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Pg. 20, 25
Victory of

cover:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:59 PM Page 1
cover:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:59 PM Page 2
Victory of Aarakshan
Assaulting the Upper-Caste Heaven
The Pitfalls
of Copying
PAGE 45
PAGE 20
PAGE 42
Muslim Quota:
Keep it Simple, Silly!
'o +' ' +'
; 'a o 'ao'!
PAGE 37
PAGE 50
Cover & Graphics: Mitra T
Western
Autumn After
Arab Spring?
- -
HINDISTAN
'' '' a'a
+' '+
PAGE 31
Progress-Prone and Progress-Resistant Societies
11
11
+o + +a'

Interview With
Rajendra Yadav
OBC Literature:
A Marxist Perspective
' ''' ' : m' ' :
+' a1'
Goodnight.
Sleep and
problems with
sleep

?
U,
SU
PAGE 57
PAGE 48 PAGE 6

( )

We the (Bahujan) People


Respond

The Fall
of a Filmmaker
The SaasBahu
Dramas in Our
Living Rooms
PAGE 25
PAGE 17
m' 'a' a''1
'a ':' ' 1
PART I
I
Content:Layout 1 8/27/2011 10:07 PM Page 1
Vol. III
Dr Silvia Fernandes
Chair, Aspire Prakashan Pvt. Ltd.
Prabhu Guptara
Patron and Chief Advisor
Sunil Sardar
Patron and Advisor
Satyaveer Chakrapani
Director and Advisor
Ivan Kostka
Editor-in-Chief
Ashish Alexander
Editor
Pramod Ranjan
Editor (Hindi)
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Prabhu Guptara (Europe)
Dilip Mandal (New Delhi)
Vishal Mangalwadi (USA)
Gail Omvedt (New Delhi)
Thom Wolf (New Delhi)
Mitra T.
Chief Designer
Office: FORWARD Press
803 Deepali, 92 Nehru Place
New Delhi 110019
Tel. (011) 46538687 Fax: (011) 46538664
Email: info@forwardmagazine.in
Printed, published and owned by
Ivan Anthony Kostka and printed at
M.P. Printers, B-220, Phase-II,
Noida, UP - 201301 and published from
803 Deepali, 92 Nehru Place
New Delhi 110019
FORWARD Press logo designed by Etienne
Coutinho; assisted by Amogh Pant
Disclaimer: The views expressed in the
articles are those of the writers. The magazine will
not bear any responsibility for them.
SEPTEMBER 2011 No. 9 Bilingual
India has recently witnessed demagoguery and
propaganda on a scale unprecedented since the Emergency
and Mrs Gandhis India is Indira and Indira is India
election campaigns. The difference is then you had the
elected leader of the majority Congress Party and the
machinery of the state marshalled to bring into submission
or beat into silence the print media, the government having
a monopoly of broadcast media at that time.
The irony is that today, with the mushrooming of
independent private media including the 24X7 news
channels TRiPing over one another to grab middle-class eyeballs and advertising megabucks, a
nave Gandhian demagogue with his Brahmanic Chanakyas have managed to co-opt almost all
the electronic and most of the print media to their cause. Social media was also extensively used
to bring out the mainly middle-class upper-caste supporters many sporting the Gandhi topi
and/or T-shirt claiming I am Anna making for the hazaro Hazare effect.
Finally the real majority Bahujan came out in Delhi to save the Constitution and campaign
for a more representative Bahujan Lokpal Bill. To the credit of many Delhi English dailies this
Dalitbahujan rally made it to the front pages with a photograph or two, if only because traffic had
been halted in congested Connaught Place. We have an exclusive Photofeature by Vidya Bhusan
Rawat if only to compensate for the expectedly poor coverage of this significant rally. Of course,
if you were to watch the news channels that night, you would have thought that Annas was the
only show in town, if not in the country and the world!
The good news is that media including social media contributed to the success of the
movement that resulted in the 18 August Supreme Court verdict which is the subject of our
Cover Story Victory of AARAKSHAN. Dilip Mandal has masterfully analyzed the significance
of the historic though partial victory and the movement that led to this development. He uses it as
a case study of how the silenced majority can effectively use RTI, minimal media and maximize
the more democratic social media. Prof. Hany Babuof Delhi Universitys Academic Forum for
Social Justice once again has contributed a lucid analysis of the Supreme Courts verdict.
Social media especially Blackberrys free encrypted texting service was abused by Englands
rioters even as earlier they contributed to the democratic organization of parts of the Arab
Spring. Vishal Mangalwadi has contributed a thought-provoking essay on both phenomena
and draws lessons for India.
Thom Wolf launches a new series on progress-prone and progress-resistant societies putting
India and successful Indians under the scanner. Here again, by examining world trends and
historical examples he draws lessons for India to move forward on all fronts.
And the debate on OBC Literature initiated by FORWARD Press recently continues. Hans Ed-
itors Rajendra Yadav and Sanjeev are yet to be convinced of even its very existence. Prof. Lallan
Singh gives us a challenging Marxist perspective on OBC Literature.
P.S. If you are reading this issue before 1 September please come to Delhis Ramlila Maidan
from 11 am onwards for a national mass rally on the subject of the Betrayal of Caste-based OBC
Census. Prominent national Dalitbahujan/Mulnivasi political leaders will address the rally. This is
your chance to show the Anna brigade who the majority we the people really are.
P.P.S. I am NOT Anna!
ORWARD
T H I N K I N G F
ForwardThinking:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:56 PM Page 2
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SEPTEMBER 2011
|
6
FORWARD Press
FEATURE
P H O T O
WE THE (BAHUJAN) PEOPLE
RESPOND

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Save the Constitution rally in Delhi saw a large
participation from Dalitbahujans
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The media monopoly of Anna and his hazaro at
Delhis Ramlila Maidan was finally broken on 24
August when thousands of Dalitbahujans led by Udit
Raj took a morcha through central New Delhi. These
were the first voices raised against Annas claim to rep-
resent the people who are over even Parliament.
Finally, we the (Bahujan) people, the silenced major-
ity spoke up and were heard at least by the English
print media. Udit Raj, national chairman of All India
Confederation of SC/ST Organisations, addressed the
rally and told the people why they were against the
Annas movement. "I am not against the cause, but the
method of their approaching it. The Anna-led move-
ment is a threat to democracy and undermines the
supremacy of the Constitution. (See Page 31)
Photo-feature:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:52 PM Page 2
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Protests against Annas agitation on the


streets of Delhi
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Photos: Vidya Bhusan Rawat l
Udit Raj addresses
fellow agitators
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SEPTEMBER 2011
|
8
FORWARD Press
FEATURE
P H O T O
Students at JNU celebrating the
Supreme Court Verdict
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ORGANIZE!
AGITATE!
EDUCATE!
a m!
a|c!||||!
The struggle for reservation in higher education has ultimately
reached its victorious end. On August 18, the Supreme Court gave its
verdict sanctioning a 27% reservation for OBCs in higher studies.
Many institutions participated in this long-standing agitation. Besides
pamphlets, posters, sit-ins, social networking sites also played a
major role in this agitation. FORWARD Press extend heartiest con-
gratulations to any and all intitutions and individuals who were
directly, and indirectly, involved in this successful struggle.
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The cover story Who Is the Father of Modern India?*
by Ivan Kostka in the August issue of the magazine was
thought provoking. This article highlights the need to re-
writing the history. India must honour the great men
who contributed in nation-building, whether they are
foreigners or Indians. You have done a commendable
job of giving detailed information about William Carey.
Vishal Mangalwadis article added to our knowledge of
the man in a very interesting manner. This kind of dis-
cussions must be taken forward.
Rohan Raut, Kanpur
*The article is also available online at: ' oo ; ;a 1oT http://mohallalive.com/2011/08/19/who-is-the-father-of-nation/
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,
I read both Shahbuddins letter and your response
to it. Your reply hits the nail on the head and I com-
pletely agree with you. Shahbuddin is a Sayyid and
belongs to the Ashraf section. His mindset is
Ashrafana (noble, aristocratic), not sharifana (noble,
virtuous)! Muslims have all those [backward-look-
ing] orthodoxies that Hindu society has. Theres a
terrible difference between Ashrafs, Azlafs and
Arzals. All cannot be viewed in the same manner.
These sections also have a lot of caste discrimina-
tion within themselves. Let alone ShiaSunni differ-
ence, the Ashrafs are now after the
QadianiAhmadiyya sect. They are forcing the Saudi
government not to give permission to Ahmadiyyas
for Hajj. Congress leaders have always maintained
that upper-caste Muslims are true Mulsims. Sardar
Patel once told Josh Malihabadi that he did not like
the common Indian Muslim but respected the
Ashraf like him. It needs no saying that Syed
Shahbuddin used the issue of Babri Mosque to pro-
mote himself politically; else it was just another
judicial case.
PS: Forgive me but its only now that I have
understood the intention of your magazine. India
would always have been backward if the British
had not arrived! I dont know why the so-called
progressive people associated with FP should not
explain this. Or perhaps there is some lack in my
understanding.
Hasan Jamal, Editor, Shesh, Jodhpur
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I bought the August issue of FORWARD Press from a book
stall in Maurya Complex. It is now available at various
book stalls in Patna. I regularly buy it. After Hans this mag-
azine is carving a space for itself. I believe that FORWARD
Press is a cultural document of the Dalit and Oppressed
identity. This magazine will prove to be a mile stone in the
process of establishing cultural power of the Bahujans.
Shambu Suman, Patna
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Letters:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:54 PM Page 1
A need was being for a magazine for the Bahujan society
and FORWARD Press has fulfilled that need. In a recent
issue (July 2011), Pramod Ranjans report on Forbesganj
firing was an eye opener. Conversation with famous thinker
and editor Rajendra Yadav and renowned short-story writer
Sanjeev on the occasion of 25th anniversary of Hans was
notable. Columns by Prem Kumar Mani have been effective
like always. There is an urgent need to discuss the ideas
found in Rajendra Prasad Singhs article on OBC litera-
ture or to carry forward that discourse.
Pankaj Chowdhary, Meerut
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SEPTEMBER 2011
|
10
FORWARD Press
LETTERS
a, :''o', z oa, ; ':o' ii i. Email | ;o info@forwardmagazine.in FORWARD Press, 803 Deepali, 92 Nehru Place, New Delhi 110019.
I am very delighted that you have put up thought-
prone points in regards with the OBC Literature in
your editorial. I have also gone through The idea of
OBC Literature by Rajendra Prasad Singh. I liked
the article particularly because he has highlighted
OBC literature in Northern India and I expect that it
will promote the beginning of OBC literary move-
ment in Northern India. I am also expecting that
"Third All India OBC Literary Conference " can be
held in Delhi / UP/MP/Bihar.
Coming again to your editorial, I would like to
tell you that I am not agreed with one of the points"I
realized that in that largely Marathi gathering almost
no had a clue as to what OBC Literature - even in
Marathi - was, is and should be."
According to me, the question raised by you is
not only serious but also far away from reality. I
feel very regret for this. In this context I would like
to tell you humbly that I am one of the founder
members of the Maharashtra OBC movement and
All India OBC Literary movement. I had written
two books which are published in these confer-
ences. But you have not gone through these books.
If you would be coming across these books , you
were not dared to say such vague statement in your
editorial.
The important question raised by Rajendra
Prasad Singh in his article is - why the literature of
majority number of OBC castes not overpowered the
literature of minority such as Brahmin and Dalit?
Answer is already given in my books.
Prof. Shrawan Deore, Nashik
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Letters:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:54 PM Page 2
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m''
Victory of
Assaulting the Upper-Caste
Heaven

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Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 1
SEPTEMBER 2011
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12
FORWARD Press
STORY
C O V E R
DILIP MANDAL
O cloud in the sky, get out of the way
We come to plunder heaven
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
If we keep the Buddhist period aside, since the Vedic
period this is probably the first time in the written history
of India when Bahujans are going to enter the institutions
of higher learning in such large numbers. A Supreme
Court judgement of 18 August has paved the way for
this, which guarantees 27 per cent reservation for OBCs
in central universities.
This article focuses on Delhi University (DU) for
three reasons. First, this is the largest central university
in the country where the number of students admitted in
undergraduate courses is approximately equal to that ad-
mitted in all the other 24 universities combined. Second,
this university is one of the strongest fortresses of the up-
per-caste establishment. In fact, in 1990, this university
was the centre of the anti-Mandal Commission
campaign. And third, cracks are apparent in this fortress
in 2011 because for the first time, the path is cleared for
admission of the Bahujans (SC/ST/OBC) on half of the
total sanctioned seats.
It must be clarified that in this summer of 2011 we are
celebrating the implementation of that 5-year-old
legislation that was unanimously passed by the countrys
biggest panchayat, the Lok Sabha, in 2006. Not a single
opposing vote was cast. This was the Central Education-
al Institutions (Reservation in Admissions) Act, 2006,
under which OBC reservation was going to be
implemented in these institutions. The time and energy
that went into implementing this one piece of legislation
is enough to indicate how deep are the roots of caste in
India and how big a hurdle casteism is in the path of
Parliament and democracy. This is no easy battle. It is in
these centres of knowledge that the decisive battle
against the caste system will be fought.
HOW DID THE CASTEIST FORTRESS BEGIN
CRUMBLING?
It would be too soon to say that the fortress has been
brought down but this much is clear - deep fissures have
appeared on its walls. In 20102011, even if only on
paper, implementation of 27 per cent OBC quota was an-
nounced. As a matter of fact, to get them to implement
the OBC quota, the government told the institutions that
equal number of seats for general category would be
increased as those going to OBCs. In this way each insti-
tution was asked to increase their seats by 54 per cent.
The maximum time of three years was given to
implement this and obviously Delhi University took the


, S
-|s||| |=r |++
|+ +|n + | = |+| -| + |n|- :|-r|=
s |z +|n +| z|: -| +||- r rn| =s
r r + :-+| :| =| s ||+ + | +| s
r + |n r : :s ~-- +| ~| =|s +| +
+=n + :=+| |--| =|+ + || r : := +=n +
| ~ ~ |z:| (~||=|; + |n +|
|~||n| s +-s :/ .+|=<| =||||
=|+|-- r| =+|:
:= n +| | |<-n| |-||n -|+ r|
= r : +, r -| +| == :| +| |-||n
r , r| ~: +|= s r =|n n= -+ r|
:|s-|+ r|- r |-+ |+| :+ |-||n s
|sn|+ r|- r : |, r |-||n =|- s =|
=-|| + == s|- | s = + r : =|n :o
+ s:n +s|-|+ |||| ~||n+ +| + r
|-||n r| |: ~| -|+, r :o:: s
-| +| ~| r| r -||+ r| n= +n |+|||-
=|| s = ~||| =|| r + |+|
==|,=|,~||=| z||| + :|s-|+ +| |--| =|.+
r ~| r :
r| -z + +| | r |+ :o:: +| |s| +
:= s|=s s rs | =|n |+ = +|++ + n|
r|+ +| -+ s+| r r , |= := -| +| == :|
|- == + :oo- s ~|s | = ||-
|+| |: + =| | |n|.+ +r| |: r +|
|-|-|| =-|+ (=|: ~|:; -, :oo- |, |=+
-r- :+ =-|+| s ~||=| ~|-|| n| r|+| |:
+ +|++ + |= +|+ s n| =s ~| |s r
-|+ + |n +|.+| r |+ =|- s ||- +| :
|+-+| s|- r ~| == ~| n|+-| + |-- s
||-| |+-+| s|- |:| r : r ~|=|+ n:|: +r|
r: ||-| + |n|.+ |+||+ n:|: ||+ + +| s
r| n:| ||:
lrnr lrlutn =t tlatzr l=nt = = t
r +r+| -| -||| r|| |+ r |+n| +| r
n|++ :-+| -| =|.+ r |+ :=+| ||| s r| |
= ~|: r : :o:o:o:: s |<-n| |-||n s
+|| =r|, n|++ :/ .+|=<| ~||=| +|| n|
++ +| |||| +| : : ~=n + =+| +
~||=| +|| n| ++ + |n =-|+| = +r| |
|+ ~||=| +| |-+| =| ||, -+| =| |:
|: := |nr|| = r =-|+ +| +n s+ .+|=<|
=| |+ + |n +r| |: :=+ |n ~||+-s
-|+ =|n +| =s || | ~| |||r r |+ |<-n|
|-||n + :/ .+|=<| +|| n| ++ + |n
~||+-s =s |n|: :^^s^ ~||=| +| +|
rn| =|n |, ~| = =|n = r| ~||=| +|| +

Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 2


13
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m''
longest to implement the 27 per cent quota. Year 200809 was the first
year of the OBC quota and from that year itself the problem of OBC
quota remaining unfilled emerged. To refrain from filling the quota, the
Supreme Court judgement in the Ashok Thakur case was made a basis
and the rule of 10 per cent cut-off from the general list was
inappropriately deployed. (Incidentally, the Supreme Court has now
declared it wrong and said that 10 per cent relaxation would be
implemented for the qualification to apply.) In 20102011, newspapers
reported this truth with elation that in DU 5,400 seats in the OBC quota
remained unfilled, which were then transferred to the general (upper-
caste) candidates.
This news alarmed a few and they mobilized against it at various
levels. In 2010 itself, All-India Backward Students Forum put up a
poster in JNU as to how Delhi University steals OBC seats and AIBSF
put them on sale for the upper-caste students. But by then the 201011
session had already commenced and it wasnt possible to do much. In
DU, the Academic Forum for Social Justice (AFSJ) made it clear
through letters and memorandums that this problem would now be
seriously considered.
Before admissions started for the 201112 session, AFSJ spent
months and a lot of hard work gathering last years admission-related
figures through RTI. This was an energy-sapping and difficult task
because these figures had to be gathered from different colleges, which
dilly-dallied a lot. Meanwhile through the painstaking efforts of the
president of the AFSJ Dr Kedar Mandal and the vice-president Dr
Hany Babu figures from 30 colleges were collected, which showed that
54 per cent of OBC seats have been transferred to the upper-caste
students. FORWARDPress published those figures prominently on its
June 2011 centrespread, which remained the key document till the end
of the campaign. It was photocopied, blown up into posters and
placards and pasted all over the campus of JNU and DU.
Actually, this campaign started with a few like-minded people but
later was carried out on various levels. Students and teachers
conducted repeated protests at the university and HRD ministry.
Repeated memorandums were given. Raj Narayan of Janhit Abhiyan
personally wrote letters to about 350 SC/ST/OBC MPs and apprised
them of the problem. Four MPs including Dharmender Yadav of Uttar
Pradesh raised the question on the floor of the House and the
government had to reply. The national president of the Justice Party Dr
Udit Raj not only participated in the movement but through press
conferences and writing in newspapers made it an issue for national de-
bate. Posters made by arts professor Dr Lal Ratnakar were extensively
used in this movement. JNU students, especially from the AIBSF,
UDSF and AISA remained united throughout with the movement.
From the Arjak Sangh to the Pasmanda Front, organizations of OBC
employees, Social Brainwash magazine and Shilpkar Times, all played
important roles in this movement. People from the Insight Foundation
also joined the protests.
Students of JNU, who once were bitterly opposed to caste-based
social justice, played a big role in the campaign. It is worth remembering
that it was on the same campus that Sharad Yadav was insulted for giving
a speech in favour of social justice. This campus now led the way in
=+ +| =s-| ~| :: +|| + =+ + |n ~-||+ |+
s|sn s =|s +| + +=n +| ~||| +|+ n- -|+ =
+n s| |n- = :o .+|=<| +s +| + ~|.+ n| |+|
| (|= ~ =|s +| + n- +| || r ~| +r| r
|+ :o .+|=<| +| z +| ~|+ ++ +| |-| |+|
:|n|||n| s n| r||;: =|n :^:^:^:: s ~|| +
-|| +| :|r| +- r r =||: -|: | |+ :| s ~||=|
+| +| s,+^^ =| |n| r : , |= +n =| +|::
+| |=.+ + || | r :
:= + + z n| | + +|+ : + | ~| n| ~n-
~n --| :=+ |n|. + : :^:^ s r| |r n|n
+ r |-||n s ~| n : |:| +: - : . +|s +
~|: |=. + r | - n|| |+ |+= -r |<-n| |-||n
~| |=| =|| +| | | +-| r ~| =| z||| + |n ++| = n
n|-| r : n |++ - -+ :^:^:^:: +| =| -| r| +| |
~| |<| + z ++| = = +r| r ~|: :| s + : |s+ . +|s +|
=| -|n |-= (. += ; + | ~| ||+ |n+ -| ||
|+ := =s-| +| ~ =|-| = |n| ||:
=|n :^:o:: + =-|+ s :|s-|+ -| r|+ = rn +:
sr|+ +| sr+- = .+= + |zn =|n + :|s-|+ +
~|+: ~||~|: + | |: r r +|+ |n| s|-+n
+|s |, -||+ ~|+: ~n-~n +|n| = n+ ~|
|ns|n r :: rr|n .+|s + ~-| :|. +<| s:n
~| |-| :|. r +| | +| sr+- = so +|n| + ~|+:
|sn, |== -| n-| r |+ ~||=| +| s+ .+|=<| =| =|
z||| +| |=.+ + | : r : +|: = + ~+ + :^::
~+ s, + ~|+:| +| s-| = = -: z||, |
~|| -+ := s|rs +| +| --|| +| r|: .+||+||
++ = |-| ~| n+|:| + s : | + + ~|
:| |=| r-r |+|| |:
|-- s r s|rs =s|+ =| |n +z n|| + =| -|
r : , n|++ | s +: --| n|: z||| ~| |-|-|+| + |-
| |+|=| ~| ~|:| |s|+- | |+| ||: |-|
||+ | : || |+ : +|r- ~|=|+ + |+|||
+ := | s |+| -| n= =| -|+ =| ==|-=|-
~||=| =|=| +| | + =s-| + | s -||: -| -|
+ |s | =s- | =|=| + n|+==| r =|n ||
~| =+| +| | +| :|: |-= || + |z | ~-|
:|. |- | + |=+ ~||n+ s -|||sn r |-+ = +|+=
++ ~| ~|| s |n+ s|sn +| |z | r= +| |
+| ||: +n| + |+= :|. n|n |+ + |- :=
~||n+ s :--s|n r : + + z|||, |=+
~|: |=.+, :|=.+ ~| ~|: =| + ~||n+| s n|-|
|r-=| |n|: ~+ =| = n+ =s|| + ~| ~||=|
+s||| + =+ -| =|-|n +|-| ||+| ~| |-|-+|
|:-= + :=s =|s+| |+=|: : :+=|: +| : -|+ = : n| =|
-|+| s -|||sn r|- r :
+=| ||- ~||||- =|s||+ | +| |+|| |||| r|
|r n|n +r |~||n (+; + z||| + := ||+
:| =|s+| |+=|:: r| | |+| |+| ||r |+ r r|
+ | r| +=| =|s||+ | + -| s =|| + -|
| +| ~s||+- |+| | |: r| |= := | =|s||+
Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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STORY
C O V E R
strategizing for the battle and taking to the streets. This
change was effected by the work done on the campus by a
year-old organization All-India Backward Students Forum
(AIBSF). On 7 August during this movement, the
organization celebrated its first anniversary at which
Sharad Yadav, Ramvilas Paswan, Ram Awdhesh Singh and
others addressed a large student crowd. It must be noted
that because of this movement, with the support of All-
India Students Association (AISA), JNU has implemented
the 27 per cent reservation and now more OBC students
have been admitted in the university. According to one esti-
mate, this year because of full and fair implementation of
reservations the total strength of SCs, STs and OBCs has
gone over 50 per cent of JNU enrollment.
SOCIAL NETWORKING AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
In India the middle class also carries a caste character.
Most of the people who have access to social media and
the Internet are from the upper castes. Despite that, this
movement used social networking to its fullest for the
cause. More than 100 people continued to post on
Facebook on this subject. A Facebook page was created
for each of the demonstrations and in this way an attempt
was made to reach out to hundreds and thousands of such
people who could not physically be part of the movement.
For the first time the Bahujan voice thundered loudly on
Delhi Universitys Facebook page. Through this medium,
a huge number of write-ups, posters and document
reached a large number of people who could not have
been otherwise reached. This was a new experiment in
the cause for social justice in North India, which must be
promoted to the fullest. Its useless to expect the
mainstream media to give voice to these sections. Its eco-
nomic and social constitution is such that it will always
decisively support the economic and social elites. In such
a situation, Internet and social media can be instruments
that not only bring information to the Bahujans but also
become bridges for internal dialogue. Most importantly,
if what you are saying has ideological fire then social me-
dia can also become a medium to bring kindred spirits
among social activists on the same platform. In
traditional media, electronic or print, this kind of
dialogue is just not possible. That is why this will score
over the old media. Bahujans must use it more and more.
Meanwhile, this victory for the OBC will have far-
reaching effects. Their increased presence at the centres of
knowledge will demolish many a myth in the coming
years and intellectual poverty in Indias academic
institutions will end. While this is not the end of the road
for social
justice in higher education, certainly for Bahujans and all
progressive people it is a milestone worth celebrating. n
| +| n:|: s |+||- +|+ s, =:+ -+ s
== ~| r|: := n| + |z |= s |zn
sr + =|n = ~+| |-|- +| r ~|n
: |:| +: - : +|s (~|: |=+; +| =|s+|
+| ||+- |+| |+| ||r: :=| ~||n+ + ||+
:= =+ + / ~-- +| ~+| rn| | s+|:,
|=s -| |, |s|n|= |=|+, |s~|-| |=r
~|| + :| =| s s: |||| +| =|||- |+|:
|-n r =| r |+ ~|: =| + =r| = n ~||n+
+ |, + + := ~+ =-|+ s ~||=| +
|n :/ .+|=<| ~|-|| n| + || r ~| :=+ -r-
:= |-||n s ~ |z:| + |||| +|
~||+ =| s +|s|++ r ~| r : + ~+s|+ +
~+=|, ~|-|| + =| ~| |=- n| |+ |+
+ |< + s := |n--~||<|=|-~||=| +|
=s- =| so .+|=<| +| | + : r :
=trtn =l=n tt =ttl= t
=|- s s +| +|- + - =| r : ||- =
n| =| r , |++| =|-|n s||:| ~| : + -+ r
r: :=+ | := ~||n+ s =|-|n +|+ +|
~||n+ + |n s+ :--s|n |+| |: :^^ =
|| n| := | +=+ |n- r : r |+|-
-|+ +| : +=+ =| |+ |+| |, ~| :=
-r + n|| n|| -+ r + +| +||-|-| +| : |
=-|| ~||n+ s -|||sn +r| r| |: || |+|=| +
+=+ rn| | r + ~|| || -|+ =
|: := s|s = =| , |-, --| r - =|
n|| -+ r , |+ -+ r + +| +|: ||| +r| |:
r =|s||+ | + |n -| =|- s +| | r,
|= ~||+-=-~||+ || |+| ||r: s||| +
s||:| = :+ -+| ~||| ++ +| -s| ++| s|+|
r : =+| ~||+ ~| =|s||+ + = |+||+ =
~||+ ~| =|s||+ = -+ + -| s r|
:| |: = s : +, =|-|n s||:| = ~|||
=||- r| =+- r, | r +| + | + |=+ =+|
r |+ + +|s ~| |-+ ~|=| =| +| =- +:
== sr| r |+ ~ ~|+| |- s ||+ -|
r -| =|-|n s||:| =s|+|s| =|s||+ +|+-||~| +|
=||-+ = + s n|+ +| =| s|s + |-| r :
| |+ s||:|, :n- ||++ ~| | s =| +| =|
|:-| +-: == +r| r| =+-| :=|n r |+ s||:|
=|| :|: r +| +| :=+| ~||+-=-~||+ |
++| ||r:
rr|n, ~||=| +| |sn| := |- + |s|
|||s r|: ||+ + + s :++| r -| s|<| ~|+
|n =|n| s +: |s+| +| -- + | ~| =|- +
~|+|s+ =-|+| +| ||z+ || =s| r||:
r|n||+ r | |-|-|| s =|s||+ | + |-- +| ~-
+r| r , n|++ |+- r| r +| ~| ==| |--||n
n|| + |n =| s|n +| r |=+| -+ s+||
|+| ||r: n
Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 4
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2011 |ao:ot
tt vea v|+|a| m|c| +: a+| m|c m| mao|
18 AUGUST: SUPREME COURT JUDGEMENT ON OBC QUOTA

m''
HANY BABU
he judgement by the Supreme Court on 18 August
2011 is indeed welcome, as it has cleared a very basic
misinterpretation of the way in which relaxation of
marks has to be calculated for the OBCs for admission
to central universities. The implementation of OBC
reservation was dogged by the pronouncement by the
Supreme Court that the maximum cut-off marks for
OBCs be 10 per cent below the cut-off marks of general
category candidates. Much has been written about how
the legislative intent of providing reservation for OBCs
was diluted by the judicial fiat of putting a ceiling on the
relaxation of marks and also by making room for diver-
sion of the vacant OBC seats to the general category.
OBCs seeking admission in central universities
found themselves shortchanged when the executive
authorities in some universities chose to interpret the term
cut off as the marks of the last admitted candidate.
Thus, in the undergraduate admission in the University of
Delhi if the general category admission stopped at 89 per
cent, then OBC admission stopped at 79 per cent and the
result was that a large number of OBC seats were diverted
to the General Category in the last three years. According
to our statistics, around 55 per cent of OBC seats (more
than 3,600 seats out of a total of 7,000 seats) were thus di-
verted to the general category in around 23 Colleges of
the University of Delhi in 2010 alone.
The fight for justice in this matter has a three-year-
long history with a series of litigations in the Delhi High
Court and the Supreme Court. The September 2010
judgement of the Delhi High Court was a major
landmark in this struggle. Justice Rajiv Sahai Endlaw
ruled that the relaxation of marks (i.e., the maximum of
10% that the Supreme Court had fixed) was to apply at
the eligibility criterion and that the marks of the OBCs
should not be compared with the marks of the
candidates admitted in the general category. The

| | |n a|| :s ~-- :o:: +| = +|| | . + =n|
|+|-- -| -|-| r : =+ + | |-||n| s
~||=| z||| + -| + = s ~ +| +| z +| n + |
~||= - -| n- || | = |-|- =|. + + <|:
~||=| ~|-|| +| n| r|+| =| | ||n +| := ||||
+ +|| ~+| r ~| | |+ ''~||=| + |n ~|+-s
+-~| . + ~ + =|s| | || + +-~| . + ~ +| = :o |--|-
+s r| ``: := | s +|. +| + z |n| | +| r |+ |z: |
+ |n ~|-|| +| ||+ ++ |n| ||++ s -|| +|
~ +| +| z +| =|s| - ++ |n| |||n+| +| . +s|+
+s|| +|-| | r| r : :=+ =| r| r := |n|
~||=| =|| +| =|s| | || +| <|+ ++ +| r =|
+|-| r :
+ | |-||n| s -| |+ +| :z| + |n
~||=| z|| = =s ~+ ~|+| zn| | sr= = ++
n + z |-||n| + := < ''+ ~| . +`` +| ~
r |++|n| |+ r <||n |+ =|s| | || + ~ |-s
-s|<| + ~ + r : :=|n, ~ |<-n| |-||n s
=|s| | || + <||n s |--|- < r r| -| ~||=|
<||n / |--|- < + |< | : :=+| +-|| r
r ~| |+ |zn -|+ =|n| s : | = | s ~||=| =|
=|s| | || +| r--| -|- + <| : : + n :o:o s r|
|<-n| |-||n + :s +| n | s ss |--|- ~||=|
=| (+ n /,ooo s = s,-oo =| ; =|s| | || +|
r--| -|- + <| : :
:= s|sn s | + |n = | +| -|+ =|n |+|
:|-r|= r |= <||+ |<-n| | |n ~| =| |
|n s +: -+: s +<s <| |+ : |<-n| |
||n +| |=- :o:o +| . + =n| := n: |: s + s
|+| +|: |s |- || =r| :n| + ~|< -| |<| |+
~ +| s z (=| | |n a|| - ''~|+-s :o
|--|-``; |-| +=|| n| r| ~| ~||=| z||| +
~ +| +| - n+| =|s| | || s <||n |+ -s|<|| +
=| +r| +| | |+| ||r: := -r +: + |
|-||n| a|| ~+|: : +||- +| '' : :+ n| ``
(+|+ + +| < | s ~+ |-; +r| |:
Much to Cheer
About, Some
to Be Wary Of



