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THE PROCESS OF CHANGE Definition: The process of change can be defined as when an organization that was used to a certain culture, norms organization set up, design etc. decides to adapt a new way of doing things. E.g. a bank issuing manually their services and has seen need to change hence computerize their services. The rate of organizational change is rapidly increasing. This could be attributed to rapid and continual innovation in technology i.e. the introduction of internet has seen organizations embrace the marketing of their products on the net. Also employee expectations have seen development of change in organizations. The process of management of change in an organization could be in terms of the change management principles which displays integrity and engenders openness and trust. The five principles an organization can adapt in managing change are as hereunder: Sponsorship: - The organization should ensure the need to computerize the organization or the said change. The change should receive visible support of key decision makers throughout the organization and resources are committed to the program. Planning: - The planning is conducted methodically before program implementation land committed to writing. Plans ought to be greed with major stakeholders and objective resources roles and risks are clarified. Measurement:- Objectives of the said objective that needs change should clearly be stated in measurable terms and program progress monitored and communicated to major stakeholders. Establish simple vision and strategy focus on emotional and creative aspects necessar4y to drive service. Engagement stakeholders are engaged in genuine two way dialogue in an atmosphere of openness mutual respect and trust. - Remove obstacles enable constructive feedback and lots of support From leaders recognize progress achieved. Support structures program implementers and change recipients are given resources and supporting systems they require during and after change implementation.

The organization has to go further and realize ways of how to adopt the principles as poor implementation of the principals can all the same see to the failure of the change. And it can be done in 6 stages. 1. Create tension look at reasons why the change need to happen i.e. the society in computerizing its system will save on time in serving customers and why is a change needed and set the timeframe within which it should happen i.e. set a strategic plan of say 5 year plan. We should have a branch in Mbale. - The objectives ought to be real, inspiring and relevant. 2. Harness support Get the decision makers, resource holders and those impacted by the change on board to pursue the change issue. How much can the organization achieve on its own i.e. resources or how much help do we need. 3. Articulate Goals Define critically in specific and measurable terms the desired organizational outcomes. Short term goals and achieve systematically. 4. Normative Roles Assign responsibility to specific individuals for the various tasks and outcomes. 5. Grow Capacity Build organization systems and people competencies necessary for affecting the change. 6. Make Change stick Institutionalize the change to make the way we do things around here. - Reinforce value of successful change via recruitment, promotion new change leaders weave change into culture. Employees resist change due to various reasons. 1. Fear of failure it is in our human nature to fear before taking a new chance. Even new born fears to take a first step. Therefore, some employees may feel need to cling to a past culture because it was a more secure, predictable time. If what they did in the past worked well for them, they may resist changing their behavior out of fear that will not achieve much in the future. 2. Creatures of habit / - comfort zones Doing things at same routine and predictable manner is comfortable hence to mask people to change is like asking them to move out of their comfort zone. 3. No obvious need Most human may want to look at how change will affect them and not the effect on whole organization I.e. the machines that replace human labor brings reason for employees not to want to embrace it as they will loose their jobs. 4. Loss of control - Familiar routines helps employees develop a sense of control over their work environment. Being asked to change the way they operate may make employees feel powerless and confused.

5. Concern about support system Employees operating within predictable routines know their support system will back them up during challenging times.. Changing organizational structures may shake their coincidence in their support system. They may worry about working for a new supervisor, with new employees or on unfamiliar projects because they feat that if they try and fail, there will be no one there to support them. 6. Closed minded some Employees already have an attitude towards change. Some people have formed opinions hence will already say no to change even before it is implemented in their organizations. 7. Unwilling to learn some employees may never want to learn anything new. They may say, I already know all I need to know. Like resistant Employees who already have made up their minds that change isnt productive. 8. Fear new way not be better especially if things have been going well on themselves rather than realizing that change is needed in order for the organization to stay competitive. 9. Fear of the unknown Human is prone to fear of the unknown. As mentioned above many people view their job as an important source of stability in their life. At the very least, employees depend on their regular pay cheque to take care of basic financial needs not knowing what situations can arise from may happe3n, especially in cases of change where layoffs or reduction in workforce may be necessary. 10. Fear of personal impact / personal predisposition. Is highly personal factor and can be analyzed on an individual basis. Time will want to know how change will benefit them directly. Will it make their job easier? Will they have to work harder? 11. Lack of awareness staff members at various levels may not necessarily be aware of the underlying business need for change. Whether attempts have been made at communicating this to staff or not, it must be considered and dealt with. 12. Peer pressure some employees are known pushovers that often take on the plights of one another even if they are not directly affected in some cases, these types of employees will buy into others apprehension toward change without even necessary understanding it. 13. History long standing staff members have long standing memories. They can exhibit negative feelings and attitudes based on simple misunderstandings, miscommunication and conflict. Worst for these is that some of the deep seated history involved may have happened long before the current leadership took the reins.

14. Do more or less work. 15. Climate of mistrust s managers who trust their employees make the change process an open, honest and participative affair. 16 Employees not sure had necessary skills for success in future state/loss of status And/or job security. Administrative and technological changes that threaten to alter power bases or eliminate jobs are usually strongly resisted. Poor timing. Political infighting and turf wars.

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CONCLUSION Change in organization can emerge from any level of management. It does not have to come from the top management level but in order to be most successful every levl of an organization must take part in defining what changes are needed and how they will be achieved. Hence a manager ought to manage change could be y use of proactive and reactive resistance management. Proactive involve systematic identification where resistance might come from and what it might look like. The tem identify these critical gaps and possible points of resistance and addresses them before they arise. Reactive in response to specific points the team has to listen to employees and identify sources of resistance specific action steps should be developed, communicated and implemented. Last but not least a change is as good as a rest References:Internet John P. Klotter Eight Steps to Successful Change