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Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

TACTICS
Arnwulf Aethelredding
Douglas M. Bardot copyright 1992 revised 2000

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

A note from the most recent editor: This document was originally written on a Mac. It was translated to WordPerfect and then to MicrosoftWord. The graphics and pagination did not survive the translations. I re-drew the graphics, but the table of contents has yet to be corrected. Arn has approved the new graphics. I did not change any of the text, although MSWords tendency to correct grammer and spelling on its own may have caused some oddities to creep in. Shiro (Andrea Leshinskie), 2004

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Preface..............................................................................................................................1 Biography.........................................................................................................................1 Mission Statement............................................................................................................1 Philosophy of Warfare.....................................................................................................2 Tactics..............................................................................................................................3 Goals.................................................................................................................................4 Individual Tactics and Drills............................................................................................5 Equipment........................................................................................................................5 Strike Calibration.............................................................................................................5 Training and Physical Conditioning.................................................................................6 Fight to Cripple................................................................................................................7 Tactics of Wounded Fighters...........................................................................................8 How to Die.......................................................................................................................8 Triad Tactics and Drills....................................................................................................10 Teamwork.........................................................................................................................11 Mutual Defense................................................................................................................13 Roles Played by the Weapons..........................................................................................13 Combined Arms...............................................................................................................15 Behavior on Taking Casualties........................................................................................15 Behavior Toward Opponent's Casualties.........................................................................16 Looking like a Unit..........................................................................................................16 Commanding a Triad........................................................................................................16 Shield Wall Tactics and Drills.........................................................................................17 Attacking a Flank.............................................................................................................18 How to Charge.................................................................................................................21 How to Defend Against Charge.......................................................................................22 Column Movement...........................................................................................................23 Unit Tactics and Drills.....................................................................................................24 Types of troops.................................................................................................................24 Hinge Points.....................................................................................................................25 Strategic Reserve..............................................................................................................26 Single Envelopment.........................................................................................................27 Double Envelopment........................................................................................................28 Oblique Attack.................................................................................................................29 Center Penetration............................................................................................................30 Feigned Withdrawal.........................................................................................................31 Use of Terrain...................................................................................................................33 Terrain Vs Hazard............................................................................................................33 Offensive Use of Terrain/Trapping Opponent at Disadvantage.......................................33 Defensive Use of Terrain.................................................................................................34 Attacking a Defensive Position........................................................................................35 Bridge Battles...................................................................................................................36 Resurrection Battles.........................................................................................................37 Scutum or Turtle Units.....................................................................................................38 Formulating a Plan...........................................................................................................39 Know Your Objective......................................................................................................39 Know Your People...........................................................................................................39 Know Your Enemy...........................................................................................................39 Know The Terrain............................................................................................................39 Read Enemy Deployment.................................................................................................39 Leadership........................................................................................................................41 How to Chose a Commander...........................................................................................41 Communications...............................................................................................................41 Discipline.........................................................................................................................42 Charisma...........................................................................................................................43 Aggression and Initiative.................................................................................................44

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Courage............................................................................................................................44 Mentors.............................................................................................................................45 Psychological Aspects of Warfare...................................................................................46 How to Instruct.................................................................................................................47 Instruction.........................................................................................................................47 Drill..................................................................................................................................47 Application.......................................................................................................................48