T
Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 5
SEPTEMBER 2011
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STORY
C O V E R
practice followed by many of the central universities was thus declared bad
in law.
However, the High Court judgement was soon challenged in the
Supreme Court by the supporters of Youth for Equality. The University of
Delhi showed its true anti-OBC position when they decided to challenge a
ruling by the High Court that they are also bound by the September 2010
judgement. The matter is now settled by the judgement of 18 August, 2011.
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
While welcoming the judgement, we need to be also aware of certain
potential problems that it raises. Although Justice Bhandari (whose
pronouncement in 2008 had lead to the confusion) had very clearly said
not more than 10 marks out of 100 in the original judgement, the current
judgement exploits a mathematical ingenuity. When the difference in
marks of two candidates is 10 out of 100, mathematically the difference is
that of 10 percentage points. It is evident that Justice Bhandari was speak-
ing of percentage points. However, in common parlance, such difference is
often referred to as difference in 10 per cent. Since the judgement was not
pronounced by a mathematician, the term difference in percentage was
used to mean difference in percentage points. The current judgement
legitimizes this confusion, when it says that if the general category cut off is
50 per cent or 40 per cent, the cut off for OBCs can be only 45 per cent or 36
per cent respectively. But what is funny is that the very same judges exhibit
the same confusion. Thus in page 34 of the judgement, they refer to Justice
Bhandaris suggestion of relaxing 10 marks out of 100 and say that what he
meant was that the cut-off marks for OBCs should not be more than 10 per
cent below that of the general candidate. Again, in the very next page they
talk about the judgement in Dr Preeti Srivastava case; they say that it was
ruled that a difference of 10 per cent between the marks of the general and
the reserved category that is 45 per cent for general and 35 per cent for
reserved category was found to be reasonable. Thus, while the judges
seem to be clear about the interpretation of difference in percentage while
giving the illustrations, they themselves use difference in percentage
points when discussing earlier cases.
The judgement also raises another alarm. Time and again, questions are
raised about the status of reserved-category candidates who qualify in the
general category. In the current matter too, it was argued extensively by the
counsels for the appellants that OBCs who come in general category should
be counted towards the 27 per cent reservation. Though the judges dismissed
the plea, they note that this contention has wide ramifications and it merits
serious consideration in an appropriate case. This almost sounds like an invi-
tation for litigation. Youth for Equality must be sharpening their knives. n
n |++ | |n + . + =n +| . +| :-| |n| + =s +| + - -
r| =| | |n s +|-| <|: |<-n| |-||n + ~+| ~||=|-
||| |<|| r| + | |n + = ~|< -| +| +|-| < +
+| . + =n| |+| |=+ ~+ =| |=- :o:o +| |+| + =| n|
r|-| r : r s=n| ~ :s ~-- :o:: + |+| = rn r ~| r :
= tla =rt
r|n| |+ rs := |+| +| -|- +- r , rs := |- + |- =| = -
r|+ +| ~|-+-| r |+ :== + z =s-|~| +| = =|+| =| <| r|-|
r : r|n| |+ |s |- = :|| (|++ :oos + |+| + n:|+ <| +| |;
+ == rn + |+| s r - r| =|. +-| +r| | |+ '':oo s =
:o ~ +| = ~|+ +r| ``, s| <| |+| + ||-| - -| +| . +|<|
n -| r : <| -s|<|| + ~ +| +| ~ - :oo s = :o r|-| r -|
||- s = :o ''= | : =`` +| ~ - +r- r : r =|. + r |+
|s |- = :|| = | := +| |- + r : n |++ ~|s |n|n
+| =|| s , := -r + ~ - +| :o = | |--|- +| ~ - +r |<|
|-| r : |+ . + =n| |+=| ||-| + +r| = +|| |, ''|:. + = :+
= `` ( |--|- +| ~ -; +| ~ |:. + = :+ ''= | :=``
( |--|- | : = +| ~ -; =s:|| |: s| <| . + =n| := n:|+ +|
|| r|-| r +r-| r| ~ =|s| | || +| +-~| . + so
|--|- | +o |--|- r|| -| ~||=| z||| +| +-~| . + + s-| + n
+s | s- |--|- r||: n |++ s| +| |- r r |+ r| |||-| <
=| n:|+ s : | |<-| r : . + =n + +| + . +s , |s |- = :||
+ :oo s :o ~ +| +| z + = :|| +| -n +- r ~| +r- r |+
=+| ~ r r ~| |+ ~||=| z||| + |n +-~| . + ~ + +| z
=|s| -s|<| = :o |--|- = ~|+ +r| r|+ ||r: =| r|, |+
~n + :| . ||- |||-- s|sn s |< . + =n +| |- +-
r : r| +r- r |+ r ~|< -| |+ =|s| ~| ~||-|- | || s :o
|--|- ~ +| + ~ - -- ~| - =|s| + |n +s ~| ~||-|- + |n
ss -- -+ = - || | |: := -r, r|n| |+ <|r| < - =s =|
n-| r |+ |||-| ''|:. + = :+ = `` + | s - r , |+
s|sn| | +- r ''|:. + = :+ = | :=`` +| :-- s|n
+- r :
r . + =n| + < =| | -| =| |-| r : |-| =|n - r r
|+ + ~||-|- | || + -s|<|| +| -| <| r|| | =|s| | || s
| | |- r : s| <| s|sn s =|, ~|n+-|| ~| + +|n| + =||
r= +| | |+ | ~||=| =|s| | || s ~|- r r :/ |--|-
~|-|| s |+| |+| ||r: r|n| |+ |||-|| + := |+| +| ||
+ |<|, r| + +| |+| |+ := <| + ''|+ =|`` r| -|
''|- s|sn| ~|+ r =| = || |+ |+ | r ``: r
s +<s ||| +| |-| < + |n| |- r| n-| r : . +| :-| |n| ~+
r|| +| | - | + r r| : n
Academic Forum for Social Justice, DU, welcomes the judgement of the
Supreme Court on reservation but not fully. The organizations under-
standing is that this is a partial victory; not a total victory. The judge-
ment is far better than what was said in the past and it will certainly
help OBC students but the criteria of 10 per cent has been misinterpret-
ed and to some extent the judgement is silent on some issues. The
organization thanks all organizations, individuals, lawyers, journalist,
media persons for being a part of the struggle and hopes the same in
future because we will have to fight for other social issues as well.
DR KEDAR KUMAR MANDAL
President, Academic Forum For Social Justice, DU
Assistant Professor, Dyal Singh College,
University of Delhi
+s '+ T' T' a''o 'a, s' , m''' a' ' 'o + T ao +' '+
+' o '+ ' a ' a +' +' '' '+ mT ' ' , ' '
T ao' '+ + T ao' a +' m' ''1 ' m''a' ''' + 'o
T': : '+' o '+ ia '' +' ' +' +o '' ; m' + : +
T ao' + r' o''' a + 1 a' a +' , '' , m'T'm' , '+'' ,
''s' +' ' +' m'' +' ' ;a os '; +' 'a' m' '| 1+ a
' a'1 +' m''' +' ' '+ : a a'''+ r' ' os ' '+'
.
m', +s '+ T' T' a''o 'a, s'
m'a ' T a, :'o 'a +' o
':o' ''u'o
Cover story:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:37 PM Page 6

+|s s -| | r : n |++ +|-| :|| +| |. +-s
i:+ii + +|s + r| n= sr|+ = ~|| =|- s +| r|s
s| |: |. +-s |n|| r : , - - +| s | r|
|++n|: |. +-s =s|-|+| + := ~| =- +| |. +-s -n||:
| -| +| +|n- ++ |n +|-| :|| +| := |. +-s +| =|
s |= = =| +s ~ + r||=n r : r| , n |++ |. +-s +
|<-- ||+ = + |n|: r. +- = s r| :=+ n|- =
|| +s| |n|: ~| ~ |+ n-| r |+ +|-| :|| +|
: | |+| +| r|s r - =| |-=s:||, | :| +| |r-=| |:
|. +-s =n r| ~| =- r| r| , | :| + -|+ + ||| |
|-|: |+||- s =|| - +, | +| n: + ~| |+
:if |+-s +|+ +|-| :|| + | |+||- =||, =+|
:-- s|n r| + |. +-s s |+|: +|-| |- , +-| r|
: : r s|n|s|n r| , +-| | : : := -r +|-| :||
+ |+ +| + +| = + ~|| r |
|< +| r||-|| = -=s +: r |+-s =| +||| = -+ |-
+| +|-| +| + + r| s|+| ||:
i:+ii +| |= -r |||+ |+| |, == =|s||+
PREM KUMAR MANI
eople ask whats there in a name. But it was, in
fact, the name of the Prakash Jha film that sent
half of the country into a tizzy for about a month.
When the film finally released, it turned out to be a
damp squib. Film critics called it an average film.
This film by Prakash Jha, a champion of merit,
could score only 50 out of 100 marks. But yes, the
film did great business. Within a week it more
than recovered its production cost. And only now
it has become clear that the sound and fury orches-
trated by Prakash Jha was part of a well-thought-
out propaganda. It may have been an average film,
but in terms of propaganda it was a sure winner. In
this film he used the politics he learnt after having
stepped right into electoral politics, contesting
two elections and making the film Rajneeti
(Politics). Prakash won, the people lost. He raked
in the moolah, people were ripped off. In this way,
17
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2011 |ao:ot

P
ai
The Fall of a
Filmmaker
eo |reoic
oi a+
oiti sii o aoro a|i coiec oi atai |ia ri a u ei+i i+ aia aeo o
|ae +i ai c a o a+i cr ri
PRAKASH JHAS STATEMENTS ARE DIRECTLY ADDRESSED TO THE UPPER
CASTES, AS IF HE IS PREPARING HIS VOTE BANK FOR THE FUTURE
Cover story-Aarakshan:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:57 PM Page 1
SEPTEMBER 2011
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FORWARD Press
STORY
C O V E R
a new dimension of Prakash Jhas personality emerged a
successful salesman of a defective product. This movie will be
considered Prakash Jhas contribution to the consumerist culture.
The way Aarakshan was promoted disturbed the supporters of
social justice. A clip of Amitabh Bachchan aired on TV asking if
we wanted merit or reservation. Then for a few days, SMSes were
invited on this issue. Then the phrase, Kauva Moti Khayga
(Undeserving crows will be rewarded with pearls) was also
hummed along, as if Dalit crows were grabbing pearls of
merit from the upper-castes swans .
Prakash Jha also tweeted a joke:
2020 Exam Pattern
1. General Merit Ans all Qs
2. OBC Write any one
3. SC Only need to read
4. ST Thanks for coming to exam
Such methods of publicity were meant to provoke widespread
reactions, and they did. All over North India, the same kind of
atmosphere was building up as during the Mandal agitation. In
1990, the world of Internet was not common; in 2011, the middle-
class population has a new instrument. The Internet has become a
battle ground. A few state governments banned its release. There
were rounds of demonstrations, processions and discussions.
Through TV channels and newspapers, media too played its role
to the fullest. And, also showed their true colours.
As a film, Aarakshan may have been just an entertainment or
at the most a cultural intervention but, in reality, this film emerged
as a political phenomenon. If in the meantime Annas campaign
had not come up, the film would still have been the centre of
debates. Though the issue now would not have been political but
about the movie being of an average quality.
But the first thing that has emerged in this entire phenomenon
is that the number of people who support social justice and their
ability to argue has gone up a few notches. In 1990, when the
Mandal agitation was on, it remained a partial movement. The
media was also partial. There were very few journalists like
Surendra Pratap (SP) Singh who had sympathy for OBCs. The
upper-caste consciousness of Hindi newspapers arose in such a
way that they appeared as tools of opposition to Mandal. Before
the release of the film, the newspapers and TV channels were
more or less like in the 1990s but the Internet had placed a weapon
in the hands of the Dalitbahujans; and they used it effectively.
This also raises the hope that in the coming days democracy will
spread thorough this parallel medium the Internet. Then the
bullying by newspapers will go down.
The second thing that was evident was that, even today the
majority of the people do not want to understand the issues of
social justice or reservations. The producer Prakash Jha is
himself confused. When other people including Amitabh
Bachchan presented their views, their ideological poverty was
| + -||| +| -||+| r : : ~|s-|= |+ || :|n+ |n|-
~| z- ~|+| s | ||r | ~|-||: + z |+| -+ =s= ||
:= | s | : |+ +| ~| s| -| || ... |n| sn| =|
+ +|| |: s|+| |n-|z: +| ~ r| , ~| | |-| r =| +| s | +
s|-| z|+ r r|
+|-| :|| + ~+ | + | + =| |+| r ~| |
2020 Exam Pattern
1. General Merit Ans all Qs
2. OBC Write any one
3. SC Only need to read
4. ST Thanks for coming to exam
| + :+ -|+| +| |+ |-|+ | r| +| |, ~| r : : n=
-| =|- s := ~| = -| s s :n ~| | n+ + | |+ | |-|| +
|, n= =| r| |-|| ++ n|: :o s : + +| |+| ~|s
+r| |, :o:: s s| +-| + r| r + +| ~||| |: : +
~|: | + |: + z | =+|| + :=+ -| + | | n| |:
-| +, n =, | |z| + =| | n : || +n| ~| ~|| + a||
s||:| + =| s+ = |s+| |+=|: : ~+| ~=n| r| =| |n||:
+ |. +-s + s i:+ii =n r| s+| + +| =||+ r| | |<| =
|<| + =| -+ |-+ r---| , n |++ |--|+ s r |. +-s +
|+||-+ ||+| ++ =|: ~| ~+| +| ~| | n+ := | + =|
r| -|, -| |+=| + |+=| s ~=| =| r |. +-s r= + + s r| -|:
r|n| |+ ~ | |+||-+ + r| + :=+| ~| =- +| r| +| r| -|:
n |++ rn| |- | := | ||+| = = + ~|:, r r |+
=|s||+ | + -||| +| = | ~| |+ ++| -||+ + -|s-| | r:
:o s s :n ~| | n+ n r| |, -| :+-. +| ~| | n+ |: s||:|
=| n= :+-. +| |: = -| |= r = |+ - + |+| |z: | +
|- ss - : |r | ~|| +| =| -+| -| =| =| | |+ n-|
| ~| s :n || | + ~| || r| r| : ~|| ~| || +n| +
r|n n= :o + | = r| , n |++ :+ + | + r||
Prakash Jha, Director ,
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evident. I would certainly praise Manoj Bajpayee who


played Mithilesh Singh in the film, an upper-caste
educational mafia man. He emphasized the fact that he
supports the rise of the backward classes. Reservations
have helped them rise in life and he cannot criticize the
practice. But Prakash Jhas statements are directly
addressed to the upper castes, as if he is preparing his
vote bank for the future.
Prakash Jha, who once made better films like Hip
Hip Hurray and Damul, and who had the image of a
peoples filmmaker, has fallen in such a state of ideolog-
ical decline that his films, one after the other, continue
to give much peace to the upper castes of the Hindi belt.
Targeting Lalu Prasads politics he made films like
Gangajal and Apaharan, in which he showed a Yadav
and a Muslim respectively as villains, and made a fool
of the audiences. And then in Rajneeti he made Suraj (a
Dalit), the Karna of his new Mahabharat and presented
him as a villain. Then by making Aarakshan he tried to
reopen the Mandal wound of 1990, which the upper
castes had now nearly forgotten. Seen this way, almost
all his films of the last decade were made with an upper-
caste view point and with upper castes in mind.
We must identify the reasons for the fall of a peoples
and successful filmmaker. This will give an idea of
not only Prakash Jhas but the whole mindset of the
upper castes in North India. The progressive section of
the upper castes that once played a meaningful role in the
building up of society is so frustrated today that
compared to the traditional upper caste it appears much
more regressive and handicapped. Prakash Jha who in
the film Rajneeti, shows Arjun (Samar) to be a sensitive
youth and shows Karna (Suraj) to be naturally violent
and cruel instead of someone forced to be cruel must
also re-read the epics. Why did he not begin a new
politics by making Eklavya and not Arjun the hero of
this film? He would have found more modern and
progressive life values. He may have been able to touch
upon some more sensitive chords. And his film story
would have made him more important. But no, he is
interested in contesting elections while sitting in the laps
of Lalu Prasad and Ramvilas Paswan and to build malls
and make money while sitting on Nitishs shoulders.
After all, what kind of films can we expect from a man
who is himself caught in the vicious cycle of politics?
We, in fact, will wait for Prakash to make a better,
introspective film on his personal transformation. He
could take inspiration from Franz Kafkas famous story
Metamorphosis the transformation of a travelling
salesman into a monstrous insect-like creature.
|n--|z: | + r| =| | r =+| :-- s|n :+ n| | + =
|+|: :== + -s| =| |-| r |+ ~|+ |n |+| s +- | +|
+ n| := =s| - s||:| :+ + s|s = r| r| |:
~|| +| |||| +s r| |:
=| |- | =|s+ ~|: r r |+ ||- n| ~| =|
=|s||+ | | |+ i:+ii + =|n +| =s:|+| +r| |r- :
~|-|| + |+s| -| +|-| :|| - |= |s- r : ~|s-|= |+
=|r- +: ~ n| | + =| := | ~+ || , -|
++| ||+ || r| =|s+ ~||: -|+, s s+| | | +|
-| =| ++| |r | |r| + |+-s s |sn -| |= r = + =|
|-|-|| s||. +| +| = |s+| |+=|: r : r| + := |- || + +r|
|+ |z: | + |+ + =| r : ~|-|| = ++| |-|- s
= || r ~| r ~| :=+| ~|n| +| r +r| + =+- : n |++
+|-| :|| + + =|| ~ +|- +| = ||- r| - : s|+|
~|+ |n =s + |n ~+| | + +| r r| : |= +|-| :||
+ +=| fz"-fz" z : ~| i= =| r- |. +-s +|: | ~|
|+= ++| + +-|| |. +-s |+s| -| +| z| +| |, |zn
-|+ s ||+ -+ + := | ~| |+ +-+ + =|
|. +-s +|: , |+= |r <| -| | +| =| -+| = + + sr= = +-|
r|: n|n =| +| |+||- +| |+-||+| +|+ r| + i ~|
"z:i =| |. +-s +|: , |=s + s-| | ~| s =ns|+ +|
n+|+ ++ ~+| -n =||| |+|: |+ :if s +
~| |=| = +| ~+ ~|=+ sr|=|- +| +| +|| ~| +
n+|+ + s : | |+|: |+ i:+ii +|+ :o +
s :n |s +| -|| ++ +| +| |-|-| +|, |= ~ +|- ~
n= = n +| |: := -r -| |zn -|+ +| ++|
n= -s|s |. +-s =| +|| = =|| +| |+ s +
+|: : :
+ +-| |. +-s+| + := -+ + +|| -| +| rs
|-|+|- ++| ||r: :== + + n +|-| :|| +| |-+ +s =
+s -| =|- +| | |a s|+|=+-| +| | =| |sn-| r :
|+=| =s =s| |+s| | s =|| + = |s+| |+=|+ |n| |--||n
|a -+| ~| :-+| + |- r| | r |+ + | |+ |a +
s +|n ||+ -| || |-|s| ~| |+n| |-| r :
|. +-s :if s =s (~ +; +| + = +-||n | n |++
s |r= + + s +|n = (+| ; +| -|=||+ -|
|r= + ~| + |n|+ |n +|-| +| sr|+|| +| +| =|
++| ||r: r| + ~ + + s +|n +n +| +|+ +|+
+ +: |+||- +| -| ~|- -| +r| +|` r| r ||
~|| |++ ~| |--||n |+ s - |sn- : +r| ~||+ = +| +
-| r z |- : ~| ++| |. +-s +| r || sr | +|-|:
n |++ +r| , ++| | -| n|n =| |s|n|= |=|+ +|
| s + +| n: + ~| +|-|-| + + || + s| n
+|+ , =| +s|+ s r : | |+ - |+||- + = < -+ s
+ =| r| , == + |+s| -| + s rs ~|| + =| |. +-s| +|
-s| + =+- r : rs -| : -|| + |+ +|-| - + | -
+ r- ~|s+ |. +-s +| : . + | = +|. ++| +| |=z
+r|+| = i=i :. +i f== = || n =+- r |+= +| +
r-r | s+ |n| = -=s + + =|r +|-=s|+ ||| s
-<|n r| |:
Prem Kumar Mani, a leading Hindi writer and a founder-member
of the JD (U), is a member of the Bihar legislative council.
|I I| I T|n|-|! I4!I! I JI (") I ~-4!TI ~I-" |II! |I!!- T|TI
I ~I-" I !
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SEPTEMBER 2011
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FORWARD Press
INTERVIEW
There is no such thing as OBC
Literature: Rajendra Yadav
There must be discussion
about it: Sanjeev


M
PART

2
VANKOSTKA (IK): When I returned to India in 2007,
within six months I was invited to attend the second
All-India OBC Sahitya Sammelan in Nasik. The
first had been held in 2006 in Pune, started with burn-
ing the Manu Smriti. It was called All-India but
was almost 99 per cent pure Marathi. Even my talk on
Mahatma Phule and his literature had to be
translated by my friend Sunil Sardar into Marathi. He
was the only person who though a Marathi person
based in Delhi, spoke in Hindi at the sammelan. There
was almost no talk about literature. I am just giving
you the actual situation. If you are seriously calling it
sahitya sammelan then where is the sahitya,
where is the focus? There was no focus. So my
question from 2008 till now is this: like there is Dalit
Literature, which definitely found its voice and helped
shape Dalit consciousness and identity this is my
analysis is there such a thing, especially post-
Mandal, as OBC Literature particularly in Hindi?
RAJENDRA YADAV (RY): There is no such thing a
OBC Literature!
SANJEEV (S): Yes, an issue like that came up. Recent-
ly we received a letter from the media and they asked
if they could come?. Could there be OBC literature?
We said, where did you read it? They said, in your
Hans. I was amused. We said, you throw up an issue
on your own accord. Theres no such thing. Nothing
like that exists. Yes, there is Dalit literature...
PRAMODRANJAN(PR): Rajendra ji, from Ivan
S(..)~ = ./ = =i:
i"= ii i z =zi + =: z =:i if=+ =
=: f =i: i~= =ifz =-= +i
i=ii f=i "zi =-= . = "i = z i
i i s+-s|- + i} i + =i :i- z i i
+z +i z f =i: i f+ i
= .+= :i; =:ia =zi=i + i:
+ =ifz ": =: =ii +i = =: f=i =
=:i: +i =:ia = =ii: +:i " i i + z
z }+=ii f~ i ziif+ f = :z i
=:ia f+ fzi = ==i +i fz = =~if
f+i zi =ifz + ~i: = i ~i + ~:i~: z
z ; = i"+i z++ ~i :zi z : i" ;=
=ifz =-= +z :z z i == =ifz
+zi z , .+i+= +zi z +i; .+i+= z z ;=f}
.& = +: ~+ =:i =i z z f= :z
= f =ifz z f= iii f= i: f=
f i i: "zi +i i+i: = = +
z =:i f:i z ~i i~= =ifz =
+i; i = z , i=i: ": fz = i: i=i: ":
=i-i: =
(..)s:| +r| n-| |+ ~||=|
+|s +| +|: || r !
( )r|, := +| +| + =|n ~|| r :
|zn| | s||:| = + - ~|| | ~| r|+
+r| | |+ rs ~| |` ... -| ~||=| |n
r| =+-| r` rs+ +r|, ~|+ +r| = |` r|+
+r|, ~|+ r = =: s:| |:| r =| =| ~|: : rs+
+r|, ~| | s ~| s| z|n - r : =|

I
Interview:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:36 PM Page 2
21
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2011 |ao:ot

