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Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Routing/Forwarding basics Building blocks Exercises BGP protocol basics Exercises BGP path attributes Best path computation Exercises

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP4)

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)...


Typical BGP topologies Routing Policy Exercises Redundancy/Load sharing Best current practices

Routing/Forwarding Basics

IP route lookup:Longest match routing


R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16

IP route lookup: Longest match routing


R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16

R1

R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 30/8 -> R6 .. R2s IP routing table

R4 10.1/16

R1

R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 .. R2s IP routing table

R4 10.1/16 10.1.1.1 & FF.0.0.0 is equal to 10.0.0.0 & FF.0.0.0 Match!

IP route lookup: Longest match routing


R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16

IP route lookup: Longest match routing


R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16

R1

R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 .. R2s IP routing table

R4 10.1/16 10.1.1.1 & FF.FF.0.0 is equal to 10.1.0.0 & FF.FF.0.0

R1

R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 ..

R4 10.1/16

Match as well!

10.1.1.1 & FF.0.0.0 is equal to 20.0.0.0 & FF.0.0.0

Does not match!

R2s IP routing table

IP route lookup: Longest match routing


R3 Packet: Destination IP address: 10.1.1.1 All 10/8 except 10.1/16

IP route lookup: Longest match routing


default is 0.0.0.0/0 can handle it using the normal longest match algorithm matches everything. Always the shortest match.

R1

R2 10/8 -> R3 10.1/16 -> R4 20/8 -> R5 .. R2s IP routing table

R4 10.1/16 Longest match, 16 bit netmask

Forwarding
Uses the routing table built by routing protocols Performs the lookup to find next-hop and outgoing interface Switches the packet with new encapsulation as per the outgoing interface

Building Blocks
Autonomous System (AS) Types of Routes IGP/EGP DMZ Policy Egress Ingress

Autonomous System (AS)


AS 100

Autonomous System(AS)...
Identified by AS number Public & Private AS numbers Examples:
Service provider Multi-homed customers Anyone needing policy discrimination

Collection of networks with same policy Single routing protocol Usually under single administrative control IGP to provide internal connectivity

Routing flow and packet flow


packet flow
egress

Egress Traffic
Packets exiting the network Based on
Route availability (what others send you) Route acceptance (what you accept from others) Policy and tuning (what you do with routes from others) Peering and transit agreements

AS 1

accept announce
ingress

announce

Routing flow

accept

AS2

packet flow

For networks in AS1 and AS2 to communicate:


AS1 must AS2 must AS2 must AS1 must announce routes to AS2 accept routes from AS1 announce routes to AS1 accept routes from AS2

Ingress Traffic
Packets entering your network Ingress traffic depends on:
What information you send and to who Based on your addressing and ASes Based on others policy (what they accept from you and what they do with it)

Types of Routes
Static Routes
configured manually

Connected Routes
created automatically when an interface is up

Interior Routes
Routes within an AS

Exterior Routes
Routes exterior to AS

What Is an EGP?

Why Do We Need an EGP?


Scaling to large network

Exterior Gateway Protocol Used to convey routing information between ASes De-coupled from the IGP Current EGP is BGP4

Hierarchy Limit scope of failure

Define administrative boundary Policy


Control reachability to prefixes

Hierarchy of Routing Protocols


Other ISPs BGP4

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)


A C

AS 100
B

DMZ Network
D

AS 101

BGP4 / OSPF BGP4


Local NAP FDDI

BGP4/Static Customers

AS 102

Shared network between ASes

Addressing - ISP
Need to reserve address space for its network. Need to allocate address blocks to its customers. Need to take growth into consideration Upstream link address is allocated by upstream provider

BGP Basics
Terminology Protocol Basics Messages General Operation Peering relationships (EBGP/IBGP) Originating routes

Terminology
Neighbor
Configured BGP peer

Protocol Basics
Peering
A C

NLRI/Prefix
NLRI - network layer reachability information Reachability information for a IP address & mask

AS 100

AS 101
D

Routing protocol B used between ASes


if you arent connected to multiple ASes, you dont need BGP :)
E

Router-ID
Highest IP address configured on the router

Route/Path
NLRI advertised by a neighbor

AS 102

Runs over TCP Path vector protocol Incremental update

BGP Basics ...