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Preface Biography This booklet is based on my studies of warfare throughout the ages, and my experiences as a field commander in the Great Northern Army. I began my career as a man at arms to Master Feral von Halstern, before he was belted. I was one of his original squires. As one of his line sergeants during the Great Northern Army's formative years, I was involved in and witnessed much of the recruiting, training, and organization. I personally trained and commanded the forces of the Barony Beyond the Mountain and served as their Knight Marshall for several years. Mundane considerations removed me from the SCA for four years. On my return I squired to Sir Edwyn Beerslayer, my former man at arms. Mission Statement This is not an official publication of The Society for Creative Anachronism Inc. The author accepts no responsibility for the use or misuse of the information contained herein. Remember, our opponents are our friends, this is a game, and our opponents' safety is our primary responsibility. The purpose of this booklet is to share the knowledge I have acquired on fighting melees in the Current Middle Ages. My writing style and sense of humor may seem strange and irreverent to those who do not know me. I assure you that my intent is not to cause offense. I have designed this booklet to assist a group of novice fighters in becoming a skilled melee unit. Experienced fighters will find it helpful in becoming melee commanders. Commanders may find another viewpoint on organization and tactics helpful. The tactics and techniques described herein are based on the combat conventions of the Northern and Central Regions of the East Kingdom. Some of these may be considered barbaric, unchivalrous, or dangerous by people of other areas. It is always best to conduct oneself according to local conventions. If in doubt, consult the local Chivalry or Marshalate.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Philosophy of Warfare My philosophy of warfare can be summed in two statements Don't fight if you can't win Win by bringing overwhelming firepower to bear at point of contact It is more fun to win a fight than to get beat up. You won't win if you are outclassed in skill or outnumbered unless you use some sort of stratagem to defeat a superior foe. Don't meet your opponent on his terms. You must bring overwhelming firepower to bear at some part of the battle where you can win, while refusing or delaying engagement where you cannot win. It is best to strike the rear, second best to strike the flank, third best to strike the joints between units. My tactics consists of three parts. Maneuver Teamwork Aggressive Seizure of Initiative I have four goals in any battle. Maintain Unit Integrity Maintain Command Control Destroy Opponent's Unit Integrity Destroy Opponents' Command Control Tactics Maneuver Maneuver is used to bring the battle to a head where and when you want it. You must prevent your opponent from forcing the battle where he prefers to fight. You must fight your style of combat on your terms, at your preferred tempo, and your preferred range. With our set scenarios and appointed times for battle, the only way you can achieve surprise is through maneuver. If your maneuvers are not to be countered, they must be sudden and decisive. Teamwork Teamwork is used to overwhelm individual opponents with attacks that they cannot defend against or survive. It also provides for mutual defense, allowing fighters of lesser skill to survive attacks by more skilled fighters. The disciplined soldier is worth much more to his commander than a whole pack of heroes. Aggressive Seizure of Initiative Aggressive seizure of the initiative in combat insures that your plans are implemented and that your objectives are met, not your opponents'. If your opponent is allowed to seize the initiative you will be at his mercy, responding to what he does best, instead of doing what you do best. You will be locked in the inferior position of the reactive mode, always a step behind him as he controls style, engagement, tempo, and range. Do unto him before he does unto you. Berserk, lemming style frontal assaults are not what I propose. Strike where and when it will be to your best advantage. Do so aggressively and decisively.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Goals Maintain Unit Integrity You must maintain the integrity of the formations in your unit as long as possible. The first team to degenerate into a disorganized rabble will be cut down by the team with intact teamwork. I do not intend the rigid holding of the entire unit as a Shield wall, but rather the maintenance of the unit subdivisions or triads as necessary to the plan being implemented. Maintain Command Control Command control is the means by which you maintain unit integrity in the face of the enemy and respond to opportunities that arise. Lack of command control allows your enemy to retain teamwork when you have lost yours. A skilled commander can often reform a disorganized unit, if he still has control of the situation. Destroy Opponent's Unit Integrity Your opponents will be much easier to kill if they are forced to fight as individuals, instead as team members. You must break his formations, either by maneuvers to which he can not respond as a unit, or by inflicting casualties. Inflicting these casualties will be easier if you attack units from two directions at once. Destroy Opponents' Command Control Breaking your opponents' formations will be of little use if you allow his commanders to rally the troops. Destroy his command staff at the first opportunity.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Individual Tactics and Drills Equipment In order to be an effective melee fighter, you must have proper equipment. Your helmet must allow you to see, hear and breathe. Your armor must allow you to run, fall and get up, all at full speed. It must protect you from the types of impact that you will receive in melee combat. Pay special attention to protection against spear and pole arm blows. Your armor must not heat up excessively. You should be able to take water without removing your helmet. You may not be able to remove your helmet for up to two hours in some of the Pennsic scenarios. Your armor must be your friend not your enemy. Your weapons must be legal, simple and effective. Lighter weapons are faster, heavier weapons hit harder. Or do they? Force of impact is the product of mass times velocity squared. F = MV2 Speed is therefore more important than mass in penetrating your opponents defense and in landing a blow of sufficient force. Avoid the tendency to construct some type of gimmick weapon that will provide an irresistible advantage. If you are successful, it will only last until your opponents become familiar with your weapon. You would be better advised to spend your energy learning to be expert with simple weapons. The way to kill in melee is with straight blows from straight sticks to lethal targets. Strike Calibration Learn to hit very hard. Melee fighting generally requires more power than tournament fighting. Your opponent has to divide his attention among several opponents, poor footing, obstacles and listening for commands and holds. Many things may obstruct and partially block your blows. Tree branches, opposing weapons, friendly weapons, wet armor and range considerations can all bleed power from your blows. Remember, however, that your opponents' safety is your primary concern and avoid excessive blows. The factors affecting calibration are best dealt with through experience and practice. Practice fighting in conditions where these problems are likely to arise to gain this experience. Dealing with Rhinos If you have trouble with someone not acknowledging your blows, do not assume that he is a jerk. There may be a good reason of which you are not aware. Try hitting a little harder. Most calibration disputes are caused by regional differences in calibration. Ask him why he doesn't like your blows. His explanation may be quite reasonable once you have heard it. If you feel that he is just wrong, ask the marshall for his opinion. Now the problem is with the marshall, who has experience dealing with this type of thing, and the rhino will be mad at him, not you. If nothing works, remember to avoid excessive blows. A better plan is for your entire triad to key on him, hitting many times from the ease of a triple team. These repeated blows will usually kill him without hurting him. It is better to kill a rhino with embarrassment than excessive force. Do not allow your troops to ignore blows or argue with marshals. If you kill your unit's rhino yourself, the opponents will assume that you and the rest of your unit are reasonably calibrated. This will preserve honor and prevent escalation of force of blows. Disciplined troops die on command. Training and Physical Conditioning Melee fighting is a strenuous, physical, full contact sport. It requires more physical conditioning than merely lugging your armor from closet to car and back. Most novices need to improve strength, stamina and heat tolerance. Weight training and heavy pell work will improve strength. Jogging will improve your stamina, especially if you do it in full armor. Fighting on hot days

