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Strongly Interacting Polarized Fermi Gases

Xia-Ji Liu

with Hui Hu, and Prof. Peter D. Drummond

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27/11/2008

Prof. Peter D. Drummond


ACQAO, Science Director, SUT

Dr. Hui Hu
Renmin University of China

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Outline
A brief summary of BCS-BEC crossover Motivation. Phase diagram at zero temperature in one dimension Phase diagram at finite temperature in one dimension Conclusions and open issues

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BCS-BEC crossover : equal spin populations

BEC of molecules

BCS fermionic superfluidity

Interaction strength Fermions with two spin states with attractive interactions
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A brief summary of experimental works


Group Units Duke Innsbruck ENS Rice MIT JILA Tokyo ACQAO atoms
6Li 6Li 6Li 6Li 6Li 40K 6Li 6Li

Observations

Thomas Grimm Salomon Hulet Ketterle Jin Ueda Hannaford

collective modes; heat capacity; collective modes; pairing gap; release energy; observation of molecules; condensation of pairs; vortex; vortex condensation of pairs; momentum distribution; condensate Fraction; critical temperature p-wave; Bragg spectroscopy

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Comparative study of strong coupling theories of a trapped Fermi gas


0.0

Eint/(NEF)

-0.1
NSR (GG)G Pseudogap Duke expt. Bulgac et al. b3

-0.2

-0.3

4
S/(NkB)

10

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BCS-BEC crossover : unequal spin populations !

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Like a dance floor with more women than men, the state contains both paired and unpaired entities (from Phys. Rev. Focus)
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What is the ground state of imbalanced Fermi gases?

BCS

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Imbalance System

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FFLO pairing state

pairing scheme
P. Fulde and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 135, A550 (1964); A. I. Larkin and Y. N. Ovchinnikov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1136 (1964).
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FFLO pairing state

order parameter in real space

P. Fulde and R. A. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. 135, A550 (1964); A. I. Larkin and Y. N. Ovchinnikov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1136 (1964).
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Breached pairing state (Sarma phase)

W. V. Liu and F. Wilczek, PRL 90, 047002 (2003); G. Sarma, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1029 (1963).

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Phase separation state

+
left region right region

P. F. Bedaque, H. Caldas, and G. Rupak, PRL 91, 247002 (2003).

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Normal state

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Ketterle at MIT

Hulet at Rice

National Stadium

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New direction: Polarized Fermi gases

Quantum Phase Transition

Phase Separation

P = 0.7

Expt.: M. W. Zwierlein et al. Science 311, 492 (2006). Expt.: G. B. Partidge et al. Science 311, 503 (2006).
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What is the phase diagram of imbalanced Fermi gases?

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Hamiltonian: single channel model

inter-atomic interaction
different chemical potentials:

but assume same masses: note that for an ideal gas:

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R B Diener and Tin-Lun Ho cond-mat/0405174; Xia-Ji Liu and Hui Hu Phys. Rev. A 72, 063613 (2005);

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Mean Field Phase Diagram

0.0001

0.0000

-0.0001 saddle point

. BCS 1.0

. FFLO
0.5

1.0

Sarma 0.5
0

/ 0 qk F

0.0 0.0

Hui Hu and Xia-Ji Liu Phys. Rev. A 73, 051603(R) (2006); XiaD. E Sheehy and L. Radzihovsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060401 (2006); Radzihovsky, Lett. C.-H Pao, S.T Wu and S.-K Yip, Phys. Rev. B 73, 132506 (2006); - Pao, C. S.

Single-plane-wave approximation
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Phase Diagram in Harmonic Trap


Local Density Approximation

Without FFLO Phase !!

M. Haque and H. T. C. Stoof ,Phys. Rev. A 74, 011602 (2006). Xia-Ji Liu, Hui Hu and Peter D Drummond Phys. Rev. A. 75, 023614 (2007) Xia(2007) Lorne conference 27/11/2008

NSR method breaks down around unitary limit.

Xia-Ji Liu and Hui Hu, Europhys. Lett., 75, 364 (2006) XiaHu, Europhys. Lett., 75, M. M. Parish, et al, Nature Physics 3, 124 (2007). Parish, Lorne conference 27/11/2008

Questions
What is the ground state of an imbalaced Fermi gas at low T? Does the FFLO state exist? What is the structure of FFLO state? What is the intrinsic reason for the phase separation state? Is there any uniform superfluid state with a finite spin population imbalance ? c =0.7 in the unitary limit?

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Polarized Fermi Gas in One Dimension

Method

Mean-field approach

Exact solution

single plane wave approximation

Self-consistent BdG

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Phase Diagram of a Uniform System

SF : BCS-like superfluid state with zero polarization SFP : Superfluid state with finite polarization N : Fully polarized normal state
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What is the structure of the superfluid state with finite polarization?

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Structure of SFp Phase

P=0.03

P=0.16

The SFp is of FFLO Character


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First order Transition from BCS state to FFLO state?

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Phase Diagram of a Uniform System

Second order Phase Transition from BCS state to FFLO state Second order Phase Transition from SFp state to Normal state

1D uniform gases: No phase separation phase.

Single plane wave predicts an incorrect phase transition from BCS to FFLO

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Density profiles: LDA


Counterintuitively !!
1.0 1.0

0.8

N
c [h /ma

0.8

N SFP

1D

c [h /ma

0.6

SFP

1D 2 2

]
0.6 0.4 0.4

0.2 0.0 -3 10

SF

0.2 0.0 -3 10

SF

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

-2

10

-1

10

10

1/

1/

The existence of the trap usually leads to a phase separation.


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Phase Diagram in a Harmonic Trap

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Collective modes

How to detect the two exotic phases?

Sum-rule approach

SFp-SF: SFp-N:

frequency increases frequency decreases

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Phase Diagram in finite Temperature


Self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes

0.1TF

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Conclusions Phase diagram in one dimension 1D uniform gases: No phase separation phase. 1D trapped gases: Trap leads to phase separation phases.
Hui Hu, Xia-Ji Liu, and P. D. Drummond, PRL 98, 070403(2007) Xia-Ji Liu, Hui Hu, and P. D. Drummond, PRA 76, 043605 (2007) Xia-Ji Liu, Hui Hu, and P.D. Drummond, PRA 78, 023601(2008)

Open issues How about 3D? Is the phase separation phase found in experiments simply due to the trap effect? Pc = 0.7 in the unitary limit?
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The study of the BCS-BEC crossover will make a great opportunity for theorists

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