Each AS originates a set of NLRI NLRI is exchanged between BGP peers Can have multiple paths for a given prefix Picks the best path and installs in the IP forwarding table Policies applied (through attributes) influences BGP path selection
AS 100
220.220.8.0/24

BGP Peers
A C

AS 101
220.220.16.0/24

BGP speakers are called peers Peers in different ASs are called External Peers
eBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection

AS 102
220.220.32.0/24

Note: eBGP Peers normally should be directly connected.

BGP Peers
A C

BGP Peers
A C

AS 100
220.220.8.0/24

AS 101
220.220.16.0/24

AS 100
220.220.8.0/24

AS 101
220.220.16.0/24

BGP speakers are called peers Peers in the same AS are called Internal Peers
iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection

AS 102
220.220.32.0/24

BGP Peers exchange Update messages containing Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI)
BGP Update Messages

AS 102
220.220.32.0/24

Note: iBGP Peers dont have to be directly connected.

Configuring BGP Peers


AS 100
A
.2 eBGP TCP Connection

Configuring BGP Peers


AS 100
222.222.10.0/30 .1

AS 101
C
.2

AS 101
iBGP TCP Connection .1

222.222.10.0/30

220.220.8.0/24

.1

.2

.1

220.220.16.0/24

.2

220.220.8.0/24

.2

.1

.2

220.220.16.0/24

.1

interface Serial 1 ip address 220.220.16.2 255.255.255.252 interface Serial 0 ip address 222.222.10.2 255.255.255.252 router bgp 100 network 220.220.8.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 222.222.10.1 remote-as 101 remoteinterface Serial 0 ip address 222.222.10.1 255.255.255.252 router bgp 101 network 220.220.16.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 222.222.10.2 remote-as 100 remoterouter bgp 101 network 220.220.16.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 220.220.16.1 remote-as 101 remote-

interface Serial 1 ip address 222.220.16.1 255.255.255.252 router bgp 101 network 220.220.16.0 mask 255.255.255.0 neighbor 220.220.16.2 remote-as 101 remote-

BGP Peering sessions are established using the BGP neighbor configuration command
External (eBGP) is configured when AS numbers are different

BGP Peering sessions are established using the BGP neighbor configuration command
External (eBGP) is configured when AS numbers are different Internal (iBGP) is configured when AS numbers are same

Configuring BGP Peers


AS 100
B

Configuring BGP Peers


215.10.7.1

AS 100

215.10.7.2

215.10.7.3

iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection

iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection

Each iBGP speaker must peer with every other iBGP speaker in the AS

Loopback interface are normally used as peer connection end-points

Configuring BGP Peers


215.10.7.1

Configuring BGP Peers


215.10.7.1

AS 100

215.10.7.2

AS 100

215.10.7.2

215.10.7.3

215.10.7.3

iBGP TCP/IP interface loopback 0 ip address 215.10.7.1 255.255.255.255 Peer Connection


router bgp 100 network 220.220.1.0 neighbor 215.10.7.2 neighbor 215.10.7.2 neighbor 215.10.7.3 neighbor 215.10.7.3

iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection

interface loopback 0 ip address 215.10.7.2 255.255.255.255 router bgp 100 network 220.220.5.0 neighbor 215.10.7.1 neighbor 215.10.7.1 neighbor 215.10.7.3 neighbor 215.10.7.3

remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0 remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0

remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0 remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0

Configuring BGP Peers


215.10.7.1

BGP Updates NLRI


Network Layer Reachability Information Used to advertise feasible routes Composed of:
Network Prefix Mask Length

AS 100

215.10.7.2

215.10.7.3

iBGP TCP/IP Peer Connection


interface loopback 0 ip address 215.10.7.3 255.255.255.255 router bgp 100 network 220.220.1.0 neighbor 215.10.7.1 neighbor 215.10.7.1 neighbor 215.10.7.2 neighbor 215.10.7.2

remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0 remote-as 100 updateupdate -source loopback0