Kostkas query another questions arises. Presently we look at Hindi


literature in two ways there is Dalit literature and there is mainstream
literature; there is no third literature. From this viewpoint, we also classify
older works under Dalit literature, for example, works of Hira Dom. We say
this particular literature is Dalit and this is not. So, Rajendra ji, does it seem
that on one hand there is Dalit literature and on the other brahmanical liter-
ature?
RY: Its all brahmanical literature.
PR: Then what is Maila Anchal?
RY: What! Its not a matter of Brahmanism being clearly visible. But it is
in that frame work.
PR: My question is about the Shudra, Bahujan, OBC literature. If on the
one hand we have Dalit literature and on the other, brahmanical
literature, then where can we place works like Maila Anchal?
RY: Listen Listen Dalit literature is new, is of a different identity,
whereas brahmanical literature kept coming as a sansakar, a value. We
can also point it out separately. But when we look at the caste system that
one is a Pandit, a Brahmin, etc., then that literature is brahmanical
literature. And when we look at male domination, whos the boss at home,
we conduct ourselves accordingly. That means theres nothing like
brahmanical, it is but a symptom like we have in male domination. The
construct of the family is what really exists. And in India, no one can live
without caste. He or she will have a caste; and those who do not have
caste, we try to know it by various means and then place him or her
mentally. This caste that has pervaded our minds is what really is
Brahmanism.
S: The way Rajendra ji has defined causes some confusion for me
because during the Bhakti period, except for Sagun Panthis, most Nirgun
Panthis were either OBCs or Dalits. Before that a few people were from
the Siddha sect. It was all intermingled and it had contempt for Brahmins,
orthodoxy and rituals. But we never called it OBC literature. It comprised
barbers, potters, dyers and others. This was because those people wanted
to establish their power. The only way they could rise up was the way in
which they were suppressed. It was destined to end the way it did.
+z +r| r ~| + r| =| +|: || ~|-- s r : r|, |n-
=||r r :
( . .):i , i +i+i + ": = }+
=i i: ai z = z= fz =ifz +i i :z = z
}+ i f =ifz z i: =:i =ii:i +i =ifz z i:
=:i +i; =ifz z z ;= fz = z= f =ifz +
":i :iii +i = ffz +: z , = z:i i= + :i z
=~ f =ifz z i: f =ifz z z i :i
, ~i }=i i z f+ }+ :+ f =ifz z i: =:
:+ ~iziii =ifz z
..=|| |t|||<| =||r r :
. .i f+: sn| ~|n ~i z
..-|! =|n r +r| r |+ |t|||< =|| |<|: <:
n|++ = +s + s r :
..=:i =i :i, ~z , i~= =ifz + ~i: = z :
}+ :.+ f =ifz z i: =: :.+ ~iziii =ifz z ,
i =i i = :ii +i z= +zi :
..=|+ ... =|+ ... |n- =||r +| r , ~n ~|:: ||
+| r |+ |t|||<| =||r =-+| ++ ~|-| r| r : =+|
~n = =| |: ~| + =+- r : n|++ rs |
-| - r |+ |:- r , |t|| r, ~||, -| := -r +|
=||r |t|||| =||r r: ~| rs - - r ,
|| s s||n+ +|+ r , -| =+ |r=| = n- r : ||+ |+
|t|||| =| +z +r| r , r -| = n-|| r = -
s r : || +| | || r , += - r , r r : ~| |r--|+ s
|+| ||- + +|: ~|s| +r| r =+-|: =+| +|: + +|: ||-
r|| ~| |++| ||- +r| r, rs -r--r = |++ +| +||-|-|
+- r |+ =+| ||- -| r ~| - |s| s =+| n|=
+- r : -| ||- |s| s |=| r : r , r| |t||| r :
| | + |= = |:.+|:+ |+| r |:|-=| s:| =s
++.+|+ r|-| r , -||+ | =|++|n r =s =| || +|
z|:+ ||- |+|| | , = ~||=| | |n- :
== rn +z n| |=z =-| s =| : := -r +| |sn|-
n| s|sn| | ~| =s |t|||, | | ~| +s+|:| + |n
Rajendra Yadav and Sanjeev (front) in conversation with FORWARD Press Hindi editor, Pramod Ranjan
' : ': m' a ' |a' ) a '1' + T' s a + ':' a ':+ ' :
Interview:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:36 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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INTERVIEW
RY: No, see we have two more here, Saint literature and Bhakti lit-
erature, in which all are devotees; these were associated with large
monasteries and temples, with different monasteries and schools. And
this Saint literature was generally a common literature. There is a big
reason for this. The reason is that they were not allowed to enter the
temples and hence they were forced towards the Nirgun literature.
They were not familiar with Sagun literature or did not have a
framework for that.
S: Their God did not have a caste but the God of the others had a caste.
RY: That is why the worship of their God is more nirgun (without
attributes). There is less idolatry. Meera has an idol but there the dedica-
tion to the idol is more important then the idol itself. She remembers the
name of Krishna but her own feelings dominate. So a tenacity is
evident. And the thought of the Saint literature can also be seen in com-
mon people. There are Muslims, dyers, potters, etc. They did literature
along with their labour. Now and then they would be weaving and also
doing literature; this is one big difference that is seen between the two.
PR: I am a little unclear about what Sanjeev ji has said. He said that
we didnt refer to the middle ages as Shudra literature, it was
mainstream literature. Whenever there was a movement in literature
it became a mainstream movement. For example, look at your
Progressive movement, Nai Kahani movement or any other
movement. But Dalit literature is a movement of the margin. The
supporters of Dalit literature admit that on one hand there is
mainstream literature and on the other Dalit literature. Does it not
seem that there is some weakness somewhere?
RY: No, its not a weakness. Whose literature would there be? Those
who have the power or those who are under that power? Sixty per cent
belong to power, to politics. Another thing about Dalits is that they
dont have any other experience of life, they know nothing else but
their own things or their masters. These people worked in fields. They
are their servants working in their homes. One, they lived outside the
house, relationships with them are rather functional, thats why they
are part of systemic process of this India. They are a part of the system
but they are not a part of the system, they are outsiders. So their experi-
ences are very simple. These people looked at their masters as God. So
when such people got freedom, the first blueprint of freedom they got
was what they saw in their masters. All their decisions were made by
the master. So what we say is that it is now that their history has begun.
They did not have a history. Whatever history there is, is of their
masters She who lived her entire life for us, sacrificed her children,
left her home, that woman burnt for us, either as a Sati or forcefully.
But now they have started writing their new history, because only
those have history who can take their own decisions of life. So they
started writing and the most authoritative thing they could write is
their autobiographies. Thats why 60 per cent of Dalit literature is
autobiography. Our autobiography is everywhere in India, it has all
the things. There are often obsessions in their autobiographies and
they have this struggle to be free. So, we say that Brahminical literary
aphorism is Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram and the dictum of Dalit litera-
ture is Torment, Struggle, Liberty. This is the vision of the future
because those belonging to the Satyam-Shivam-Sundaram formula
|--+| |: n|++ +=|-=| rs+ = ~||=| +| =||r +r| +r|:
:=s +|: , +-r|, | ~|| -r + n| : :=|n | -||+
+ n|| +| ~+| =-|| -||- ++| |: |= -r r | ||
| |, =| s|s = | =+- : := -r = =+| | r|
r|+| | | r ~|:
..+r|, <| ... ~+ r| | ~| r , + -| =- =||r r
~| =| =|+ =||r |=s = =+ r , : s| ~| s|| =
: : ~n-~n s| ~| -+n| = : : ~| | =-
=||r r , +n| +|s+ =||r r : :=+| r - :| r r : :=+|
r - :| r r |+ ++| s|| s -| ~|+ +r| || |-| |:
:=|n s |+| =||r + |n: =| =||r :=+
| | | s +r| |:
:++ =|+ +| +| : ||- +r| | ~| ++ =|+ +| ||- |:
..:=|n :++ =|+ +| | | | r | |+| || r :
=s s|- +s r : s|| + |= s|- r n|++ =s =| s|- = ||
s|- + |- =s| r : +| +| +|s n-| r n|++ =+| ~+|
=|+| ||+ r : + | ||: -| r : | =- =||r r =+|
=| =|s| n|| s =| r : s=ns|+ r , | r , +-r| r ~||: |
+|s + =| =| =||r +- r : +-+ +:| =| + r r
~| =||r =| + r r : r| + r- :| .++ r | |+| s
||: -| r :
. .= = + ~i = ii "z z, zi +zi f+
=+i +i z= :i =ifz z +zi i = z =ii:i +i
=ifz i z=:ii =ifz = +i; = ii z i i =ii:i +i
ii ~i iz:i + i: ": " "f:i ii, ;
+zi ii i f+= = ii +i f+ f
=ifz ii zif:i} +i ii z f =ifz + ==+
=i z f+ }+ i: =ii:i +i =ifz z i: =: i: f
=ifz z i ~i z i f+ +z +i; +=ii: :z ; z
..+r| +s||| +r| r : =-|| |++ |= r| | =||r ++| r| |
| | =-|| + ~||+ r ++| r| |` =| . +|=<| =-|| +| r ,
| |n|-= +| r : |n-| + | s + |- ~| -| |+ :++ |=
~| ~+ = +r| r || <| + , ~| + z |+- +r| r , = ~+| |-
|+- r | s||n+ +| |+- r : =:, n| -| s +|s ++ |n
r , ++ || s +|s ++ |n +| +-|+ r : + -| | + |r
r r , :++ =| = | : + +-|+n r , :=|n := |r +|
|+| +| =| r : |=-s +| |r-=| r n |++ |=-s +| |r-=|
+r| =| r , |r r : -| :++ ~+ | r - r| =|| r : :+ n| | +
s||n+ + s =|+ +| | r : -| = n| | +| -- |-|
|sn-| r -| ++ =|s+ -- |-| +| rn| +--|| r r | ++|
s||n+ |: -| rs -| r +r- r |+ :++| :|-r|= ~ -| r ~| r :
:++| +| : :|-r|= +r| |: | :|-r|= r , :++ s||n+| +| r : n |++
~ r| + ~+| +| :|-r|= -| |+| r -| |+ :|-r|= ++ r| -
r | ~+| || <| + + =n n =+- r : r| + |n+| -| |+| r
~| |n+ + |n :++ |= == |s|||+ ~+| ~|s+| r :
:=+| s-n |n- =||r +| -o |--|- ~|s+| = =| r :
rs|| ~| | || |. +| =| |r --|+ s r , = || r : :++|
~| | || |. +| s ~+= ~| -| =+ r ~| += s + r| + + = | r :
rs -| r +r- r |+ |t|||| =||r +| = | r =s-|-|s-
= s ~| :++ =||r +| = | r , |-+|-= |--- |-|: ||+
~| + . + r -| |+ =s-|-|s-= s |n| + |= =| r|
+r| r : :++ |= ~+| -s|+ r ... :++ |= ||+ r ~| :++|
Interview:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:36 PM Page 4
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just do not have a future. They have their own present they have a vi-
sion and their literature is future literature. Its true that aesthetically we
should oppose some of these things but then I question myself that all
beliefs, all strategies of literature are our own. Its when we take a judge-
mental position that we say, your stuff is wrong. Well, this is what they
are fighting against you are not a judge of what is ours, our lives, our
writing. This means that we want to stop them at the gate, search them
and allow them entry if they are found clean. Else, not allowed! This is
inappropriate power, rejecting of half of the humanity. They dont have
aesthetics; they do not have the way of saying things. Then I question
myself, if this egotism to judge things, to pass a judgement is not
what we have inherited as a part of our sanskaras, our belief system. We
are part of that power that determines things, and thats why we say they
are not aesthetic. Its possible that their art is different from ours or they
may reject their own. At the moment we are rejecting it, arent we? We
are telling them how to write, how not to write. In future, perhaps they
may have their own way of thinking and creativity.
IK: But you are still talking about Dalit literature and writers. You must
have read something at least in translation by Mahatma Phule and may
have read something by Savitri Bai Phule. She was a great poet as you
may know and they were very clear about their Shudra identity. Phule in
fact always addressed himself to Stree-Atishudra-Shudra, in that order.
Now his identity was very clear, in his writing also he had a certain style
some of it was polemical, for argument, Gulamgiri (Slavery) being the
primary example. But he has written several works including ballads,
satire, and one play as you may know. So definitely at least 150 years ago,
well before Dalit literature was even conceived, there was, in
Maharashtra at least, clearly a literary voice that identified itself as
Shudra. This literature had a sense of taking up the causes and making
common identity with women first of all as the most oppressed,
starting with Brahmin women. In fact, Phules first social work was on
their behalf which became a scandal in Pune, which in those Peshwa
days was about 40 per cent Brahman. His wife also did a lot of work in
Marathi literature, especially poetry. So we know that 150 years ago a
couple was actually practicing Shudra literature very consciously. Those
days there were no school of Dalit literature, but as we now look back and
analyze can we not say the Phulesbody of work would fit into a frame we
can call Shudra Literature? And so I ask once again, is there not any
other literature written that we can say it is by and about Shudras/OBCs?
RY: They are a part of our system, they are a part of our society; they
cannot be isolated they always had an interaction with us. So things
didnt happen on their own for us. Let them interact with us. It has
come, now whether we take it positively or negatively depends on our
point of view. Whether they take it positively or negatively is up to them
but they cannot escape our influence. We
IK: Who is we?
RY: We are all those who are not Dalit
IK: But we are not talking about Dalits but Shudras.
RY: Shudras were never segregated like the blacks in America
IK: But Phule identified Shudras with them when he titled his book
Slavery and dedicated it to those Americans who helped liberate the
blacks from slavery.
|n . + |n r : r =r| r |+ rs+| +n|s+ = :+s
= + z ||| +| || | ++| ||r: n |++ |+ s ~+ ~| =
=|n +-| r |+ +n| +| =|| s|-| , =|| |+||- rs|| ~+| r :
rs s n |||-|+ +r- r |+ +r| - -r|| || n- r : =: ,
:=| + |n|. + -| n: r r |+ ~| +r| r rs|| ||| + ,
rs|| || <| + , rs|| |:| + : ||+ r r| |- r |+ rs r
|| | + , -n|-|| n ~| =|+-= | r| - ~ ~|+ : +r| -|
+r| : n- | r , | |- ~| . + r|. + ~|. + n s |+|: :++ |=
+n|s+-| +r| r , :r +r+ +| -|+| +r| ~|-|: -| s ~+ ~| =
=|n +-| r |+ ~ r+|, ||| +| ++ +| ~| s |=
++ +|, rs| | r|| =|n + = -+|| = |sn| r |+ +r| : rs =
| + |r-= r | || - +- r ~| :=|n rs +r- r |+
+n|s+ +r| r : r| =+-| r ++| +n| rs= ~n r| |
| - + ~=| -| rs | - + r r +, rs -| r r |+ + =
|n| , + |n| : ~| n+ r| =+-| r |+ ++ ~+ =| + +|,
+|+ +| + ~n +||| r| :
.. f+ i" = = f =ifz i: +i + ~i +:
:z z i" ff: i: ": =zi=i + zi:i fi + " i zii, +=
= += i = , i: :ii =ifi ~i; + +i + fi = " i
zii z =zi +f =i f+ i" i zi i: " :i
"zi + ~i: = ~z =i. + + z= :ii " -i" +i i-:i -
f:i +z +: = ~if +: , = += = ~ + "zi i
~z z =i. + z , + = = }+ i= :i z +
i=+, + +" i, i=f: =+i = iz:i z f+
zi ii, i: }+ i+ = fi z , :ii i" i
zi + !. =i "z , f =ifz +i fi: + i =
"z , += = += =zi:i = , } = " =ifzf+ iii i "
i"+i :i +z ;= =ifz = =~= "z fii +
iii ai +i =i i, + =i =i :i "zi ~i +i, if+
=~= f+ "f , :i :i ~izii fii = z ; :=, +
+i "zi =i=if+ +i + z f} i f= ": " i = ~z z
~i =i if+ " :ii fi = = ~ "f:i ~izii "i
i + " = =:ia =ifz = ~z +i= f+i, i=i: ":
+fi = ;=f} z= i z f+ !. =i "z }+ "f-i ~z z
= = :i =ifz ": +i= +: :zi i fi f =ifz
+i +i; + z i, f+ ~ ~ z= = +: z i:
f: i +: z i ~i z= z +z =+ f+ + "f-i +i :i+=
} = i+ = f. + ~ ai z f= z= :i =ifz +z =+ z ;=f}
= :i =i f+: = z z , ~i +i; =:i ff =ifz z z f=+
~i: = z= +z f+ z :i i -i~= zi:i i: + ~i: = z
.. rs| |=-s +| |r-=| r , rs| =s| +| |r-=| r : ...
++| rs-|| rs| =| : --|+ r : -| rs|| -| +z +r| r ~|:
| rs| =| : - + : r ~|| r ~ = =+||s+ n- r |
++||s+ rs|| +||| r : rs...
..z z= +i z
..rs = r | <|n- +r|...
..f+ z= fi + z :ii + ~i +: :z z
..-| +=| =| ~n +r| |+ =| |+ ~s|+| + +|n| +
=| r~| ...
.. f+ + :i i +i + =i z fi ~ zi "
" + +i :i + i=f: :i i: = = f:+i if=i +i
==f" f+i fzi +ii +i i= = iii fi = = +
Interview:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:36 PM Page 5
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INTERVIEW
S: Its very hard in our country. ShudraAtishudra is all
intermingled. We have said many times that it not very clear where
the definition of Dalit ends. Then later somebody told us that those
among Shudras who are untouchables would be Atishudras and
those who are touchables would be Shudras. We posed this question
to Shudras as well. Gradation is there in the entire Hindu society.
What is the jati of a Brahman? It is present in the jatis within
castes.Thats the fundamental thing that does not allow the caste
system to be eliminated from India and because of that there does
not emerge a clear path. But about this Shudra thing, we all are Shu-
dras. All non-Brahmins are Shudras. In any case, there hasnt been a
clear discourse on this. But a discussion and discourse like this must
happen.
IK: But should there be such a discussion about OBC Literature?
S: Definitely there should be If not now then when?
PR: Sanjeev ji, perhaps, agrees that time for OBC literature to come
into existence has arrived.
S: No, no, we have not said that. We said, there hasnt been a classifica-
tion like that till now. We said, that if it could be defined then Siddh liter-
ature and Saint literature is that poetics. A discussion on that should
begin, this is what we believe.
(At this moment, few guests arrived in the Hans office and the
conversation deflected to other topics, during which a reference was
made to Chandrabhan Prasads love of English language. Following
section emanates from that context. EDITORS)
IK: See, they (Chandrabhan Prasad) are quoting Savitribai Phule
She wrote poems which say Give us English. English is like mothers
milk, English will liberate us. So whether they know what is the source
of this or not, they are quoting her. Now we had the discussion at a 2007
January writers conference in Goa. Some people came from North
India and said this sort of thing again and again. My response then was it
is truth in any language that liberates but if you insist on it in English you
can get the truth in English as well. After all Mahatma Phule himself said
that and he got it from his guru Baliraja who he considered to be Jesus
Christ. Now Dalits may demand truth in another language, English. You
just said that Dalits have had unique experiences. So you have to grant
that the Indian languages have been used to keep them in bondage. They
see that the so-called forward castes still have a monopoly of the English
language in this country. And they naturally want a piece of the action
for themselves.
RY: Yes
PR: If you make a distinction between mainstream literature and
literature of the Atishudras then Shudras just dont have a literature
RY: Pramod Ranjan ji, youve made up your mind that you will take
our lives!
(All laugh)
IK: Maybe that is whole other subject we can take up another time
when you have the time
RY: Gham raha jab tak ki dam mein dam raha, dil ke jane ka
As long as life endures, there will be heartbreak...
[a couplet by Mir Taqi Mir]
(Concluded)
rs| -| + ~ <, r - |-+- r : -| -~|--| = + z
|sn|- n| r : r - | rs+ +r| =| |+ |n- +| |=|| +r|
s r| -| r n |++ + z -z +r| r ~| |+ | s rs |+=|
+ -|| |+ ~- - ~|--| r| ~| -| | s | - - r -|
r| : r rs+ -| | = =| z| |: || + |s+-| |r =s|
s r : |t|| +| +| +-=| ||- r ` = ||-| + ~ |
||-| r +s =| r : r| =|- +| s n || r | ||-
-| +| s +r| r| + -| ~| :=+ n- + -z s|
+r| + |-|: n |++ -| | |n| | s|sn| r , =s rs = -|
r : |-+ - |t|| r ==| -| r : = +=|, := +| +|
-z = +| : |s-| +r| ~||: n |++ =| |-|- ~|
|s-| r| +| ||r:
..f+ ~i }= i zi ifz} i~= =ifz +i ~i:
=
.| r|+| ||r ... ~ +r| r|| -| + r||`
. .= :ii =z= z f+ i~= =ifz + zi +i ~
== i i z
.+r|-+r| :=+ |n rs+ +r| +r|: rs+ +r| r |+ = -r
+| ~=| -+ +|: |+| +r| r ~| r: rs+ +r| |+ ~ |:.+|:+
|+| | =+ -| =- =||r ~| |=z =||r | +| r : :=
+ |s-| -| r|+| ||r, r rs s|+- r :
,zi ": z = +ii = i} = z=ii + ~i + i:i
fi : zi i, ;= i:i =i " =i + " =+i fi+ ii
i +i " = = = i z - `
.. f}, , =i "=i` =ifi ~i; +i ; +:
:z z zi }= +fi} f f== +zi i z f+ z= i
i i =i + = z , i z= iii +: ~ iz
z =+i i =i= z i z, z ; +: :z z :
./ = ii = z } }+ + =-= = z=i: }+ i z;
+ i -i: =i: = i} i: ;= :z + ~i ~i:-~i: + ;
= == =:i "-ii: i f+ z = z iz z f+= = =ii
= zi i z= i +:i z f+ : i" i = ;= ~i ":
ii: i z i i"+i i = = = "i zi =+i z
if:+i:, =zi=i + +zi i f+ z z " :
~f:ii = f=i z f= z :i ==z =i ~ f f+=
=: =ii, i, = = + ;i +: =+ z i" = +zi
f+ fi + a = :z z ;=f} i"+i z =ii " i
f+ =i: =iii +i ;=i z ~+ ~i} : + f} z i
z z f+ ;= :i = i+f ifi +i i =
i =ii ": }+if+i: z i: iifz: z = + +:i
iz z
U..r|
. .: i" z f=i +: z f+ }+ :.+ =i:i +i
=ifz z i: =: :.+ f:ii +i =ifz z , fzi ":i
:i z i :ii +i =ifz i z z ...
U.. s|< + | ~| ~| - ++ ~| r |+ |+ n +
r| | :
(=s- r =|;
..:ii z }+ =:i f z f=": f+: += ~i zi
~ i"+ "i= == zii ...
..s r| -+ |+ <s s <s r|, |<n + |+ +| ...
()
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25
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- +| --| - r , | |r
rs|| |z =|s||+ = +| -| =+ +- -
|: - - n| r| |-| r : =s| = |n
=||r +| +| : ~|-- :|-r|= s +r| +| +r|
~|-|: =s| |+ -| =||r +| |- ~| + :=
|~+ =s| s =| +| =| r|=|- r| r| |:
- -| +r| , =|s||+ |-n | + =|-r|-=|
=||r|+ |-|| = | + - s | |:
+r+| + r| | |+ r |+|=- s|--+ -|
|||++ =| +| -+||| r : ~ -| r = ||- r|
+| r |+ = |+| = |-| -| | ~|-- s
~|, -=| = =s| s | +| ~|-- =| +|-|
s ~||: :|-r|= + -| | s rs | r
r ||=+ =|s||+ | ||| s |=||- =s|
+| + || | |, =|s||+ | ||| + +|+|
~| =| |+ |- r :
||+ | s s ||-|+ ( ||+ |s s + n|+
= = |- -||=+ n|;, +|: ( s |
<| |n| |-- | ||: + z ++ +
|n |-||-|- r|-| |;, n |~+ (|+-+ =|s||+
= ~|+ |n =||| |--; ~| |= |sn-
LALLAN PRASAD SINGH
s soon as we propose a literary discourse, we
inadvertently take into account the social
composition and its constantly changing
contours. There doesnt seem to exist any
literature separated from its society. In the pres-
ent globalized world, the mere thought of a
society-neutral literature would be ridiculous.
Then why should we not carry a continuous dia-
logue between literary debates and social
analysis. It must be said that a developed mind-
set and scientific thought demand this very
thing. It is now amply clear to everyone that
various classes emerged in society with the
appearance of private property. In the previous
eras in history, we find a complex structure of a
society divided into various social classes in
different forms and gradations.
In ancient Rome we find a patrician (belong-
ing to the governing high class), a knight (a man
with a high rank who was trained to fight while
riding a horse), a plebian (a commoner from the
A
oi
OBC Literature:
A Marxist Perspective
ia|a| ai|ro
ei+aai| |cto
ai ea aiei|o aei+ai o| aia ocai r , a|o ei+a air aiei|o aei+ai
o aiu-aiu i|u o aeiair i c aitoair oi a ii|+o ai c a tiic r 1
BUDDHISM CHAMPIONS SOCIAL EQUALITY, WHEREAS MARXISM
SCIENTIFICALLY SUPPORTS, BESIDES SOCIAL EQUALITY, ECONOMIC
SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM
OBC-Lit:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 1
lower social class) and slaves. In the Middle Ages, there were feu-
dal lords, serving landlords, guild-masters, workmen and
labourers. Almost all these classes then had minor gradations
within them. In modern bourgeois society, which emerged out of
the remains of the feudal society, class differences have not been
eliminated. It has merely replaced old classes, old forms of
oppression and old forms of struggles with their newer forms.
The chronological division of Indian society can also be done
in the same way ancient, medieval and modern. Ancient society
was divided into the so-called Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and
Shudra castes. Similarly, a patrician was considered a priest
(Brahmin), the knights were Kshatriyas, plebians were Vaishyas
and slaves were seen as a Shudras. Today, constitutionally Indian
society is structured according to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes, Backward Castes and upper castes (general category).
Lets consider figures from Bihar and Jharkhand alone.
Backward Classes have 109 castes. Dalits have 32 and upper
casts merely four. Across India OBCs constitute over 50 per cent
of the population. In the ancient and middle ages, some castes
among OBCs such as Yadav, Kushwaha, Kurmi, etc., were also
original Kshatriyas, royal and feudal lords.
The Brahmin class has admitted: I created new Kshatriyas to
confront old ones. On Mount Abu I carried out a Mahayajna
(great sacrificial fire), purified the newly arrived Huns, Gurjars,
Abhirs, Sakas, etc., and declared them Kshatriyas. New
Kshatriya clans were called Agni Kul (fire clan). The old native
Kshatriyas were not ready to accept these new Kshatriyas. For
that reason too confrontation between them was inevitable.
(Bhagwat Sharan Upadhyay, Khoon Ke Chheentey Itihas ke Pan-
non Par, p. 40). Romila Thapar also believes the same: After the
Gupta Age, the process of feudalism that began through land
grants in 11th12th century, picked unprecedented pace
(Bhartiya Sahitya ka Samekit Itihas, Ed. Nagendra, p. 163).
Under the British dispensation too, land was forcibly taken away
from the farmers and new landlords were formed. Along with that
domestic industry and businesses were destroyed. This is how the
process of OBC-fication or proletariatization was carried out in
our history. Thats the reason the present OBC section has faced
more exploitation, suppression and oppression. It has also revolt-
ed and has recorded its intervention in history.
In Sanskrit there are has been a division between spiritual
r : s s =|s -, ~||+- |||, |-:-s|-, +s , = |= :
n= :+ ==| | s |+ | | =| |+ r : ~|| |++ ~| =s| + |
=|s -| =s| + =|-| | = | r , || || +| s +r| +
|| r : =+ = |+ -|+ + -|+ + | , |+ + -|+
= | + + | +| r| -||- |+| r :
=|-| =s| +| +|n |=|+ =| :=| -r = |+| |-| r
||+, s -| ~|| |++: ||+ =s| -|+|- |t||, -|||, -
~| -| + s | |=||- r : :=| -r ||-|+ +| | |r-
( |t||;, +|: +| -|||, n |+ +| - -| |= +| -| + s
| |-| r : ~| = |||++ -| = =|- +| =|s||+ = +|
~+ = |- ||-, ~+ = |- +||-, |z: | ||- -| =| (=|s|;
||- s | + - r : r| rs + n |r| ~| :|| : +| ~| +: | :
|z: s :o ||-| r : |n- s s: -| =| s s|| |:
=|- s ~| |=| + n += | +| so |--|- = ~|+ r : ||+
s +|n s ~| |=| +| + z + ||-| | |, + -||r|, + s| ~||
s n -|||, | =|s - =| r r :
|t|| | +| ~|s++ r |+ ''s + |+ -|||| = n| r| n + +
|n + -||| +|: ~| - + sr|| +, s + =| +|-| -
r || , | , ~|=|| , -|+| ~|| +| -| z + -||| || |- + ||: +
-||| + n| +| = || ~|+ + n r : : :+ -|||| +| |+ -|| -||| -|
-|+| ++ +| - | +r| : | +| s := +|| =| = | |z: +|
~|-+ r| |`` (=- -|| ||,
The writer of Abhijnana Shakuntlam, Raghuvansham,
Meghdoot, etc., Kalidas was a shepherd by caste. When
he grew weary of the royal court, he came back to the
folk life. The author of the world-renowned epic
Mahabharata Maharishi Vyas was a son of a Nishad
woman (fisherwoman)
m''' ' + o, ' ', ': m'': + ' ' +''o:'a '' a
+s ' ' :' a ' 11 +', ' o' +' m'
'' a ''' '+' + 1'' ' '': +' +
' ' 'a
From left: Kalidasa,
Mulk Raj Anand in
his younger days;
Right: Vyasa
' a +''o:'a,
+' m' :,
m' '1'
:' 'a
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(Vedic) and worldly or secular (Laukik) literature. Vedic litera-
ture is primarily of the Brahmins but Laukik literature belongs
to OBCs. The writer of Abhijnana Shakuntlam,
Raghuvansham, Meghdoot, etc., Kalidas was a shepherd by
caste. When he grew weary of the royal court, he came back to
the folk life. But his disappearance remains a mystery.
Lets leave Ramayana out because its author Valmiki, a mighty
scholar and great poet, is a Shudra. Nowadays, Valmiki, as a rule,
is called a Dom, a Scheduled Caste. But the author of the world-
renowned epic Mahabharata Maharishi Vyas was a son of a
Nishad woman (fisherwoman). It needs no saying as to where do
Nishads belong these days. The mainstream of Sanskrit literature
is constituted by Kalidas and Vyas. OBC and Dalit complement
each other because socially and educationally both the classes
belong to the lowered section.
Nath and Siddh literatures are primarily OBC literatures. The
pioneer of saintly poetry Kabir was a weaver. In one of his couplets
he has called himself a Kori (see Professor Rajendra Prasad
Singhs book Hindi Sahitya ka Subaltern Itihas).
We can also look at the Indian English literature in this context.
Mulk Raj Anand scores over others among the trio of Indian novelists
in English. Raja Rao exhausted all his talent in weaving a net of
Shankar-ism, i.e., Brahmanism. R. K. Narayan disguises a well-to-do
rake (guide) as a hypocritical sage. M. K. Naik has correctly
observed that among the three, in terms of standard of writing, the se-
niormost Mulk Raj Anand was ahead of the other two. (see A History
of Indian English Literature, p. 160). Dalits, the deprived, farmers
and lowered-caste servants are at the centre of his novels. Perhaps he
could do that because he himself was from the coppersmith (OBC)
caste. It can be said that the mainstream of the English novel also
springs from the OBCs. We should not forget that national literature
also begins with Maithili Sharan Gupts Bharat Bharati. Siya Sharan
Gupt is also a link in the same chain. The pioneer of Chhayavad poet-
ry is Jai Shankar Prasad and his Kamayani is the best work, in which
one finds an echo of class struggle and equality-based order. This is
all an influence of Marxism. All these three come from the social
group known as the OBC.
If seen historically, in ancient and medieval times, those
coming from among the OBCs made Buddhist philosophy the
ideological basis of their literature. Even in contemporary
times they consider Siddhartha and Marx their philosophers.
, . +o;: =| r| s|-| | |sn| | +| =| r : '' +|n + |
= |s ~+ |+| + s|s = =|s -|+| +| | |+ | -| r : |, ::|
::| =| + | |+ :=s ~= - - | ~|: `` (
, = . + , . :-s;: | |-| +|n s +: | --| + a||
=| |+=|+| = |s|+ z|+-z|++, +-+ |s| | +| : =|-r|-
=| | n |-| || +| | |+| |: rs| :|-r|= s ~| |=|+|
| = r||+| +| |+ | = r| | r : r : :=||n ~| +| ~| |=|
-+| -|| |, s+ ~| | -s +| || |-|+| r ~|: ~| =+ | | r +,
:|-r|= s ~+| r---| =| |+|:
= -+ - s |+ =||r n| |++ =||r + | |=|+ r : |+
=||r s - |t||| +| r n |++ n| |++ =||r ~| |=| +| r :
, , ~|| + | -| +||n|= ||- = : |
r : | | = | |, -| + n| +-|+ s ~|, n |++ ++|
|n r| |+| r- r| +| r ~| r :
+| z| : ||, -| |+ =+ |-| |-s||+ = | |
|a|+, sr|+| -| r : ~ -| |-s||+ |||-| :| s r| +r |- r :
n |++ = |-||- sr|+| + |-| -| |+| +| +
| sr| |= r : ~| |+| |+= =|s||+ =s r s |+ |- r , -|+
+| |- +r| : = -+ - =||r +| s ||| +||n|= ~| |= = r|
+-| r : ~| |=| ~| |n- +- = + + r , -| |+ | +|
=|s||+, -| |-|+ -- |+n -+ = : r :
+| =||r, |=z =||r ||+- ~| |=| =||r r : = - +| +
= -|+ +| n|r| r : r| + ~+ +| + | r s ''+| |`` +r| r
(< , |. | =| |= r +| --+
;:
:= = = s rs : |:+ : |n-| |n +| =| : =+- r : ~ ||
|=+| || s s -+| ~|+ = =|| : - r : ||| + -|
-| +| |+| |t||| +| |n ++ s r| ~+| |-=| | | r :
~|. + . +||| + +s|-| n + (|::; +| | :| =||
+| | n| r+| - r : s. + . +|: + |+ r| +r- r |+ :+ -|+| s
z-s s -+| ~|+ r| n + + |s|| +| |z = =| == ~|
r : (< , . :-o; ++ |=| +
+ s |n-, |-, |+=|+ -| +|r- |+ r : -|| :=|n =| +
=+ -| |+ r + ~||=| ||-, |, = ~|- r : +r |n| |
|+ ~ || |= +| s ||| =| ~| |=| = |++n-| r : rs +r|
= n+| ||r |+ |z | =||r +| = ||- =| s |n|-|| + -
= r| -| r : :=| +: | s |=||s =| : r : z|||| +| +
| || =| -| + =| r ~| ++| = | z +| r , |=s
-= | -| =|---| +| ~+ r : = s|-= | +| =|
r : -|+| ~| |=| +|s+ =|s||+ =s r = r| ~|- r :
|-r||=+ -| | | -| ~| |=| |n| + ~+ =||r +|
m i| foia o| e soiici | i a|a| a |+oaa| r 1 cie |o ai|ro oi
a iia | e |ua|tici m a o - a ri ai r 1
THE MAINSTREAM OF THE ENGLISH NOVEL ALSO SPRINGS FROM THE
OBCS; NATIONAL LITERATURE TOO BEGINS WITH MAITHILI SHARAN
GUPTS BHARAT BHARATI
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LITERATURE
Buddhism champions social equality, whereas Marxism
scientifically supports, besides social equality, economic socialism
and communism. That is why OBC writers are primarily inspired
by these. Other oppressed but aware people also accept them.
A few upper-caste intellectuals say the concept of OBC was not
there in ancient or medieval times. It was established in the
Constitution of India and OBC came in the form of a collection of
hundreds of castes. It began to be used in both the forms backward
castes and backward classes. It aided immensely the creation of na-
tional unity, social cohesiveness, harmony and density.
PROLETARIAN LITERATURE
Gorky talked about creating proletarian literature. Literature is
named after caste, class, language, geography, time and ideology.
English literature is named after the Germanic Angle tribe, which
came and settled in Britain around the 5th century AD. In our coun-
try we find a mention of Brahmin literature. OBC is far away from
narrowness as it is a class of more than a 100 jatis that include farm-
ers, craftsmen, weavers, ironsmiths, carpenters, fishermen, Bania-
traders, cattle-rearers, etc. From a social sciences point of view one
can say that the mainstream is of the OBCs. Central power is in the
hands of upper-caste forces, which are financed by the capitalist
class. The former is the latters political representative. It is clear
that representation of the Bahujans is negligible in media organiza-
tions as well as government and educational institutions. The
upper-caste section remains fearful of the OBCs. Using the state
power it keeps the OBCs suppressed.
Is this question really meaningless: if OBC politics can be done
constitutionally, then why can an OBC literary discourse not begin? If
there could be an OBC commission, then departments of OBC
literature must also be established at the universities. Through the
syllabus upper-caste literature is forced upon the OBC and other
students. Take this, read only our literature! This is social, educational
injustice. Now that they are branded, then OBC literature is a forceful
spokesperson of the OBC identity, its self-respect, its dignity and social
justice. Since the upper-caste section is parasitical and non-productive,
it does not want social change. If few good people from its ranks try
and mingle with the folk, they are insulted. Rahul Sankrityayan was
referred to as one who brought dishonour to his clan and family and
Muktibodh a poet of a distorted mindset. OBC literature has emerged
out of confrontation with that caste system that Marx referred to as the
greatest hindrance in the path of Indias progress and growth of its
power (Preface, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy).
In reflecting the struggles, determination and forward-looking dreams
of Indias equality-aspiring masses, this literature does not lean on
mere verbosity.
The struggle for justice is the destiny of OBCs. The creative and
critical expression of that same struggling cultural consciousness is
seen in OBC literature. Its aesthetics are based on Marxism.
||+ ~|||, ~||+|n -| s+|n s |z <-| + +| +|| r :
=s+|n s =| |=z| ~| s|-= +| ~+| <|-| |++ s|+- r :
| zs- =|s||+ =s|+-| +| |- +-| r , |+ s|-= |
=|s||+ =s|+-| + =|-=| ~|| + =s|| ~| =|-| +|
|||++ -| = -|| r : :=||n ~| |=| =||r|n s -|
:r| = ~+ |||- r| - r : ~ ||: - = - n| =| :r -|+|
+- r| r :
+|| =| |z|| +r- r |+ ~| |=| +| ~|||| -|
||+ +|n | s +|n s | +r| : |+ r : r =|-| = |||+ s
-||- r ~|: ~| |=| = +: | ||-| + + =s + s ~||:
r +: -n|= ~| +: +|- | +| | s + |+| |+
n|: :== |z | +-|, =|s||+ =s , =s -| =|+-| +|+
s +|+| =r|-| |sn| r :

