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PROJECT REPORT

COURSE:-

Electronics-1

SECTION:-

BEE-3B

PROJECT:-

Automatic home light using Dark sensor

HOME AUTOMATIC LIGHT USING USING DARK SENSOR


INTRODUCTION:This is a circuit whose functionality is very important and useful now a days as we dont like to turn on the lights of porge ,gallery, at night. Than there is a solution which is this circuit which automayically detects the dark & will turn on the load whosever it is like lamps ,bulbs etc.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

MATERIALS/COMPONENTS:For the building of the dark sensor we used common electric components which are given below:-

1.Resistors:-

1k , 330( this resistor is for the sensitivity of the dark sensor, so we can change this resistor with other resistors to get the desired sensitivity(You can use a multimer to help you find the minimum and maximum values of the sensors resistance (Rmin and Rmax). There is no need to be precise, approximate values will do. Then choose resistor value: R = square root of (Rmin Rmax) Choose a standard value which is close to this calculated value. For example: An LDR: Rmin = 100R, Rmax = 1M, so R = square root of (100 1M) = 10K. .

2.Transistors:-

For the dark sensor we need general purpose transistors which are BC547(2 in number).The basic characteristics of the transistor BC547 is given below:-

NPN SILICON TRANSISTOR

3.LDR:We used LDR which means ight dependent resistance. Useually LDR has high resistance in dark & low resistance in the light.This functionality of the LDR makes us possible to build a dark sensor.

4.DC SOURCE:9V dc battery. 5.WIRES:Connecting wires & soldering wires.

6.RELAY:A 6V relay DC/AC operated (250V) 50/60 Hz.

7.OTHERS:Bread board. AC source,diode IN4001.

WORKING:Now the main part comes which will explain us how this little circuit performs this impressive work. Every component installed in the circuit has its role in the sensor function. When the light falls on the LDR its resistance becomes low , which enough voltage to the transistor to turn on but the transistors output voltage(Vo) is not enough to turn on the Q2 to which our light circuit is connected.Q2 power on state is essential for the glowing of the light. When we taked the circuit to the shaddy place light started glowing.How this happens? I will tell you how this is possible, as we all know the Voltage divider rule,so here in the circuit we are dealing with the two resistance one is for the sensitivity of the circuit & other is the LDR.
Suppose the LDR has a resistance of 100R in bright light, and 200K in the shade

Case I- 10K at the top and LDR at the bottom. IT SHOULD WORK AS DARK SENSOR, THAT MEANS, LED OFF IN LIGHT AND LED ON IN DARK. When LDR is in light, resistance of LDR - 100R. Vo= (0.1*9)/(10+0.1) = 0.0891V (NOT ENOUGH TO TURN ON THE TRANSISTOR) When the LDR is in shade, resistance of LDR- 200K Vo= (200*9)/(10+200)

= 8.57V (ENOUGH TO TURN ON THE TRANSISTOR) We can clearly see that the output voltage is large when the resistance of LDR is high.This voltage would enough for a transistor to turn on a LED. Hence, this circuit works as Automatic Dark sensor.

CONCLUSION & RESULT:Finally we succeded in building a circuit which automatically turns on the lights connected to it whether they are AC operated or Dc operated. Little modification for DC loads will be required , if we wants to use Dc loads.