Current Botany 2010, 1(1): 13-17 ISSN: 2220-4822 www.currentbotany.



Determining the Antioxidant Activity of Certain Medicinal Plants of Attapady, (Palakkad), India Using DPPH Assay
K.R. Sini1*, B. N. Sinha2, M. Karpagavalli3
Grace College of Pharmacy, Palakkad, India Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India 3Karpagam College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India
1 2

Article Info
Article History Received Revised Accepted : : : 20-12-2010 29-12-2010 31-12-2010

*Corresponding Author Tel Fax : : +91-9562-664977 +91-9562-664977


Abstract Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) now appears the fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, inflammation, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Free radicals are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals, especially stress hormones (adrenalin and noradrenalin). Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. India is blessed with enormous biodiversity resources, but plagued with several diseases, including those with ROS as the etiological factor. In this study the antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of selected plant materials, traditionally used by the tribes of Attapady regions as folk remedies was evaluated against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Cassia occidentalis, Clitoria ternatea, Trianthema decandra, Capparis zeylanica, Anisomeles malabarica and Plumbago zeylanica exhibited strong antioxidant activity as compared to other plants. Trianthema decandra showed the highest antioxidant activity. The present study reveals that these plants are of therapeutic potential due to their high freeradical scavenging activity. Key Words: Antioxidant, free radical, medicinal plant, radical scavenging, DPPH.

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Introduction Free radicals (super oxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide) and other reactive species (hydrogen peroxide, hypochloric acid and proxynitrite) produced during aerobic metabolism in the body, can cause oxidative damage of amino acids, lipids, proteins and DNA [1, 2]. It has been established that oxidative stress is among the major causative factors in the induction of many chronic and degenerative diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, ageing, diabetes mellitus, cancer, immunosuppression, neurodegenerative diseases and others [3-8]. The most effective way to eliminate free radicals which cause the oxidative stress is with the help of antioxidants. Antioxidants, both exogenous or endogenous, whether synthetic or natural, can be effective in preventing free radical formation by scavenging them or promoting their decomposition and suppressing such disorders [9-11]. Free radicals or oxidative injury now appears the fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human neurologic and other disorders. For instance in carcinogenesis, reactive oxygen species are responsible for initiating the multistage carcinogenesis process. Epidemiological and in vitro studies on medicinal plants and vegetables strongly supported this idea that plant constituents with antioxidant activity are capable of exerting protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems [12-16]. Recently, there has been growing interest in natural antioxidants of plant origin because they have greater

application in the food industry for increasing the stability and shelf life of food products. Moreover, they also find use as nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals as they have significant impact on the status of human health and disease prevention [17]. The Indian subcontinent represents one of the greatest emporia of ethno biological wealth and Western Gnats represents the second hot spot in India [18, 19]. Palakkad is a central district in Kerala that lies at the foot of the Western Ghats. In Kerala, many living groups of tribals, still more or less unaffected by urbanization continue to use various plants for food, drugs, customs, game, religious purposes etc. Attapady is inhabited by tribals like Irulas, Kurumbas and Murugas. Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities and the local therapy is the only means of medical treatment for such communities. The traditional herbal knowledge is passed from generation to generation in the verbal form by traditional medicinal man or 'vaidyar'. However, since cultural systems are dynamic [20], the skills are fragile and easily forgettable as most of the indigenous knowledge transfer in the country is based on oral transmission [21]. To our knowledge, there are no data regarding the traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by the local communities in Palakkad District. In view of the above, the current study was carried out to evaluate


Bark infusion and seed powder in diarrhoea. Decoction given orally(one glass 2-3 times daily) in jaundice. DV: Dodonaea viscosa. CZ: Capparis zeylanica. Phytochemical analysis: All the plant extracts were qualitatively tested for the presence of chemical constituents (Phenols. Tannins. The watery extract used in Leaves Leaves. *CO: Cassia occidentalis. CT: Clitoria ternatea. India. flowers Whole plant Whole plant Bark Whole plant Whole plant Leaves Voucher specimen No. OT: Orthosiphon thymiflorus. The Baseline information on the medicinal utility of these plants was also collected by carrying out literature survey (Table 1). Devil trumpet Caper plant Indian caper Parts used Whole plant Root. Leaf juice is dropped into the nostrils to relieve headache The water decoction is consumed as health drink Decoction of leaf as an inhalation in fever and anaemia. Sini et al. CG: Capparis grandiflora. 14 . EA: Evolvulus alsinoides. PD: Pergularia daemia. Kasonda Aparajit Vedathalan Gadabani Katha Utranajutuka black babul / babul tree Aruvaachad achi Datura Kevisi Godanthi Modes of uses Decoction (one glass two to three times daily) in general infections. externally applied for headache and swelling. PZ: Plumbago zeylanica. 1.K. hallucinations. Scientific name Cassia occidentalis Clitoria ternatea Dichrostach ys cinerea Trianthema decandra Acacia catechu Pergularia daemia Acacia Nilotica Anisomeles malabarica Datura metel Capparis grandiflora Capparis Common name Negro coffee butterfly pea bell mimosa vellai sharuni Black catechu Not found Egyptian Mimosa Malabar catmint Thorn-apple. Ethno botanical information of different plants. AC: Acacia catechu. TD: Trianthema decandra. The coloured solution obtained from each of the plant material was concentrated by Rotary evaporator [22]. The concentrate (extract) obtained was preserved at 20 0C for further experimentation. STD: Standard (Ascorbic acid) Fig. 50g of the powdered plant material was extracted with 500 ml of methanol for 3 consecutive days. Root juice. root Leaves. Different plant parts were shade-dried at room temperature and ground in a mortar. Flavonoids and Saponins) (Table 2). motion sickness and analgesic. stem. Coimbatore and the voucher specimen of the collected plants were deposited at the departmental herbarium. AN: Acacia Nilotica. SL: Spermacoce latiflolia./Curr Bot 1 (2010) 13-17 antioxidant activity of certain medicinal plants of Palakkad district of Kerala. AM: Anisomeles malabarica. DPPH radical scavenging activity of different plant extracts Table 1. Materials and Methods Plant Material and Extraction Procedure: The plants were collected from around the Attapady area (Palakkad district) in Kerala and were identified with the help of relevant literature and authenticated at the Botanical Survey of India. Essential oil used externally in rheumatism Asthma. depression. Alkaloids.R. SE: Secamone emetica. JG: Justica glauca. DC: Dichrostachys cinerea. Paste with curd taken once a day in fever and pain. DM: Datura Metel. BSI/SRC/Tec h-945 BSI/SRC/Tec h-933 BSI/SRC/Tec h-941 BSI/SRC/Tec h-937 BSI/SRC/Tec h-944 BSI/SRC/Tec h-935 BSI/SRC/Tec h-942 BSI/SRC/Tec h-940 BSI/SRC/Tec h-938 BSI/SRC/Tec h-565 BSI/SRC/Tec Family name Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Aizoaceae Leguminosae Asclepiadaceae Mimosaceae Labiatae Solanaceae Capparidaceae Capparidaceae Local name Ponnavarai.