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helps develop heat tolerance. I have been known to crank up the heat in our indoor fighting site to improve heat tolerance. Master Feral is fond of saying, "That which does not kill us makes us stronger." Learn to recognize heat-related disorders in your self and others before they require medical attention. A tired, heat shocked fighter is a sloppy, dangerous fighter. When doing any type of physical training, use your head. Start slow, drink lots of water and don't continue anything that you feel may be detrimental. Economy of motion will help with your stamina. Practice all of your fighting moves until they are smooth and quick. Diet has a definite effect on your ability to perform on the field. Meals heavy in fat take a long time to digest. Blood that should be servicing your brain and muscles is tied up in your stomach. Meals heavy in sugars burn up quickly and leave you without the energy you need to perform your best. Complex carbohydrates are a much better choice. You need lots of fluids in your tissues before you fight. Drink lots of water before and during fighting. Alcohol and caffeine will dehydrate you and reduce your heat tolerance. Fighting hung over is not fun. I have a videotape of a man jumping off the bridge, tearing off his helmet and puking in it. He tried to fight in the sun with a hangover and took a heavy body blow. Your behavior the night before can have a marked effect on how well you can fight the next day. Do all of your heavy partying during the early part of the week at the war. Learn Your Unit's Command Language You must be familiar with all of the commands that your commanders are likely to use. Your instant understanding and obedience will make your commander's plans and intentions into battlefield reality. Before each battle you must understand your part of the plan. If this information is not provided, ask your immediate commander. Learn All Weapon Forms It will be helpful to learn all of the weapon forms. You will be attacked by and asked to attack all types of weapons. Knowing all forms will give you invaluable knowledge of your opponents strengths and weaknesses. It will allow you to predict his actions, improving your chances to survive and kill him. Fight your primary melee forms against all other forms in single combat. This will give you needed experience before you discover in battle that fighting pole arm against a shield is much more difficult than it looks. Fight Against Two Fighters You will be attacked by multiple opponents acting in concert. To prepare for this, you must practice fighting alone against two or three fighters. This isn't much fun, but it will improve your defense if you keep at it. Surviving to reform with your triad is very important if your unit is to survive being broken up. This drill also allows triads to practice team killing, thus serving a dual purpose. Fight to Cripple Select certain training melees where you throw only arm or leg blows. This will form the habit of crippling. In a melee a cripple is usually as good as a kill, and is often much easier. This drill will also sharpen defense against crippling blows. Tactics of Wounded Fighters How you handle yourself when wounded is important. You are still a member of a team, which is still counting on you to help achieve the group objective. Your tactics will differ depending on whether you are wounded in the leg or arm.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Leg Wounds If you are leg wounded in a static battle, you can usually fall in place and continue your assignment as planned. In a mobile battle the action will often move away from you. Don't hop around on one leg trying to follow the fight. I have seen numerous knee and ankle injuries resulting from this. Team up with friendly cripples and crawl after and kill opposing cripples. Crawl up behind opposing pole arms and spears and distract them so that your buddies can kill them. Bind and foul their weapons so that they can't kill your teammates. Irritate their commanders so they can not command. Throw the majority of your blows to legs, as you are much closer to their legs than to their heads. Practice all of these in practice drills. Arm Wounds Arm wounds don't impair your mobility. Keep with your unit and block blows thrown at your teammates. Shields are much better for this purpose than swords. Do not discard your shield and switch hands on your sword as is done in tournament. Keep your shield. It is difficult to kill some one if two people are contributing to his defense. Mobile cripples can often gang up on a whole fighter and cripple or kill him. Guard your commanders. Bind and foul weapons. If you drop your weapon, you are basically an arm cripple until you can retrieve it. Practice all of these in practice drills. How to Die How you die is very important. You must die defensively. In small melees it is often possible to walk out of the action immediately. You must yell "Good!" or "Dead!" or something to that effect quite loudly if you take this option. Your opponent may think that you are alive and retreating if you don't. He may continue to pummel you. If you can not walk out, fall in place, curl up in the fetal position and put your shield over the soft parts of your armor. Ankles are easily injured if stepped on by a heavily armored or fleshed fighter. Cover them if possible. If you have no shield, do the best you can with the weapons you have? Consider the walk out option. Note that this procedure varies widely from place to place. You must die loudly. The people on either side of you are counting on you for a part of their defense. They must know that you are no longer providing that cover. Your triad commander is counting on you to complete your part of the triad mission. He must know that you are no longer capable of contributing and his position may no longer be tenable without you. As a triad commander, your responsibilities are greater. Your entire triad must hear your death, the triad commanders on either side of yours and your unit commander. Several people will have to know that they must shift their command awareness, both up and down the chain of command. If you feel that this is not quite fair or period, remember what it is we are simulating. Period weapons rarely gave a sudden clean kill to an armored man. Having a limb ripped off by a brute wielding a large meat-cleaving tool will leave you wanting to give a loud uncontrolled scream. Your friends would have undoubtedly known when you were no longer functional.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Triad Tactics and Drills Definition of and Reason for Triad Melee fighting is teamwork. The basic team is the Triad. It consists of three fighters, usually two large shields and a pole arm. Harrier triads sometimes contain small shields and two-weapon men. Three fighters are used for reasons related to fighting efficiency and command efficiency. No one can survive a competent triple team attack for long. The pole arm can command and fire with little concern for his defense. Three fighters all blocking any blow they can reach, instead of only ones that are directed at them, are much more difficult to kill than three individuals. Shield men respond to commands issued only a few feet away, instead of listening all the way to the unit commander, who may be twenty feet away, with much intervening battle noise. In heavily padded helmets the triad system is much more reliable. If a commander must fight and command, he can command no more than three to five fighters. The triad system allows triad commanders a small enough unit of direct responsibility that he can command his triad and his neighbor's, if his neighbor is killed. It also allows survivors of decimated triads to fall in with the neighboring triad.

A line triad

A harrier triad

No lock step cadence counting type of marching should be used in battle. This is only used for marching to the field. If your unit does this, you are letting the opponents know where all of your legs are going to be at the same time. A trained group of spearmen will deprive most of you of the use of your legs before point of contact. Teamwork Teamwork is the result of group experience gained through group practice. Practice with the same triad members as much possible. You want to fight with one mind. Rotating triad members with other triads in your unit during practice will be helpful in case your unit is broken and reforms triads from decimated triads.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

V attack It is very difficult to stop a series of blows that come from opposite sides. To perform a V attack, two fighters spread apart enough that the target has trouble tracking what you are both doing, but not so far that one of you ends up behind him. A line drawn from the center of each of your helmets to the center of his should describe a letter V. If this is done by two fighters in a shield wall, they do not spread, as this would leave a gap in the wall. Each fighter throws blows to the side he is moving towards. Time the blows a heartbeat apart, so that he is responding to the first as the second lands. Spread his defense horizontally until it breaks. The third team member will then be able to pick his shot.

V attack

High/Low Attack It will stress your target's defense to the limit if one of you throws mostly low blows while the other throws mostly high blows. Time the blows a heartbeat apart, so that he is responding to the first as the second lands. Spread his defense vertically until it breaks. The third team member will then be able to pick his shot. Multidimensional Attack Combine both V and High/Low attacks for irresistible combinations, such as high right from one team member and low left from another. Vary the person who throws each type of blow, in order to avoid predictability. Spread his defense in all directions and it will break faster. This requires communications from the triad leader as to who throws what blows in the beginning. Eventually a veteran triad requires no communications. The most aggressive fighter throws a blow and the other fighters throw the proper blow to take maximum advantage of the expected shift in the targets defense. Practice will make this second nature.

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Mutual Defense

A triad can increase survivability by dividing defensive responsibility. Everyone is responsible for his own defense, but assists their teammates as well. The major portion of the pole arm's defense derives from his rearward position. This allows him to concentrate on blocking blows to his shields' heads.. He is responsible for high center defense. The shields are responsible for low center and flank defense. The heavy lines in the diagram attempt to show these zones of defensive responsibility. Role Played by the Weapons Wall Shield Shield men are the defensive element of the unit. They provide the mobile fortification from which the other weapons can command and kill. The shield men have the least visibility. They must obey orders, even if they seem stupid, because they can rarely see enough of the battle to make sound tactical judgments. Their primary duties are to stay alive and to keep their buddies alive. They do this primarily by maintaining unit integrity. They attack aggressively only when told to do so by their triad commander. Anchor shield Anchor shields are those whose assignment is to anchor the ends of the shield wall. They have better vision than line shields. They should be your most experienced shield men, since they are often the prime target of attack by opposing flanking maneuvers. They have additional responsibilities that require experience and judgment to execute. They must know whether to

