster Management Plans Another committee – High Powered Committee on disaster management plans was constituted in 1999 to prepare comprehensive model plans for management of disasters at the national. According to government data. early warning system. drought. rests with the state governments and. The government has formed a National Disaster Framework covering institutional mechanisms. 75 per cent of the CRF is contributed by the central government and the rest contributed by the various state governments Priority Areas of Government Organisations Integrating disaster management into national planning. disaster mitigation. disaster prevention strategy. over 40 million hectares is prone to floods. state and district levels. such as floods. around eight per cent of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68 per cent of the area is susceptible to drought. the center supplements the efforts by extending logistics and financial support. There is a National Committee on Disaster Management to suggest necessary institutional and legislative measures necessary for an efficient and long-term strategy to manage natural disasters. relief and rehabilitation measures in the event of a disaster. preparedness and response and human resource development. like undertaking rescue. earthquake. landslides. This is due to various factors like the geo-climatic conditions. etc. National Crisis Management Committee and Crisis Management Group The government has set up National Crisis Management Committee and Crisis Management Group. institutes of relief commissioners and state/district contingency plans. increase in population density. There is a Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) for each state.INTRODUCTION India is prone to multiple natural disasters. about 60 per cent of the Indian landmass is prone to earthquakes of varying intensities. deforestation and desertification. The state governments have set up State Crisis Management Groups headed by chief secretaries. improper urbanization. The basic responsibility of response mechanism. cyclone. Strengthening national disaster management committees/agencies Developing disaster management plans Exchanging experience on legal and institutional arrangements .
Block/Taluka and Village levels. Flood preparedness and response In order to respond effectively to floods. District. Improving disaster management training and capacity building.Creating awareness and political support Building national disaster Management information systems. The Tenth Five Year Plan document has a detailed chapter on Disaster Management. Providing advice and guidance to the States on various aspects of earthquake mitigation. Promoting public awareness and media coverage. Developing/organizing the preparation of handbooks/pamphlets/type designs for earthquake resistant construction. Building community level programs for preparedness and mitigation. . In brief. Enhancing scientific and technical cooperation in disaster management. Earthquake Risk Mitigation A National Core Group for Earthquake Risk Mitigation has been constituted consisting of experts in earthquake engineering and administrators. The Government of India have adopted mitigation and prevention as essential components of their development strategy. Ministry of Home Affairs have initiated National Disaster Risk Management Programme in all the flood-prone States. Assistance is being provided to the States to draw up disaster management plans at the State. Creating awareness. Each State is supposed to prepare a plan scheme for disaster mitigation in accordance with the approach outlined in the plan. Responsibility of the Core Group Drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of earthquakes. The Finance Commission makes recommendations with regard to devolution of funds between the Central Government and State Governments as also outlays for relief and rehabilitation. mitigation is being institutionalized into developmental planning. political will and support for disaster management and mitigation. The plan emphasizes the fact that development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built into developmental process.
provide advise and guidance to the State Governments on various aspects of landslide mitigation monitor the activities relating to landslide mitigation including landslide hazard zonation and to evolve early warning systems and protocols for landslides/landslide risk reduction.Working out systems for assisting the States in the seismically vulnerable zones to adopt/integrate appropriate Bureau of Indian Standards codes in their building byelaws. strengthening of warning systems. The Government have designated Geological Survey of India (GSI) as the nodal agency responsible for coordinating/ undertaking geological studies. This project has also been given in-principle clearance by the Planning Commission and is being taken up with World Bank assistance Landslide Hazard Mitigation A National Core Group has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Secretary. This project envisages construction of cyclone shelters. coastal shelter belt plantation in areas which are prone to storm surges. training and education etc. Border Management and comprising of Secretary. 1050 crore) has been drawn up in consultation with the cyclone prone States. Road Transport & Highways. . Evolving systems for training of masons and carryout intensive awareness generation campaigns National Cyclone Mitigation Project A project for Cyclone Mitigation (estimated cost Rs. and the Heads of Geological Survey of India and National Remote Sensing Agency for drawing up a strategy and plan of action for mitigating the impact of landslides. Department of Science and Technology. studying the factors responsible and suggesting precautionary and preventive measure. landslides hazard zonation. monitoring landslides/avalanches. The States/UTs have been requested to share the list of habitation close to landslide prone areas in order to supplement GSI’s on going assessment of such areas based on the Survey of India’s Toposheet and their existing data base on landslide for the purpose of landslide hazard zonation being carried out by them. Evolving a system of certification of architects/engineers for testing their knowledge of earthquake resistant construction. Evolving systems for training of municipal engineers as also practicing architects and engineers in the private sector in the salient features of Bureau of Indian Standards codes and the amended byelaws. Secretary.
