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1 Human trafficking is considered as todays tremendous problem of human rights.

It is recognized as the third largest and widespread criminal industry in the world. The U. S. Stt Department in its Report n Humn Trafficking (2005, p. 6) estimates that betwn 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across international borders every year. The United Nations in its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons gives a comprehensive definition for human trafficking:
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation (2000, p. 2).

Trafficking was a contravention against humans many years ago and it is still ongoing process. Eventually it became international, global issue because today almost every country in the world is affected by human trafficking. The aim of this essay is to enhance the understanding of the human trafficking by identifying possible causes and effects. Furthermore to evaluate measures that were done by international organizations and governments and how these actions can be applied to two main types of human trafficking: child labor and sex trafficking. Trafficking in persons can be explained into several main causes such as lack of awareness, poverty, cultural factors and weak law enforcement. Many people, who migrate for work or other reasons within the country or abroad, are usually unaware of the danger and the consequences. According to the US Department report on human trafficking (2011), up to 30 per cent of victims had been trafficked because of unawareness. Today there are many actions that are taking place against this problem. For example, International Organization of Migration is raising awareness by organizing forums, workshops, meetings in the schools and universities, spreading various booklets, billboards and advertisement (IOM, 2012). Lack of awareness is closely linked to

2 education and poverty in the country. If people are illiterate, they lack the opportunity to work and earn more money. This can lead to the poverty which is regarded as the root cause of trafficking (UNDP, 2005, p. 2). As is stated by Keefer (2006, p. 5), increasing poverty drives women and children into situations of sexual exploitation and predatory recruiters use this advantage to recruit people into sex trafficking. However, poverty should not be viewed as the individual root of trafficking, but as a broader concept in terms of financial and non-financial aspects including both economic and social factors (Danailova-Trainor & Laczko, 2010, p.45). Yet, on balance, the causal effect between poverty and human trafficking is acknowledged. The main point of human trafficking tends to be the exploitation of victims for profit. It is the most profitable illegal business that capitalizes on international migration flow or migration in the one country. It has an enormous impact on its victims as they suffer lsting phsicl and the emotionl trauma, rape, threats ginst slf and fmil, r vn death (U.S. Department of State, 2009, p. 5). Human trafficking also increases victims possibility of contracting grv disss such s HIV/IDS. The impact of human trafficking is vast: it threatens the safety and security of people worldwide. s it is ftn the cs with complicated and unpleasant issues, most individuals find it comforting t believe that humn trafficking will nvr ffct them personally. Unfortunately, human trafficking exists and may touch anyone. Moreover, the governments have a particular duty to act because human trafficking is a direct threat to national security of the country. Keefer (2006, p. 3) suggests that money made from trafficking can be linked to funding terrorist activities. On the other hand international organizations are making efforts to decrease trafficking too. Human trafficking is the modern-day equivalent of the slave trade, and it is the fastest-growing criminal industry in the world. To combat the crime, international organizations should implement programs that would aim to raise awareness of trafficking existence and encourage society to

3 purchase fair trade, while police investigations and deep analysis of these incidents should be improved by governments. International organizations are very influential on reducing human trafficking in terms of education, increasing awareness and media resources. For example international organizations like an United Nations office on drugs and crime (UNODC) have developed the first aid kit for law enforcement agencies, which includes booklets, posters, info cards and local contact point sheets (UNODC, 2010). This can be very helpful for law enforcement officers who deal with human trafficking and who do not know how to provide help for victims because they experience lack of resources and time for training staff (ibid.). Another action that was taken by UNODC is the Model Law against Trafficking in Persons. It contains provisions that States should include into their domestic legislation (UNODC, 2009). The main areas that are considered in it are: criminalization of trafficking, punishments, awareness - raising, education, research and training. An International Organization for Migration (IOM) is another institution that fights against human trafficking. IOM provides social, medical and legal support for victims. Social support comprises temporary accommodation, food, clothes and other items when necessary. As victims face serious health problems after trafficking, they need medical support. Medical assistance is provided at the Assistance and Protection Centre. People, who suffered from trafficking, usually have serious health risks like HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy and infectious diseases (IOM, 2000). Thus, specialists, doctors, nurses and psychiatrists help them. IOM also support victims by protecting their rights. For instance, beneficiaries may not have legal documents and specialized services provide legal assistance. This counseling also includes witness rights and protection services. All these programs and organizations follow the same target, but sometimes their efforts are not