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attack or defend. If pressed by flankers, they must guard the vulnerable ends of the shield wall. If not pressed, they must press the opponent. They have a bit more leeway to move laterally while pressing a V attack than wall shields do. When the unit maneuvers, they must set the pace. Pivots and shifts work much better if the anchor shields help the triad commanders herd the wall shields. They must communicate clearly to the unit commander when opposing flankers make wide sweeps. The right end anchor should be right handed. The left end anchor should be left handed, if possible. This is a good assignment for a command capable person who prefers to fight with weapon and shield. Pole arm Pole arms are the command element of the unit. They must keep the unit in formation and moving in the proper direction. They must seize the initiative if it is lost. They must aggressively press the attack. They must keep abreast of what is going on in the battle around them and not tunnel vision into constantly swinging their weapon. However they are also expected to account for a large number of kills. These should be mostly blows thrown at sure targets opened by other fighters. They can also throw suppression fire at opposing shields that are being too aggressive. The pole arm has the assignment that requires the most judgment, as it is complex and conflicting. Spear Spears are the primary offensive element of the unit. Their primary responsibility is to kill anything and everything that they can reach. Their secondary role is to replace commanders that have been killed. If they do their primary job properly, they will rarely have to do this. Spears are usually dependent on others for the majority of their defense. For this reason it is difficult to use spears in very small melees. The larger the scale of the combat, the more important spears become. Spears will find easier targets to their right, attacking opponents' less guarded weapon side. The most marked change in combat during my absence was the ascendancy of spears. During my early career pole arms did the majority of the damage to the opponent. Now the spears do this. Range and speed are the primary reasons. A group of spearmen working in concert can shut down and destroy the opposing pole arms with ease. Musashi stated that spears are far superior to halberds (glaives) on the battlefield. This opinion had always confused me, but evolution of spear technique and teamwork has shown that he was right. Two-weapon Two-weapons are the roving offensive element of the unit. Their primary responsibility is to kill spears and commanders. They must be very aggressive. They must be capable of operating with little support or supervision. Small Shield and Bastard Weapons This section is not an endorsement of these forms in melee. These are inferior forms. The rare person who can use them well would be far more effective with a similar but more effective weapons form. If you are forced by circumstances to have these weapons in your command, use them as harriers, or to protect your commanders or flanks. Combined Arms Division of labor among the various weapons makes the unit efficient. Each has its role to play in both offense and defense. The combination of weapons acting in concert brings about the common objective. Group practice will make this second nature.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Behavior on Taking Casualties When the unit takes casualties, triad commanders must continually close up the line to plug holes in the shield wall. Shields must fill holes by moving to the center, thereby shortening the line. If shields fill holes by moving away from the center, the wall will fragment. Shields in triads without commanders must fill in for missing shields in triads that still have commanders. Do not stop the movement of the unit to form on wounded fighters. If you do, you lose the initiative. You lose control of the battle tempo. You are now in the reactive mode at the mercy of the opponents' tactics. Do this only if you make the conscious decision to fight a defensive battle, because you feel that it will be to your advantage. It probably will not be. Behavior Toward Opponent's Casualties Don't waste time killing cripples. Their effectiveness has been greatly reduced. Spend your efforts on extending your advantage by crippling or killing whole fighters. Move the fight away from cripples to increase your numerical superiority. When you have the battle in hand, go back and finish off the cripples. Eat whole fighters for dinner and cripples for dessert. Looking like a Unit Psychological factors can be more important than physical ones in combat. Having uniform unit tabards, helm torses or shields can boost your unit morale by providing a sense of unit cohesiveness and identity. It may make your opponent think that you are more experienced than you are. Attractive armor can have the same effect on a personal basis. Commanding a Triad Know your triad mission. Ask if you don't. Missions that you may be assigned include: stop opponent, delay opponent, attack, penetrate line, kill spears, kill commanders, flank, engage reserve, retreat, advance, guard your friends, refuse engagement, etc. Know what is expected for each of these and practice them with your triad. Repeat your commander's commands if they are relevant to your triad mission. Stay with your triad and keep it alive. Continue your triad mission until it is accomplished, or no longer relevant.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Shield Wall Tactics and Drills

A Shield Wall Unit: Note Triads and unengaged Commander A unit is built of adjoining triads, backed by spears, flanked by harriers. The shield wall is the major part of the unit. It is a moving fortification, maintained for mutual defense. It provides a safe fire platform for the unit spears and pole arms, which do most of the killing. Use your best shields to anchor the ends of the wall, as the ends will probably be the areas receiving the most pressure. Left-handed shields are placed on the left end, where their swords can attack exposed sword sides. Spears use any available space to fire through. Everyone in your unit should be spear qualified. There are never enough spears. Armies are naturally right handed and tend to advance to the sword or right side, turning left in the process. The most common tactic is to envelop on the right. If not checked both armies would wheel around each other in a counterclockwise fashion. Knowing this can help you predict opponents' motions. This tendency makes it easy to envelop on the left. Your opponent's movement tends to advance him faster where you want to press him and advance him slower where you wish to refuse contact. It is best to have the overall unit commander not in charge of one of the triads. This way he can spend all of his time commanding the unit.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Attacking a Flank

This example shows how to envelop on the left flank. The left end moves forward more rapidly than the right. The left wants to get around the end of the opposing line and achieve numerical superiority at this point. The right will probably be outnumbered, so it attempts to refuse engagement.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

The two-weapon circles wide, engaging the opposing pole arm, to prevent him from helping the anchor shield. The end triad triple-teams the opposing anchor shield. The left anchor shield steps left as he does this to spread the target's defense as thinly as possible. The center triad pins its opponents, preventing them from preventing the envelopment. The right triad continues to refuse engagement.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

The two-weapon engages the next pole arm. The left triad sweeps into the next shield and kills him. This will result in a triple or quadruple team. If the left anchor shield is behind the target he should bind his weapon rather than strike him. The other triads continue as before. This is repeated until there is no one left to hit. The right triad stops refusing when overall numerical superiority has been established.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

How to Charge

To charge, rush at the opposing shields as if you intend to strike shield to shield.

Just before impact all shields shift right and hit the gaps between the shields. Pole arms and spears kill opposing shields while they are disrupted. Shields that have penetrated the line kill opposing pole arms and commanders.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

How to Defend Against Charge

Shift from normal deployment to withstand and repel charge

Commander orders brace for charge. Triad commanders repeat command and order close up. Shields close to a slightly overlapping position, lowering center of gravity by a slightly forward leaning crouch. Triad commanders brace their pole arms against the backs of the shield men, also lowering body center of gravity by crouching. As opposing shields bounce off, everyone takes advantage of the confusion to throw blows at everyone in reach.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Column Movement When moving in column, as on a road or causeway, remain in triads. This allows for instant deployment in case of sudden attack. Berserk harriers are immediately presented with a triple team attack. Some of your harriers can be used as outriders to flush ambushes early.