| +| = r|| =||r + +| |- +- r : =||r +| +|s+|
||-, , =||-= | n +|n -| ||+| + ~||| |+| |-|
r : : |n-| =||r +| +|s+| =| n| ||- + +|s r| r , |
| + s s| -|-|| + ~|=-|= ~|+ = : |: rs| r|
|t|| =||r +| -n |sn-| r : ~| |=| -| = +|| -| = r -
|r r -| |+ r + -|-|||+ ||-| +| + r , |=s
+|--+, --+, ++, n| r|, : , sz ~| , |+ -|||,
-| |n+ :|| ~|- r : =s| |||+ +| |z = =| | | =+-| r
|+ s ||| ~| |=| +| r : + | =-|| =| + r| s r , |=+|
|-|| + ||- r : r :=| +| |+||-+ |-|+|| r : -z r
|+ s||:| = -|+| , =+|| -| -| |-|+ = -|+| s r +| +|
|-|+|| + + | r : ~| |=| = =| -+| :| r-| r : r
| =-|| +| :-- s|n + ~||=| +| <| -| r :
-| r =|n =s |+ + r |+ ~| |=| |+||-
= |||++ -| n-| r -| ~| |=| =||r |s-| -| +r| -|
r| ` ~| |=| ~|| + =+-| r , -| |-||n| s ~| |=|
=||r |=| +| -|+| =| r| : =| =||r n|- | || |-|
r |+ s| + s|s = ~| |=| + z||-z|||~| : n| , rs|| r|
=||r | : r =|s||+, -| -|||+ ~| r : | n r| |
r , -| ~| |=| |n| + |n ~| |=| =||r, =+| r|+, =+|
~|-s-|, |s| -| =|s||+ | +| n +| r : =| -+|,
|+ r || ~| -||s+ r| -| r , =|s||+ |- + +r| ++|
|r-|: :=+| +-| + + z + =|+ n| + = |sn+ +| z| +- r ,
-| r ~s||+- |+| |-| r : |r n =| -+ |+ +| + n| + +r|
|, -| s |+| | +| |+ - s|+|=+-| +| +|:
~| |=| =||r = | --| = +|+ |++n| r , |=
| --| +| s|-= + =|- +| --+| ~| :=+| -|+- + +
+ |-- +| == : | +| +r| r ( --|+|,
S ;: r =||r =|- +| =s-|+| -||
+-| + = | , = +- -| =|- -+ +| |-| |- ++ s ||
=| -||: +| =r|| +r| n -| r :
| |+|s- = | -| ~| |=| +| |+|- r : =| = | -||n
=| -+ |-+ -+| +| = +|s+ -| ~|n| +|s+ ~|=|+ ~| |=|
=||r s r| -| r : :=+| =| -||-| s|-= | ~||||- r :
|I I| T!!VI I|II |~I |I"I|Iu!". T!!. |II!. I T-J|In |~I I!J -
|I I| |I!V I T":! I ! -|InI!n T! I-I! ~!|I". !-|I!~ "!-! T! |I I| ~-!!V-! T!
TV|nI!I| T!!V-! I| !|nI!|~I -I|-n! I-I| T-F T-nI I !
Hindi critic Lallan Prasad Singh is Chairperson, Department of Hindi, Anjabit Singh
College of the Veer Kunwar Singh University, Ara, Bihar. His major publications include
Muktibodh aur Unka Sahitya, Ram Vilas Sharma aur Hindi Samalochna and Pragativadi
Alochana ki Aitihasik Naveenta
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PREM KUMAR MANI


y the second fortnight of August 2011, the campaign Anna
Hazare is leading with regard to the Lokpal Bill seems to have
gathered much momentum. At the time of writing this, Annas
fast continues in Delhis Ramlila Grounds. The middle class
widely in North India and in somewhat limited manner in
almost the entire country is participating in this movement,
and it will be undoubtedly said that having been publicized by
the media, they are getting widespread support.
Recently, many cases, including the 2G Spectrum scam,
had made corruption the core issue of society and in such a
situation, who would not want to oppose corruption. The
language Kapil Sibal and Manish Tiwari used to oppose Anna
also vexed the common people. And because of these various
reasons it became a big movement. But at this juncture, an
interpretation of this movement becomes necessary. On the
surface level this movement may seem very moral and
innocent, but it is not so. Gradually, it is taking an anti-
Parliament form. A few nave people say that people are above
Parliament. No doubt they are. But if a crowd of a hundred or
two hundred thousand people stands up and says they are the
law or they are above Parliament then shall we accept that? In
Bihar, when Lalu Prasad was on his way to jail in the fodder-
scam case, thousands of people were following him. And
when he had to appear in the Ranchi court, the road from Patna
to Ranchi was jam packed with crowds of people. So what
should be done in such cases? In Deorala, when the Roop Kan-
war sati case occurred, about a million and a half people
gathered in support of the sati system. In 1992, it was a huge
crowd that brought down the Babri Mosque. How should we
see all these different faces of the masses? Like a temple or a
mosque, Parliament is a symbol. Through a process, i.e.,
elections, it becomes a representative body. To dismiss or
disparage Parliament is like dismissing or disparaging the
entire parliamentary process, i.e., democracy itself. That is
why people must evaluate this movement. One more thing has
emerged out of this movement, and that is civil society.
What on earth is this civil society? Is this the creamy layer of
the Indian middle class? What is the background of its mental
make-up? One wonders if this civil society wants to constitute
another parliament parallel to the one we already have.
This is exactly what I suspect. Till the time the
Dalitbahujans did not go to school, we only had one kind of
school. When Dalitbahujans started going to school, then the
big people started parallel schools. The look of their schools,
their syllabi, language, everything was different. As time went
by, parallel hospitals came up. So now, is a parallel Parliament
being set up? Will we in India also have divisions like House
of Lords and House of Commons la the British Parliament?
Annas movement seems to be heading in that direction.
I would like to warn people of this innocent-looking

|n +| n + | s |rs n| | r ,
=+| || ~-- :o:: + = |: s r - || ||:
:+ |+| + |n |+ -+ |<-n| + |sn|n| s |+ s ++|
~+-|+ || r : |+ = -| =|- ~| |z =
n= =|- +| -|r| s := ~| | n+ s |r-=| n r| r
~| |+= r +r| || |+ s||:| a|| ||- |+ |+ +
+|| r |+ =s + | r| | r :
|zn |+| :| - - s || |n =|r- +: s|sn| + =z||
+| =s| +| + | | +| || | ~| = s -|=||+ r
|+ =z|| + || | s n| : r| | : =z|| +| || |
+| + +r| ++| |r |: +|n |=n ~| s+| |-|| + |=
=|| s ~+| +| || |+|, == =| ~|s + -| | r ~|:
~| |sn-|sn|+ r + : | ~| | n+ + |: n |++ :=
: | ~| | n+ +| s|s| =| || r : = |+ s r
~| <|n+ |-+| =||+ ~| |+| n-| r , -+| r +r| : || -
|| :=+| = = || || =| r| -| | r| r : + z =| n n|
r =| +r r r |+ +-| = = = r : -|+ r :
n |++ +| : n| | n| +| =|: : | r| + +r |+ rs
|||+ | = = = r -| -| := s|+ n +| ||r` |r| s
n|n =| || || |n s n |+ n -| r||| n| ++
|z r| |n : | | +| s -|| + + -| +| = | | -+ +|
=: + =|: = : |: -| = s -| ++| ||r` |n| s
+ =-| s|sn| r ~| | -| =-| | + =s+ s +| : r
n| n| :+ | r| : :: s + =|| =|: + r|
~|| | s || s|- +| = + || |: rs +-| + :+
-s|s +| |+= s ` = =< -| + -|+ r |+=|
s | | s|- +| -r: + |+| + -r- +|| a||
r |-|+|| ==| r : = = +| ++|+| | +|| ||+| := |
= =| |+|, ~|- n| +- | +| ++|+| | +|| ||+| r :
:=|n n| | +| := ~| | n+ +| ~|+n+ ++| ||r: :=
~| |n+ s + || ~| = + ~|: r r r |=|n
=| =|:|: ~|| r |=|n =| =|:| -| n| r ` -| r
=|-| s +| +|s| n r ` :=+ s|+|=+ + +|
z= |s -| r ` +r| =| -| +r| |+ r |=|n =| =|:| = =
B
Preparing for a Parallel Parliament?
?

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ALTERNATIVE
P E O P L E S
movement. Just 90 years ago, Mussolini in Italy had siezed the
parliament with his Blackshirts, which again was an innocent
organization like the civil society, and laid the foundation of
fascism. One must ponder over Annas statement before he
went on the fast in which he had said that if he could not meet
his goals through Gandhism, then he is also well-versed in the
ways of the Chhatrapati (Shivaji).
I would like to request Anna to reflect on the question of cor-
ruption. I am not very excited about his Lokpal campaign. I feel
that like the anti-defection law, eventually this law too would
weaken democracy. We must refrain from placing anyone over
and above Parliament. It is for all to see how the institution
meant to eliminate corruption and establish justice, the
judiciary, itself has become corrupt. Chinese philosopher
Confucius has said, With more laws, there will be more crimes
PROFESSOR RAM SHARAN SHARMA
Renowned historian Ram Sharan Sharma passed away. Born in
1919 in a common family (with five bighas of arable land) in
Bihar, Professor Sharma was a living legend. He wrote a total
of 115 books. In 1950s, with his guide Professor A. L. Basham,
he worked on the history of the Shudras and became well
known. Since then his writings continued to pour in. He discov-
ered elements of feudalism in Indian society and wrote a book
called Indian Feudalism. It is from this book that we learn that it
was because of continuous land grants to the Brahmins by the
kings that Brahmins gained control over the means of
production. Before that they were under Shudra control. It was
after they came into this position that Brahmins imposed the
caste system on the entire society. This implies that, first the
Shudras were deprived of economic rights and afterwards of
social rights.
Through his historical writings, Professor Sharma time and
again rattled the reactionary segment of the society. In 1977 the
Janata Party government of Morarji Desai pulled out his book
Ancient India from the syllabus. There was much furore
because of this. In support of this book, Professor Sharma
wrote another book In Defence of Ancient India. Among the
civil society of that time this book was more popular than the
Jan Lokpal Bill.
Professor Sharma was a vivacious intellectual and was
interested in the rise of Dalitbahujans. In terms of ideas, a keen
Marxist but not a conformist. We witnessed the scenes of the
Red Flag coming down in the former USSRs Kremlin on TV
together with him at his residence. With a pale smile he
said, no matter how good an ideology is, it cannot go on
for eternity.
Though he was a nationally renowned man, the city
life of Patna will continue to seem incomplete without
him for a long time. I pay him humble tribute.
+ =s| +|- + ~| = = +|+| |r-| r `
s | ~|-| +| =| r| r : =|-| =s| + |n--|z: |r-= + n|
-+ -+ n +r| |- - -+ rs| r| + r| -r + -+ n :
|n--|z: -+ n |+ n - : n| | + =s| +|- -+ n | n |n :
++ -+ n| +| - , |=n =, =|| = ~n: +|n| - s =s|+| -
~--|n + : -| ~ =s|+| - = = +|+ +| - || r ` -| =|- s
=| | |-| = = +| -r =+ r|= ~| + n|: = ~| r|= ~| + +| s= s
|=+ r| |` ~+| +| ~| | n+ -| =| -. + |-| | r| r :
s n| | +| := |+| = |+ |n ~| | n+ = =|||+ ++| |r |:
= ~| = + :n| s s =| |n+| + ~+ n + - ~ = |
|=|n =| =|:| =| r| |+| |+ |n| = + | + a|| = = +|
| |n| | ~| :n| s . +|=||< +| ~||||-|n| | |: ~+-|+ s |+
+ ~+| r|| + = ++ |+ || |+| ||r |=s r| +
+r| |+ | ||| + |-- | +|s +r| r ~| -| z||- (|-|||; +| |--|
=| s :| ~|-| r :
s ~+| = |+ + ++| |r | |+ = z|| + | s | -+ + : ++
n| +|n ~|=|+ +| n + s r - =||r- +r| r : s :| n-| r n n
|| + +| -r r || + ~ -- +- | +| +s|| ++ |n| r| r| |:
= = = |+=| +| -||- ++ = rs || ~|+| ||r: = z||
|s|+ |n| ~| | -|- ++ |n| = -|, |||n+|, ~| -
|+-+| = r| : r , := +| : =| =+-| r : |+| |-| |++ ++. + |-|=
+ +r| |, '|-+ || +|+ + + , ~|| -+ r| :`
.
|- :|-r|=+| |s-|| -|s| +| |+|+ r| |: =+ :: s |r| +
+ =|s| (| || |s|+ +| | - |n ; || s s |. + = -|s|
|- -| + |+ -| + : r| + + n |sn|+ ::s |+-|| +| +|
+|: :so + -|+ s ~+ |:: | . . n. |-|s + =| r| + -| | +
:|-r|= +|s |+| ~| | - r : - = ~+- ++| n +| =|+
r|: =|-| =s| s =|s -| + -| +| r| + |++|n| ~| '=|-|
=|s -|` --+ |n|: :=| --+ = rs := |- +| =| |++|| |sn-|
r |+ |t||| +| ||~| a|| | n|-| + = |s|+ = r |-|- +|
|+ |+ + =||+| |t||| +| +|| r| |: :=+ := -| | +|
+|| |: |t||| + := |-|- s ~|+ r| | -| +| =s|
| |: s-n -| rn ~|| + ~||+||| = |- |+ , --
=|s||+ ~||+|| = :
| . -|s| + ~+ :|-r|= n + = +: | =s| + |-|+ ||| -|
+| ||n- |+|: ~| ||- ++ || = || -|+-| +| -|+| +r|
: :// s s| || =|: +| +-| || =+| + ++| ||+ =|-
--+ +| | + s = r| || |: := +|. +| |n s| |: ~+|
--+ + -| s |. -|s| + + --+ |n| ||+ =|- + -| s : r
|--+| - +| |=|n =| =|:| s + n|+|n = || | - r : |:
| . -|s| | - | |z+ : |n--|z: | + |+ s | - :
||| = s|-= || , n |++ +r| : =| |- = | + + s|n+ =
n|n :| : + -+ +| - |.|. rs+ ++ ~||= =|-
=| | |: r| + +|+| s -+|+ + =| ||| +| | +| : =|
|||||, |r r |+-+| r| ~z| -| + n-| r| , ~=||s-
+|n -+ +r| n =+-|:
-| |z | ||- + |+ , |+ - +| +| +| |+
++ n =s -+ ~ | n |: r |+s |z| |n:
Prem Kumar Mani, a leading Hindi writer and a founder-member of the JD
(U), is a member of the Bihar legislative council.
|I I| I T|n|-|! I4!I! I JI (") I ~-4!TI ~I-" |II! |I!!- T|TI I ~I-" I !
Jan-vikalp:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:54 PM Page 2
SEPTEMBER
|
2011
|

BREAKINGNEWS
31 0a
NEW DELHI, 24 AUGUST 2011
A
As the electronic media continued to focus on their TRP
ratings and the hyped up hazaro mesmerized by
Annas Ramlila primetime drama, thousands of the real
majority we the people led by Dalit leader Udit Raj
made their way through central Delhi to save the Constitution
and propose a representative Bahujan Lokpal Bill.
The next days English newspapers reported on the large rally,
partly because it stalled traffic at India Gate and Connaught Place,
because it was the first anti-Anna demonstration. Of course there is
rampant corruption and price rise. But the fight against it should not
undermine the Constitution drafted by B R Ambedkar, Udit Raj said.
Citing his differences with Hazares agitation, he said: There are
difference of opinions between what their (Team Annas) and our
Bill seeks. We are afraid that in future, people like Anna Hazare can
ask the government to do away with reservation under the threat
to commit suicide or fast-unto-death. This is unacceptable.
The rally which started from the Amar Jawan Jyoti made its way
through the busy commercial Connaught Place (CP) to India Gate
and from there to Jantar Mantar near Parliament, demanding that
the Prime Minister meet with a delegation of Bahujans OBCs,
SCs, STs, and religious minorities. Between India Gate and Jantar
Mantar a dozen Anna supporters on motorcycles tried to disrupt
the Bahujan rally. The police sent them packing and the rally was
able to continue on to Jantar Mantar.
We will draft the Bahujan Lokpal Bill within two to three days
and submit it to the Parliamentary standing committee, Udit Raj,
chairman of the All-India Confederation of SC/ST Organisations,
said. We want our representative in the lokpal committee as and
when it is formed.
We neither support Team Annas draft nor the governments
draft of the Lokpal Bill, he said. While the former will make the
lokpal authoritarian, the government draft is very weak.
Confederation member Indira Athawale said, This civil society
(Team Anna) comprises people opposing reservation. Moreover, they
want to create a lokpal that would be over and above the Constitution.
Indian Justice Party chief Udit Raj said: Dr Ambedkar said in
the Parliament on 29 November 1949 that fasts and satyagrahas
were dangerous for democracy, which is now proving to be
correct. The way the Jan Lokpal Bill is worded it will destroy the
delicate balance of Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. A Lokpal
who is not elected by the people is more likely to be whimsical,
corrupt, casteist and partial.
(See Pages 6 & 7)
1; ||, z 1 zt11
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Finally, We
the (Bahujan)
People Respond

a||mto|t, mdo|
(oa md) o|N ae|
Hindistan:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:55 PM Page 1
SEPTEMBER
|
2011
|

RTI
32 FORWARD Press
Faculty Positions: Another Casteist Fort!
t||||o 0c
:
eo a|t m||oe|c| cn1
Teaching staff strength indicating number of positions filled up against
OBC/SC/ST Quota in CENTRAL UNIVERSITIES
El ,
IIT (Kanpur) Reservation in faculty positions
a|;a|;c| (o|d0t) t||||o 0c| 0t a|t||
T
hese shocking statistics say a lot. In the
central universities the combined
strength of SCs/STs/OBCs is merely 1.5
per cent. On all the other faculty
positions including reader, senior lecturer, lecturer,
their numbers add to only 12.2 per cent. Look at
these figures closely. The number of professors
appointed is more than the sanctioned posts. Why?
In fact, it is only for the posts of lecturers that
reservation is provided for the exploited sections.
That is why, an upper-caste is appointed to the post
of a professor. There is no reservation for the post of
professor, reader and senior lecturer. The
comparatively high number of people from
deprived sections on the senior lecturer (SL) post is
perhaps because of promotion of the lecturers.
These figures have been collected by All-India
Backward Students Forum (AIBSF) via RTI.
-1|Is |Ie Isc Iu I|Jc s 1 I:|1
|I+|Iu|J1| + ||, |c|, |I|| I|
IJ |+J|I T|T T: T |s:|| +s:|
e c 1.5 T|:| s 1 |e, ||-1 Ja, Ja I
1 -| TI| I 1|T- Ie T:| T |+J|I
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Ja T: T s| |||Tc cII| I |J| |+|| I|
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||-1 Ja I T:| T -| |+|| -s| s 1
||-1 Ja ,||J) I T: T |||Tc cII| I|
T+||Ic ||I 1| ,+s:| 9 T|:|) -Ic
Ja T: T:||c s | J|| I I| s 1
4 | | ; |4| 11 c c T|+
,|;1|T) 1 1| ||| r r||
| 1 r 1
4
Sanctioned Posts
Existing Strength
SC
ST
OBC
PH
Upper castes
SC+ST+OBC
(RTI No- 6-4/2009, Central Universities, UGC, Dated- 7th Jan, 2011)
RTI No. Estt./PIO/69-2011/IITK267; Jun 29, 2011
|m''m'; a1' t:iz, a o 1''a'a, 1a'', ':'+ ' zii)
|m''m'; . 1'.i'm'; m' itziiim';m';'+ zt, z ', zii)
'+1 :
+'11 '''+
aa'
a'
m''a'
'1
a'
aa'a'm''a'
% Strength of
SC+ST+OBC
aa'a'm''a'
+' '1'1

PROFESSOR

READER
,
SL/SG
B
LECTURER

OTHER

TOTAL
1943
2563
25
11
4
6
2523
40
Total sanctioned strength of faculty
Total existing strength of faculty
Total number of SC faculty
Total number of ST faculty
Total number of OBC faculty
Total number of Upper Caste faculty
Professor
'Ta
Total
+o
SC
aa'
ST
a'
OBC
m''a'
Gen
a'
Associate Prof.
a''a 'Ta
Assistant Prof.
m'a 'Ta '''+' + +o '+1 :
'''+ +'11
+o aa' '''+
+o a' '''+
+o m''a' '''+
+o a' '''+
406
348
02
00
00
346
3744
2931
79
29
4
7
2819
112
451
30
10
1
0
410
41
7078
2327
422
211
233
30
1461
866
749
580
12
7
3
2
558
22
13514
8852
568
268
245
45
7771
1081
1.5%
% of SC+ST+OBC faculty
aa'a'm''a' +' '1'1
0.5%
3.8% 3.7% 3.7% 12.2% 9%
Indian Institute of Mass Communication Delhi
; |sdd ; tc|dc a|o n|a o|:d|dot|d, |c|
6
0
6
0
1
6 6 0
0
0 0 1
0 0 0
Fully bilingual monthly magazine. To subscribe call (011) 4653-8687 or
Email: info@ForwardMagazine.in
Hindistan:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:55 PM Page 2
SEPTEMBER
|
2011
|
33
a|tc|a|;
0a

PROFESSOR

READER
B
LECTURER

TOTAL
Teaching staff strength indicating number of
positions filled up against OBC/SC/ST Quota
o c |d |em|ed|Nd| n |t||o| o| a cd|
e eaa|, a| o|a| o| c| o oao nt ne 0c
Banaras Hindu University (BHU)
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)
od|ta |ac |em|ed|Nd (o|eud)
me|at N|N da |em|ed|Nd (medd)
Sanctioned
Posts
Existing
Strength
SC
ST
OBC
Upper castes
SC+ST+OBC
% Strength of
SC+ST+OBC
'+1
:
+'11
'''+
aa'
a'
m''a'
a'
aa'a'm''a'
aa'a'm' 'a'
+' '1'1
347
635
0
0
0
635
0
0%
680
555
0
0
0
555
0
0%
1368
300
83
21
0
196
104
34%
2395
1490
83
21
0
1386
104
6.9%
Delhi University
|c| |em|ed|Nd
Sanctioned Posts
Existing Strength
SC
ST
OBC
Upper castes
SC+ST+OBC
'+1 :
+'11 '''+
aa'
a'
m''a'
a'
aa'a'm''a'
% Strength of
SC+ST+OBC
aa'a'm''a'
+' '1'1

PROFESSOR

READER
B
LECTURER
,
SL/SG

OTHER

TOTAL
165
223
6
3
2
212
11
287
195
8
4
0
183
12
271
67
13
7
0
47
20
4
0
0
0
4
5
5
0
0
0
5
0
728
490
31
14
2
343(?)
47
Sanctioned Posts
Existing Strength
SC
ST
OBC
PH
Upper castes
SC+ST+OBC
'+1 :
+'11 '''+
aa'
a'
m''a'
'1
a'
aa'a'm''a'
% Strength of
SC+ST+OBC
aa'a'm''a'
+' '1'1

PROFESSOR

READER
B
LECTURER

OTHER

TOTAL
307
124
0
0
0
1
124
0
654
296
0
0
0
1
296
0
691
349
43
15
10
7
271
68
50
23
0
0
0
0
23
0
1702
792
43
15
10
9
724
68
0%
4.9% 6.1% 29% 100% 0% 9.5%
University College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Delhi
d |de|a c| o| N m a| o n |soN a|; a (d a|enea), |c|

PROFESSOR

READER
B
LECTURER

OTHER

TOTAL
29
64
0
0
0
64
0
40
35
1
0
0
34
1
115
52
8
1
2
41
11
112
70
5
3
5
57
13
296
221
14
4
7
196
25
0% 2.8% 21% 18% 11%
0% 19% 0% 8%
Hindistan:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:55 PM Page 3
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-|4
SEPTEMBER
|
2011
|

HINDISTAN
34 FORWARD Press
In an act of self-immolation, five members of a family were killed
on the night of 22 August in Bhaganbigha village of block Haspura
in district Aurangabad, Bihar. The family that belonged to Chan-
dravanshi/Kahar, an extremely backward caste (EBC), was victim
of a fraud in the Indira Awas Yojna, a central government basic
home-building programme. Those who died included Rambach-
han Rajvanshi (32), Sunita Devi (28), Rani Kumari (5), Maharani (3)
and Abhishek (2). All were sleeping in the same room. Rambach-
han Rajvanshi poured kerosene oil and lit fire that killed him and
his family.
The family had been allotted Rs 50,000 under the Indira Awas
Yojna. With that Rambachhan had also opened an account in the
local branch of the Central Bihar Co-operative Bank. Vinod
Rajvanshi of the same village who is reportedly the middle man of
the bank and the local headman, defrauded Rambacchan and
illicitly withdrew Rs 20,000 from the account. When he came to
know about it, Rambacchan pleaded with everyone from the head-
man to bank officials and even made appeals to the Block Develop-
ment Officer but no one came forward to help him. On the other
hand Vinod Chandravanshi kept on threatening him that if he did
not return the banks money, he would have him sent to jail.
When Vinod Rajvanshi heard of the suicide, he fled the village.
Rambachhans parents have registered an FIR in the local police
station against Vinod Rajvanshi and the local headman. The sad
part of this incident is that though it has been mentioned in the FIR
that the family was deceived and was mentally tortured, the state
government has declared it a mere accident. In this regard, EBC
leader of the Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) Rambadan Rai said that
this was not the first incident. All the schemes for the Dalits and
EBCs in the state have become victims of corruption. And for this
reason, poor people from these communities are forced to live a
miserable life.
Pranay
a|o|0Ds|
0|te|t d |od|
a|nc|a
Extremely Backward Family
Torches Itself to Death
|
Hindistan:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:55 PM Page 4
35
0a
|
2011 |ao:ot

|n |+| +|+| |+= ~z| +r|


n-|` ~z =| +| +-+| +|+ +r| +-|` ~|
|+= r =< +r| |+ ~+ =+| +| | ++ + |n
|= +<s =| | |` rs = r +- r : ~|| s
sr|- r||=n ++| =| =| r| + |+| r ~| |s
~|| +|s +| r .+| :=| |<-|| s || | + z||
r| =r| n|++ |= +<s: rs -s|< +- r |+ :=+
~n|| =| ~|, rs| |+, <= |-| = ~||
~+| +: s|- ++ + |= +- r- r : ~|+|
~| | |+| r ` ~| ~| | +<s | r r ` +
sr| |- | rs r| +r+| |r- r |+ |+|
+|+| |-+| ~|=|+ r|-| r , r n| ++| ~| |+ |
++| -+| r| s|-+n: ||s| +| <=| ---|,
~|+| ~| +: | || ||-s||| =|, ~+= |+
|-| r ~| | -| |-| ~| ~|s|-|= + =|
|| +<s |-||n : |-| r : ~ ~|+ +<s =|
|n : r r -| rs ~|+| =||r- ++| |r- r |+
|+ = |r-s- | ~| +||-|-| + |+ +r| |-- +|
s|-+n ~|+| |z + +n <: |z |n+n + r , do
not regress!
VOCABULARY BUILDER
1 explicitly (:=|n|=n|; =|.+-| , n+
In the letter he wrote to the manager, he put the
matter explicitly.
s+ +| |n ~+ | s =+ =|| |- n + -|:
SYN: clearly, plainly, obviously
ANY: vaguely, mistily
2 hearsay (|r=; =+|-=+|: |-, ~.+|r,
n||||
Dont believe on hearsay; go and confirm for
yourself.
=+|-=+|: |-| +|+ s- + , < |+ |- +| |
+|:
SYN: rumour, gossip, grapevine
ANT: truth, evident, testimony
3 innate (:+; -=||+, |+|-+, =r
Her innate talent will have to be developed if she
has to become a successful actor.
Regress? No way