BGP Updates Attributes


Used to convey information associated with NLRI
AS path Next hop Local preference Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Community Origin Aggregator

AS-Path Attribute
Sequence of ASes a route has traversed Loop detection Apply policy AS 300
AS 200
170.10.0.0/16

AS 100
180.10.0.0/16

Network Path 180.10.0.0/16 300 200 100 170.10.0.0/16 300 200

AS 400
150.10.0.0/16 Network 180.10.0.0/16 170.10.0.0/16 150.10.0.0/16 Path 300 200 100 300 200 300 400

AS 500

Next Hop Attribute


AS 300 AS 200
150.10.0.0/16 B
.2 192.10.1.0/30

Next Hop Attribute


AS 300 AS 200
150.10.0.0/16 E B C
.1 192.10.1.0/30 .2

140.10.0.0/16
.2

140.10.0.0/16 D E

.1

Network Next-Hop 160.10.0.0/16 192.20.2.1

Path 100
.1

.2

.1

AS 100
160.10.0.0/16

Next hop to reach a network Usually a local network is the next hop in eBGP session

Next hop to reach a network 100 160.10.0.0/16 192.10.1.1 200 Usually a local network is the next hop in eBGP session Next Hop updated between eBGP Peers

Network Next-Hop 150.10.0.0/16 192.10.1.1

Path 200

AS 100
160.10.0.0/16

BGP Update Messages

BGP Update Messages

Next Hop Attribute


AS 300 AS 200
150.10.0.0/16 B
.2 192.10.1.0/30

Next Hop Attribute (more)


140.10.0.0/16 E

.1

.2

.1

Next hop not 192.10.1.1 160.10.0.0/16 changed between iBGP peers

Network Next-Hop 150.10.0.0/16 192.10.1.1

Path 200 200 100

IGP should carry route to next hops Recursive route look-up Unlinks BGP from actual physical topology Allows IGP to make intelligent forwarding decision

AS 100
160.10.0.0/16

BGP Update Messages

BGP Updates Withdrawn Routes


Used to withdraw network reachability Each Withdrawn Route is composed of:
Network Prefix Mask Length
AS 123
.1

BGP Updates Withdrawn Routes


AS 321
192.168.10.0/24 .2

BGP Update Message

Withdraw Routes 192.192.25.0/24

Connectivity lost

192.192.25.0/24

Network Next-Hop Path 150.10.0.0/16 192.168.10.2 321 200 192.192.25.0/24 192.168.10.2 321

BGP Routing Information Base


BGP RIB
Network *>i160.10.1.0/24 *>i160.10.3.0/24 Next-Hop 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 Path i i

BGP Routing Information Base


BGP RIB
Network *> 160.10.0.0/16 * i s> 160.10.1.0/24 s> 160.10.3.0/24 Next-Hop 0.0.0.0 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 Path i i i i

router bgp 100 network 160.10.0.0 255.255.0.0 no auto-summary


D D D R S 10.1.2.0/24 160.10.1.0/24 160.10.3.0/24 153.22.0.0/16 192.1.1.0/24 D D D R S 10.1.2.0/24 160.10.1.0/24 160.10.3.0/24 153.22.0.0/16 192.1.1.0/24

router bgp 100 network 160.10.0.0 255.255.0.0 aggregate-address 160.10.0.0 255.255.0.0 summary-only no auto-summary

Route Table

BGP network commands are normally used to populate the BGP RIB with routes from the Route Table

Route Table

BGP aggregate-address commands may be used to install summary routes in the BGP RIB

BGP Routing Information Base


BGP RIB
Network *> 160.10.0.0/16 * i s> 160.10.1.0/24 s> 160.10.3.0/24 *> 192.1.1.0/24 Next-Hop 0.0.0.0 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 Path i i i i ?