Disaster Risk Management Programme Taken up in 169 districts in 17 multi-hazard prone States with the assistance from UNDP. Under this project. USAID and European Union. shelter management etc. Need for Capacity Building Role of Local Institutions in DM The local institutions with favourable National policies and support could establish an efficient disaster preparedness and response systems Impact on Agriculture and Vulnerable Groups . relief coordination. Community Participation.A national strategy for mitigating landslide hazard in the country is being drawn up in consultation with all the agencies concerned. Information. village disaster management plans are being developed in conjunction with the Panchayati Raj Institutions and disaster management teams consisting of village volunteers are being trained in various preparedness and response functions such as search and rescue. Volunteers. first aid. Education and Communication In order to assist the State Governments in capacity building and awareness generation activities and to learn from past experiences including sharing of best practices. Social Workers. the Ministry of Home Affairs has compiled/prepared a set of resource materials developed by various organisations/institutions to be replicated and disseminated by State Governments based on their vulnerabilities after translating it into the local languages. Awareness generation The Government has initiated a nation-wide awareness generation campaign as part of its overall disaster risk management strategy. a steering committee for mass media campaign has been constituted at the national level with due representation of experts from diverse streams of communication. Local Institutions. In order to devise an effective and holistic campaign. Disaster Awareness in School Curriculum Disaster management as a subject in Social Sciences has been introduced in the school curriculum for Class VIII and IX. district and Block level disaster management plans. The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) which has introduced the curriculum runs a very large number of schools throughout the country and the course curriculum is invariably followed by the State Boards of Secondary Education. the States are being assisted to draw up State.
emergency relief and rehabilitation activities. the Municipal Disaster Preparedness Plan was drafted. with participation of representatives from NGOs. Major intervening Parties Central Government State Government Municipal Corporation/ Zilla Panchayat etc/Other local bodies Corporate bodies Private sector Academic institutions Media Voluntary and NGOs Citizens Recommendations All residents of city should have knowledge of DMP and their own responsibility People should also know how to react after a disaster . The most vulnerable households continue to face risks due to inadequate support to meet their recovery needs.The studies shows that the dislocation of agricultural activities and delay in restoring damaged infrastructure continued to be a major concern after disaster. mitigation. The Plan detailed prevention. Thrust areas before the Institutions Rehabilitation of agriculture Rehabilitation of most vulnerable households Reconstruction Prevention and mitigation Provision of Psycho social support Provision of health care etc RECENT INITIATIVES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Recognizing these difficulties in 2002. preparedness. civic organizations and business operators.
To Inculcate Culture of Preparedness. . private sector is a very important link for disaster management City DMP should clearly articulate role of private sector DMP should provide guidelines on responsibilities of private sector in disaster management Private sector should promote mitigation and disaster reduction practices NEED FOR MOCK DRILL 1. To establish health information system and services to ensure reduction of morbidity and mortality by controlling communicable and non-communicable diseases. 3. To Examine the Plans of Identified Stakeholders. Shelter is a critical determinant for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. protection from the climate and enhanced resistance to ill health and disease. 2. 4. Beyond survival. To Evaluate the Resource Status of various Departments.The DMP should be translated in different languages and disseminated to the local people Short check-list of do’s and don’ts should be prepared and distributed The DMP should be constantly updated to include latest knowledge Information on which disasters are covered should be widely disseminated. Role of Local Institutions in Disaster Management To identify the nutrition related vulnerabilities of the disaster affected communities and provide adequate amount of food so that all members of the community are able to sustain themselves cope with the health hazards. which results in control of waterborne diseases. To Coordinate the Activities of Various Agencies for their optimum utilization. To enable disaster affected communities to access safe and adequate quantity of water along with culturally appropriate sanitation services. 5. Educate the citizens and have regular drills Role of Private Sector World-over. It is also important for human dignity and to sustain family and community life as far as possible in difficult circumstances. To use the Feed back to identify the gaps and improve the Resource Capabilities to Face Actual Disasters. shelter is necessary to provide security and personal safety.
MAY GOD BLESS YOU .To reduce interruption of education and provide protective environment to children against abuse and trafficking. goats etc. Provision of seeds and agricultural tools. Provision of technical and marketing support. Three Phases of typical education response by NGOs are: Phase 1: Recreational / Preparatory: Set up safe areas/spaces for children Promote play and recreational activities (psychosocial support) Involve community and youth Restoration of disaster impacted livelihood options and creation of newer or alternative options. Distribution of animals like cows. in rural settings. THANK YOU ALL THE BEST. Restoration of disaster impacted components of livelihood system.
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