U U U ? U

LESSON XIII
13
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ENGLISH
E X C E L I N
~ = =+n ~|=+ || ++| r -| =+| -=||+ |-=| +|
|+|= ++| r||:
SYN: inborn, hereditary
ANT: extrinsic, learned
4 justify (|-. +|:; |= - | || r|+| || < +|,
=s:||+|, | ++|, +|| -|+|
Many people think that ends justify means.
+: n|| +| n-| r |+ n- + a|| s|s| +| || r|| |
=+-| r :
You have to justify your behaviour in the office last
evening, the boss said.
| = + +r|, ''|zn| -||s +| <. +- s - s+ | r| |+| =+
- -r +|| -|+| r||:``
SYN: explain, vindicate, defend
5 lethargic (|n||+; = --, ~|n=|, +|-+|
This weather makes me lethargic, he said.
''r s|=s s :| ~|n=| +| < -| r ,`` =+ +r|:
Dont worry that the child is lethargic; he is
recovering, advised the doctor.
''| -| s- +| |+ || = -- r , r |+ r| r| r ,`` :| +
=n|r <|:
SYN: unenergetic, lazy, indolent
ANT: active, energetic, lively
6 mogul (s|n; : | =|: | ||-, |<-||r, s n
The oil moguls are reaping the benefits of the global
rise in price of crude oil.
+| - n +| +|s-| s ~| |-+ z|n +| . +|<| - n +
|<-||r| +| r ~| r :
Government went after the media mogul.
=+| s||:| + |<-||r + |z : : :
SYN: : baron, magnate, tycoon
7 nave (+|: ; =|n|+, =ns|-, ~+ =r|+
It is nave to believe that the new law will solve all our
problems overnight.
r s|++| =|n|+ r| r|| |+ +| +|+ + |-| -|- =|| =s-|
rn + < |:
SYN: simple, immature, inexperienced
ANT: informed, mature, experienced
8 regress (| =; |z r+|, |= |+|
They regressed to the old rules.
|+ |+s| |= n| :
We must be careful that we do not regress at this point in
our struggle.
rs |+ +| ||r |+ ~+ = | + := | < rs |z + r :
SYN: lapse, return, revert, fall back
ANT: progress, advance, grow
9 rhythm (|<s; n, -|n
It was only when I left my job at the call centre that I got
the rhythm back in my life.
s + +| n = +| +|+| z|: | - |+ +r| s |+ +|
n |= ~|: :
We particularly enjoyed the rhythm of his music.
rs+ = |- +| -|n +| |=-| ~|+ < ||:
SYN: beat, cycle, tempo
10 unequivocally(~+||+n|; +<s - ||- = ,
= - = , |+| |+=| = < r +
Father unequivocally said that my brother has to be
back before 10 in the night.
|-|| + =|: =|r +| +<s - ||- = -| |<| |+ r |-
<= = rn n|+| r||:
SYN: clearly, decisively
ANT: vaguely, doubtfully
IDIOMS AND PHRASES
1 learns the ropes (n+ < |=; |+=| |= -| | s +|
++ +| |-|-|| |- ++|, +|s ++ +| -|+| =|+|:
Learn the ropes from an experienced person before
you start your own business.
~+| ||+ = -| ++ = rn |+=| ~+ =| |- +
=| +|s ++ =| n|:
2 at loggerheads ( n|r : =; +| +| |-|- s
r|+|, -+|-+| +| |-|-
The government and the opposition are at logger-
heads on the issue of rise in prices.
-| s r|: +| n + =+| ~| |-| +| +| |-|- s r :
TIPS ON SPOKEN ENGLISH
~|+n s|r|n ~| <|n+| +| r : ~| |+=| =| ~| <|n+ +|
~|=|+ + =| r|- r , =+ |n|. + r|- r , =+ |- ~|+
s+ s -| +| r|-| | |+ +|: ||| +r| r|-|: ~ || s ~|
~+| | + = |+ + `
I am for the movement or I support the movement
(~| s . +| < s s | ~| -| < s s , s := ~| <|n+
+ =| r | s := ~| <|n+ +| =s+ +-| r ;
I am against the movement or I do not support the
movement
(~| s ~ = < s s | ~| : +| =| < s s , s
:= ~| <|n+ + |z r | s := ~| <|n+ +| =s + +r|
+-|;
I have reservations about this movement
(~| r | -|| ~| |<= s s , s :| := ~| <|n+ +|
n + + z -| +| r ;
I have no idea what is happening!
(~| r +| ~|:|:| | :| r |+ , s :| + z +r| -| |+ r|
| r| r ;
-s|< r ~|+| ~||| +| | |n+ +| |- +r| :
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Muslim Quota:
Keep it Simple, Silly!
iil | i|
s -ir iii-i i i -i i i|
si ni l | i r l i ls ni
l ln i - - -ii i iii
li r r | i -n ii-- ii|
l~ , r i-il i ili l-
ls i n nii r | r ls ni i
li i n r | r l-ii| s | | r i l
- - - -ii i r| i| i-il
i ili l- ls i (; ||) r| nii ni
r l~ r ; i-iliil- - ii -
| ni | n; r | ; ii, i -
- - -ii - ilnnn + | l-n- i i|
li l| in - -|i li ni r | ;
i - -ii - n| --n nn - r r
) i, l i ; i-il i r| r , z)
i, i lr i || n -i r s)
i, i lr ln ilni -i r |
lr - l-- i ||)ri ini r , z) s) n
r ( - ss)| ; nr, i - i, i|
- -ii i i-il i ili l- ls n
(i ||) i r| -ii i ni i l ii
i| i-il ii - n r | i r- r
i n r l l - | -ri i|
iri li ii l - i ii
l-i i i | - | nr i ,
i | i| - r r ` i ri
ni - i ii i | l- i r|
r | -i| - || ni - i nn r r |
- , i|ln i r| n|!
KHALID ANIS ANSARI
n an interview last month when Mr Salman Khursheed was
posed the query, There are reports that you are considering
Muslim reservations within the OBC quota, he responded
affirmatively: Absolutely. Sachar described them as SEBC,
socially and educationally backward classes. This is a special
segment within OBC. Now this is a curious comment
because nowhere in the Sachar report are Muslims
categorized as an SEBC (Socially and Educationally
Backward Classes), rather they are referred merely as one of
the many SRCs (Socio-Religious Communities). Moreover,
Sachar Report has acknowledged caste-based stratification
within Muslims and has suggested quite unequivocally:
Thus, one can discern three groups among Muslims: (1)
those without any social disabilities, the ashrafs; (2) those
equivalent to Hindu OBCs, the ajlafs, and (3) those
equivalent to Hindu SCs, the arzals. Those who are referred
to as Muslim OBCs combine (2) and (3) . So, according to
the Sachar Report all Muslims cannot be conceived as a
socially and educationally backward class (OBC) because
the forward Muslims (ashrafs) are without any social
disabilities. Well, one may ask if the minister who exhorted
everyone to read the Sachar Report critically and not as a
gospel truth not very long ago has failed to practice what he
himself preached. And, in this instance the question of
reading the report critically does not even arise because the
honorable minister seems to have read the report incorrectly.
Strange are the ways politics affects ones judgment!
But let us stay with this thread and explore further. Can
Muslims as a whole be included in the category Other
I
|
A RESPONSE TO HON. SALMAN KHURSHEED
e|eae oici o| sc
|aa |aa|
ei++|o aaei+ ti| r
o| |ci| c |a|o oi
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RESERVATIONS
Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (OBC) as the minister
suggests? In Constitutional terms there are only two relevant factors
for including a group in the OBC category. First, it should be
underrepresented in the services under the State [Article 16 (4)].
Second, it must meet the criterion of being a socially and therefore an
educationally backward community [Article 15 (4)]. [The
economic criterion notoriously inserted by the Ranganath Mishra
Commission Report for determining backwardness is simply a non-
starter and was convincingly rebutted by the Indra Sawhney judgment
of the Supreme Court (1992).] So, let us apply these tests to the ashraf
sections within Muslims because the case for the inclusion of
pasmanda (backward and Dalit) Muslims is broadly a settled one and
most of the lower-caste Muslims are already included in the Central
OBC list. So is the ashraf section underrepresented? Can it be said to
be socially backward? These questions must merit our attention now.
In this context, Table 10.10 of the Sachar Committee Report (p.
210) deals with the representation of Hindu OBCs (H-OBCs), Gener-
al Muslims (M-Gen) and Muslim OBCs (M-OBCs) in public
employment. The relevant figures are reproduced in the table below:
According to NSSO 61st round (200405) the population of OBC
Muslims (Dalit Muslims included) was 40.7% of the total Muslim
population (the population percentage for General Muslims in that
case turns out to be 59.3%). If the total Indian Muslim population is
13.4% of the national population (2001 Census) then the General
Muslim population would be 6.76% of the national population. If one
keeps this figure (6.76%) in mind and compares it with the figures in
the shaded column (M-Gen) then it can be clearly inferred that the
ashraf Muslims are under-represented in public employment in most
of the sectors.
However, if we probe further we find the case is not as simple and
clear-cut as that. Let me make some opening remarks. One, the ashraf
sections, practically speaking, can only be accommodated in the
OBC list as of now. Though the population of the OBCs was
estimated by the Mandal Commission to be around 52%, it is availing
a quota of only 27%, which is almost half of its supposed population
due to the Supreme Court cap of 50% for reservation policy. That
means if any caste cluster or group within the OBC is represented by
even half of its total population percentage it would be deemed as ad-
equately represented. Two, the Sachar Committee has derived the
population data for Muslim OBCs (Dalit Muslims included) from the
55th (19992000) and 61st (200405) round of NSSO returns where-
in for the first time since Independence the data pertaining to OBC
i n , i; , r- ni ;| lii - in n r ; -i- |
| ni | i, i l - || i ni r , i| - -ii
i i ili i-il l- ls i n (i ||) -ii i
ni r ` iil l- l| - i i i || n -
iil- i iii r | ri r l i nn n
ii - i lnlli- i n ri s c()| i r
l r i-il i ili i ls ni l lii ln
-ii ii nni ri s r()| nii l- ii n |
- i ili iii i -ii - i i i r|
r i i ; li i -i- (ssz) - in- ii ; l
iil li| i; , r- ; i l-i - -ii
i n i i l - ii (ls ln) - -ii
-i- - l-i i ; i -n r| r i || ilni
lii i - -i r r| i || | | | - iil- r |
i ii n - -ii i ii| ii - lnlli-
i n r ` i r i-il l- ls i r i ri i ni
r ` r- ; i i i l n n |
i - -| | - ( - za) | nili a.a - i l
i - lr i ||, - l-- i || - l-- i-i n
li i| i l n r | li n i i i nili -
-n n li i ri r
i- | - i ii -ii (. . . i .) ci
(zaaar) i i || - -i (ln - -ii lrn),
- -ii | ii| i a./ lnin r (; lri
- -ii - i-i n i lnin rs.s r )| n i |
ii| - - -ii i lnin s. r (nii zaa) ni i-i
- -ii i i- | ii| - lr-i c./c lnin r i| n ;
i (c./c lnin) | n i i-i - -ii llii
i l li i - lnlli- i i | i ni r- ;
-- li r n r l lii i i i - ii
- -ii i lnlli- r n - r |
n r- i nri; i ni ni n ni l r -i-i
ni |ii r| r lni l nni r | r s
i in| l-lii | r|, i | l-iln - ii ni i
i || | - -ii li i ni r | - ii n
-i i, i || i | ii| i rz lnin r n
l -i z/ lnin iiiii n | -iln
ii| iiir| i r | ;i ii r n- ii
,ii iii ni; n; ra lnin | n |-i| ;
nr, r i r l l l| i || - r i - i i
ii - lnlli-, ii| - lnin i iii i| r , ni
Department/Undertaking/Institution H-OBCs M-Gen M-OBCs
Central Security Agencies 11.4 1.0 3.6
Railway 9.3 4.5 0.4
Central PSU 8.3 2.7 0.6
SPSC-Recommended for Selection 27.0 0.9 0.9
University Faculty 17.6 3.9 1.4
University Non-Teaching 24.9 3.0 1.7
eqfLye vkschlh (%) eq fLye lkekU;(%) fgUnw vkschlh (%) foHkkx@mie@laLFkku
| ii li

| il -
|| ,ii | lili
llnii - lii
llnii - nlii| li
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category was obtained. Moreover, most of this data is based on self-
reporting. From the 55th round returns, the population of Muslim
OBCs was estimated at 31.7% of the Muslim population (for General
Muslims it was 68.3%) and from the 61st round returns the estimate
of Muslim OBCs was 40.7% of the Muslim population (for General
Muslims it was 59.3%). This shows a growth of about 9% in Muslim
OBC population in just five years. In the case of Uttar Pradesh the
growth in Muslim OBC population was from 44.4% (55th round) to
62% (61st round) a jump of 17.6% in five years. In the case of Bihar
the growth in Muslim OBC population was from 40.6% (55th round)
to 63.4% (61st round) a jump of 22.8% in five years! While the offi-
cial estimates of Muslim OBCs show an ascending trend, the
Pasmanda Movement in Bihar and elsewhere had always estimated
the population of lower-caste Muslims to be about 85% of the
Muslim population. Interestingly, this figure is also accepted by the
National Movement for Muslim Reservation and other key ashraf
ideologues that are presently campaigning for Muslim reservations in
the country. One of their working papers categorically notes, Only
10 to 15% of the Muslim community belongs to the so-called Ashraf
while 85% to 90% are non-Ashraf . So there is a consensus on the
break-up of the Muslim population in caste terms by both the ashraf
and pasmanda groups.
Now reworking the Indian Muslim population according to these
estimates (15% ashraf Muslims and 85% pasmanda Muslims) the
Muslim population of 13.4% (2001 Census) can be broken into 2.01%
General Muslims (instead of the earlier 6.76%) and 11.39% OBC Mus-
lims. If we revisit the shaded part of the table then we can gauge that
given the reworked population of General Muslims as 2.01% they now
turn out to be over-represented in at least four sectors and almost repre-
sented half of their population in the remaining two sectors. Following
from the discussion above, they can be considered to be adequately rep-
resented. Similarly, if we take the case of political representation then
out of 7,500 members from the first to fourteenth Lok Sabha only about
400 members belonged to the Muslim community. Out of these 400
Muslim members, about 340 have been ashraf Muslims and only 60
have been OBC Muslims. Hence, the representation of ashraf Muslims
in Lok Sabha works out to 4.5% that is way beyond their population
percentage of 2.01%. Even here, they are not only adequately
represented but rather are doubly represented.
Let us consider if the upper-caste Muslims do actually
constitute a socially backward group. However, what does social
backwardness mean in the Indian context? What are the criteria for
declaring a group as a socially and educationally backward class?
The two Backward Classes Commissions (led by Kaka Kalelkar
and Mandal) and the various court judgments have accepted caste
as a criterion of classification. In the context of Muslims even the
i n lnlli- -ii ini| , l-ln - l--
i || (ln - -ii lrn) ii| i i
rr (ssszaaa) c (zaaar) iii l r | ;
iii - r| i i || lin i ;- -i l n
i | ; lnln, ;- lii i i lin lni
,ii - | n; ii| iiiln r | i - ,
- -ii | ii| - i || - -ii i lnin s./
ri i -i nii ni ii (i-i - -ii -i- -
r i i cs.s lnin ii)| ;- i - - l-- i || i
lr-i a./ lnin i-i - -ii i lr-i rs.s lnin
-iln ii| ; ni ni r l i ii - - l--
i || | ii| - s lnin | l, r ; | -n i
-i- - - l-- i || ii| . lnin (rri i )
cz lnin (ci i ) ri n; ii n ;- i i -
/.c lnin i si ii| lri - - l-- i || ii|
a.c lnin (rri i ) cs. lnin (ci i ) ri
n; ii n i ii - zz.s lnin i si| ri - l--
i || | ii| i| i i - nini l, |
i r| r r| lri ii - ii ii i r
-i r l - -ii | ii| - || ilni
- -ii i lnin sr r | l- in r r l ; i i
i i - - - i - l-- l i - i ii
lii ,ii i| -|i li ini r , i l - -ii i
iii l i | -i n i lii i r r | ;i
-ni i ii - rni r l - l-- - i -
niilin ii i lnin -i a r r l sr sa
lnin, n i r | ; nr, - l-- ii| n| i
i - ii -i i - ri - -n r |
l r- ; -ii (r lnin ii sr lnin
- ii - -i) iii iin | ii| - - -ii
s. lnin lr- i liiln ni r- r n r l i
| ii| - i-i - -ii i lnin z.a ( -i c./c)
i || - -ii i lnin .ss r | ; i i
ii - l r- i l nili a.a i i ni r-
i n l - - i i i - i lnlli- i | ii|
- lr- (z.a lnin) ii r | i i i i i - |
lr- i|, ii| - lnin ii li r | r |
n; l i i r l i lnlli- ii n ln -ii
i ni r | ri n i ln lnlli- i r , r|
i r| i ii nin /raa -i - nin aa
- -i i | ;- sa ii - -i i ca
i || - -i| ; nr, i ii - ii - -ii i
lnlli- .s lnin r i l ii| - lnin z.a
i| li r | n r ii n l~ ii| -i
i n i lnlli- in r |
i; , r- ; li l i + | ilni
e |eae iair| o am| oci o a a i e tici i c aei ri ae ri e ea o
THERE IS A CONSENSUS ON THE BREAK-UP OF THE MUSLIM POPULATION IN
CASTE TERMS BY BOTH THE ASHRAF AND PASMANDA GROUPS
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RESERVATIONS
Ranganath Mishra Commission Report, quite in contradistinction
to its final recommendations, has suggested: we recommend
that all those classes, sections and groups among the minorities
should be treated as backward whose counterparts in the majority
community are regarded as backward under the present scheme of
things.
Quite clearly, if caste is the key category for defining socially
and historically accumulated backwardness then the case for ashraf
Muslims becomes extremely fragile. Even a cursory survey of soci-
ological and historical literature would allude to the fact that the
ashraf sections have never seen themselves as socially backward in
caste or cultural terms. Rather, they have often seen themselves as
bringing civilization and art to this country and have held lower-
caste Muslims as inferior to them.
But, what about educational backwardness of Muslims? It is
true that the Sachar Committee has produced data that indicates that
Muslims are lagging behind in education. It has suggested that even
the General Muslims are doing badly vis--vis Hindu OBCs. Now
even when educational backwardness cannot be read separately
from social backwardness and must be derived from social
backwardness of a group for purposes of reservations, I want to
follow Salman Khursheeds advice seriously here and would like to
read the Sachar Report critically. Now, in contrast to the data on
public employment of Muslims which is comparatively more
reliable, the caste-based data on Muslim educational levels is culled
largely from the NSSO reports. There are serious limitations with
NSSO data based on self-reporting as mentioned earlier. So, there
are reasons to believe that the educational data for General Muslims
may be a skewed one with a substantial proportion of educational
backwardness of lower-caste Muslims being transferred to General
Muslims because a large number of lower-caste Muslims have not
returned themselves as OBCs due to lack of political consciousness.
In the light of the above discussion I think the case for inclusion of
upper-caste ashraf Muslimswhether in terms of representation in
services, social or educational backwardnessin the OBC
category is an extremely weak one.
Now let me shift to the concerns of OBC and Dalit Muslims,
who as we know are already covered in the existing reservation
policy. So, as far as the pasmanda Muslims are concerned the only
issues that matter in this respect are (a) they are not receiving a fair
share inside the existing OBC quota, (b) some of the lower-caste
Muslim groups have been left out of the OBC lists and now require
to be recognized, (c) arzal or Dalit Muslims should be shifted to the
SC quota from the OBC quota by scrapping the 1950 Presidential
Order (Para 3) that is overwhelmingly seen as violating the
principle of secularism enshrined in the Constitution.
The first issue is that of the marginalization of OBC Muslims
within the OBC quota. The argument that the dominant Hindu OBC
groups corner most of these benefits thereby leaving Muslim OBCs
with an inappropriate share is often circulated in this context. In my
understanding, this applies to non-dominant Hindu OBCs as well
and so carving out a separate communal quota for Muslim OBCs
- -i, i-il l- ls n r ` iin| i -
i-il ls i i i r ` l| - r i i-il
i ili l- ls i ii lin i iii r ` i i ls i
n ii ni (ii i - ) lli ii| li i
- iln i ; n| i i i iii -|i li ni r |
- -ii i - nii l- ii n | -, | ln-
lilii l|n ni n| r ...r-i| lili r l
~ i i| ni , ni i - ri i ls i -ii
ii ilr, l r - i - -i ni , ni i
- ri i n -i - ls i -ii ini r |
--n, n iln, i-il lnril ls i
lii ln i iii r n ii - -ii i ii r n
-i ini r | -iii-| lnril ilr- i
| ni r| r n -- ri ini l
ii n i| ilnnn i i - ln ii - - i
i-il i ls i r| -ii| ~- , - i ; i -
ni i i i ii n -in r i || ilni
- -ii i r l- in r |
n , - -ii i ili ls i i` r r l
i l-ln i i -n n l r r ; lnn ri ni r
l - -i, liii i - |s r | l-ln ; li i|
r | r l i-i - -i, lr i || i| |s r | r
| ini r| l i ili ls i i-il ls
n r| ii i ni| iii - l|
li r l r i r l i ili ls i,
i-il ls i n ri | ri - -i i i| | ir
i n i|ni n r , l-ln | - i ii i--
i ir ni| - -ii i l i - li
i| i i| l| r | ; l|n, - -ii |
i ili l-iln ilnnn n| i i| i - n
i | -i l n r | l, i l r ri i
i r , i ii ln ,ii - i i; n;
ii| iiiln ri n r n | | |-i r | r
li ii n ii r l i-i - -ii lin
i ili i nn r i l in || ilni - -ii
i ili ls i lnl ln n r | ;i ii r r l
i ln ni ii - | i - || ilni
- -ii - i i || i - r| nii r | n
ni l i iii - i li r l i ilni
i - -ii i i || n - iil- | -i nir r
ii - li | l- ri i i-il i ili ls
| l- - i ; ii - r| r |
r- i || ln - -ii | l nii | in |
i l r- in r , n -i iii |ln nn n in r |
ri n -i i - -ii i i r , ; i - l
l- - -r- i r ) r n -i i || i - i
ln lr-i r| l- ri r , ) s || ilni - l--
- ii i i- i || li - iil- r| ri ii r i r
i || i - -ini l i | ini r | ) i
i ln - -ii i i || i - r-i ln ilni
l lii ln i - nn n ii ii ilr| ; l r
i ri ni l i- ln sra i i i li
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within the OBC quota is not a very sound demand. The best strategy
would be to reflect on the Bihar (Karpoori Thakur) formula wherein
the OBC quota has been split into the Backward Classes and Most
Backward Classes (MBC) sub-categories and most Muslim
backward sections have been clubbed with other Hindu MBCs
accordingly. If required, the Central OBC quota could also be
similarly split into two subcategories and similarly placed castes in
all religious communities could be lumped together. This saves us
from any communal polarization on religious lines and is more
judicious. Hence, the recommendation by Ranganath Mishra Com-
mission Report of chalking out a separate Muslim OBC quota with-
in the OBC quota is not a very tenable and effective one. The second
issue of incorporating the Muslim OBC castes that may not have
been recognized and mentioned in the Central OBC list is a
procedural one. It needs to be taken up with the National Backward
Classes Commission and appropriate strategies must be designed to
ensure that. The third issue is that of delisting the dalit Muslims
from the OBC list and incorporating them in the SC list. In the pre-
independence period, the Muslim dalits benefitted from the
reservation policy in the SC list. After Independence, by the
Presidential Order of 1950, most non-Hindu dalits were ejected out
from the SC list. However, in 1956 the Sikh dalits and in 1990 the
neo-Buddhists were integrated thereby debarring only Muslim and
Christian dalits from the SC list. This violates the principle of secu-
larism enshrined in the Constitution and the Ranganath Mishra
Commission Report has properly advocated the scrapping of the
1950 Presidential Order (Para 3).
Quite clearly, the entire Muslim community cannot be conceived
as a backward class in India. Rather, as is the case with any other reli-
gious community in India, the Muslims too are a differentiated com-
munity and informed by variegated levels of marginalization. In the
context of social policy caste has emerged as a major factor for deter-
mining the social backwardness of a group (including religious
minorities) for purposes of affirmative action under the rubric
Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (OBCs). In this
context, the Sachar Committee's observations that the ashraf
sections within the Muslim community, as opposed to the pasmanda
Muslims (OBC and Dalit Muslims), are without any social disabili-
ties' is instructive. Despite this, many spokespersons of Muslim poli-
tics and a few bahujan scholars like Kancha Ilaiah as well, often due
to intellectual confusion or informed by the interests of the upper-
caste Muslims, have demanded that all the Muslims be brought
within the ambit of reservations in India. Quite clearly such a
move is an unjustified one and will be benefitting the ashraf
Muslims broadly as they will corner a large proportion of
employment and educational opportunities thus opened owing
to their cultural capital. In my view this will be a travesty of the
politics of social justice and must be contested by all democrat-
ic citizens and movements in this country.
i i l, i|, lii ,ii lniln i- l ini l,i n
i ~ i -ii ini r |
ri - i i || i - i || - -ii i rili
- i i r | ; i - r ri ini r l i -ii|
lr i || - r, lin liii i ii n n r i
i || - -ii i il r r| l-n | - li r
in n i -ii| lr i || ni i| in ri n| r ;l
i || i - i|n - l-- i || l n i -i lii ln
| -i n ln r| r | rn i|ln ri n| lri ( |
-i ) i- i ;-n -i, l nn n i || i - i ls ni
i ln ls ni | i - li ni r | liii - l-- ls
ni i , lr ln ls ni ii ii ni r | ;| nr, n
i ri ni | i || i - i i| i ni - i-i i
ni r i i| i-i -i -n i - ii i ii ii
i ni r | ; -i i- il i |i in i
i ni i r li i i i| r | n nii l- ii n |
i || i - - l-- i || i - | -i n ln i n|
r | ri n | --i ii n - l-- i || ilni , i
| i || | - iil- r| r , i ; | - iil- i
r r linn --i r | ; -i- i i- |
ls i n ii n -i ii ii ilr i n |lni
i --i i r i ii ilr| n|i - i r ln
- -ii i i || | r-i ln ilni | | -
i i i| -n ni r , - l-- lni i ln ilni
| | - iil- ri iii i ii l-i ni ii| -n ni
iin, sra i- ln i i ,ii lii i n lr
lni i ln ilni | | r-i li ni| src -
li lni i ssa - i ,i i i l ; | - iil-
li ni| ii n - l-- ; i; ln ; |
ir r | r lii - llrn i- l ini l,i n l-, r i
nii l- ii n | - s s - ; i i i l
i | in | n; r |
r i r l iin i - l-- - i i ls i n r|
-ii i ni| l| i| iil- - i | nr, - -ii -
i| ; n r i | i-il r ln i| nn r |
i-il |ln i - , l| - r (iil- ~ i lrn)
i-il ls i -i l iln -r- i iii i
- i| r | ; i - l-ln | r l-ii| -r- i r l
-i i - -ii (i || ln - -i) l|n i
- -i i| i-il ii - n r | ; i i| - l--
i|ln s ni i i i; i s r l,i i ni
i l, -lni - n i i l + | ilni - -ii
lrnii , r -i n r r l i| - -ii i iii i
ii li i| --n i i i i ri ni i ;
i - -i iiiln ri n | | i - ln -i l-
ii iii l- i i ni liii i| i
i lin- ii -i n | - li r i-il i
| i|ln i -ii ii ri ni i in - li
i i| inli i i i i i ;i li i i ilr|
"!!! T"n! T! "!!|Tn ~-!J I I !c |" TIw! I ! Khalid Anis Ansari is a research scholar and the national spokesperson of Shoshit
Samaj Dal. He can be reached at khalidanisansari@gmail.com
Muslim:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 5
SEPTEMBER 2011
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WELLNESS
JAMILA KOSHY
leep is an amazing phenomenon. We spend
one-third of our lives asleep, 68 hours of every
day. The most noticeable feature to those outside
is the absence of consciousness and reactivity to
the external world. For the period of sleep, it is as
if we are not there at all. We apparently hear,
smell, feel and see nothing apparently not
aware of the passing of time. During this period
the body relaxes, repairs itself, regains lost
strength, hormones are produced stimulating
growth, and the mind, via dreams, processes
thoughts, activities and events, mainly recent, but
also older memories.
WHAT MAKES US SLEEP?
Our bodies seem to contain a biological clock,

r =tn +| || r : rs ~+ |+| +| +-
|-r|: |r-=| =|+ s ||- r , - = s | r ||:
|r| n|| +| | || +| ~|-| r r r|-| -+|
~| |r| <|+| + |- |-|+| +| +s|: +|< +
<||+ n-| r s|+| rs r| r| +: n-| r rs + +z
=+- r , + =| |- r , + sr== +- r ~| + r|
< =+- r = |+ |- =s +| rs +z
|n r| + r|: = <||+ -|| |||s +-| r ,
~+| s-s- +-| r , |: -||-- |= |- +-|
r , = r|s|+ <| r|- r | |+|= +| || <-
r , ~| s+, -+| + s|s =, rs| |||,
|-||| ~| |+|~| +| |== +-| r , s
S
+|
tici|i
+| ic +|
o| aeeoie
AVOID LOUD MUSIC OR TV
CLOSE TO BEDTIME. AVOID
STRESSFUL DISCUSSIONS AT
THIS TIME
ai+ o aeo a m|a oi c|a| a
a 1 a+ia i i i a | c cr
Goodnight.
Sleep and problems with sleep
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43
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2011 |ao:ot

theorized to be related to the pineal gland and to the hormone
melatonin. This can be set to various rhythms. The sleep rhythm
is generally set to the circadian rhythm of the 24-hour day.
Getting its cues from various factors such as light and dark, work
and evening relaxation, physical tiredness, habitual behaviours,
and so on, this clock seems to inform us at a subconscious level
that it is time to shut down shop for the day. Different areas of the
brain notably the thalamus and the pons are then involved in the
generation of the different stages of sleep. The person goes
through several cycles of what is called NREM sleep (Non-rapid
eye movement sleep), and then REM (Rapid eye movement sleep
when dreams occur) before sleep lightens, consciousness
begins to return and depending again on factors such as daylight,
other body rhythms, activating signals from the brain arousal
centres the person wakens; hopefully fresh, fit and enthusiastic
about a new day.
WHAT HAPPENS IF WE DONT SLEEP WELL?
Daytime alertness is diminished. The ability to carry out tasks,
concentrate on work or study falls. The person can feel fuzzy,
disoriented, confused, irritable, lethargic. When driving or
operating machinery there can be serious danger to life; many
accidents take place because of this.
Problems in sleep:
u
Too little sleep the most common sleep problem, or less
commonly, too much sleep
u
Daytime drowsiness
u
Problems occurring during sleep
Too little sleep, whether actual or merely subjectively experi-
enced as non-refreshing sleep, can be due to many causes. Almost
everyone has had a few nights like this recent stress, (which
includes excitement) such as love affairs or exams may be
responsible. Aging is another cause older people often have
shorter periods of sleep, wake more easily, nap during the day.
Mental stress and illnesses often cause lack of sleep depression,
anxiety, manic excitement all have insomnia as a major feature.
Illnesses causing pain often worsen at night, keeping the person
up, notably neuropathies. Alcohol and drug usage (including caf-
feine in tea, coffee) can lead to problems with falling or staying
asleep. Too much sleep can be caused by a few systemic and
mental illnesses.
Occasional daytime drowsiness may be caused by sleep
deficit, but regular drowsiness happens due to illnesses such as
sleep apnoea or narcolepsy or alterations of the sleep-wake cycle,
such as occurs in jet lag. During sleep specific problems such as
various forms of seizures, nightmares, sleep-walking or talking
or sleep terrors can occur, many being more common in
childhood. An interesting form is sleep paralysis where the
muscular paralysis experienced during REM sleep extends for a
few minutes into the wakeful state, usually when just falling
asleep or awakening. The sleeper awakes but is terrified to find
she cannot move or speak for a few minutes. In our superstitious
= r||n|, n|++ |+| |<| +| =|:
z =r r tar z
=| n-| r |+ rs| -|| + ~ < +|: | |: | r , | rs|| |+|n
| ~| s n|||++ r| s|+ = = |- r|-| r : := ~n-~n n| +
~+ =| |+| |- |+| | =+-| r : +| < +| n (-n| |<s; ~|s-|
||= | + |<+ +| n + ~+ =| |+| |- r|-| r : := |: | +| +:
+|+| s=n+, |-|+| ~| ~ |, +|s ~| -||s + |||s, -||||+ +|+,
~|<-+ r|, :||< = ~ -+ -- = + - |sn- r |+ ~| + |<+
+ |n < +|+ < ++ +| =s r| | r : |<s| + ~n-~n |r-= ,
|=-| n s= ~| | =, +| < +| ~n-~n ~-|~| +| +
++ s -|||sn r|- r : +|: =| |-- +| +- |: ~|: s s -n|
(+~|: s -n|; ~| |+ |: ~|: s s -n| (~|: s -n|,
=+ ~|- r ; + ~n-~n + | = |-| r : |+ +| < rn+| r|-| r ,
-+-| |= ~|+ n-| r ~| |<+ +| |-|+|, | < =| -||||+ n| +
+|| |<s| + |+ |n + | = = + - |sn- r ~| |-- |-| r ,
-|||-|+, -- ~| + |<+ + |n =|r = =| r ~|:
nt z ar= = = =r t
|<+ s rs| =- r+ +| -||-- +s r| |-| r : +|s | ++ +|,
+|s |+ <+ +| | + +| -|s-| -||| r|-| r : |-- n+|,
s+|, n:|+, |: |: |+, +|-+| sr== + =+-| r : |: |
n|- | |+=| s-||+ +|s +- r r |+ +| -| =| +
=+-| r , :=+ +|| +: <|+| =| r|-| r :
+|< +| =s-|
u
r - +s +| < ~|+| +| < +| r == ~|s =s-| r | |+ r -
~|+ +| < ~|+|
u
|<+ s |+|
u
+| < + <||+ =s-| r|+|
r - +s +|< ~|+| |r = s | |+ n-| r| |+ +s +|<
~|: -||+ ~| -|||<s sr== +r| + r +: +||| = r| =+-|
r : n= r +|: =| +z |- |-|-| r |=s +s +|< ~|-| r
|r -+| + +|| (|=s |s| =| -|||sn r| =+-| r ;, =| |+
s =| | :|--r|+| + |<+| s r|-| r : s + + =| =| r r|-|
r , | n|| +| ~+= |: r| =s + |n +|< ~|-| r , ++| +|<
~|=|+| = n |-| r ~| |<+ s :|+| n- r : s|+|=+ -+| ~|
|s|| =| ~+= +|< +| +s| +| +|| +- r : |:-|+, |-|,
~|+ |s| :+ =s +|< +| +s| s-| = +| ~|-| r :
|: |<|+ |s||| |- +| ~| | r| |-| r ~| |-- +| |
-| r , s -| -+|-| = : | |s|||: -|| ~| +-||n
<|| +| =+ (|+s +.+|+ |n| | ~| +|.+| =| -|||sn +| |
=+-| r ; =| +|< s |+ :|n =+-| r : r - ~|+ +|< ~|+| +z
-||||+ ~| s|+|=+ |s||| + +|| r| =+-| r :
+=|-+=| |<+ s = --| ~|+| | |+| =| +| < +| +s| + +|| r|
=+-| r , n |++ |+|s- +| <|+ ~ |s||| + +|| r| =+-| r
s=n+ -n| ~+|:| | +|+| n =| | |+ =|+ -|+ + + s <n|
~|+ + +|| =| |+ n | r|: ||| ++ + |< r|-| r : +| < + <||+
+: |= =s-| =| < | |-| r s=n+ ~n-~n +| + <| : +|,
=+ ~|+|, +| < s n+| | |n+| | +| < s : |+|, :+s = +:
+ + <||+ ~|s r|- r : + ~ =| r , -n| |n|== | +| < s
n+ +| r=|= r|+| :=s ~|: s -n| + <||+ r|+ |n| s| = |-||
+| n+| + +| |-|- s =| + z < -+ +| r-| r , ~|s-| =|+
wELLNESS:Layout 1 8/27/2011 10:00 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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FORWARD Press
WELLNESS
country, this is often instantly branded a demonic activity
but thankfully, it is not so.
TO GET GOOD SLEEP:
u
Help set your biological clock by going to sleep at
roughly the same time every day, allowing yourself at
least six to eight hours uninterrupted sleep. Teenagers
to especially note. Avoid napping in the daytime; if
you do take a nap it should be for less than 30 minutes.
u
Since light plays an important part in our rhythms,
make sure you get good exposure to sunlight in the
day. At night, cut exposure to light by keeping the bed-
room lighting soft, and avoiding looking at bright
lights such as the TV or laptop screen.
u
Stepping down stressful activities and increasing
leisurely ones when approaching sleep help. Avoid
loud music or TV close to bedtime. Avoid stressful
discussions at this time, too.
u
Each person including kids need to develop a
night-time activity pattern that helps them relax and
prepare to sleep. Having a warm bath, reading a book
or bedtime story, getting a good-night kiss and hug,
having a time of prayer or reflection all these help to
unwind, put the thoughts and cares of the day away
and go to bed in a positive frame of mind which is
essential in order to sleep well.
u
Reduce intake of alcohol to one or two pegs occasion-
ally (preferably not daily). Similarly, coffee or tea
should be limited to one to three (small) cups a day.
Many soft drinks and chocolates also contain
stimulants and should be limited to occasional use.
Most people do not know that the nicotine in
cigarettes also interferes with sleep patterns. Avoid
daily use of sleeping tablets without a doctors recent
recommendation. Last years prescription does not
count!
u
Older people in particular, should avoid drinking a lot
of fluids close to bedtime, as getting up to urinate can
disturb the pattern of sleep.
u
Avoid heavy meals just before bed; a light snack is
okay, particularly a glass of warm milk; the
tryptophan in it induces sleep.
u
Most importantly, make sure your conscience is clear.
It is a good practice to examine your day and confess
to God and/or a person you may have wronged, asking
for forgiveness.
u
If despite all this, you are still not sleeping well, visit a
doctor and get help.
Sleep well!
= |+ rn | + + |+ |<: =|+ |n| | r|-| r
n |++ r := |- +| n + ~|- |+- r| |-| r |+ r + z
|s+| -+ |rn-: n | |n +r| | r| r : rs| ~ |-|=|
< -| s , := +: | +<s = = -- - +| ~= s|+ |n|
|-| r n |++ -| + r =| + z =| +r| r|-|:
r =r t= = ln
u
r || n= + r| =s =|+ + a|| ~+| | |: |
+| =s |+||- + : +||-|-| + |+ |+| |+ + zr =
~| | =| : |+-|| |=-| = := |+ < : |<+ +
=s :|+| n + = : ~ ~| :|+| n - r -| ~| |
= +s =s + |n r| =| :
u
|+ rs|| n s |-|+| sr- | = |s+| ~<| +-| r , |<+
+ =s |<+ +| |-|+| +| | n|= | : |- s |-|+| +s
+ , :s +| |-|+| |n+ n rn+| , ~| - | |-||+| ,
s=n+ || | n | +| -+ |+, +| ~| < + = :
u
=|+ |- =s -+| | |-||| = ~| ~||s < +
|n| |-||| +| | : = |- ~| || = < r :
:= =s -+| | |-|- = =| :
u
|| =s -, + |-- +| |- + =s +| |+r| |=
|-||| +| + +|+| ||r -||+ = <||+ |n -=
+ =+ ~| =|+ +| - || + : + + |+| = +r|+|,
|+-| +| | +r|+| = +|+|, || +| s+| ~| n
n|+|, |+| ++| | s++ ++|, = |-||| |||s
< -| r , |<+ + ||| ~| | -|~| +| < +-| r ~|
|-- =+||s+ +|| + =| =|+ |-| r , ~| r
~z| +| < + |n r - ||:
u
s|+ +s + : +=|-+=| + | <| r| n (+||-|-|
+ |+ || +r| ;: :=| -r, |<+ s +| . +| ~| | + =|
+ = -|+ z| + r| | : +: -||-n | ~| | +n | s
| + |n <| r|- r ~| ++| = + =| +=|-
+=| r| ++| ||r: ~|+| -| n| r +r| |+- |+
|= | s || |+ |n| |++||+ =| +| < s |+ :|n-| r :
|+| :| - +| =n|r + |||+| +| < +| <|: n + = :
:| - +| |zn =|n +| ||-+-|+ ~ +r| n |:
u
| | +| |=-| =|+ |- =s r - |+| | +r|
|+| ||r -| |+ -|| ++ + |n + = =| +| < +
+ s nn : -|:
u
=|+ = |+ rn | =|+ |+ = : rn+| n|+
|+ r , |=-| + + < +| |n|=, =s s| <
| |. ++ +| < n|+ s s<< +-| r :
u
== sr- |, = |+|-- + |+ ~|+| ~ -+| |
|s| =|. + r : ~+ |<+ +| | ++| ~| :- + =|s+
| = |-- + =|s+ ~+| n-| s|++| |=+ =|
~|+ n- r| |+| r , == s|. +| s| +|, + ~z|
~|<- r :
u
:+ =+ | < ~ ~| |+ = =| +r| | r -| :| -
= |sn ~| ++| s<< n :
|+ = =|+|!
Dr Jamila Koshi is a psychiatrist based in New Delhi.
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45