Arnwulfs Tactics 2nd Edition IN PROGRESS DRAFT - 2000

Unit Tactics and Drills Types of troops Troops can be classified on the basis of experience and mobility. Experience Rookie/Green Green troops are those that can not be depended on to perform the assigned task without direct leadership. Their formations are easily disrupted and do not reform well. If left leaderless they will mill about and die. Sometimes they will charge the nearest opponent and die. They require the most attention and discipline. Use them for the refused portion of the battle, if possible. Veteran Veteran troops are those that can be depended on to perform the assigned task without direct leadership. Their formations are not easily disrupted and do reform well. If left leaderless they will usually continue to perform the assigned task. Use them for the main portion of the shield wall or the reserve. Elite Elite troops are those that can be depended on to perform complicated tasks requiring timing and judgment. Their formations rarely disrupt and reform immediately. If left leaderless they will aggressively engage and destroy their opponents. They can often fight their way out of a disadvantageous position caused by opposing tactics or friendly command incompetence. They require the least attention and discipline. Use them for the heavy knock out punch, either at initial engagement or from the reserve. Mobility Harrier Harrier troops move very quickly, strike aggressively and withdraw. Usually these units are heavy on two-weapon, spear and bastard sword. Hit and run is their specialty. Use them to screen your other troops if you must reorganize in the face of the opponent. Use them to kill spears, tie up reserves and kill commanders. They are good for reconnaissance in force and grabbing banners, if they can be convinced not to engage everything that they see. They can be used to disrupt a unit before a hard strike by a shield wall unit. They are at a disadvantage in static battles. Light Light troops are shield wall units that are capable of rapid movement. They can reform quickly at their destination if movement disrupts them. They are at an advantage in field and woods battles. Heavy Heavy troops are shield wall units that move slowly, due to mass of armor or size of the individual fighters. The shield spacing is generally closer than that of light units. They are at an advantage in static, defensive battles and breaking through walls.

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Hinge Points Hinge points are the joints between units, where an opposing force is most likely to break apart. Smaller hinge points exist between the triads in a unit. You can break a force at the hinge points by hitting it, or by maneuvering so as to force the units to respond by moving at different rates. Use the hole you have created to penetrate the line and kill his reserves and commanders. Look for hinge points where there is a change in tabards or equipment. Local groups tend to have similar equipment and livery. A lefty in the center of a line is almost always the left end of a unit and a hinge point. Rookies can be converted into artificial hinge points by killing them. Look for flat top helms, carpet armor, mass weapons and small shields. Terrain features can be used to break units at hinge points. Arrange for one opposing unit to move through terrain that will slow it, opening a gap between it and the next unit in the wall. Attack the gap aggressively to flank one or both units. Strategic Reserve I cannot overstress the importance of the reserve. The reserve is a body of troops held out of the initial engagement to use as circumstances dictate. They are both a shield against unexpected trouble and a sword to smite a reeling foe. They are used to counter your opponents' successful actions before they can fully capitalize on them and to administer the killing blow when your plan works. Often the commander who commits his reserve in the most effective manner at the most opportune time will be the victor. You or your best subordinate commander should command the reserve, as this demands a measure of timing and judgment. Symbols The following diagrams will use a set of common symbols.

Unit Type Key

Harrier

Light

Heavy

Elite

Opponent

The size of the units in the examples varies according to scale of the engagement. In a backyard practice, each unit might represent one or two men. At Pennsic, the units might represent regional army groups or allied kingdoms. Teamwork between units is the basis of war strategy.

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Single Envelopment

Initial deployment for envelopment of left flank. Reverse for envelopment of right flank. I prefer the left, as it is easier to kill on the opponents' sword side than on the shield side.

The harrier unit sweeps wide and engages the reserve. This prevents the reserve from assisting the target unit. The light unit engages and pins the target unit preventing it from turning to face the elite unit. The elite unit attacks the edge of the target unit destroying it. The other units refuse engagement until numerical superiority has been achieved.

The elite unit helps the harrier unit destroy the reserve, and helps the end light unit destroy the next unit in line by attacking its rear. The rest of the line aggressively engages with numerical superiority. Continue down the line.

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Double Envelopment Initial deployment for double envelopment. This usually requires numerical superiority or an immobile foe. To use this without one of these advantages, you will have to break your line in the center.

The harrier or elite unit sweeps wide and destroys the reserve. The light units second from the ends engage and pin the units on both ends, preventing them from turning to face the end light units. The end light units attack the edge of the end units destroying them.

All units press the attack aggressively with the intent to encircle. If possible, the harrier or elite unit tries to prevent the opponent from "circling the wagons" by attacking the rear.

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Oblique Attack Initial deployment for oblique attack. This is often disguised as an envelopment. If his end units spread a bit too much to stop the envelopment, they will gap at a hinge point, helping you to penetrate. The intention is to cut the target units at the hinge point, rather than going around. The Greek citystate Thebes was fond of this tactic.

The end unit and the elite unit move rapidly toward the opponent. The other units move more slowly, refusing engagement until penetration occurs.

The light and elite units smash through the hinge point between the two end units, disrupting or destroying them. The other units engage aggressively as the elite unit attacks the reserve.

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Center Penetration Initial deployment for center penetration. This can also be used to disguise other tactics, if the elite unit can move to the proper position as the unit advances to engage. The Romans loved to force the center with heavy infantry charges.

The heavy unit smashes through the line at a hinge point between units. Mass and momentum are necessary. The elite unit follows right on their heels, to add extra mass if necessary. It penetrates to engage the reserve, before it can plug the hole

On penetration, the heavy unit swings one direction, while the elite unit swings the other. This divides and disrupts the opponent. Units attack the hinge points to hit the flanks or rear of units.

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Feigned Withdrawal Initial deployment for feigned withdrawal. This tactic works well if your opponent likes to penetrate the center. Practice this a lot, it is much more difficult than it looks. This version is modeled on Hannibal's tactics at Cannae.

The ends advance slowly while the center falls back. Hopefully your opponent will think this is not intentional. His units advance too quickly and begin to bunch up.

The heavy units engage and pin the end units. The elite units attack the flanks of the end units. The harrier units engage the rear, sealing off the line of retreat, denying the opponent the room he needs to reform. Pile them on top of one another. If done properly the end result is fish in a barrel.