4 enough for preventing human trafficking. That is why some external help is needed. This can be governmental help. Purchasing Fair Trade certified prducts and gift itms md by survivours f humn trafficking would positively influence n humn trafficking elimination. Fair Trade prducts r slave - free, child lbr - free, and exploitation free. According to Siddharths report (2009, p.70), Any successful effort to combat human trafficking must confront not only the supply of trafficked humans, but also the demand for forced labor and commercial sex that fuels it. The movement t stop humn trafficking includes significant efforts to address factors that push victims into being trafficked, but it also recognizes a pull fctr s part f the cus. Society should be aware of the illegal labor force. Jenkins suggests that people need to campaign themselves by trying to get manufacturers to tell people that their products are traffic free (2011, p.23). Those campaigns would encourage people to help raise awareness about trafficking, and to require certifications from manufacturers, which would guarantee that products are traffic free. However, this issue is still unresolved. Fair Trade was born to protect small - scale producers from abuses. Governmental laws and measures are another way of reducing human trafficking. They can be even more effective than activities made by international organizations. The most effective means of solving this problem is by intelligence-driven investigations against major violators. Keefer (2006, p.5) suggests that more in-depth investigations, study and analysis of crime organizations and links between them should be included into anti-trafficking strategy. International cooperation in addressing trafficking is also important aspect of governmental efforts. Anti-trafficking strategy includes control of laws, occlusion of crime proceeds and gripping money got from trafficking (ibid.). These profits can be used as medical, psychological and financial support to trafficked victims. UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons,

5 Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol) states 3P paradigm: prosecution, protection, and prevention. The governments should incorporate this sample in order to combat the crime. The U.S. Department of State placed each country onto three different tiers which indicate the level of governments action to reduce trafficking in persons. The ranking is given by governments funding and partnership with NGOs, criminal penalties for human trafficking, victim protection, especially providing access to some services, and implementation of human trafficking laws (U.S. Department of State, 2011, p. 13). 117 countries were divided into 3 tiers. Tier 1 countries are fully abiding with minimum standards fr the elimination f trafficking (ibid.). Tier 2 countries d nt full comply, but they are making great efforts (ibid.). Tier 3, do not fully comply and do not making efforts (ibid.). Each country annually gives report about the progress or regress. For example, Algeria became less active in anti-trafficking motion, so during 2010 and 2011 it moved from tier 2 to tier 3 (ibid.). India, which advanced and became country that making significant efforts for reducing trafficking, moved from tier 3 to tier 2, while Slovakia and Portugal have made even more effort and were placed in tier 1. The examples of progress countries are occurring more frequently. Thus, it indicates that countries are doing various efforts against trafficking. So, governmental measures are amplifying year by year. Slovakia is one of the good examples of improvement in anti-trafficking measures. According to Trafficking in persons report 2011, Slovak police investigated significant cs f forced lbr involving 340 victims from Ukraine and Romania (U.S. Department of State, 2011, p. 323). Even if the cases of trafficking were not classified as human trafficking in the police, prosecutor later labeled it as human trafficking case and redirected to police (ibid.). Government of Slovakia also provided victims with financial support for a minimum of 180 days and opened new trafficking information center in

6 Eastern Slovakia, which should prevent trafficking in persons. This example is clearly shows how 3P paradigm: prosecution, protection and prevention is applied on practice by one country. Trafficking in persons is one of the forms of violence against its most frequent victims: women and children. The U.S. Department of State, UN and other international organizations estimated that 80% of all people trafficked are females and 50% of those females are under 18 years. Most of those girls are forced into sex trade. Implementing programs that would aim to raise awareness of trafficking existence and risks at schools would help to reduce societys, particularly womens vulnerability to trafficking. Young girls are usually easy targets for trafficking because of unawareness of the risks associated with migration and lckd support structures when migrating voluntarily (ILO, 2008, p. 16). Women particularly from ethnic minorities and socially disadvantaged areas are the most vulnerable part of society. Due to the poor quality of education and unawareness of trafficking existence, they easily become involved in sexual and labor exploitation. The motivating migration factors r vn greatr fr ethnic minority girls in rmt, impoverished areas who hv limitd access t education and re attracted t a city life that, cmprd t working in the green terraced fields, appears easier and more perspective (ibid.). However rather than ending up in the cities, most of girls are unwittingly trafficked into even more remote rural areas for sexual or labor exploitation. Thereby, the educating system must be developed and programs that would aim to raise awareness should be implemented. International organizations like IOM (2000) and UN.GIFT (n.d.) have implemented several programs that concentrate on dealing with problems of education and family problems. For example, International Organization for Migration have special shelters in almost each country, where victims of human trafficking, especially young women, can come and get more information about this type crime, or get some material aid from donations. Moreover, it delivers trainings on