BGP Routing Information Base


IN Process BGP RIB
Network *>i160.10.1.0/24 *>i160.10.3.0/24 * > 173.21.0.0/16 Next-Hop 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.1 Path i i 100

OUT Process

Update

Update

router bgp 100 network 160.10.0.0 255.255.0.0 redistribute static route-map foo no auto-summary
D D D R S 10.1.2.0/24 160.10.1.0/24 160.10.3.0/24 153.22.0.0/16 192.1.1.0/24

access-list 1 permit 192.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 route-map foo permit 10 match ip address 1

Network 173.21.0.0/16

Next-Hop 192.20.2.1

Path 100

Route Table

BGP redistribute commands can also be used to populate the BGP RIB with routes from the Route Table

BGP in process
receives path information from peers results of BGP path selection placed in the BGP table best path flagged (denoted by >)

BGP Routing Information Base


IN Process BGP RIB
Network *>i160.10.1.0/24 *>i160.10.3.0/24 *> 173.21.0.0/16 Next-Hop 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.1 Path i i 100

BGP Routing Information Base


BGP RIB
Network *>i160.10.1.0/24 *>i160.10.3.0/24 *> 173.21.0.0/16 Next-Hop 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.1 Path i i 100

OUT Process

Update

Update

Network 160.10.1.0/24 160.10.3.0/24 173.21.0.0/16

Next-Hop 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.2 192.20.2.1

Path 200 200 200 100

BGP out process


builds update using info from RIB may modify update based on config Sends update to peers
Next-Hop changed

D D D R S B

10.1.2.0/24 160.10.1.0/24 160.10.3.0/24 153.22.0.0/16 192.1.1.0/24 173.21.0.0/16

Best paths installed in routing table if:


prefix and prefix length are unique lowest protocol distance

Route Table

The Bible & other resources


Route-views.oregon-ix.net

Types of BGP Messages


OPEN

Internet Routing Architectures


Bassam Halabi pg. 168 BGP Decision Process Summary

To negotiate and establish peering

UPDATE
To exchange routing information

KEEPALIVE
To maintain peering session

NOTIFICATION
To report errors (results in session reset)

Internal BGP Peering (IBGP)


AS 100
D A B

External BGP Peering (EBGP)


A

AS 100
B

AS 101

BGP peer within the same AS Not required to be directly connected Maintain full IBGP mesh or use Route Reflection

Between BGP speakers in different AS Directly connected or peering address is reachable

An Example
A AS200 F B C

35.0.0.0/8 AS3561

Basic BGP commands

Configuration commands
AS21

router bgp <AS-number> neighbor <ip address> remote-as <as-number>

Show commands
D AS101 E AS675

show ip bgp summary show ip bgp neighbors

Learns about 35.0.0.0/8 from F & D

Originating routes...
Using network command or redistribution
network <ipaddress> redistribute <protocol name>

Originating routes/Inserting prefixes into BGP


network command network 198.10.4.0 mask 255.255.254.0 ip route 198.10.0.0 255.255.254.0 serial 0 matching route must exist in the routing table before network is announced! Origin: IGP

Requires the route to be present in the routing table

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Update message

Stable IBGP peering


Unlinks IBGP peering from physical topology. Carry loopback address in IGP
router ospf <ID> passive-interface loopback0

Withdrawn routes Path Attributes Advertised routes

Unlink peering from physical topology


router bgp <AS1> neighbor <x.x.x.x> remote-as <AS1> neighbor <x.x.x.x> update-source loopback0

BGP Path Attributes: Why ?


Encoded as Type, Length & Value (TLV) Transitive/Non-Transitive attributes Some are mandatory Used in path selection To apply policy for steering traffic

BGP4 continued...

BGP Path Attributes...

AS-PATH
Updated by the sending router with its AS number

Origin AS-path Next-hop Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED) Local preference BGP Community Others...

Contains the list of AS numbers the update traverses. Used to detect routing loops
Each time the router receives an update, if it finds its AS number, it discards the update

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AS-Path
AS 200
170.10.0.0/16

Next-Hop
150.10.1.1 150.10.1.2

AS 100
180.10.0.0/16

AS 200
150.10.0.0/16 A B

AS 300

Sequence of ASes a route has traversed AS 300 Loop detection


AS 400
150.10.0.0/16

180.10.0.0/16 dropped 150.10.0.0/16 150.10.1.1 160.10.0.0/16 150.10.1.1

AS 100 AS 500
180.10.0.0/16 300 200 100 170.10.0.0/16 300 200 150.10.0.0/16 300 400

160.10.0.0/16

Next hop router to reach a network Advertising router/Third party in EBGP Unmodified in IBGP
Cisco Systems Confidential

0799_04F7_c2

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Third Party Next Hop


AS 200
192.68.1.0/24 150.1.1.3

Next Hop...