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Wait and See What They Do This is a common tactic. The idea is to respond to the opposing tactics as they unfold, using unplanned response, guided by commands that come into the commander's head as he observes opposing maneuver. To see this in action you must pick any of the previous tactics as the opposing tactic. Reverse the diagram, so you are the ones we have been calling opponent. See how quickly they butcher you? This tactic does not work precisely because it is not a tactic. You must have a plan. You must seize the initiative, forcing the opponent to respond to your plan. Lazy commanders are dead commanders. And hopefully unemployed ones as well.

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Use of Terrain Terrain Vs Hazard Terrain comes in three types: natural, unnatural, and hazard. Natural terrain includes things like trees, bushes, sticks and the like. Unnatural terrain consists of things like bodies marshals and fences. Hazards are dangerous types of terrain that should not be fought in or around. Barbed wire and hornet nests are examples. It is the responsibility of the marshals and both commanders to move the melee away from hazards. Offensive Use of Terrain/Trapping Opponent at Disadvantage Use terrain to stifle your opponents' offense and hamper his defense. Use terrain to break his units apart at hinge points, giving you opportunities to strike. Take advantage of his predicament to destroy his fighters. He must be hampered by the terrain, while you are still free to act unimpaired. Use of Elevation Deployment on high ground can be a great advantage, if done properly. You can use your elevated position to strike at the top and back of helmets, at angles unfamiliar to your opponents. Stand back from the edge far enough that they will have difficulty reaching your legs. You should stand on the flat, while forcing them to stand on tilted ground. Never attack an elevated position head on. Maneuver around it and engage your opponents from the same level. Use of Poor Footing A fighter cannot defend himself effectively while watching where he steps. His blows will be less frequent and powerful. You must deploy at the edge of the poor footing, where your footing is secure. Mud, low bushes, fallen branches and the like are good at impairing footing. Use of Blow Obstructing Terrain You will be much more difficult to kill if tree branches block blows to your head or bushes block blows to your legs. You must deploy at the edge of the obstructing terrain so that your opponents must approach you through a clear field of fire, thus gaining no benefit from the terrain themselves. Defensive Use of Terrain Use terrain to allow your outnumbered or outclassed forces to fight at an advantage. The terrain should have the dual function of keeping your forces alive and intact, while disrupting the opposing forces. Establish Perimeter of Defense You must connect terrain strong points into a defensive perimeter. It must be large enough to encompass the best available defensive terrain, while allowing a viable fallback position. It must be small enough to defend with the troops you have available. Establish Fall back Position

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During the course of battle your lines may be breached somewhere. If the reserve is unable to contain this, an orderly retreat to a secondary, smaller defensive perimeter will be necessary. This will only happen if it was explained to all triad commanders beforehand. Boudicca's revolt failed because there was no fall back position. The Britons lines were backed by a steep hill on which noncombatants and the supply train were parked. When the Romans broke Boudicca's position, the Britons could not retreat, being trapped by their own spectators. Evaluate Terrain Sections for Defensive Value Divide the perimeter into sections and evaluate them for defensive value. Decide where the attack is mostly likely to occur. Assign a commander to each section. Never assume impassability. Someone may be crazier than you. Deploy Troop Strength Inversely to Terrain Defensive Value Use fewer troops in tough terrain, more in easier. Deploy more troops in the most line of attack. Leave holes or weak spots to draw the attack where you what it. Then trap it with your reserves. Establish Reserve You must have a reserve to plug gaps. If you don't have enough troops left for a reserve, you have too large a perimeter of defense. Establish Communications You must have rapid accurate communications with each section. Idle troops can be thinned and the excess moved to bolster sections under attack. The reserve must respond to real need expressed by the overall commander, not panic from a section commander. Sortie Sortie aggressively after wearing down his numbers and morale. This should be done to quickly finish a battle you have already won. Premature sortie can negate your terrain advantage. Attacking a Defensive Position Identify His Perimeter of Defense Identify his perimeter of defense. Evaluate it for strong and weak points. Determine where he is hoping you will attack and do not attack there. Do not fight the battle as he has set it up. Maneuver widely around his position if it is not circular. The time spent in this will be more than repaid in reduced casualties. Identify His Fall back Position Hope that he does not have a fall back position. If he does not he will be easier to disrupt. Determine where he could fall back to and prevent him from doing so. This is usually accomplished by rolling his lines sideways from each side of a breach, pinning as many troops as possible in the initial penetration. Panic His Reserve Use a series of maneuvers and feints to draw his reserve commander into committing the reserve prematurely. Strike aggressively somewhere else. Force the reserve to follow you back and forth until they want to come to blows with you more than they want to follow orders.

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Destroy His Communications Kill his scouts. Kill his commanders. Tempt them into duels. Invite Premature Sortie Tempt his heroes into single combats between the lines. Use boredom to get aggressive units to leave their defensive positions. Appear weak or incompetent to draw out his troops. React to these opportunities aggressively. Bridge Battles Bridge battles include any similar type of battle where the flanks of the opposing force have been rendered unassailable by terrain or artificial means. Bridge battles are best fought by heavy units backed by lots of spears. Pole arms are of declining importance in this type of combat. If you have enough spears, opposing pole arms are sitting ducks. Avoid the tendency to pack too many people into too small a front. Everyone must have enough room to attack and defend unimpaired by his fellows. Assign one commander to act as traffic cop. He controls reinforcements and reorganizations of units. He rotates reserve units in and out of helmets to get water and air. Bored fighters will often be too aggressive when reinforcing gaps. A situation which can be contained by two or three fighters will often be crammed with eight or ten overachievers, who all get killed because they interfere with each others' defense. This commander must prevent this overzealous behavior. Pursue no course of action that does not inflict more casualties on the opponent than it inflicts on you. You must inflict casualties in greater proportion to available reserves, or the attrition will favor your opponent in the end.