asthma and amnesia. (Sigma-Aldrich.87±0.004.W. 80.. 1.9 ml of DPPH solution. r87.anthelmintic antioxidant . nilotica is applied on wounded 15 . 1. medicinal utility and part used) of the selected plants has been presented in Table 1. there was noticeable variability in the antioxidant activity of plant extracts.13) was used as standard. Initially. stems used as fumigants neurodegenerative diseases. Cassia occidentalis.immunomodulator. Anisomeles malabarica and Plumbago zeylanica were found to be good radical scavengers with the percent inhibition of 84. 6 x 10-5 mol/L DPPH in methanol was prepared.antibacter ial . Clitoria ternatea.1 ml of plant extract was added to 3. stems Whole plant Fruits. Ascorbic acid (Merck.K. S. 0. Germany. family. seeds Whole plant Leaves. Sankhapuspi Asclepiadaceae Angaravalli Not found BSI/SRC/Tec h-946 Table 2.W.The baseline information (botanical name.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Plant extracts Cassia occidentalis Clitoria ternatea Dichrostachys cinerea Trianthema decandra Acacia catechu Pergularia daemia Acacia Nilotica Anisomeles malabarica Datura metel Capparis grandiflora Capparis zeylanica Orthosiphon thymiflorus Spermacoce latiflolia Plumbago zeylanica Dodonaea viscosa Justica glauca Evolvulus alsinoides Secamone emetica Part used Whole plant Root Whole plant Whole plant Bark Whole plant Whole plant Leaves Leaves Leaves Leaves Whole plant Leaves Root Whole plant Leaves Whole plant Leaves Phenols + + + + + + + + + + + + Tannins + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Alkaloids + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Flavonoids + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Saponins + + + + + + + + + + - Free radical scavenging activity: The antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH.Water willow Not found root Whole plant Leaves Root. Extract of root bark used orally in diarrhoea Decoction given orally(two teaspoons daily) to heal wounds. Free radical scavenging activity was calculated by the following formula: % DPPH radical-scavenging = [(Absorbance of control Absorbance of test Sample) / (Absorbance Of control)] x 100 Results In this study 18 medicinal plants./Curr Bot 1 (2010) 13-17 zeylanica orthosiphon thymiflorus Spermacoc e latiflolia Plumbago zeylanica Dodonaea viscosa Justica glauca Evolvulus alsinoides Secamone emetica Lamiaceae Rubiaceae Plumbaginaceae Sapindaceae Acanthaceae pratanika Shankham Agnimaala aliar and vilayati mehandi -----Not found Button weed White lead wort Sticky hop bush Glaucous Justica.246. Scavenging activity of different plant extracts on DPPH radical has been shown in Fig. Capparis zeylanica.12±0. bark. Sini et al.32) as a free radical.Phytochemical constituents of the plants under study have been depicted in Table 2. India for various disorders were studied for their antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The decrease in absorbance at 515nm was recorded at 1 min interval upto 15 min or until the reaction reached a plateau.R.540 ± 0.008 and 88. Out of Eighteen plants screened. traditionally used in Palakkad. As evident from the Fig. 176. 82. absorption of blank sample containing the same amount of methanol and DPPH solution was prepared and measured as a control [23].004. local name. M.652 which is used as a standard. 1 mg/ml solution of plant extract in methanol was prepared.adaptogenic.12±0. Chemical groups identified in the plant extracts. leaves cataract External application(two to four times daily) External application(two to four times daily) in headache. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Trianthema decandra was the most active antioxidant.45±0. M. Tannins play important role in promoting wound healing. This could be the reason why the bark paste of A. Juice with milk taken orally h-566 BSI/SRC/Tec h-936 BSI/SRC/Tec h-948 BSI/SRC/Tec h-939 BSI/SRC/Tec h-932 BSI/SRC/Tec h-934 BSI/SRC/Tec h-947 Convolvulaceae. 394.23±0.001 respectively whereas the per cent inhibition for Ascorbic acid was 96.

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