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University of California, Berkeley EECS 117

Spring 2004 Prof. A. Niknejad

Final Exam(closed book) Friday, May 21, 2004


Guidelines: Closed book and notes. You may use a calculator. Do not unstaple the exam. Warning: Illustrations not to scale. 1. (18 points) The initially charged transmission line shown below is suddenly disconnected from the source at t = 0. The line has a characteristic impedance of Z1 = 50 and Rs = 25. The line has a propagation time delay of td .

t = 0+ + V0

Rs

Z 1 td

(a) Draw the bounce diagram for the circuit for 0 < t < 4tp .

(b) Sketch the voltage waveform at the output.

(c) Sketch the voltage waveform at the input across Rs .

2. (15 points) A top secret government laboratory wishes to isolate its mainframe computer from potential outside eavesdropping. Specify the thickness of walls shown below to prevent outside detection if the minimum detectable signal power is 10 pW/m2 . The walls are made of a conductive material with resistivity = 5 102 -m. The measured electric eld strength on the inner surface of the wall is 10 mV/m at a frequency of f = 1 GHz. You may assume that the computer radiates its power isotropically (equally in all directions) and the incoming radiation onto the surface of the walls is a TEM mode plane wave.

(a) Calculate the amount of reected and transmitted eld into the conductive walls as a function of t.

(b) Estimate the thickness t to prevent detection of the leakage radiation.

3. (20 points) Two long parallel wires carry an AC current as shown below. A rectangular loop is placed symmetrically in between the wires in the plane of the wires. The inner loop is at a distance d = 3 mm from the wires. The loop has a length = 10 mm and a width of w = 15 mm.

I1

I1

(a) Calculate the magnetic eld in the space between the wires as a function of the current in the parallel lines. The inner loop is terminated in an open circuit as shown.

(b) Calculate the magnetic ux crossing the inner loop and the mutual inductance.

(c) Calculate the voltage pickup in the inner loop if the wires carry the AC current waveform shown below. The maximum excursion of the current I1 = 1 A and the period of oscillation is 1 s.
I1

(d) Calculate the peak force on the inner loop if a DC current of 1 mA is forced into the inner loop while the current in the long wires is of the triangular form described above but mismatched by 5%.

(e) If the loop is terminated in a resistive load, indicate the direction of current ow in the loop relative to the phase of the current in the long wires. Explain.

4. (15 points) Consider the following capacitor sandwich structure with 1 = 2 . The interface between the dielectrics is charged with a xed surface charge s = 10 mC/m2 The thickness of the structure is negligible in comparison with the width and so you may neglect fringing elds.

s t1
1

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

t2

(a) Calculate the electric elds in region 1 and region 2 when an external voltage Vs = 10 V is applied to the structure.

(b) Whats the charge density induced on the top and bottom plates?

(c) Show that the charge density q on the top plate can be expressed with an equation similar to a capacitor q = Cv + q0 , where q0 is a xed charge density. Calculate C and q0 .

(d) Alternatively, we can interpret the xed charge as producing a threshold voltage for the capacitor, such that q = C(v vt ). Calculate vt .

(e) Calculate the electrostatic energy in the volume of the capacitor structure for Vs = 0. How does this compare with the value calculated from circuit theory? Explain.

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5. (20 points) Calculate each question succinctly. (a) Calculate the SWR on each transmission line (Z0 = 48, Z1 = 24, Z2 = 6, Rs = 48, RL = 3, 0 = 2, 1 = , 2 = 2, 0 = 100m, 1 = 1.5m, 2 = .75m).
Rs

Z 0 0
0

Z 1 1
1

Z 2 2
2

RL

(b) Write down ve inductive termination impedances ZL = R + jX (X > 0) which result in an SWR of 3 on a 50 transmission line.

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(c) The current density in a circular conductor of radius r0 is given by r J(r) = J0 r0 Calculate the conductive loss per unit length per unit Amp`re of current in the e wire.

(d) Demonstrate that in the low frequency limit, a short section of a shorted transmission line shown below can be modeled as an equivalent resistor Req . Compute the value of Req in terms of the distributed line parameters R , G , L , C.
Z

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(e) Draw an equivalent circuit for small frequency osets from the frequency f = 100 MHz. Assume the wave velocity on the line is c = 1 108 m/s and = 1m. Do not calculate the equivalent lumped parameter values but simply draw an equivalent circuit.
Z

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6. (12 points) For the cross-section shown below, we wish to nd the propagation characteristics of a TEM wave. Assume that the conductors have zero resistance and the dielectric and magnetic losses are negligible at the frequency of operation.

t g y x

(a) Setup the equations for the electrostatic potential in the cross-section of the plane by writing (x, y) = f (x)g(y). What boundary conditions must be satised?

(b) Whats the propagation constant and wave impedance?

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(c) Assume that we have determined the electrostatic potential from part (a) and in rectangular coordinates, denote this potential as (x, y). Write the magnetic and electric elds in terms of the potential function (x, y).

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