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# Level Measurement by Differential Pressure Transmitter / Basic Formulae for various applications

welding line. 2. For measurement of liquid interface level, other studies and considerations than described herein are required.

## Case A: DRY LEG <Basic Formula>

100%

hb

h: H:

level height meas. span elevation off-set of lower nozzle off-set of upper nozzle liq. density in vessel liq. den. of H side leg liq. den. of L side leg

For the case of dry leg (i.e. no liquid in L side), substitute 2=0 in (1). Then

P ( h )

DryLeg

= h + 1h1

(2)

## h1: ha: hb:

<DP Range, Min. & Max.> -Min. Range; substitute h=0 in (2), then
MIN . Range

0%

h
2 ha

: 1: 2:

(2.1)

MAX . Range

(2.2)

## -Differential Pressure Range; (2.2) (2.1)

Range

P DryLeg = H

(2.3)

h1 1 H
<Generalized Formula of Differential Pressure upon liquid level variation> Configuration of level measurement by differential pressure transmitter is formulated as the above drawing. Then, differential pressure relevant to level height h is as next formula;

[Remarks]

1. It is desirable to position DP transmitter at the same elevation as lower nozzle, i.e. measurement 0% level; i.e.
h1=0.

2. For many cases, it would be allowed to apply to 1 at design stage. At site after start plant operation, final
elevation 1h1 shall be implemented into DP transmitter.

3. For the case of HC mixture, it shall be ensured that the HC mixture in vapor phase does not contain a component
which condenses under minimum ambient temperature. Otherwise, to ensure dry leg (i.e. complete vaporization), heat tracing on L side impulse line may be applied. Case B: WET LEG <Basic Formula> For the case wet leg, directly from (1),

P ( h ) = { 1( h1 ha ) + ( ha + h )} 2( h1 + H + hb )
100%. Hence substituting ha=hb=0, (1) can normally be simplified as next;

(1)

Whenever it is possible, it is recommendable to locate lower nozzle at the elevation of measurement 0% and upper nozzle at

P ( h ) = h + { 1h1 2( h1 + H )}

(1)

Hereafter, (1) is primary referred as generalized formula. When there is off-set between nozzle elevation and 0%/100%, refer to

P WetLeg ( h ) = h + ( 1 2 ) h1 2 H
<DP Range, Min. & Max.> -MIN. Range; substitute h=0 in (3), then

(3)

1. ha or hb, i.e. nozzle off-set from 0% or 100% level, is typically considered due to limitation such as nozzle shifting from

MIN . Range

P WetLeg = ( 1 2) h1 2 H

(3.1)

Level Measurement by Differential Pressure Transmitter / Basic Formulae for various applications

## -MAX. Range; substitute h=H in (3), then

MAX . Range

P WetLeg = ( 1 2 ) h1 + ( 2 ) H (3.2)
(3.3)

## -Differential Pressure Range; (3.2) (3.1)

WetLeg = H Range P

1. For the case of high pressure steam drum, special calculation is realized in DCS for density compensation, because
both liquid and vapor densities vary depending on internal pressure / temperature change. [Cf. TEG-1-1511-005 C&I Design for Ethylene Plant, Sec. 5.1.]

[Remarks]

2. For cryogenic services (e.g. ethylene liquid), special consideration shall be applied for not only freeze protection of
transmitter but also complete vaporization of H side leg by ambient temperature. [Cf. TEG-1-1511-005 C&I Design for Ethylene Plant, Sec. 10.5 & Attach-16.]

1. It is desirable to position the DP transmitter at the same elevation as lower nozzle, i.e. measurement 0% level; i.e.
h1=0. 2. For many cases, it would be allowed to apply to 1 at design stage. sealing liquid? Case C: Remote Diaphragm Seals <Basic Formula> In terms of DP calculation, application of Diaphragm Seals with Capillary can be regarded as a particular case of Wet Leg; Remote Diaphragm Seals (RDS) have the same sealing liquid for both capillaries. Therefore substituting 1=2=RDS in (3); RDS. is density of sealing liquid inside capillary. Then,

3. When continuous blow-back (i.e. purging) via other media is applied to both H and L sides, as long as DP
range, it is possible to refer to formulae (4) through (4.3) with replacingRDS with BB; BB is density of blowback media.

3. It shall be determined about wet leg at design stage which is applied condensate of vapor in vessel or another

P RDS ( h ) = h RDS H
<DP Range, Min. & Max.> -MIN. Range; substitute h=0 in (3), then
MIN . Range

(4)

(4.1)

MAX . Range

(4.2)

## -Differential Pressure Range; (4.2) (4.1)

Range

P RDS = H

(4.3)

[Remarks]

1. It is desirable to position DP transmitter at not higher elevation than lower nozzle, i.e. measurement 0% level; i.e.
h1=0. 2. For both L and H sides, capillaries should be of equal length.

3. Above formulae (4) through (4.3) are reserved regardless of length of capillary tube.