7 trafficking, professional and life skills. Representatives from law, police and migration bureaus need to visit the schools, promote desire to succeed in life and discuss womens own role in society, trafficking risks and its prevention. As a result, it would decrease trafficking of girls and increase the girls ability to protect themselves, states World Education Organization (2012, para. 7). According to ILO (2008, p. 17) the education assistance would help to increase self-reliance, fearlessness, and confidence among women and girls, furthermore it would help them focus on their own education. Therefore, women would be no longer trapped into human trafficking. However, implementing the program would not guarantee the elimination of human trafficking. It would not destroy this social deviation, because most of the trafficking victims are forced to work against their will. In addition, this solution does not consider and touch the roots of the problem. Hence, it is tiny contribution in combating the human trafficking. Non-governmental organizations and some agencies can provide social support to these victims, while government can allocate money for educating programs or strengthen the investigation of crime. Second major type of human trafficking is children exploitation. 1.2 million - a number of children trafficked each year (UN. GIFT, n.d.). They are exploited as free labor due to the helplessness and not having rights in some countries. One possible reason for increase of child exploitation appears to be financial crisis. It seems possible that countries became unable to pay for credits, so they started reduce public expenditure on health care and new jobs. These appropriate conditions may result in rising of human trafficking regarding child labor. The International Labor Organization (ILO) convention 182 - Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor states that worst forms of child labor comprises: work which is harmful for the health, safety and morals of the children; offering of a child for prostitution; all forms of slavery such as trafficking of children and forced labor (ILO, 1999). Children are being trafficked by men or agents who sell children to

8 employers. They often persuade parents that child will have good work and better future than his parents. In reality there is no good work for children. This problem requires comprehensive approach. That is why international organization like the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), International Organization of Migration (IOM) and many others provide educational rehabilitation of these children to prevent them from being trafficked again. Lack of the awareness is one of the reasons for child trafficking. A lot of non-governmental organizations are promoting awareness by spreading leaflets, adds on television, billboards and posters. These actions may contribute to awareness of parents, so they will be careful. The governments approach includes economically empowering families by different social support programs which should prevent trafficking. Protection of children is another measure that governments can take. It is about providing temporal shelter until being repatriated. That kind of governmental approach covers also socio economic factors such as poverty, illiteracy and lack of awareness. Overall, reducing human trafficking is not only about educating and promoting awareness, but also social support and more in depth investigations. To sum up, human trafficking is the global problem which is affected by main factors such as educational system, poverty and cultural differences. A lot of government, private companies, nongovernmental organizations and all communities are making efforts to end to problem of trafficking. Hence, effective way to combat trafficking tends to be raising awareness by implementing special programs at schools and purchasing fair trade, which would unveil the ugly truth and eradicate a slavery of the twenty-first century. However, this is not enough to combat the crime. Governmental intervention is an important factor too. Law enforcement, prevention, protection, prosecution of human trafficking and funding are those areas which should be controlled by government. These two big systems, international organizations and government, can

9 cooperate in order to achieve success in reducing human trafficking cases around the world. Together they will achieve better results in reducing human trafficking. Everyone can do their part to help fight and prevent human trafficking. Make and spread out pamphlets, banners and announcements. By following those steps, people can change the society and try to prevent human trafficking worldwide. Human beings were not created to be sold into modern day slavery.

Reference list Danailova-Trainor, G. and Laczko, F. (2010). Trafficking in Persons and Development: Towards Greater Policy Coherence. International Migration, 48(4), pp. 38-83. Retrieved February 12, 2012, from ?vd=87

10 International Labor Organization (ILO). Convention 182: Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (1999). Geneve. Retrieved February 19, 2012, from International Labor Organization (ILO). (2008). Meeting the challenge. Retrieved April 18, from gknowledge/meetingthechallenge.pdf International Organisation for Migration (IOM). (2000). Preventing Trafficking and Protecting Victims in Moldova. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from Jenkins, K.M. (2011). Transnational Crime In The Developing World. Global Financial Integrity, 11, p. 23. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from Keefer, S. (2006). Human trafficking and the impact on national security for the United States. Retrieved February 9, 2012, from AD=ADA448573 Mitchell, M.L. (1994). Forced Labor and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits. Cornell University ILR School, 15(3), p. 56. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from

11 Nikolic-Ristanovic, V. (2010). Supporting victims of trafficking: towards reconciling the security of victims and states. Security & Human Rights, 21(3), pp. 189-202. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from ?vd123 Siddharth, K. (2011). Supply and Demand: Human Trafficking in Global Economy. Harvard International Review, 33(2), pp. 66-71. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from United Nations. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations convention against transnational organized crime. (2000). Palermo. Retrieved February 19, 2012, from United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2005). Trafficking in human beings in south eastern Europe. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT). (n.d.). Human trafficking: the facts. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from ICKING_-_THE_FACTS_-_final.pdf United Nations office on drugs and crime (UNODC). (2009). The global initiative to fight human trafficking. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from %20brochure.pdf

12 United Nations office on drugs and crime (UNODC). (2010). Human Trafficking First Aid Kit for Law Enforcement Agencies. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from United States Department of State. (2005). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from United States Department of State. (2009). Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from Wheaton, E.M. (2010). Economics of Human Trafficking. International Migration, 48(4), pp. 114147. Retrieved February 12, 2012, from