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The Pitfalls
of Copying
+oa o
+oai+
t ,
f= =zt= t tz = ftt = = = f=== z
t tzt natv v z nz a zt f== 1 z
= = =t z f = z z =ztat nz tzt= =
z zz= z = t zt= ttt t =z t = t
ttt = =t = == aatza z 1 = zt =at z f
z= azz == z=t =a z , = f= t = zt
==zt= = = z f n z= =z=at = ==
z =a z at =t z= = t = = f=== t
rz aat=t tfzv
= =,
tt=
f tt=,
n | +| ++n + ++ + +: +|| r : rs +s =
-|+ | + , + r||+ +||, +
~| + =|s||+ +||:
:= +| r ~ - s |+=| n
+| ++n -|- r|, ~| -||< = n +| ==
~|+ + |sn r| , -| r| =+-| r |+ - -r =| ==
~|+ + |sn (| -||< + |sn ;, n |++ - s =
|+ | = +r| | |~| |== = n +| ~=n|
n + || r|| ~| - + || = |+s -|| ~|
ear Dadu,
Your tips on writing essays, in FORWARDPress
magazine last month, are very interesting. But I
find that a lot of my fellow-students are simply
copying essays from the Internet or from students
from previous years or from other colleges. I feel
that it is wrong to copy in this way, but please help
me to understand why one should bother to
actually write an essay oneself, when one can
simply copy?
Love,
Gyan
Dear Gyan,
There are many reasons why one should not simply
copy essays. Let us take three of them, one practical
reason, one moral reason and one social reason.
Here is the practical reason: If you simply copy
an essay, even one that was given a first-class mark,
you may or may not get a first-class mark yourself,
but you will in any case have not gone through the
process that the original writer of that essay went
through the steps of doing the research and the
D
|
+oa oc+ aia + e|earo ic ro|+aa o |aoia oi aac mai a r
THOSE WHO COPY LOSE THE CHANCE TO DEVELOP THEIR MINDS AND PERSONALITY
Dadu:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:57 PM Page 1
SEPTEMBER 2011
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FORWARD Press
ASK DADU
thinking, of organizing the material and coming to a
conclusion, of writing things down as best you can and
then of looking critically at what you have written in
order to determine whether you are saying what you
want to say in the best possible way. So you will not
have trained your mind and developed your ability to
think critically, to organize material and to
communicate and these are the important results of
actually writing an essay yourself. Your mind becomes
better trained, you think more clearly and systematical-
ly, you can organize facts and arguments more
powerfully, you learn to communicate more
persuasively. In other words, the practical reason to
avoid copying is that simply copying an essay means
that you miss an opportunity to develop as a person.
That brings me to the moral reason for not copying.
One should not copy, because it is morally wrong to
copy. But what do we mean when we say something is
morally wrong? We mean that it goes against the
way things should be. Our sense of what should
be derives initially from humankinds innate sense of
right and wrong which has been planted in us by God,
and is called conscience. However, that innate or
God-given sense of right and wrong is often distorted
by what powerful or respected authorities (for
example, parents, teachers, society, etc.) have told us.
Further, our sense of what is right is distorted by our
own tendency to justify the wrong things that we
ourselves do, as well as by the fact that we are
surrounded by other people who may have done what
even they themselves consider wrong but for which
they then offer various justifications. Such
justifications then tend to cloud the clarity of our
conscience.
In any case, in our world, there are contradictory
ideas of what is morally right. A key aspect of our self-
education is to determine for ourselves what really is
right, as against what our society teaches or practices.
When we act or think in ways that violate what we
believe should be, we feel guilty, that is, we feel
upset with ourselves and feel that we need to do
something to set things right again; for example, by
asking the offended party for forgiveness, by making
an offering in a temple or a church, by doing specific
things to serve society as a means of trying to make
things right again, and so on.
However, if we persistently go against our own
=|-|| |+| |-| r, =|s | +| = |- |+| |-| r,
|++ r | |-| r, |-| +| == ~z = |n| |-|
r ~| |+ = ~|n|+|s+ < | = | |-| r |+ -| |
s +r+| |r-| | r ~z| -r +r| r | +r| : := -r ++n
++ = rs ~+ s+-s|--+ +| |-||-|- +r| + | , + r|
~|n|+|s+ = =|+ +| ~+| -|s-| +| |+|=- +
| : + r| rs r =| | |+ ~+| =|s | +| + = = |-
++| ||r ~| ~+| |- |+= -r = < =| -+ r |+|
||r: < n |n+ + r + z sr- | |||s r|- r :
- -r|| s|--+ ~z| -r |-||-|- r|-| r, - s ~|+ --|
~| = |-- = =| |- r|, ~+ -| ~| -+| +|
|+<| -|+ = = |- + |- r|, ~| ~+| |- =|-||n|
= =|s+ |- r|: < = -|<| s , ++n = + +|
r||+ +|| r r |+ |=. + |+=| n +| ++n +- r
rs + |-- + s |+|= ++ + ~= +| | - r :
r s :| ++n + ++ + +|~| n|-| r :
++n +r| ++| ||r -| |+ r + |-+ = n- r :
n |++ rs +r- r |+ +|: |- ''+ |-+ = `` n- r
-| =+| -| ~ r|-| r ` =+| ~ r|-| r |+ '' =| r|+|
||r`` r |- =+ |n|. + |-| r : '' =| r|+| ||r``
+| =| ||s+ -| =r| | n- + | s s|+||- +
~| -|+ =| = -| r , | : - + rs| =|- || r ~|
|= rs ''|s|`` | ''| +`` +r- r : n |++ : - a|| |<
:= =r| | n- + =| +| -|+- | =-s|++|
||+|| ~-= -|: -s|: < -| r (s=n+, s|-|-|-|,
|-|-|+, =s|, :||<;: :=+ ~n||, n- +| =r| r|+
+| rs|| ~+| |-| =| rs| =r| | n- + =| +| -|: -
s|: < -| r : ~| rs < = = n|| = =| || r- r | <
|+- r |+ r| + n- |+| r n |++ = || r|+ +
|n+: -+ < - r : := +| |+=| |- +| ''|| r|+ ``
+| |-| rs| |s| +| =|. +|: +| =| n| + < -| r :
= rs|| < |+| s := |- +| n + - ||| ||
|sn- r |+ + |-+ = =r| -| r : rs|| ~|s-|-|-|| +|
+ s -| r| r |+ rs ~+ ~| := |- +| |+| |
+ |+ =r| -| r , | :=+ |+ rs|| =s| -| |=|-|
r | + =| ~|| +-| r :
rs '' =| r|+| ||r`` =+| -n |+ +- r + z
=|- | +- r -| rs || = -- r|- r ~| - rs
~+ ~| = +||| r|- r ~| rs n-| r |+ rs + z ++|
||r -||+ ||| +| |+ = ''|+`` |+| |: |s=|n +
-| , rs+ |= |-- +| | r |: r|-| r == s|. +|
s| - r , s |< | | | + + z || |- r , =s| +|
= | ++ + |n + z |= +|s +- r -||+ || |+ =
=r| r| | , :||<:
n |++ |= rs =r| s|+- r ~ rs n|-| =+
||- ~|| +- | , r|n|- +| =r| ++ +| + |+
|+|, -| rs ~ - s ~+ |s| +| | =r| -| r := |- +
mc i + ie|c o| +r| a +a ai i ar a r| o c ri ia r
IF ONE DOES NOT FOLLOW ONES CONSCIENCE, ONE BECOMES RUTHLESS
Dadu:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:57 PM Page 2
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sense of what is right, without doing anything to set the
situation right, we can eventually lose completely our
conscience or internal sense of what is right.
Our moral sense is a key part of what makes and keeps
us human. In other words, sensitivity to ones conscience
and following ones conscience is a key part of remaining
human. If one does not follow ones conscience, one
becomes ruthless, willing to do whatever brings material
or other benefit.
Think of your choice regarding whether or not to
cheat, as your choice regarding what kind of human being
you want to be, because that is the essence of the issue so
far as you are concerned as an individual. We are all
caught between what we know we ought to do, and what
we actually do between the kind of person we want to
be, and the kind of person we actually are. The main
reason for that clash is that doing the right thing has a
certain cost. For example, in the case of writing essays,
avoiding cheating involves the cost that one has to
spend ones own time and effort in doing the research, the
writing and the revision of the writing.
The third reason for not cheating is a social one.
Honest effort is what leads to growth and prosperity. If
one or two in any society cheat, then the cost of their
cheating is borne by the members of that society who are
honestly productive. If many people in any society cheat,
the whole of society then suffers because the cost of the
cheating becomes increasingly difficult for society to
bear, as there are fewer productive people and more
people taking a free ride. If everyone works honestly and
as productively as possible, the whole of society benefits
and everyone becomes richer or, in this case, wiser.
I think today everyone is aware that intellectual effort
is what leads to material progress. Economists estimate
that two-thirds of the value of large businesses can be
traced to non-material assets (intellectual or intangible
assets).
Briefly, do not go the easy route and simply copy
essays if you want to grow as a person practically and
morally, and if you want to contribute to enabling our
nation and indeed the world as a whole to prosper.
Love,
Dadu
~ <+| r=|= +| | -r = | =+- r :
| + z rs s+ +|-| ~| +| -| r =+| +
s |r-=| r|-| r rs|| + |-+ =| | r=|=: < = -|<|
s , ~+ |s| | | + + |- = <+-||n-| ~| ~+
|s| +| ~||| = ++| + s+ + r+ +| s |r-=|
r|-| r : ~ ~| ~+ |s| +| +r| = +- -| ~| r - r|
+ r| |- r ~+ =||-+ | ~ n|=| + |n + z =|
++ +| - |:
++n ++ | + ++ + ~+ +| +| := s < |
|+ - s + = s+ ++| |r- r|, -| |+ |= s rs
~-+ |- +- ~| r r =+| =| :=| |- = : | r |+
+ |-- + -| - s +|+ r|: rs ==| ~+ ~| +| <|
||| = || |- r |+ rs -| ++| ||r ~| rs |--
s -| +- r ~| - rs |+= -r + |-- ++| |r-
r ~| rs |-- s + = |-- r : |s=|n + -| , n
|n+ + s|sn s , ++n + ++ +| + ''+|s-`` +|+|
: -| r ~|+| -|| ++ , |n+ ~| |+ = ||:|
++ s ~+| < +| =s ~| |= n|+| : -| r :
++n + ++ +| -|=| +|| r : : s|+<|
+||-|-| |z ~| =s |z +| ~| n |-| r : ~ |+=|
=s| s + | <| n| r| ||: | +- r -| ++|
||: | +| |:| =s| + < = : s|+<| |<+ n| r+
+ n - r : |< |+=| =| =s| s +: n| ||: | +-
r -| == =|| =s| ~|r- r|-| r -| |+ =s| + |n
:-+ : s|+ r|+ |n| ||: | +| |:| |+|
s |-+n r| |-| r , -| |+ =s| s : s|+<| |<+ n||
+| = | +s r|-| r ~| < =| +| +|s- ~| +
|n| +| = | ~|+ r| |-| r : ~ r +|: : s|+<|| =
~| |-+| = = r| -+| |<+-||n-| + =| +|s + -|
=| =s| +| n|= r -| r ~| r +|: =s z r|-| r ,
~| := s|sn s ~|+ =s:|<|:
s :| n-| r |+ ~| r +|: := |- +| |+-| r |+
=||-+ +|- +| ||z+ |= r| |- +- r : ~ -||-||
~+ s|+ n|- r |+ |+=| =| : =| +| <|-|-r|: s -
-=||-+ = <| (||z+ | ''~s - `` = <|; r| |+=
+-| r :
= -| s , ~ - s r||+ ~| + |-+ -| +
|-- + -| +| |r- r| ~| ~ - s =|+| |r-
r| |+ ~+ | ~| | < |+| +| =s z +|+ s ~+|
|<|+ + = |<| |, -| n | | |+ | +| ++n-=
-|+ +| ~|=|+ |--| s- ~+|~|:
= s,
t
o| |oa| | aei e os aim uiius | oca r ai faa aici aei ira riai r
IF MANY PEOPLE IN ANY SOCIETY CHEAT, THE WHOLE OF SOCIETY SUFFERS
!I!n|" V!V! I |JI!- !n T! |II"! - "!:!|!I. "I~!|"I T!
~!-I|nI :!!! - |-I!~ T! I!" |I"! I ! I |I-nn ~!-!|JI. T!|4I T!
~!-I|nI-;! T T!TI T"-! I! -I!Vn In I . |I"!TI !n|" I|cI!! ~!
Dadu is an avuncular Indian gentleman who has lived and worked in
both India and overseas in the academic, business and cultural fields. He
welcomes your questions on broad social, economic and cultural issues es-
pecially from an Indian perspective.
Dadu:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:57 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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FAMILY
HANSRAJ AND KASTHURBAI JAIN
The problem we face today with marriages is that our 21st-
century women are marrying 18th-century men!
Dr Justice Malimath (Retd)
If we just look at the magazines, books and the daily
newspapers, these tell us very explicitly that Indian families
and marriages, particularly of the middle class, are increasingly
under stress and pressure. In fact, if we are honest, we will
admit that these key institutions of our society are in some
serious trouble. There is a rise in separations, divorces,
suicides, murders, abuse and bride price. Added to these are
issues such as female foeticides, abortion, premarital sex, extra-
marital sex, live-in relationships and dowry
A closer analysis of the situation seems to present to us that
the greatest victims of all of this are the new families. And the
reasons are that most of these families live in situations where
very little, if any, support system exists.
As a result most of these young people turn to their peers,
colleagues and friends for help. These advisers in turn dispense
answers that are often founded on a little more than a personal
sense of adventure and exploration. They operate from a
discovery mode founded on a lot of presumptions and
assumptions, emotional rationalizations, beliefs derived from
their hearsay. These then are used to offer workable answers
to the hurting individual or couple.
As for the elders among these advisers, well, they have
advice borrowed from exposure to traditional norms. From
them one would hear statements such as in my time or
when I was of your age
We must, of course, recognize that all intentions are noble
though not all advice is. Such unprofessional advice may even
border on the ridiculous or, worse still, be downright dangerous
Over the years as we have interacted with families and
couples and observed how our Indian culture is practiced, we
have become increasingly aware that todays mothers behave in
S
:ii + =~= ~ ==i z z f+ .! =
+ i: !& = + =i` + =i iz +: :z z ! :| . |-=
s||ns- (= ||+ -;
~ rs ||+|~| , --+| ~| =s|||| + +| =
:|n -| rs r - =|. +-| -|- r |+ =|-| || ~|
-|||<| , |=-| ss + , |+ - -+| ~| <| s | r
r : |-+ ~ rs : s|+<|| = < -| rs r s|++| : | |+
rs| =s| +| s = -| r - r| =| s =|- s r :
~n|| , -n|+| , ~|sr|~| , r|~| , s|| ~| s - s
r - |-|| r : r : :=+ =| r| +| = | r|~| , = |-,
||r |+ = | , ||r + |r |+ = ~| |n-:+
= <r +| s =| r :
r|n|-| +| +|<|+| |-n | ++ rs |- r |+ + +
|| :+ = +| == ~|+ |-|+| r|- r : ~| +|| r r
|+ = || =| |-|-| s r- r r| =s + ||n| n= +
+ | r|-| r :
+-|-+, :+s = ~|+| -| | ~+ =||| , =r+|s | ~|
<|--| = =r|-| n - r : r =n|r+| = | < - r |
~|s-| sr| ++ |+| |s| | ~| ''||+`` ~|||-
r|- r : ~+ | r| , |||~| , =|+|s+ -| =r| r|:
: |-| ~| = +|-= +|: s|-|~| + ~|| | < - r : |+
+ |-| +| < |- |-- | < |-| + |n ''+|sn|`` -|| +
-| -| |+| |-| r :
:+ =n|r+|| s -|||sn | | +| |- + -| ++| =n|r
| |+ s|-|~| = ++ | = | n| : r|-| r : +=
~|+| = ++ = +|: < ''rs| |s|+ s ...`` | '' rs
- -r|| s + ...``
-|+ rs r s|++| r|| |+ = + + :|< + r|- r n |++ =
=n|r + + +r| r|-| : =| -| |+| =n|r r|--< +| r< -+ |
=+-| r , ~| == =| | |-, -+|+ =| r| =+-| r :
The SaasBahu Dramas in
Our Living Rooms

U U U
U
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almost exactly the same way that their own mothers and/or
mothers-in-law once did. They are directive and dictatorial. They
have put on the same big bossy shoes!
We have also interacted with a lot of young married men. When
we asked them, they told us openly that their mothers demand to be
heard, even to be obeyed, especially by the new and young urbane
daughter-in-law. The notion behind such behaviour is to take
control from the beginning and then, if the daughter-in-law proves
herself, to gradually release control as the daughter-in-law learns
the ropes of responsibility, submission and leadership.
However, we think that what the mothers-in-law seem to have
failed to register in their experienced minds are that todays 21st-
century young ladies are not just educated, smart, and resourceful,
but also daring. They are ready to defy!
Today, thanks to the contribution of the media (especially
saasbahu serials), the knowledge of broken homes, these new
brides as they enter into the homes of their husbands, have already
built a certain perspective and biased opinions about mothers-in-
law. As a result they have also decided how they will handle the sit-
uation. At the first sign that their prejudices are proving to be
correct (as per the script) these daughters-in-law rebel. They just
hate control, being bossed around by a cranky old mother-in-
law, being told what to do and not to do. If these young ladies fail to
get the appropriate response from their spouses, they have decided
that they would either force the husband to move out of the family
home or even divorce. When they marry they do not want to
surrender their independence. These young wives are convinced
that living alone is the only solution to the, otherwise, a life-long
problem. Their motivation is to get as far away as possible from the
mother-in-law and to keep her out of their hair.
So it is in this kind of a scenario that families and its members
find themselves at loggerheads contributing to the rising level of
conflict within the family.
Recently we were speaking to an experienced psychologist on
this issue. Giving his assessment for the growth in number of fami-
ly conflicts in India, he quoted Dr Justice V. S. Malimath, a former
chief justice of Karnataka and Kerala. Dr Justice Malimath had told
the psychologist, The problem we face today with our 21st-
century women is that they are marrying 18th-century men!
When I shared this wisdom with a writer friend she responded
by saying, So to survive marriage, either women will have to
regress or men will have to progress and catch up with us women.
No conflict is pleasant. Our concern is to find ways to prevent
or to limit it and, if possible, eliminate it altogether. Is
there a way to bring about reconciliation and healing in
our marital, family and community relationships? We
will examine what some of those ways are for a lasting
solution to family and parental life.
|- +: =|n| s rs+ ||| ~| < |-|| = |-|- +| r ~| :=
|- | |+| r |+ rs|| =|-| = -+ |- |+= -r = +|s +-|
r : ~| rs := |- +| | r|-| r| r |+ ~| +| s| |n+ n =|
r| r| +-| r =| ++| ~+| s| | =|= +=| +-| | : r -s
n|+ |n| ~| | s|+ |n| r|-| r : r| -| || + n -| r :
rs+ +: | |||r- | = =| |-|- +| r : rs+ +=
z| -| r| + n + -|| |+ ++| s|-| r s| +-| r |+
++| = +| |,|-+ ++| s|+| =| |, |=-| +: , |, -|r|
r a||: := +| + r| + |z r ||| r |+ -| = r| |+ ||
~+ r| s n |n| | ~| |+, ~ r ~+ ~| +| |
=||- +-| r -| | -| |+ || s |n <| |, |+ r ||-s ||
|+|, ~|+ r|+| ~| ~ |: ++| =|-| r :
n |++ rs n-| r |+ =|= +| ~|- ~+ - +| |<n|-|<s|
s := |- +| r|++ s ~=+n r-| r |+ ~| +| ::| =<| +|
|-| + + n |-||-|-, -s| ~| = =|+ -- r |-+ |r-s-|n| =|
r : +|-| < + +| - | r :
~| + <| s , s||:| + |<|+ + +|| (|=-| =|=r
+ ||||r+; ~| ||| +| |++|| + +||, r +: < nr+
|-| + + || s -| +- r rn r| ~+ s+ s ~+| =|=| +
| s |= < |+|| ~| | r = -- | +| -| r :
|||s-, r| + r =| =|| r|-| r |+ r|n|- = + = |+ :
r := |- +| rn| = + - |sn-| r |+ ++ | r =r| =||-
r| r r (+| + ~+ =|; -| r r |- + < -| r : r
|+ || s r+ = , ~-: =|= +| | =r+ = ~| r -| |+ =
|+ -| ++| r -| +r| , =- +. +- r|-| r : ~ :+ | s|rn|~|
+| ~+ |-| = =r| -| +r| |sn -| | -| r s + < -|
r |+ ~+ ||||+ | +| z|: < | -n|+ < < -| r : -||<|
+-| r -| ~+| ~|||<| +| | ++| +r| |r-| : :+ | |+|
+| +|+ r|-| r |+ |+ = s =|-| s r+ = ~z| r ~+ n
r+|: ++| +s|| |+ r|-| r |+ |-+| = = r| ~+| =|= =
< n| | -||+ n: |: -:|: = | |:
:= -r + |< - s || ~| ++ =<- ~+ ~|+| s+s |
+| |-|- s |- r ~| || s - +| +| +|| +- |- r :
r|n r| s rs := s + ~+ =| s+| |||++ = |- + r
: =|- s ||||+ +|| +| -| = | +| ~+| ~|+n+ < -
r r| + , ++| + ~| + n + s |||-|, :| . |-= |.
=. s||ns- +| z - |+|: :| . |-= s||ns- + + s+| |||++ =
+r|, ''~| rs| =|s+ -||<| +| == : | =s-| r r |+ ::|
=<| +| ~|- :s| =<| + s<| + =| |r + r| r !``
s + =s:|<|| +| r |- ~+| + n |+| |s| + =| =| :||
+| -| r| + | s +r|, '':=|n -||<| +| | + + |n | -|
~|-| +| |z ~|+| : | | s<| +| ~| +| r||:``
+|: =| +| = < +r| r|-|: rs|| - r r |+ rs =+|
|+|s ++ + , = +s ++ , ~| ~ = = r| -|,
|n+ n -s + < + + |-- | : -| rs| ||r+,
||||+ ~| =|s <||+ = | s +|sn| ~| |: n|+
+| +|: |--| r ` ~| rs < |+ ||||+ |+ ~|
n|n+-|n+ + + |n + z -|: =s||+ +|+-= r :
Hansraj Jain, together with his wife Kasthurbai, is a trained family counsellor and leads
marriage and parenting seminars around India.
T! I-I| T-| S T|"!|:!n T|I! ~!II! I n4! T !n - "!!I| T! T!--T!T!
|IT"! T ~|--! II!n I !
Family:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:56 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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FORWARD Press
WORLDVIEW
m|a-fe aui m|a-cioo aei aiea|ao |caa + sa+i o|c+ coi
PROGRESS-PRONE AND PROGRESS-RESISTANT SOCIETIES
WHY REAL CHANGE IS SO HARD
Successful Indians: Left-to or
Lifted-from Themselves
aa ica|o
+ i c ois
|e me oi +
i a fcie me
I
PART
im
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c
THOM WOLF
All societies are sick, but some are sicker than others.
Did Gandhian Anna Hazare say that in New Delhi, or did
UK Prime Minister David Cameron say that in London in
2011?
Neither. Actually, an anthropologist at University of
California Los Angeles, Robert Edgerton, said that in
1991. But once it is said, it seems so obvious: all societies
are sick, but some are more sick than others. Every socie-
ty has it weaknesses. But it seems that some exist in a
kind of serious and persistent dysfunctional condition.
And in fact, various international organizations document
that truth every year.
For example, Transparency International publishes an
annual Corruption Perceptions Index. The TI report
measures the perceived levels of public-sector
corruption. The TI 2010 reports on 178 countries. On a
scale from 10 (highly clean) to 0 (highly corrupt) three
nations tied for first place with a 9.3: Singapore,
Denmark and New Zealand. The UK made the top 20
with score 7.6. For the first time, USA was not in the top
20, at 22 with 7.1. Last in line was Somalia 178, with a
score of 1.1.
India ranked 87 with a score of 3.3 as did Albania,
Jamaica, and Liberia. China was 78 (3.5), tied with
Columbia, Greece, Serbia and Thailand. Other areas of
societies are regularly monitored and reported. The
Economist Intelligence Unit measures the state of democ-
racy in 167 nations. The UN World Health Organization
(WHO) measures global health profiles.
Pathology is the study of disease, its origin, nature, and
manifestations. Literally pathology is the study (logia)
of suffering (pathos). Once diagnosed, prescriptions can
be given for the cure of the disease or suffering.
PROGRESS-PRONE PROGRESS-RESISTANT
SOCIETIES
This series, Progress-Prone, Progress-Resistant
Societies, is about the pathologies of and the prescriptions
for Indias suffering.
Four doctors are consulted. Eight tests are run. The
four doctors are Ambedkar, Marx, Gandhi and Phule. The
diagnosis of each is given for a healthy society. India is
particularly used as a case study.
In the vocabulary of cultural anthropology, Progress-
Prone, Progress-Resistant Societies examines what
makes a society progress-prone inclined towards
progress; and what makes a society progress-resistant
inclined away from progress.
While all cultures may theoretically be equal, in real