C
150.1.1.1 peering 150.1.1.2 150.1.1.3

B
192.68.1.0/24

IGP should carry route to next hops Recursive route look-up Unlinks BGP from actual physical topology Allows IGP to make intelligent forwarding decision

AS 201

More efficient, but bad idea!

Local Preference
Not for EBGP, mandatory for IBGP Default value is 100 on Ciscos Local to an AS Used to prefer one exit over another Path with highest local preference wins
AS 200

Local Preference
AS 100
160.10.0.0/16

AS 300
D
500 800

A
160.10.0.0/16 500 > 160.10.0.0/16 800

AS 400
C

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Multi-Exit Discriminator
Non-transitive
Represented as a numeric value (0-0xffffffff) Used to convey the relative preference of entry points Comparable if paths are from the same AS Path with lower MED wins IGP metric can be conveyed as MED

Multi-Exit Discriminator (MED)


AS 200

C
preferred
192.68.1.0/24 2000 192.68.1.0/24 1000

B
192.68.1.0/24

AS 201

Origin
Conveys the origin of the prefix Three values:
IGP - Generated using network statement
ex: network 35.0.0.0

Communities
Transitive, Non-mandatory Represented as a numeric value (0-0xffffffff) Used to group destinations Each destination could be member of multiple communities Flexibility to scope a set of prefixes within or across AS for applying policy

EGP - Redistributed from EGP Incomplete - Redistribute IGP


ex: redistribute ospf

IGP < EGP < INCOMPLETE

Community...

Synchronization
1880

Service Provider AS 200


C

C OSPF
35/8 209

D
D
Community Local Preference 201:110 110 201:120 120 Community:201:120

690

Community:201:110

B
192.68.1.0/24

C not running BGP (non-pervasive BGP) A wont advertise 35/8 to D until the IGP is in sync Turn synchronization off!
Run pervasive BGP router bgp 1880
no sync

Customer AS 201

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BGP Route Selection (bestpath)


Only one path as the bestpath !
Route has to be synchronized
Prefix in forwarding table

BGP Route Selection ...


Shortest AS-path length
number of ASes in the AS-path attribute

Next-hop has to be accessible


Next-hop in forwarding table

Lowest origin
IGP < EGP < INCOMPLETE

Largest weight
Local to the router

Lowest MED
between paths from same AS

External over internal


closest exit from a router

Largest local preference


Spread within AS

Closest next-hop
Lower IGP metric, closer exit from as AS

Locally sourced
Via redistribute or network statement

Lowest router-id Lowest IP address of neighbor

BGP Route Selection... Stub AS


AS 100

Typically no need for BGP Point default towards the ISP


AS 200
D
Increase AS path attribute length by at least 1

AS 300

ISP advertises the stub network to Internet Policy confined within ISP policy

AS 400
AS 400s Policy to reach AS100 AS 200 preferred path AS 300 backup

Stub AS Multi-homed AS
B A

AS 101
Provider

Only border routers speak BGP IBGP only between border routers Exterior routes must be redistributed in a controlled fashion into IGP or use defaults

Customer

AS 100

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Multi-homed AS Service Provider Network


AS 100
provider

AS 300
A B C D
provider

IBGP used to carry exterior routes IGP keeps track of topology Full IBGP mesh is required

AS 200
customer

Common Service Provider Network


AS 100
A B C H

Routing Policy
AS 200

Why?
To steer traffic through preferred paths Inbound/Outbound prefix filtering To enforce Customer-ISP agreements

AS 300
D

provider
E

How ?
AS based route filtering - filter list Prefix based route filtering - distribute list BGP attribute modification - route maps