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<<this diagram under revision>> This diagram shows the situation at the two ends of the bridge. At the near end of the bridge you can form a cup shaped front that allows more weapons to come to bear than his shorter, straight front allows. It also allows flank attack. This is good. On the far end of the bridge the opposing forces have you at a corresponding disadvantage. This is bad. This is why defense is preferred on bridges. The reluctance of the commanders to advance beyond their zones of maximum firepower is why these scenarios are so boring and indecisive. Boredom produces lemming charges in which the aggressor invariably suffers improportionate casualties. Most actual medieval wars were a series of boring useless sieges with exactly this type of indecisive nonsense. Real battles were rare because of the advantage of defensive terrain or castles. Resurrection Battles Fighters should not rush out of resurrection point at the first opportunity. Get water, a brief rest, and resurrect with people you know. Return to the battle in an organized unit. If you resurrect as individuals, it will be easy for the opponents to kill you and send you right back to resurrection point. In resurrection battles, crippling is better than killing. Killing opponents converts them to reinforcements that can be sent where they are most needed. Cripples remain in battle in a

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reduced state of effectiveness. I routinely kill my cripples to return them to the battle quicker. Arm cripples can be used as berserks to create exploitable gaps in the opposing line. If you are inflicting more casualties than you are sustaining, use a reserve unit to bottle up and kill resurrectees to prevent them from reinforcing the main battle. This unit will need stamina, as this assignment often becomes a matter of cutting down zombies only to see them rise again. This unit's commander should retain only enough friendly resurrectees to control the situation. Any excess should be passed on to the main battle. The head of the scout force should establish and maintain communications between the high command and resurrection point to direct resurrectees to the section of the battle where they are most needed. Scutum or Turtle Units Extremely heavy scutum units are easily dealt with. In open terrain, they are not very mobile. Turn their flanks and kill them. If they can anchor their flanks with terrain features, such as bridge sides or castle gates, it is another matter entirely. Do not attack frontally in the traditional manner. Lemming charges are suicide. Too much emphasis has been placed on killing the large shields. Ignore these shields, they are irrelevant. They are not killing your troops. Trying to kill them is like trying to kill a stream or gully that intervenes between you and the opposing forces. Treat them as blocking terrain. Terrain can be used to your advantage as well as the opponents. These shields guard you almost as well as they guard their own second rank. The real opponent is the corps of spearmen behind the terrain shields. The real objective is to kill these spearmen. Triads composed entirely of spears should pick a single opposing spear as a target and act in concert to kill him. He will not be able to defend against a competent triple team attack. When he dies, pick a new target. When all of the spears are dead it is child's play to kill the shield men by reaching over the shields. Assign some fighters to spear blocking and grabbing detail. A good weapon for this is a pole arm. Take their spears away from them and they can not kill with them.

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Formulating a Plan Know Your Objective Know what your commander wants you to accomplish and how it fits in with the master plan. Don't sortie out of a defensive position merely because you are bored. Don't get your people killed doing something that doesn't need doing. Know Your People You must know your people, their strengths, weaknesses, weapons and capabilities. An excellent plan involving lots of maneuver will do you no good if your people do not have the discipline and training to pull it off. Don't ask a rookie to kill a knight. Don't ask out of shape people to run marathons. Know Your Enemy Know the opposing unit's strengths and weaknesses. Know the commander's tactical preferences. Does he like to use false deployments? Can he be tempted to attack rashly? What does he expect you to do? The easiest way to defeat your opponent is to baffle his commander. Know how his unit's calibration differs from yours and inform your troops of this. Be polite and safety conscious about your phrasing. You are trying to prevent problems, not create them. Know The Terrain Take existing terrain into account. Most of my tactical diagrams have no terrain. Reality does. Don't plan on charging through a swamp. Read Enemy Deployment You can often predict opposing plans from their initial deployment. You can plan or adjust your tactics accordingly. Don't throw a flying wedge at a unit set up to double envelop. Be Flexible Your plan may not mesh well with his. Unknown terrain or ill-timed holds can mess things up. Rethink and use audible commands to explain what the unit is to do. Change your plan suddenly if your opponents mistakenly give you an opportunity to crush him.

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Leadership How to Chose a Commander Do not choose your unit commander by picking the highest ranking person according to the Order of Precedence. If this person is also the best choice for the job, your group has been blessed by the gods. A commander must be a leader first and commander second. He must be able to smooth over off-the-field conflicts between his people, so they do not impair on-the-field performance of the unit. He must have a loud voice, lots of charisma, and excellent communication skills. He must have sound tactical knowledge, flexibility, and the ability to think on his feet. He must be a good listener. He must know when he is wrong. He must ask his people for suggestions when his plans are not working. He must be able to motivate his people to train hard, and fight hard. He must have the courage to try new things in order to keep the unit on the cutting edge. He must be, in short, a living hero, a nurturing killer. Communications Clear concise communications are the heart of teamwork. Everyone must understand his assigned task and how it relates to the plan as a whole. Always know and use the names of the people under your command. Know right from left and always use your unit's left and right as references, not your opponents'. Issue commands in a loud clear voice. Triad commanders must repeat all unit leader commands that are relevant to their triad. Always use the same command to mean the same thing. Never use don't in a command. If don't is the one word of the command that someone misses, the results will be the opposite of what you desire. Don't use the word 'Hold' in any command. This word is reserved for stopping the action due to a safety concern. Halt sounds a lot like hold. Use stop instead. Don't say hold these guys, or hold this position. It is embarrassing to do this and stop a melee dead for no reason. Brief and debrief your troops before and after each battle. They must know what they are to do. Each triad must have a specific task. They must know what they did well and what needs improvement. You must hear and listen to what they feel went wrong and right. Soldiers must have orders or they won't act. At least not in the way you would prefer. Everyone in the unit must know the chain of command. In the event that commanders are killed, everyone knows who is in charge. For most shield wall soldiers, the person who is the closest and loudest is in command. Discipline The most important factor affecting the discipline of your troops is your own discipline. Your troops will take their attitudes on authority and chain of command from your behavior toward your commander. Obey if you would be obeyed. Occasionally you will be required to discipline a fighter who does not want to follow orders. I have two plans of discipline for this problem. The first is designed to enforce the commander's will on the field at the time the problem is discovered. It is a short-term solution, as it does not address the cause of the disobedience. The second plan is designed to prevent disobedience by retraining the fighter in an assignment more to his temperament. It is a long term solution. If I am required to discipline a fighter who does not want to follow orders on the field, I use this plan . The first time this happens, I tell a story and give a warning. The second time I carry out the warned action immediately, in the melee. The story is about a Roman Legion commander deep in enemy territory. He tells his troops that until supply lines can be reestablished, there will no engagement with the enemy. Failing supplies must be used to sustain the troops and all