$
=r =t rtt z , n|++ +z <=| = |<| |s|
r :`` -| =|n :o:: s =| |<-n| s |||<| ~+|
r|| + +r| |, | :n: + |+s|| : |: +s+ +
n<+ s +r| |`
<|+| s = |+=| + +r|: <~=n, +||=| ~|.+
+n|.+||+| n|= |n= + s|+|||+| | +
+ :: s +r| |: n|++ + | |+=| + +r |<|
-| n-| r |+ |- |+-+| =|.+ r ==| =s| |s|
r n|++ +z <=| = ~|+ |s| r : r =s| +|
~+| +s||| r|-| r : n|++ n-| r |+ +z =
=s| =| r | + +| +| =| ~| =-- <|+-|
+| |-|- s r- r : ~|, ~n-~n ~-| |
=+ r =|n := =||: +| |n|- s|| <- r :
|s=|n + -| , | = =| : + -|+n (|~|:; r
=|n +::i ":= :ii ; ~= +||-|- +-| r : r
|~|: || =||++ -| | s =|| + +|- --| +|
s|-| r : |~|: :o:o s :/s < -|| +| || r : <=
(~|+ =|. +; = -| (~|+ =; + s|
.s ~ +| + =| -|+ < -| +-=| rn + r
|= | , : +s|+ ~| ||n :: + /.- ~ +| + =|
rn :o s -|+ +| || r : rn| | ~s |+| | :o
s +r| r , /.: ~ +| + =| r :: + r : ==
+| , :/s + =|s||n| r , :.: ~ +| + =|:
=|- +| + s/ r ~| -+| r s.s: ~-||+|,
s+| ~| n|:|| +| =| r| + r : |+ /s -|+
r (s.s; ~| r +|n||, +|+, =|| ~|
|:n: + | r : =s| + <= -||| +| |+|s-
= |+|+| +| |-| r ~| || <| |-| r : ;+iif=
; f= f :-/ <-|| s |-| +| |-|- s|-| r :
=-- | +| |- -|- =+ |-+ -|-
| s|-| r :
|| + ~+ +| ~|- ++ sn, -=| ~|
|-|+| + ~+ +| |n| +r- r : |n|
+| ~-|-| ~ r |: | ("ii; +| ~+
(ifi;: + | |+<|+ r| | -| | | |: | +
| + |n <| =| <| | =+-| r :
nla-o, nla-tr= =t
r | n|, " f-= , " f-:i+ ==i, =|- +| |: |
+| | n| ~| =+ |n <| -|+ + | r :
| :|-| = =n|r n| : r : ~| - |+
r : | :|- r , ~:+, s|-=, || ~| +n:
-- =s| + |n + +| |+<|+ |<| | r : =|-
+| += -:| + s |-| = +| | r :
=|-+|-+ s|+|||+ + -|<| s, "f-=,
"f-:i+ ==i := |- +| | +-| r |+ +|+-
=| || =s| +| |--s +|-| r |- +|
i: :|+| r : ~| +|+-=| || =s| +| |--
|+ +|-| r |- = ": :|+| r ::

Thom-Wolf:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:42 PM Page 3


life, it is fairly obvious to most that some cultures are ac-
tually more equal than others. That is, not all societies
are equal in their ability to help persons and peoples to
live and flourish. And flourishing does not mean to just
prosper economically. Life flourishing encompasses
prospering physically, economically, socially, politically
and culturally.
My thoughts here on Progress-Prone, Progress-
Resistant Societies began as a lecture in 2006 for the
sociology department, University of Lucknow. It was
published in the Universitys Journal of Contemporary
Social Work (2007), and later appeared in another
version in Oikos Worldviews Bulletin (2007).
I know what you are about to hear is a minority
voice. But I must say, the response has been remarkably
united. Whether the audience is in South Asia, Central
Asia, Southeast Asia, Eastern and Western Europe,
Canada, the United States of America, or the Gulf States,
again and again, people say that this is something we
must talk about. Also, many have said that the approach I
present here gives them handles to examine and compare
with facts, not just opinions.
They have all only deepened my original sense that
this is a topic many are interested in. And they are
interested because it deals with matters that effect us all.
MAHATMA PHULE
For India, Jotirao Phule (18271890) is the national fa-
ther of social revolution. In 1888 at a Bombay
felicitation, Mahatma Jotirao Phule called people to fol-
low the path of truth, equality, and freedom.
Phule had a picture that he drew of India. In two
words, Phule described his homeland.
He would be called Mahatma by Gandhi and Ambed-
kar. But Phule minced no words. For Phule Brahmin-
conceived and caste-kept India, his India, was a prison
house.
G. P. Despande, former professor at the School of In-
ternational Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New
Delhi, cautions us: The blunt, polemical style of Phule
is unmistakable. His work is seminal. In other words,
Phule is in your face he will argue into a corner. And he
plants thoughts in your mind that grow the more you
think about them.
Phule said that superstitious devotions, Brahmin
discourses, and caste dictates have made India a prison
house. For Phule, it was that simple, that straight, that sad.
But especially remember this. 19th century Phule
called Indias social system a prison house. 21st
century social scientists refer to such a system as a
progress-resistant culture.
| s r =-+|- | r| =+-| r n|++ ~=n|
|+ s ~|+|-| n|| +| r +|.+| - +| ~|-| r
|+ +z =-+|-| ||+| + s+|n ~|+ | r|-|
r : :=+| ~ r r ~| |+ ==| =s| |--| ~|
n|+-=sr| +| |+ ~| +n+-+n+ s s<< ++ s
=s|+ = | +r| r|-: ~| +n+-+n+ +| s-n
+n ~||+ = +n+|-+n+| +r| r: |+ +
=sz r|+ +| ~ r -||||+, ~||+, =|s||+,
|+||-+ ~| =|-+|-+ = +n+|-+n+|:
"f-=, "f-:i+ ==i + | s | ||
r| -- + r| r ++| sn n+ |-||n +
=s|-||-| |=| s =|n :oo- s |< + n- +
s r : r |-||n + : i.+ +"::
=i:i + (:oo/; s +||-|- r ~| |+ + <=
=-+| s i;+i= i ~f (:oo/; s =|
z|:
s |+-| r |+ ~| | =++ | r r r +
~-=+ ~||| r : n|++ s +r+| |r | |+ :=+|
| |-|+| r|-| r r ~|-++ = +|+- r :
<-|+ |r <|-|| |-|| s r|, s |-|| s, <|-||
|-|| s, | | |-s| | s, ++|:| s, =-- |
~s|+| s | |+ |: | + <-|| s, |-| n|| +| r|
+r+| r |+ rs :=+ | s ~| |- ++| ||r: :=+
~n||, +: n|| + +r| r |+ |= z|- +| :--s|n s
+ r| r r r -| +| + |+ = |||~| +|
| ~| -n+| ++ s =-|s +-| r :
:= == s| sn r=|= ~| r| r|-| r |+ r
+ =| | r |= s r - = n|| +| |<n-| r||:
~| :=s :=|n |<n-| - r -||+ r =|
|-| + | s r | rs =+| =||- +-| r :

ztt n
=|- + |n ||-| +n (:s:/:so; ''=|s||+
+||- + |-|`` r : =|n :sss s : s + =-s|+
=s||r s, sr|s| ||-| +n + n|| = +r| |+
''=||:, || ~| ~|||<|`` + |-- n:
+n + =|- +| + --| +|: |: + -|< s +n
+ ~+ s=|s +| || +|:
r || ~| ~:+ + sr|s| +|| |: n|++
+n |-|| +r+ = |r|+|- +r| : +n + |n
|t||| +| +|| ~| ||- a|| +| |+| =|-,
++| =|-, + ''<|r``|:
|rn|n +r |-||n, +: |<-n| + -+n
~|.+ :+-|+n -:|| + |.+= |. |. <-||: rs
|-|- r ''+n +| |-|, -+| -|n| +| ~|
~+<| +r| + =+-: ++| +| s||n+ r :`` <=
-|<| s, +n ~|+ sr |- +r- r r ~|+
=| || r= + : ~| r ~|+ s+| s || | <-
r , ~| |-+| ~| ++ | s =|- r , -+| r|
~|+ - r :
+n + +r| | |+ ~|-|= =| =|--, |t||
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Phule stressed a single point: to become truly
progress-prone, Indians must be lifted-from themselves,
not left-to themselves.
By comparing societies, Phule concluded that other
people had also once lived in cultural prison house like
India. But other societies had learned how to move out of
their prison house and move into a pleasant house.
Phule was convinced India could do the same.
MEDIA INDIA MAJORITY INDIA:
Discussed and Undiscussed India
India arrived on the world stage in the 21st century. In the
summer of 2006, in a single week India was highlighted
internationally in cover issue editions of the newsweekly
Time, the prestigious The Economist, and the authoritative
journal Foreign Affairs. These three prominent portrayals
of dynamic-India engendered Pankaj Mishras reminder
of difficult-India in The New York Times.
According to Foreign Affairs, India today is a roaring
capitalist success story and an emergent strategic partner
of the U.S. After the Indian economy was liberalized in the
early 1990s India emerged as a world leader in
information technology and business outsourcing.
Growing foreign investment, easy credit, and even
international education ventures have fuelled an urban
consumer revolution.
Mishra, however, reminds us that not long ago, India
was largely viewed as a poor, backward, communally vio-
lent country. She was saddled with an inefficient
bureaucracy, softly aligned with the former Soviet Union;
definitely on the wrong side of history.
Mishra contrasted investment-India with experienced-
India. His New York Times article argued that the increas-
ingly common, business-centric view of India suppresses
more facts than it reveals. In fact, the business-centric
view barely mentions Other India.
I have become convinced that Westerners would do
well to listen to the insider voices of the Mishras and others
who invite us to look more closely at Other India. It is the
India that Barbara Harriss-White, Cambridge University
+| ~| ||- ~|<-|| + =|- +| ''<|r`` +| |<|
r : +n + |n |- :-+| r| =n, :-+| r| =||, :-+| r|
<=| |:
n|++ := |- +| |=-| |< : +|=| =<|
+ +n + =|- +| =|s||+ -| +| ''<|r`` +r|
r : :-+|=| =<| + =s||||+| = -| +| ''|--
|+`` =-+|- +r- r :
+n + + |= |< || :|n| =s s |--
s ++ + |n, =|-|| +| ~+ ~| = ai} i
+| |- r , ~+ ~| i +| +r|:
~n-~n =s|| +| -n+| ++ + a||, +n + r
|++ |++|n| |+ <= n|| +| =| :|-r|= s +=| =|-
r| +| -r ''<|r|`` s r+| : | |: n|++ <= =s||
+ r =| |n| |+ ++ ''<|r`` = |++n +
''=<r|`` s += ~|+| r : +n +| +|+ | |+ =|-
=| =| + =+-| r :
rlzt tta z === tta:

:-+|=| =<| s =|- |- s ~||: =|n :oo- s,
+ r| =-|r + =|- =|- +| ~-| | -- i;=
||+|, |-|- ;+iif= ||+| ~| |s|||+ +n
.+i: .+= + ~|| r|:n|: |+| |: |--||n
=|- + :+ -|+ s |||| + | s + |s|| +
i+ i;-= s +|+ =|- + | s |n|:
.+i: .+= + ~+=|, =|- ~| ||< +| +
=+n +r|+| +r-| r ~| ~s|+| +| =-| r ~|
=|s|+ =r|| r : :o + <-|+ s =|-| ~-|
+| <||+| r ~| r - = =|- =+| |||+| ~|
||+= ~|=||= s |- s + s ~| ~||
r : - |<-|| |+-|, ~|=|+ +| ~| ~-| | -||-|+
=r|| + -|r| =|--| +||- +| ~| || r :
n |++ |s|| rs |< |<n|- r |+ ~=| r|n r| -+ =|-
+| s - |, |z: , =| <||+ = |r =|-- < -| +
s < | |-| |: = -+|+ -|n +|+-||r| =|
|, ~| < -| +| =||- = | + |++ s|+| |-| |:
|+|-- -| r :|-r|= + n- |n s |:
|s|| |+-|-+-=|- +| ~+=-+-=|- + =| -n+|
+- r : i+ i;-= +| ++| n := |- || <-|
r |+ ''=|- +| ||+= + + + s <+ +| |
c
S
m'T+' ' o'+' +' +' T' | ' m'' '+ + a + '' ''+'
+ +'o m'T+ ' '' ;a+' m1 m' '+ a' a'
'' m' o'+a ' +' ' m' To T o :: + a'
a ' ' ' m' To T o +' o + o m''1 + a
To'T o' ' ' + a ) ' +' m1 ''''+, m''1 +,
a'''+, '''+ m' a' + '+ a To'T o'
WHILE ALL CULTURES MAY THEORETICALLY BE
equal, in real life, it is fairly obvious to most that some
cultures are actually more equal than others. That is,
not all societies are equal in their ability to help
persons and peoples to live and flourish. And
flourishing does not mean to just prosper economical-
ly. Life flourishing encompasses prospering physically,
economically, socially, politically and culturally
Thom-Wolf:Layout 1 8/28/2011 11:42 PM Page 5
SEPTEMBER 2011
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WORLDVIEW
economist, refers to as India of the 88 percent.
For Other India, majority India, is an India more
than 70 notches below Cuba and Mxico in human
development indices, with a GDPs only slightly higher
than sub-Sahara Africa, just two rungs above Myanmar.
It is this Other India that is the largely undiscussed
and the too-often-unfactored-in India. It is not the
publicity-India of the media. But it is the persistent-
India of the masses.
The questions here are: Why does persistent-India so
tenaciously endure? and Why is India so little different
from what Mahatma Phule 150 years ago called prison
house India, a social construct of a comprehensive and
reinforced worldview? And lastly, Why does this
prison house so painfully and persistently flourish as
the India we see every day 88 per cent India?
POINT-COUNTERPOINT:
Indians Left-To Themselves and Indians
Lifted-From Themselves
Indian intellectuals and leaders, including Phule,
Ambedkar and Gandhi, have been pained and
perplexed by the issue of Indias nagging poverty. I call
it the difference between Indians left-to themselves and
Indians lifted-from themselves.
Indians left-to themselves plod, even pollute. But such
a situation is not fate. It is not the caste-karma of India.
Indians lifted-from themselves tend to prosper, rather
persistently creating a profile of development, even
distinction. It is this alternative possibility that is inadver-
tently made by Thomas Friedman in The World is Flat.
Friedman comments on British historian Paul John-
sons essay in Forbes about Ugandas Indian
population, now immigrants in the United Kingdom. In
the UK there are more millionaires among Ugandan In-
dians than in any other recent immigrant community in
Britain. Johnson makes the point that when left to
themselves, Indians always prosper as a community.
Obviously, that is a contradiction to Cambridge Univer-
sitys professor Harriss-Whites 88 percent India.
She finds that Indians left to themselves struggle just to
exist. Friedman and Johnson say Indians left to
themselves prosper.
Actually, Friedman and Johnson precisely make my
point: globally successful Indians are extracted
Indians, not embedded Indians. It is Indians lifted-from
themselves, transported into a cultural framework other
than traditional India, who tend always to prosper as a
community. And that is actually what Friedman and
Johnson noted of the UK Ugandan Indian (UKUI) com-
munity. For UKUIs are not Johnson Indians left-to
n+ -| | r| r r -| +| |<|+ +| |
|z|-| ~|+ r :`` <~=n ||+=-=| + +|||
<= =|- +| -| ||+ -+ +r| +-|:
s:| +|+ r| n| r |+ |-s + n| |s|| ~| +
= <= n|| +| |- ~|+ |+ < |r |s|+|
=||: +| -| r ~| | rs <= =|- ~| +| +|
:|n+ +| |-| <- r : r r| =|- r |= +|
|-||n +| ~-||-|| || r |=-|: ''ss
|--|- +| =|-`` +r-| r :
<=| =|-, r =+ =|-, s|+ |+|= =+|+| s
-| ~| s|-=+| = /o |<|+ +| +| =|- r , |=+|
|:||= =-=r|+ ~+|+| = +z r| ~|+ r , ~|
-|+s| = +n <| |<|+ :
r| r <=| =|- r | ~|+- |~| = |r
r-| r , ~| |=+| ~|+|-|- |+-| +r| +| |-|: r
s||:| +| |-=|- +r| r , r n|| +| r|-=|- r :
r| =|n r ''r r|-=|- :-+| |-|: -|
r ``` ~| ''|= sr|s| +n + :so =|n rn '<|r`
+r| |, ~| +| =|- == :-+| ~n -| +r| r , +
|+ ~| =< |-<| +| =|-|n += -``` ~|
~- s, ''r '<|r` ~| + =|- s =| :-+ |: |<|+
~| r| s -| +n-+n r| r r ss |--|-
=|-```
a=-la=:

+n, ~:+ ~| || =s- ==| =|-| |z|| ~|
~ =|- +| + |+ |n| || +| n+ <| ~|
-||+ r r : s := ~+ ~| i } =|-|| ~|
~+ ~| = ai} } =|-|| ~- +r-| r :
~+ ~| z|: =|-| =|| +<s| = ~| -
r , <|- +- r : n|++ =| |-|- ++| =| +r| r :
r =|- +| ||--+s +r| r :
~+ ~| = | =|-|| s +n+-+n+ +|
|-| r|-| r , ~| n|-| |+|= +| | +| |+s||
+- n- r , |-+ |-| +| =|: ~+| --+
;i .+ s |s= +|:s+ :=| +|-+ ==|+| +| =|s+
n|- r :
+|:s+ ~| :|-r|=+| |n |+=+ + n
||| +- r | r|+ |:| +| =|-| +=| +
| s |n| | ~| | ~ :n: s |=| + -| r
r| r : :n: s |:| + =|-|| s +|: |-| +| =|
| + s r|n r| s ~| |+=| =| ~ |=| =s<| =
~|+ r : |+=+ -+ <- r |+ ~ r ~+ ~|
z|: |<| | -| + =s<| + -| =|-| rs-||
+n--+n- r : |||r r r = |- + ||- |-| r
| +| +| |.+= r |=-|: + +r| | (ss |--|-
=|-;: r n-| r |+ ~ =|-|| +| ~+ r|n
z|: |<| | -| ||- r+ + |n =| =| +- r :
+|:s+ ~| |+=+ + +r| r |+ ''~+ ~| z|:
|< |+`` =|-| +n--+n- r :
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c
themselves. UKUIs are Jotirao Indians lifted-from
themselves. And lifted two times: once, from India;
and again, from Uganda. A UKUI is a certain kind of
Indian, an Indian lifted-from himself/herself.
Professor Joel Kotkin, the author of Tribes: How
Race, Religion and Identity Determine Success in the
New Global Economy, has described what happens to
the Indian lifted-from Manu India, Majority India.
Cast apart from the setting of his village and [caste-de-
termined] clan, Kotkin writes, the overseas Indian
has begun to adopt a broader identity that increasingly
cuts across traditional [Hindu caste worldview] sectari-
an lines.
Exactly. It is that broader identity that makes the
difference. For it is these Indians who prosper: those
culturally transformed by a worldview extraction.
Ugandan Indians were extracted from the Indian caste
system. There, in a foreign land, they found ways to
prosper. And when lifted from the caste system even
further, into the freedoms of England, they prospered
even more.
So then, Indians who most often demonstrate an
excellence in the global world are not those who remain
embedded and left in their traditional culture. Instead,
they are Indians lifted from what Phule called a prison
house. And their broader identity is gained by a
cultural extraction, by some alternative catalytic means
by being lifted-from themselves. There are many
perplexed by this. Jay Dubashi of Value Research, for
example, says, Indians are getting rich, but not in India.
That is, Indians are getting rich, but not if left-to
themselves.
Dubashi explains: Its the Indian Diaspora that is
minting money hand over fist, all the way from London,
England, to San Diego, California, and producing
millionaires by the dozen. And then he asks the
nagging and painful question, If Indians can make mil-
lions in England and New York, why cant they do so in
Mumbai or Delhi or Kolkata? Why dont we have as
many millionaires per square mile as in those
countries?
The answer lies somewhere in the history and
mindset of embedded India. Traditional India as a
whole community remains a brahmanic Chaturvarnya
world.
Embedded India is a world that over long centuries
has consistently created a recognizable signature. It is
the signature of Manu.
According to Pavan K. Varma, author of The Great
Indian Middle Class, there can be no real assessment
of some of the identifiable traits of the Indian middle
class without taking into account the legacy that
<~=n, +|:s+ ~| |+=+ s r| -+ <- r
|-+ -| =+n =|-| f+i } =|-| r ,
z } =|-| +r|: =|-| r | ~+ ~| = ai} }
r , | |+ =|- = ~n |+=| <= =|-+|-+ | s
r | r , r| + =s<| + s +n+-+n+ +|
:||+ - r : ~| <~=n +|:s+ ~| |+=+ r|
|- + |:| =|-| (+~|:; =s<| + | s
+r- r : +~|: |+=+ =|-| +r| r |r ~+
~| z|: |<| | r : +~|: ||-| =|-| r
|r ~+ ~| = || | r : ~| r <| | ||
| r + | =|- = ~| <=| | |:| =:
+~|: |= |+-s +| =|-| r , ~+ ~| = ||
| | |: ::
i;= zii : =, : } i; ff=
=~== ; i~ ;+i=, + n+ |.+=
|n +||++ -|- r |+ s+ =|-, r =+
=|- = =|-|| +| || |-| r -| -| r|-| r :
''~+ | ~| (||- |+||-; ++| + |-| =
<,`` +||++ |n- r , ''|<-| s r+ |n| =|-|
+ |--- r|+ +|+ n| r | | |+ (|r < ||-
|-<|; =|<||+ =|s|~| +| +|-| |-| r :``
|n+n =r|: r ''|--- r|+`` r| r | .++
:|n-| r : -||+ r| =|-| r | +n--+n- r |
|-<| + |++|n |+ = =|-+|-+ -| ||--
r|- r : |:| + =|-|, =|-| ||- -| = |
|++|n : ~| |<-|| -| r|+ +n+-+n+ +
|-- | |n: ~| r ||- -| = ~| =| |r
|++|n| |, :n: +| ~|||<| s, -| ~| =| =sz
r :
=| := -r, =|-| | |-+ - s ==
~|+ + -| +| <-|+ +- r =|-| +r| r |
~+| | |+ = -+ |- s : r ~| r| z|: |< :
|-+, = =|-| r |r + n a|| ||r- '' <| r``
= |++|n| |: ~| ++| ''|-- - r|+`` +|
=| -+ |-+ = | |++|n |+ +| . +|<| |sn|, |+=|
< = +|-+ s|s + a|| ~+ ~| = | |+ +
a||: := |- + +: n|| +| -||+| s :|n| r : -
|= + < |-||, |s=|n + -| , +r- r , ''=|-|
~s| r| r r , n |++ =|- s +r| :`` ~|- =|-| ~s|
r| r r , n |++ - +r| r ~+ ~| z|: |<|
|:
<|-|| =s:||- r ''=|-| |=| =| +| r
r , :n: s n<+ = n+ +|n.+||+| s =+ |:| -+,
~| <+| +|: -| <| + r r :`` |+ r + -
++ |n| ~| |: |<|+ =|n z- r , ''~ =|-|
:n: ~| |+ s +|: | +s| =+- r -| |+ s:,
|<-n| ~| +|n+|-| s -| +r|` rs| r| |- s|n
:-+ +|: |- -| +r| |-+ + <-|| s r ```
:=+| -| +r| + +r| : r =|- + :|-r|= ~|
s|+|=+-| s |sn-| r : | |+ =|-, + =s<| +
-| , |t|||<| -| - r|:
: | r~| =|- =| =|- r |=+ n| =|<| -+
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[Manu] Hinduism the religion of the overwhelming
majority of the middle class has bequeathed and the in-
fluence it continues to have.
It has been a culture of political despots, economic
destitution, social castes, and spiritually dubious sadhus.
Varma, for example, in Krishna: The Playful Divine,
addresses the moral and social consequences on Indian
society of Lord Krishna as a model personality.
J. Varenne, Yoga and the Hindu Tradition; S. M.
Dahiwale, Understanding Indian Society: The Non-
Brahmanic Perspective; and Dolf Hartsuiker, Sadhus:
Indias Mystic Holy Men, all examine the cultural person,
, the ideal person, the sadhu. And Prasenjit Chowdhury,
Kolkata analyst, asks the hard question:
Is it a typical South Asian trait or is there something
wrong with the religion we practise, which gives
precedence to purity of the soul and not the environment?
Many of our temple towns, such as Benares and Ajmer
Sharif, where the priestly class calls the shots, are the
dirtiest.
That is a question that refuses to go away, and it is more
than just about the physical environment. For over the
thousands of years available, the Manu world has never
generated a society of political justice, economic
dynamism, social equality or spiritual integrity. Instead, it
has only and always signed with a single signature. And
the signature culture that it has persistently produced is a
life situation where those left to themselves inside it, do
not prosper.
Historically then, it is the Indians who have been
lifted from themselves who have become transforming
catalysts. But that is precisely the point: they have
consistently been extracted Indians. Their way out has
most often been education, immigration, and conversion,
or some combination of these transformative three. Edu-
cation (modern missionary or materialist), immigration
(physical or mental), and conversion (spiritual or
intellectual): this pattern of extraction appears to hold
very consistently.
They all have one thing in common. They are all
Indians who have not been left-to their Manu prison house.
They are all Indians who have been lifted-from themselves.
And their roads out have been along four escape routes: ed-
ucation, immigration, conversion or a highway with multi-
ply lanes that combines two or three together.
Next month we will look at four different
prescriptions by four different doctors for how India can
be lifted-from the Manu malady because, while all
societies are sick, some are sicker than others.
+ |+ r|+ r--|-| +| |+s|| |+| r : r r--|-|
s+ +| r :
;f f= ~i= + n+, + +. s|
+ ~+=|, '' -+ rs |r < s (s+|<; +| |r
+| |+ s +r| ~|- ss +| r - : |
+=| +| s | ~| -+ +| r : r , - -+
rs =|-| ss + r|+| n-||| +| +|:
|--|+ ~|+n+ +r| + |:``
r |+|-+ |+ +-||, ~||+ ||, =|s||+
||-| ~| ~|||s+ -| =|< =|~| +| =-+|-
r| r : |s=|n + -| , +ii .+ fi; s s|
=|-| =s| +| +| ~|<-| |-- +|+ +
+|-+ ~| =|s||+ =|| +| |- +- r :
+ +| ii } fz f:i, =. s. <r||n
+| : f ;f =i=i; i-~izif+
"="f~, ~| :|-.+ r| -|+ +| =ii ;fii
f=f+ zi = ==| =|-+|-+ |--, ~|<-| |--,
=| +| : -|n +- r : ~| +|n+|-| + |-n+
=+|- || +: | -+ z- r
''r + |= <|-|| |-||: n-|| r | |+ |=
s +| ~|| rs +- r =s +|: <| r |+ rs
~|s| +| -|z-| +| |- +- r n|++ || +|
+r|` rs| +: || +, = |+ +|= ~| ~s
-||.+, r| ||r- +| n-| r , == < r|- r :``
r r =|n r |= ++|| +r| | =+-|, ~| r
|- =||-+ |-| = ~| |-| r : r||| =|n| +|
=s r|+ + |< s+ - + +=| =| |+|-+
|, ~||+ |--||n-|, =|s||+ || ~| r|+|
:s|+<|| +| =s| +r| +||: :=+| |, =+ rs-||
+n + r| r--|-| |+|: ~| | |= =-+|- =+
<| +| r =| |+ r r| n| |r ~+ ~|
z|: |<| |, =sz +r| r|-:
|-r||=+ -| , = =|-| |r ~+ ~| =
|| | r <n| + +|| +: n|++ r| -| -+
r r n|-| | |++|n =|-| r : ~| |r
|++n+ + ++ |-- ~+= |-|-||, |= | s|-|
r | <n| + :+ -|+| |--| +| +|: ~|=| sn|n:
|-|-|| (~||++ |s-|+| | =||-+-||<|;, |=
(-||||+ | s|+|=+;, ~| s|-| (r|+| |
||z+; | |++|n |+ + -|+ |+ - + r r :
:+ =s + |- =|:|| r : ==| =|-| r |r
s+ <|r s ~+ ~| +r| z|: | |: ==|
=|-| r |r ~+ ~| = || |: ~| ++ |--
| -|+| = + |-|-||, |=, s|-| | =| r|:
r| :+s = <| | -|+ n+ ~|= s |sn|: ::
~n sr|+ rs | ~n-~n <|~| +| <
| | ~n-~n :|-| + -|: -||+ =|- +| s+
| = || | -||+, |r = =s| |s| r|-
r , +z ||+| = ~|+ |s| r|- r :
Thom Wolf is President and Professor of Global Studies, University
Institute, New Delhi. He has published articles and books on Mahatma
Jotirao and Savitribai Phule
. "|-I|~c| I-c|c "c. -I |I| I |-I"!I I ! II!- -I!-! J!|n!I T
T! ~!|I!|I!I T I |IT" - F T! T-nI TI!|"!n I| I !
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''ar 11e '' 1|:
U?
WESTERN AUTUMN
After Arab Spring?
VISHAL MANGALWADI
hy did Britain burn from 6-10August 2011?
What made rioters take innocent lives, loot shops,
and set them on fire?
How could Anders Behring Breivik murder 91
fellow Norwegians in cold blood on 22July?
Why did Greeks go to the streets in May-June,
protesting against $153 billion being offered to bail
out their economy?
At the start of this decade, who would have predicted
that in less than two years:
n Pakistan would have better credit ratings (BB-)
than Greece (CCC), the so called cradle of Western
civilization, and a member of the European Union?
n Americas credit ratings would be downgraded to
AA+?
n Capitalisms best engine America would
borrow from Communist China and others $4
billion every single day to keep its unemployed from
rioting?
n Tunisians, Egyptians, and Syrians would launch
mostly peaceful internal protests for political
change, while the British would loot, burn, and kill
without any agenda for political, economic, or social
improvement?
It may be too late to save the Euro . . . the critical
question is: Can America be saved from the evil that
has gripped so much of its family, education, religion,
economy, politics, law, media, and entertainment?
Most importantly, what must India learn from the
Western folly?

z = = =a zc!! nt fn z = =t =t
tzt = =t f=t t= =t , t= = zt tz a==
t =tz
v z= n zfz n f = ! =tt =t tf=t t
za=t f== =at = = =tz zt=t
=z = = =t= t=t a=t *=t t
nt= f=v =atfa !sa zn zt =z t
=ztat f==t. v rt = z= =z t z =t aaz
tv
:= <-|+ +| -| ~|- s |+=+ ~+ s|+ n|| r|| |+
<| = =| +s =s s
n ||+--|+ +| + |: | (||-; ''= -+ |- +| |n+|``
+r |+ |n ~| || = | + =<- +|+ (=|=|=|; =
r- r||`
n ~s |+| +| + |: | | + - r ||`
n ||< + =| -|s : + ~s |+| +| ''+- |+-`` |+
~| < =| = r || + ~ :| n |||+| | n +| : |
-||+ r ~+ |||| +| < | ++ = |+ =+ `
n +||-||, |s ~| =||| + +||+ |+||-+ |- +
+ |n ~|+| -|- -|| |- | ~ <+| || < -|+| +|
-| ~|- + , |+ | +|=| |+| |+=| |+||-+,
~|| + | =|s||+ = | + ~ : + n |, ~||+|
~| r| ++ n `
| +| |+ + |n -||< r- < r| +| r ...
sr- | =|n r -| ~s |+| +| || | =+-| r
... = |: = |=+ =+ ||| , |-|-||, s ,
~ -|, |+||-, +|+ +, s||:| ~| s+|+ +|
+|. +| r< -+ ~+| +: s n |n| r:
== sr- | |-, |-s +| s -| = =|- -|
=| =+-| r`
W
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 1
SEPTEMBER 2011
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ANALYSIS
S O C I A L
We would all love to see the Arab world liberated and transformed,
but I never expected the Arab Spring to bring forth the kind of
blossoms that secular pundits expected from it. The secular intellectuals
are clever. They have succeeded in turning Wall Street into a casino that
makes many of them super-wealthy while bankrupting their nation. If
individual wealth is the litmus test of success then Arab despots may
have done better than Wall Street moguls. In fact, the secular worldview
is simply too nave to understand the West or teach the Arab world how
to build a civilization that is free and just with equal opportunity for all.
Sadly, secular intellectuals think that material factors and accidents of
history such as Guns, Germs, and Steel (Jared Diamond) or Biology,
Sociology, and Geography (Ian Morris) can account for freedom. They
think that nation-building is about economic killer apps (Niall Fergu-
son) rather than ideas, morals, and culture. Rather than being helpful,
such amoral economic experts, produced by Ivy League universities,
are driving Western nations into bankruptcy.
While I remain sceptical about the Arab Spring, I am more confident
about the Western Autumn ushering in a terrible winter. My short-term
pessimism is produced by the underlying causes of the two phenomena.
THE ARAB SPRING
It was a terrible tragedy that triggered the protests that were naively
dubbed the Arab Spring. On 16 December 2010, Mohamed
Bouazizi, a street vendor in Tunisia was selling produce when Ms Faida
Hamdi, a city official, came along with her entourage looking for a
bribe. He had not earned enough to repay the $200 that he had
borrowed to buy his goods, but she (reportedly) slapped him in the face,
spat at him, confiscated his electronic weighing scales, and tossed aside
his produce cart.
Bouazizi went to the governor's office to complain. When the
governor refused to see him, Bouazizi set himself aflame. In short
order, his self-immolation initiated the deadly demonstrations and riots
throughout Tunisia and ultimately forced Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to re-
linquish the presidency on 14 January 2011. He had misruled his nation
for twenty-three years.
The firestorm spread to Egypt, forcing Hosni Mubarak to quit after
30 years of oppressive rule. Despots in Libya, Bahrain, Yemen, and
Syria, however, relied on the Islamic tradition of the rule-by-the-sword
to fight back the wild fires of freedom. They exposed the naivety of the
rs =+| r |<n| ||r-| r |+ ~ - -- | ~| | -|- r|,
n |++ s + +=| r ~|-|| +r| | |+ ''~ = -`` = + n |n||
=| = + n |:-| + ~|= n| | |: = + n |z|| - r : | n
-| +| =| ~|| +|+ s +|s| r r | +s = +: +| ~||+
+| +| < -| r |+ ++| | |<||n| r~| |-| r: ~ =+n-| +|
+=|| r| r |+ ~|+ |--- -| |+-+| =| +|| r -| ~ +
|++ -| -||=+ -||< | n -| + | =|| :- r : <~=n, = + n
|-< | :-+| =|n| r |+ = + -| |-s| - +| + z =s:| r ~| + r|
r ~ - +| r |=| =+-| r |+ =| =-| +| |+s| | + = |+|
| | -- | r| ~| r| =+ |n =s|+ ~|+| r| : < +| |- -|
r r |+ = + n |z|| =|- r |+ =||-+ +|+ ~| :|-r|= +|
< | +| , s=n+ '' < + , |+|| ~| :-|-``( : :|:s :;, | |+|,
=s|-||-| ~| = |n (: |+ s| |=; -- |-| +| n | < =+- r : r
n-| r ||+s| | ~|| + ''|+n =`` (+|n . + =+; +| s=n| r
| ||| , + |-+ s -| ~| = -+ |- + : =r|+ r|+ +| |, ~|:|
n| |-||n| = |++n+ |n = + |-+-|-|+ -| ~|| + |-| |
|-s| || +| |<||n|+ +| |r n | r r :
r|n| |+ ~ = - + | s s | = < r +| r, s :| := |- +| +|+
r |+ |-s| -:|: r- r| =|r -|< +- n + ~||: s | ~-+||n+
|+|-|||< <| |+|~| + ~||= - +||| = | r:

+ =|r ||=<| + + || <-| +| +| |- |+| |r =|n + s ''~
= -`` +r |<| |: =|nr |<= :o:o + |<+ s|r-s< ~|||||
+||-|| +| |n| s ~+| + | n| =|s|+ r |+ ||s-| . +|:<|
r|-<|, -|r +| + ~|+||, ~+| |n| + =| |-- n + r| r : :
~||||| + -| ~-+ :-+| =| +r| +s|| | |+ :oo :| n + | +|
~+| +| =| +| |- | r| + ~+| =|s|+ |<+ + |n |n| |,
n |++ r|-<| + +|- -| ++ s r : s||, + +|, ++|
:n - | |++ -|| +| s n |n| ~| ++ =|s|+ +| + | +| n |<|:
~||||| ||n + <. +- s |-|+|- + :|< = r : ||n +
+= |sn+ = :++| + |<| -| ~||||| + < +| ~| n| n|: + z r|
=s s ++ ~|s<|r + +||-|| s ||-+ || < -|+| ~| < | +|
-| ~|- +| ~| ~ - s ||+ ~n ~<|+ |+ ~n| +| :+ +| :o:: +|
||- < z|:+| :|: r| + :s =|n| -+ = | + -||=+ |+| |:
~| |s s =| + n : ~| so =|n + ~||| -||=+ + |< r|-+|
s |+ +| =| | z|: +| :|: n |++ n|||, r|+, s+ ~| =||| +
|++ -| -||=+| + -n| + || ~|||<| +| n| ~| = n:+ +|
:-n|s| | +| =r|| |n|: r| + <||<| ~|-||~| + =|n + +| |n
ar O e1 ,| 1ra|rd d 1|m |nmr|t | |
' '+ ' + '' a m''': +'' ' ' 1 ' + ' ''a+'
+' ''T + + a'1a'1 1a ': '| +' ' ''T +' '+'
'a ao'' +' m''+' '+' m' 1 :''
IF FACEBOOK, TWITTER, AND YOUTUBE are to Lib-
erate Muslim nations from traditional tyranny, then
they will have to be used to challenge not just
despots but the very worldview that has
dehumanized and oppressed Muslims
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 2
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Liberal expectation that Twitter can triumph over tanks. (See FP April
2011) The protests deposed two despots, but weeding is not gardening.
Bouazizi had burned himself protesting against a civilization that
denies human dignity and ridicules the idea of servant-leadership. Guns
and germs did not produce these noble ideas of human rights and
leadership. They came from the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Renaissance writers Salutati, Lorenzo Valla and Pico Della
Mirandella were the first to understand that Christs incarnation implied
mans uniqur dignity. If God had incarnated as a human being, then that
proved that man was different from the other animals. He possessed a
unique value and dignity that had to be respected by the state. Later
reformers grasped that if if the Deity sacrificed himself on the cross to
save sinful humanity, then leadership had to mean servant-hood. The
Messiashship of Jesus made it obvious that the human rulers needed to
be shepherds, not wolves that oppress Gods own children. Islam
rejects even the idea of Incarnation and the possibility that a prophet
would die on a cross. Secular intellectuals ridicule these very
historical/theological truths that produced the kind of civilization that
Muslim nations are now seeking. If Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube
are to liberate Muslims from their traditional tyranny, then the social
media will have to be used to challenge not just dictators but the very
worldview that has dehumanized and oppressed Muslim nations.
WESTERN AUTUMN
It was Blackberry, Twitter and Facebook that brought out Social Media
rioters, costing the British economy around $400 million. Under British
law, the taxpayers will have to pay the actual insurance cost for the
buildings and looted goods. These looters werent interested in the
bookshops that made Britain great. Nor were they starving, looking for
groceries or medicine. The gangs were looking for electronic gadgets,
trendy clothing, and designer shoes.
The London riots began because Metropolitan police branch
responsible for curbing gun crimes within the black community, shot
dead 29-year old Mark Duggan. The police had been investigating him
for a while and believed he was planning to take revenge on those who
had stabbed to death his best friend, 23-year-old rapper, Kelvin Easton.
His killers had used a broken champagne bottle to stab him at the
Boheme nightclub in Mile End, East London. The police say that Mark
and Kevin were linked to the Star Gang, a part of Londons blooming
gang culture that has little respect for the traditional British values of
lawful work and family life.
The police claim that they shot Mark in self-defence. He may have
been a victim of an officers mistake who thought that he needed to fire
before Mark fired at him. But, it is important to ask ourselves - are Mark
Duggan and the rioters victims of poverty or of a postmodern secular
culture that has killed the soul of a once great civilization?
Mark was an internet-savvy young man who used Facebook under
his alias Starrish Mark. His home page had pictures of him in a T-shirt
bearing the words Star Gang, He may have been a good citizen, but
messages from friends, as well as other reports, suggest that he may
have been a drug dealer, linked to the Star Gang and allied with other
North London gangs. It does not appear that Mark had a job. He was not
|n <| |+ | +| = n|r| n =+-| r (< . +|, ~ n :o::;:
|| <-| +| + <| |++ -| -||=+| +| | = -| + +|, n |++ ~+|r|
+-|- +| |: + ++| ||+| ++| +r| r|-|: ~||||| + + =|
=-| + |n|. + || +- r~| ~|s<|r |+| | s|+| |s| <|+
++ = :++| +-| r ~| = +-~ + +| ||| +| r|= +-| r:
< +| ~| |+|| ~| + s|+||+|| ~| ~ + + :+ =< ||| +| s
+r| |<|: = |-| s=|r +| + = = ~|- r :
+| | + n +| = n -|-|, n| || |n| ~| |+| :n| |s|+:n|
rn n| |r| + := |- +| =s:|| |+ s=|r| +| < r|| r|+| (s+
+| < r || + + ~|+|; s+ +| ~+ | |s| +| ~| :-||| +-| r:
~ : - + s+ + s < r|| r r , -| r =||- r|-| r |+
s+ |+| -| ~| = ~n r: =+| + ~+ | s - ~| |s| r |=+|
| a|| =-s|+ |+| |+| ||r: |< + = |+| + := |- +| =s:|| |+
~ < | =-|| + ~+ ~|+| || s|+-| + |n + = |n<|+ |
|<| r -| ~ + (+ - ; +| ~ r = ++: |-| + s=|r|+ + r
|- - + <| |+ s|+| -||=+| +| |r| r|+| r + |+ = |: |
: - +| ~+| = -|+ +| |:+ +- r : :-n|s < r|| + || -+ +|
|| +-| r ~| := = =|+| +| =| |+ +|: +| + = || < =+-|
r: = + n |z|| :r| |-r||=+.s |||++ =| +| r|= +- r
|r| + =| =-| +| |+s| | |+| |=+| -n|-| ~| + s |-ns | +
r r : ~ . + = +, | ~| +| s |-ns || +| ||+
|++ -|-| = ~|||< +|+| r| -| r |++ -| -||=+| +| || ++ +
=|-=| = |-< | +| =| || ++| r|| |=+ s =ns|+| +|
~s|+|+| |+| ~| r <||:

n + |, | ~| . + = +, =|-|n s||:| < |:| +| |r n|, |++|
<|n- | -|+| ~ -| +| n= +o +|: :| n +| +|s- +|+|
:|: | -|+| +|+ + + ~ - -, +<|-|~| +| :s|-| ~| n =|s|+ +|
~=n| |s| n|- < +| : |: n | +| |+-|| +| < +|+| s |<n-| +r|
| |=+ | + +| sr|+ +||: + r| r = s r |+ |-|+-|+| |
<| r r| : ||r :n -| |++ =|s|+, . + -|+ n +: | ~| |:||:+
-| +| -n|-| s :
n <+ s < :=|n -| r -| |+ < +| + ~|||+ :-- s|n +|
|++ + |n ||-s | s || |n+ |n= +| -||| + : | s|+ :+
+| |n| s| + r| + <| |: |n= + z =s = =+| | :-|n
+ r| | ~| = n-| | |+ r + n|| = <n| n + +| |+| +|
r| r |r| + =+ || <|-- :s | |+ + |-+ : -+ +| r|
+ <| |: =+ r|| + : - n :+ + s|:n : s |-- ||rs| +|:-n
s -| + +| | |-n || + =+| r| +| |: |n= +| +r+| r |+
s|+ ~| + |-+ +| = -| = | | n <+ +| +n-|-+ n-| ||r
= -+ |- +| |r-=| |, ~| | +|+ +| +|s-+| ~| ||||+ |+ +
||+ | -|+| s -| +| |= :|- +r| +-| |:
|n= +| r =| <|| r |+ r| + ~|s-|| s s|+ |n| n|: : r
|+=| ~. += +| n-| +| |-|+| r| =+-| r |=+ =|| r| |+ s|+ +
|n| n|+ = rn = |n| n|+| ||r: n |++ rs ~+ ~| = r
z+ +| |- r -| s|+ :+ ~| < |: || + |-|+| | =
-|| |++ = + n = -+ |- + |=+ +=| sr|+ r| =-| +| ~|s| +|
r| + <|`
s|+ : + + :-- s|n = =n|-=| |- ||- | ~| =+| -||-| s|+
+|s = . + = + ~+| |: =+ r|s =+| --| r |=s =+
-| -|<| |n| |--| = r+ | r : = = r |+ r + ~z|
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 3
SEPTEMBER 2011
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ANALYSIS
S O C I A L
married, but had fathered at least three children from one girl-friend.
Many people loved and respected Mark. Two hundred of them
marched on the streets of Tottenham on 6 August, protesting his death.
Some of them may have cared enough to urge him to be a man, and to
marry the woman he loved. But, at the end of the day, such voices, if
they were raised, were drowned by the evil that dominates Hollywood,
glamorizes out-of-wedlock sex, and promotes a heroism that is not
heroic enough to love and serve ones own family.
The rioters were victims of a secular culture that teaches that the
poor have a right to demand the wealth of productive citizens: that a
democratic state exists to take from those who create wealth and distrib-
ute it to families whose fathers spend their time in night-clubs.
However, this entitlement culture of the poor is still not as damaging
as the entitlement culture of Americas super-rich. Toward the end of
July 2011, the US Government's Accountability Office submitted the
first ever top-to-bottom audit report that investigated how the Federal
Reserve has been using public funds. Its eye-popping report said that
the Fed had spent $16 trillion in secretly bailing out the wealthiest
banks and financial institutions of the capitalist world order. Why?
Because the managers, who get paid millions of dollars in salaries and
bonuses, keep sinking the institutions they are supposed to pilot. They
believe that they are entitled to be bailed out by honest tax payers
because they are too big to fail.
The London mobs and the captains of secular capitalism are
produced by the same entitlement culture. The difference is that Marks
loved ones did have a right to demand an inquiry into his death. They
had the right to expect that Britains law-enforcing agencies behave bet-
ter than Libyas and Syrias. A culture truly shaped by the Bible
required that all human authorities function under the authority of
Gods law that says, Thou shall not commit murder. The problem is
that a group that had gathered to demand the rule of law, started an orgy
of lawlessness themselves, because it had not internalized that spiritual
resource of British culture - the Bible. The riots suggest that some of
Marks loved ones may have been hardened gangsters who had neither
fear of nor respect for the law?
On 7 August, riots and looting spread to other areas of London as
the police stood and watched without interfering. Police inaction
encouraged looters to launch their assault on 8 August in cities such as
Birmingham, Liverpool, Nottingham, Bristol, Medway and Leicester.
By 9 August, when mobs began looting Manchester city centre and
Salford, Mark Duggans death was no longer an issue. The majority of
+||+ r|, n |++ =+ <|--| ~| < =| ||| = ~|+ |n = < -|| = r
n-| r |+ r +-||n| <|~| +| ||| =| r| =+-| r, |=+| = -|
~| -|| n <+ + < = =s r| = r|: =| n-| r |+ s|+ + |= +|+|
+r| |: r -||<|-| <| +r| |, n |++ =+| + n . + : |=s|+ |-=+ =
=+ +s = +s -|+ | :
= +: n| | s|+ = s +- ~| =+| :|- +- : +s
= <| =| + =+ s| |+ +| || +- r - ~-- +| | +rs s <-| +
|+|: r| =+-| r +s + z = =| r| |r| + = + + s
~|| ++ + |n =||r- |+| r| ~| +r| r| |+ |= ~|- = r
| +-| | == -||<| =| + : n |++ ~ - s =| ~||| , ~ |: :
| , -| r = < -| + <| |<| | r| n| : r|| r, | -||<| = |r
= -= +| ~|+ + +| + -| +-| r, | =| |r-s- +| || < -| r ,
|=s :-+| |r-s- +r| |+ ~+ || = s + ~| =+| = | +:
< |: = = + n = -+ |- + |-|+| | r |=|-| r |+ || +|
|<+-||n +||+| +| = <| +| s| ++ +|, =+ || ++ +|, r+ r
|+ |-| ||+ | :=|n ~|-- s ~|| |+ r + n|| = <|n-
n + + ||| s | |++ |-| ~+| =s +|:-n| s ||- r : ,
|| +| r ''||-| = -+ |-`` ~=| =| :-+| + +=|+<|+ +r| |-+| |+
~s |+| + sr|-~s|| +| ||-| = -+ |-: n|: :o:: + ~ - s ~s |+|
=+| + ~ +|||n| ~| |. += + ~+| rn| |-- - ~| |: || -| +|
|=s := |- +| n | | |+ ~s |+| + + | + . + :n || +
=| |++ +|-|| +| :-- s|n |+= -r |+|: =+| r|+ + < + |n| ||
+ ~+ =| . + :n || + ||<| |-+ -| + == ~s| +| ~|
|-|| = -|+| +| |+ + |n - = :-o :| n |+:
-| ` -| |+ |+ s + | +| -+|r ~| |+=| s n|| -+|:| :| n |sn-
r , + = +| +| :|- r |r r | n|+| |: ++| s|++| | |+
r ++| r+ r |+ : s|+<| +<|-| r | -| |+ r -| :-+ : r |+
+=| ~=+n r| r| +r| =+- :
n <+ +| =|: ~| = + n ||< + +-|+ + r| ||-| = -+ |- +
|< r: . ++ :-+| r |+ s|+ + | +| + |= =+| s|- +| | +|
s| ++ +| r+ |: ++ |= r ~|+| | |+ r | + +| +|+ +|
|=| = n||| ~| =||| + s +|n r- ~|| ++ +| ~|-|| :
+ = -+ |- |= =s |:n + ~|+| |<| r =+| r s| r|| |+
==| s|+| ||+| = : -| +|+ + + ~|+| + ~|+ +| + |
+r-| r |+ ''- r| + +:`` |<-+- r r |+ + =s r | r s| ++
+ |n :+;| r~| | |+ +|+ + +| -||=+ n| r|, < r| ~|+-| +| + |
+| ++ n|, -| |+ =+ | -|+| = -+ |- + r|+| = =|+ +| ~|s=|-
+r| |+| | ~| - |:n +|: < | = r -| n-| r |+ s|+ +
| +| s = n| =| -|||sn | s :| r - ~| |r + -| +|+ +
+| : | ~| + r| =+ |- =-s|+ +| =|+|`
=|- ~-- +|, < ~| n -| n <+ + < = :n|+| s =| + n :
The London mobs and the captains of secular capitalism
are produced by the same entitlement culture. The
difference is that Marks loved ones did have a right to
demand an inquiry into his death. They had the right to
expect that Britains law-enforcing agencies behave better
than Libyas and Syrias
n :m|m|r a|re nr1 m|1|: |mcr|1|||e |
1': T+ ;' '+ '+ + ' ' + 'a 1a+' ' +' ' 1 +' ' +
+ +' + 1' 1+ 'a m'T+' 1' '+ ' +' +' ' 'a' a
o''' m' a''' + +'o m'1' + +' m''' o
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 4
61
0a
|
2011 |ao:ot

a'''+
the rioters, coloured and white, who were mostly British born and
educated had become like Somali pirates.
The protests that turned into violent rioting was the outcome of a
secular education that has systematically destroyed the respect for
law, moral conscience, love of nation, and fear of God. The mass
criminality of the mobs exposes the foolishness of the cultural elite,
who thought that they could use education, media, and entertainment
to destroy the fear of God, along with biblical ideas of truth, morality,
conscience, self-government, love, marriage, family, personal respon-
sibility, social discipline, work, good neighbourliness, nation, and pa-
triotism, while, at the same time, retain liberties and social order that
foster economic growth.
By 13 August, police had arrested 2,275 people of whom more
than 1,000 have been charged. The riots took a toll of five lives. Three
men keeping watch outside their locked shops, were run down, when
a driver hit them at full speed and drove off.
Rioters knocked down a 20-year old college student for his
bicycle. With a touch of sadistic gentleness, they helped the bleeding
youth up on his feet, only to humiliate him by ransacking his backpack
for his phone and wallet.
A teenage girl explained the riots to a BBC correspondent: "We are
looting," she said, to tell the rich and the government that we can do
whatever we want. That young woman needs to be heard. She was in-
forming the world that Britains secular education has bred plenty of
women who are no different than Tunisias Faida Hamdi, whose
corruption resulted in Bouazizis self-immolation and the Arab Spring.
Admittedly, the riots are not Britains most pressing problem. They
only expose the folly that is destroying the West from within. Similar
riots are a recurring phenomenon in France. By the time the riots begin
in America, they will be much worse. After all, the UK has only about 2
million single-parent families. America has approximately 14 million.
Over 40% of American youth are growing up without their own
fathers. Officially, unemployment in America is just above 9 percent.
But in the nation's capital, Washington DC, unemployment among
black youth has reached 51 percent. The greater threat of social unrest,
however, comes from the rich, not from the poor. American riots are
likely to resemble Greeces rather than Britains.
The American government has just set up a 12-member Super-
Committee to help reduce government spending by $24 trillion over
the next decade. Its job is to dismantle the entitlement culture of the poor
that David Camerons government has been forced to undertake in UK.
Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, Italy are facing a similar need to
reduce the entitlements of those who have been taught that governments
exist to take care of them from the cradle to the grave. Reducing govern-
ment budgets will increase unemployment and reduce revenue.
America then will become like Greece, unable to pay for its domestic
and international obligations. In their self-interest, the creditors will
offer to bail out large and failing economic institutions, provided
hardworking taxpayers are forced to pay for the mismanagement of
American economy. That is what made the Greeks so furious.
Thankfully, the British government did not treat the rioters like
rats and cockroaches (Muammar Gaddafi). However, Anders
|+ |n= |+| <n |< = < -| r|: |n= +| |r| +| +s| + n |
+| ~| |=||r- |+| ~| s ~-- +| r| + |s |s, n| n, | -n,
s : ~| n|= - s ~+ rsn -| + |<: +| ~-- -+ =|: +
s + - |=| = ~| = n. +|: s n -| -| +| -| s|+ :+ +| s|-
+|: s | +r| r | |: ~|+- < |: , |r +|n | |, | + s <| ~|
|-|-|| | r n |++ ++| ~|| =|s||n| + =s | n | =| r| |:
|| <-| + | |< s |r= + < | s <n = = + n |-|-|| +| |||s
|=+ +|+ + + |n =-s|+, + |-+ | +, | + |n s ~| : - + =
+| : r| |-- = + + |<|: =|: +| |+ -| ~|||+
~|| =| -+ |-+ + n|+ +| s -| +| |n |n < -| r | r =s:|-| |
|+ r |-|-||, s||:| ~| s+| + +| :-- s|n +- r =, + |-+-|, | +,
--||=+, s, ||r, ||, |--- ||-s ||, =|s||+ ~+ -||=+,
+|s+|, ~z| : |=|+, < -|=|-- + |:n ~|||- ||| +| : - + =
=s - + |+| | =+-| r ~| |+ =| =| -- |-|~| ~| =|s||+ -|
+| +| | | =+-| r | ~|| + |+|= +| || < -| r| :
- r ~-- -+ |n= + :,:/s n|| +| |. +-| + |n| | |+s =
:,ooo ~|| - + |< : < | + | |+ n| : -|+ |-- | ~+|
< < +|+| +| |n| + r + + : |: + |: | | <| ~| . +|
r| |:
< |:| + + :o | +| n z|| +| =+| =|:+n = || |<|: |+
s|+| =+| | +| s|| n + |n| =|+-| |<|- r r| + = nrn r|+
+ +| |+ :| |+|, n |++ |=. + :=|n |+ =+ s = =+|
. +|+ ~| ~| | + = |+ = ~s||+- + :
+ |+-|| -| + ||=| + = |<<|-|~| +| < | + | s =s:|||
''rs :=|n n r r -||+ rs ~s|| ~| =+| +| r -| =+ |+ rs
| ++| |r- r + =+- r :`` = -| +| |- | ++ +| |- r:
r < |+| +| -| r| | |+ | + +| = + n |-|-|| + =| +: |-| +|
s |<| r | +||-|| +| . +|:<| r|-<| = ~n +r| r, |=+ = || +
|||s- ~||||| + ~|s<|r |+| ~| ~ = - +| -| ~|- r: :
r s|+ |n| |+| ||r |+ < | + +| == :| =s-| +r| r : r
+ n = s -| +| |n |n- r | |-s +| =|- = + + r| r: =
r| < . + | = s ~+= r|- r r : ~s |+| s r| -| r- r| r| :
~||+|, + s + n :o n| |= n || r (~|s-|
~|||r- s|rn|~| + +n ||;: ~s |+| s r = | n= :.+
+|: r: ~s |+| + | +| n= +o |--|- ~+ < + |-|~| +
|+| : | r| r| r: ~||+||+ -| , ~s |+| s |||| |--|- = + z
r| ~|+ r: n |++ || ||+| ||-| + :|=| s +|n |~| s ||||
s: |--|- r : r: n |++ =|s||+ ~-|| |- +| :| -| ~s|| = ~|-|
r, || = +r| : ~s |+| + < +|+ + < | = ~|+ r|+ +| ~|-| +| r,
| | + + :
~s |+| =+| + r|n r| s :: =<-| = -=s||- +| + |+| r
-||+ ~n <-|+ s =+|| +| :o = +o :| n +s |+| |
=+ : =+| +|s r |+ r || +| = ||-| = -+ |- +| -- + |=
: n : s :|: + s+ +| =+| n| ++ + |n s r: +|+, - |n,
~|n :, - +, :n| s =| + n|| |+ ||-| = -+ |- +| +s ++ +| |-
sr= = +| | r| r |r n-| r |+ =+| :=| |n r |+ |n+ = n +
+ -+ ++| |- | + : =+|| +| +s ++ = |||| |
~| ~|s<+| +s r||: ~s |+| |+ +|+ =| + ||, ~+| |n ~|
~ -|| ~<||| +| | ++ s ~=s : ~+ < + |r-| +| -|| +
|n +|<|-| : ~| ~=+n r|- |-|| = -|+| +| |+ + |n ~|
~| , -|- s r+-+-| +<|-|~| +| ~s |+| ~ -| + + + +|
+|s- ~<| ++ + |n s + |<| |: r| +|| | |+ +||+| s
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 5
SEPTEMBER 2011
|
62
FORWARD Press
ANALYSIS
S O C I A L
Vishal and Ruth Mangalwadi is the author of The Book That
Made Your World: How the Bible Created the Soul of Western Civilization
M I |J| |.T |I|J1+ I| +|-J .T| c |.T||+
I-v
Behring Breivik, did treat fellow-Norwegians exactly as
Gaddafi said they should be treated. Why did he do so?
Because Western universities have raised a whole
generation now that actually believes that human beings
are nothing but evolved cockroaches. What Breivik did as
an Individual, Germany did as a state, barely seven
decades ago, under its own Gaddafi - Adolf Hitler. But
racism is not an Aryan monopoly. The Syrian state is now
treating protestors as cockroaches. And, the Englishman
who drove into three shopkeepers in Britain, was black -
the shopkeepers were Asian. Race will become a menace
unless educating people includes teaching them to obey
Gods command, Love your neighbour as yourself.
LESSONS FOR INDIA
India, and other developing nations, must learn from the
Wests autumn. India is on an economic trajectory that can
take us to the very top of the global economic pyramid.
Yet, our economic success has already bred a very corrupt
nexus of politicians, bureaucrats, businessmen, and crimi-
nals on the one hand and a 100,000-strong battalion of
Maoist guerrillas on the other hand. These deadly
Naxalites already control thousands of square miles of
territory. Our urban gangs may be no different than the
British gangs, but our guerrillas are ideologically
motivated, trained and equipped for bigger battles. India
has plenty of neighbours who do not believe that God
commands them to love their neighbours as themselves.
They will gladly partner with our gangs and guerrillas.
Together they can create much greater havoc than Mark
Duggans loved ones.
The Wests decline must teach the developing world
the lesson that Moses taught a bunch of Hebrew slaves in
order to transform them into a mighty and prosperous
nation. He said that their wilderness experience was meant
to teach them that Man does not live on bread alone but
on every word that proceeds from the mouth of the Lord.
(Deuteronomy 8:3).
Europeans who went to colonize South America
were looking for gold. In contrast, Puritans who came to
North America were seeking God. North America ended
up with God as well as gold. America (and much of
Europe) is running out of gold now, because secularized
education has been teaching that gold (Lakshmi) was the
only god worth seeking. Its greed-driven economics has
bankrupted the Wests soul and stalled its progress. The
way to rebuild a better future is to follow Jesus exhorta-
tion, Seek first the kingdom of God and His
righteousness, then all these (material) things will be
added unto you. (BIBLE - Matthew 6:33)
:-+| | |- |:
-| + r | -|+| =+| + < |:| + =| '' r| ~| +| + || ``
+| -r r| +r| |+| ( =| |+ s ~-s |. +| + +r| |;:
n |++ := r| |+ + ~+ =|| +| ||=| + =| |+
=| r| r| |+| =| |. +| + +r| |: =+ =| -| |+|`
-| |+ |-s| |-||n + + =| | | | - | + <| r
| |-- s r |-|= +-| r |+ s+ |-- s |+|=-
+| + || = + + z =| +r| : |--- -| | + z |+ +
|+|, s|| =|- <-|+ rn s +| + + | + -| =| r|
~|| |+|, ~+ < + |. +| ~:| -. + |rn +
~|+: n |++ +-n|< +|: ~| |-| +r| r : =|||: | :=
=s <-| ++||| + =| +| + || +| -r r| r| + r| r :
~| |= : n :|=| + | + s -|+ < +|+<|| |: | | <| r
+|n| | ~| < +|+<| |-||: s n + : +-n + -| +
|| -|- n|| +| |-|-|| s : - +| := ~||| +| =| -|||sn
|+| |, ''~+ : |=| = ~+ =s|+ s +|:``

=|-, ~| < = |+|=- < -|| +| |-s + -:|: = =|+|
||r: =|- ~ -| +| =| |r r | = |-+
~|| + |||s: +| || n | =+-| r: n |++, rs||
~|| + =+n-| + + -. + |+ -|~| , ~. +=-||r| , ||-|
~| ~||| + + |+r|- r| = |: +| s |<| r -|
< =| -. + :,oo,ooo s|~||<| z||s|| +| = +| +|: r|||
s|n +| :n|+| rn = r| :+ s|+ +-=n||<| + |+ ||
s r: = = r rs| -|r| =| | -|+| ||r| = r| r| , n |++
rs| z||s| ||+ = |- r ~| :| n:|:| + |n
|-||-|- ~| n = =|: =|- = +: :||=| = ||| r | : -
+ := ~|< -| +| +r| s|+- |+ r ~+ :||=| = ~+ =s|+
s ++| r: r =| -||- -|| rs| ||r| ~| z||s|| + =|
r| |sn| : ~| |sn+ s|+ :+ + | +| +| - n+| s
r- :| -|r| n| =+- r :
|-s + -+ = |+|=-||n < -|| +| r| =+ =|+|
r|| | s =| + : |+| n|s| + + :| : +| |=|| | |==
|+ + -||---||n| ~| =s z | + =+ : r| + +r| | |+
|||+ s | ~+ = r| + |- |+| =+| s+=< | |+ r
r =| |- + |+ ''s+ + n || r| = ||- +r| r-|,
- + = + = ||- r-| r | r|| (: -; +
s = |++n-| r`` (-||| ss;:
||=| | <|-|| ~s |+| s |+ -| -||- ++
=|+ +| | s : :=+ ||-, |+ | -|| ~s |+| s ~|
: - +| | s : -|| ~s |+| s : - ~| =|+ <|+| +|
||- r : : ~s |+| (~| ~|+| -| |; s =|+| ~ s r| r|
r , -| |+ = + n|+ - |-|-|| r |=|-| r| r |+ =|+| (n-s|; r|
=| < -| r |=+| | +| |+| ||r: =+| n|n- |-
~ -| + |-s +| ~|s| +| |<||n| + |<| r ~|
=+| +|- s |-| <| + |<| r : r- =| + +|+s| |
+| s| |-| + := |=|r+ + ~+ =| = |- r||, ''- s rn
s - + | ~| =+| ||s +-| +| | s n r| -|
= -- - -r <| | |`` (|:n, s|-| -ss;:
Mangalwadi:Layout 1 8/27/2011 9:53 PM Page 6
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