AS 400

Distribute list - using IP access lists


access-list 1 deny 10.0.0.0 access-list 1 permit any access-list 2 permit 20.0.0.0 more access-lists as prefixes are added ... router bgp 100 neighbor 171.69.233.33 remote-as 33 neighbor 171.69.233.33 distribute-list 1 in neighbor 171.69.233.33 distribute-list 2 out

Filter list rules Regular Expressions


RE is a pattern to match against an input string Used to match against AS-path attribute ex: ^3561.*100.*1$ Flexible enough to generate complex filter list rules

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Filter list - using as-path access list

Route Maps
router bgp 300 neighbor 2.2.2.2 remote-as 100 neighbor 2.2.2.2 route-map SETCOMMUNITY out ! route-map SETCOMMUNITY permit 10 match ip address 1 match community 1 set community 300:100 ! access-list 1 permit 35.0.0.0 ip community-list 1 permit 100:200

ip as-path access-list 1 permit 3561 ip as-path access-list 2 deny 35 ip as-path access-list 2 permit .* router bgp 100 neighbor 171.69.233.33 remote-as 33 neighbor 171.69.233.33 filter-list 1 in neighbor 171.69.233.33 filter-list 2 out

Route-map match & set clauses


AS-path Community IP address

Route-map Configuration Example


neighbor <y.y.y.y> route-map AS200_IN in ! route-map AS200_IN permit 10 match community 1 set local-preference 200 ! ip community-list 1 permit 100:200

Match Clauses

Set Clauses
AS-path prepend Community Local-Preference MED Origin Weight Others...

ISP2

C21

ethH

C22

ethH

ISP3
Inbound route-map to set community

neighbor <x.x.x.x> route-map AS100_IN in ! route-map AS100_IN permit 10 set community 100:200

eth H

C31

C32

eth H

Load-sharing - single path


Router A: interface loopback 0 ip address 20.200.0.1 255.255.255.255 ! router bgp 100 neighbor 10.200.0.2 remote-as 200 neighbor 10.200.0.2 update-source loopback0 neighbor 10.200.0.2 ebgp-multi-hop 2 ! ip route 10.200.0.2 255.255.255.255 <DMZ-link1, link2>

Load Sharing & Redundancy using BGP

A
AS100
Loopback 0 20.200.0.1

Loopback 0 10.200.0.2

AS200

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Load Sharing - Multiple paths from the same AS


Router A: router bgp 100 neighbor 10.200.0.1 remote-as 200 neighbor 10.300.0.1 remote-as 200 maximum-paths 2

Redundancy - Multi-homing
Reliable connection to Internet 3 common cases of multi-homing:
- default from all providers - customer + default routes from all - full routes from all

A 100 200

Note:A still only advertises one best path to ibgp peers

Default from all providers


Low memory/CPU solution Provider sends BGP default
provider is selected based on IGP metric

Default from all providers

Provider AS 200
D E

Provider AS 300

Inbound traffic decided by providers policy


Can influence using outbound policy, example: AS-path prepend

AS 400
C

Customer + default from all providers


Medium memory and CPU solution Granular routing for customer routes and default for the rest Inbound traffic decided by providers policy
Can influence using outbound policy

Customer routes from all providers


Customer AS 100
160.10.0.0/16

Provider AS 200
D E

Provider AS 300

C chooses shortest AS path

AS 400
C

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Full routes from all providers


More memory/CPU Full granular routing Usually transit ASes take full routes Usually pervasive BGP

Full routes from all providers


AS 100 AS 500

AS 200
D E

AS 300

C chooses shortest AS path

AS 400
C

Best Practices IGP in Backbone


IGP connects your backbone together, not your clients routes IGP must converge quickly IGP should carry netmask information OSPF, IS-IS, EIGRP

Best Practices... Connecting to a customer


Static routes
You control directly No route flaps

Shared routing protocol or leaking


You must filter your customers info Route flaps

BGP for multi-homed customers

Best Practices... Connecting to other ISPs


Use BGP4 Advertise only what you serve Take back as little as you can Take the shortest exit

Best Practices... The Internet Exchange


Long distance connectivity is expensive Connect to several providers at a single point

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