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soldiers will be needed for the defense of the camp. When two soldiers decide to be heroes by staging a daring raid on the barbarian camp to steal needed supplies, the commander orders them executed for disobedience. One of the heroes was his son. The warning consists of the promise to kill the disobedient fighter as soon as he disobeys again. Most people are never a problem again. In those rare instances when I have not been eloquent enough with words, I find that a pole arm blow to the back of the head as the fighter leaves the shield wall will be an effective reminder. People who still do not obey do not continue to fight in my unit. In some instances, you may be in command of members of the Chivalry while not a member yourself. This technique will not work with Chivalry who will not do as they are asked. Make these people's desired mode of conduct their assignment and save you a lot of trouble. As a long-term solution, try this plan. It is generally easier to use people as they prefer than to force them to a mode of conduct that they runs counter to their nature. Disobedience is usually the result of the fighter's frustration with his current assignment. Explain to him that you need him to do what you ask for the good of the unit at this time. Find out what he would prefer to do and outline the steps that both you and he must take to procure the assignment that he prefers. This will usually require you to teach him another weapon, or improve his skill with one. If he is too aggressive to stand in the shield wall, train him as a harrier. If he is uncomfortable commanding, don't ask him to be a triad commander. If he wants to command, train him. This means letting him get his triad butchered repeatedly in practices. If he prefers a structured environment train him for the shield wall. Do not allow your troops to ignore blows or argue with marshals. Charisma Charisma is necessary both to get fighters to follow you and to motivate them to train vigorously and regularly. Charisma is often thought of as a characteristic that people either have or do not. It is actually a set of learned social behaviors. You can increase your charisma by relearning these behaviors and consistently practicing them in a sincere manner. Smile. People like to associate with friendly, happy people. Win tourneys and melees. People like to associate with winners. People don't like rhinos. Listen well. Be concerned. Ask when some one seems down. Tell them and other people when they do well or master a new skill. Help them improve their equipment. Show them that you care about them as individuals. An overlooked aspect of charisma is letting people know when they are screwed up. Most people want and need discipline from their leaders. Just as they want to know when they do well, they also want to know when they don't. Although praise should be public, criticism should be private. This is especially true with your triad commanders. Letting them know something needs improvement lets them know you care about their success. Tact is necessary. Your troops must both love and fear you. It would be best for them to love to fear you. You must try to maintain this balance, so they view you as strong but fair, a nurturing killer. You must be someone with whom their affection will be safe. Success is theirs, failure is yours. Aggression and Initiative A dumb plan or command is better than inaction. You must do something. Don't flip-flop. Pick a course of action and stick to it until the situation changes enough to warrant a change. You must issue a fairly steady stream of commands, so that your people know that you are in control of the situation. If the plan requires long periods of defensive inaction, you still need to chatter. The

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interval will be longer, but your people need to know that you are not asleep at the helm. They must feel that when the time comes to fight, you will have the situation under control. Courage You must have courage to improve your unit and your command skills. Familiar methods and opponents give a sense of stability, but do not challenge. Growth only comes through challenge. You must try new things to stay on the cutting edge. You must fight your unit against the best units you can find. You must lay your butt on the line every time you take the field. Your people will learn by doing. Be willing to listen to new ideas and try them. Let others command to strengthen unit command depth. Remain Unengaged You must see, hear, observe, decide and respond. You can not command more than a triad and fight. Travel Fight your unit against as many different units as you can. You must be able to respond to anything at the war. It is best if you have seen it somewhere else first. You may be asked to fight next to any unit in the kingdom at the war. Having fought against them will give you a good idea of what they are likely to do. The more groups that know you as a competent commander, the larger the group of fighters who will fall in with you if their commander is killed will be. Mentors Find a mentor to train you and give you fresh challenge. Fight your unit against his. Real tactical ability and instructional skill are more important than social status. The mentor must be close enough geographically to see you regularly. Pick some one gentle enough to encourage you, but ruthless enough to butcher you when you fail. Master Feral has been instrumental in developing my tactical and command skill. Rivals Find a couple of commanders near you who are a little better than you. Fight your unit against theirs and exchange ideas. You should all be trying to become top dog, by defeating the others. Keep this friendly, debriefing defeats to use them as learning experiences. The Great Northern Army originally gained its expertise through a continuous game of we beat you last. This constant competition and feedback developed out of ego and the knowledge that we would be guarding each others flanks at Pennsic. All members of all rival units should cross train with the rivals to allow for rapid integration of fighters from decimated units to reinforce whole units in battle. Do this by breaking up the units into their component triads and shuffling them around to form pick-up units at war practices. Instruct The best way to improve any skill is to teach it to someone else. This forces you to break the skill into simple manageable components. Constantly train your triad commanders. The repetition will benefit you as much as it does them. Always have your second in command position available to whoever can prove themselves most worthy. The best compliment a teacher can receive is to be replaced by one of his students.

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Psychological Aspects of Warfare Mental Aspects of Combat Combat is mostly a mental game. Teamwork and attitude are far more important than physical ability. Here are some trite slogans to help you remember this. Success comes in cans, failure in cannots. We achieve what we believe. Believe you can, believe you can't. Either way you're right. The easiest way to defeat an opposing force is to confuse or demoralize its commander. How to Demoralize Your Troops The most certain way to demoralize your troops is to display command incompetence. Troops who feel that they cannot win, cannot win. If you feel that you can not win, they will too. Demoralization is most likely to occur in static, prolonged battles. Plenty of water and attention from the command staff will help. Lemming charges don't. Commanders who scream at each other or use profanity in their confusion demoralize the troops and kill their will to fight. Bad plans, confused orders, commander arrogance, lack of water, lack of training, ignorance of fighters as to what they are to do and lack of communication will all contribute to demoralization. Elite and veteran troops are not immune to demoralization, although they recover quicker. How to Prevent or Recover from Demoralization Identify and counter the cause.

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How to Instruct Although not commonly considered a part of tactics, proper training is of vital importance in the execution of tactics. Soldiers must become expert at everything that they will be asked to do on the battlefield. This is brought about by expert instruction. Training consists of instruction, drill, application and instruction. People learn by watching, doing and teaching. The use of catch phrases and slogans will reinforce and simplify lessons and imprint them in memory. Instruction People retain more of what they see than what they hear. They retain best what they do. When instructing, tell them, show them, make them repeat it back to you in their own words, make them do it, and make them teach it to a rookie. Make them do it over and over. Drill is boring and repetitious, but it is the only to really learn something until it becomes automatic response. Teamwork and speed are the result of constant drill and practice. Skill is a combination of ability and experience. Drill Explain the purpose of the drill. Explain the lesson to be learned from it. Show how to perform the drill. Make them repeat it until they want to kill you. You must supply discipline and motivation. <<the training drills table has been removed at Arns instruction>>

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Application Once something has been learned, it must be used or it will be forgotten. Debrief every melee, even if you easily destroy the opposing force, in order to critique and improve your peoples' skills. Tell them what was done well and what is in need of improvement. Catch phrases and slogans taught at the time of instruction are useful to remind people of lessons not being put into practice.