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Natural numbers

The counting numbers 1, 2, 3 … are called natural numbers. The set of natural

numbers is denoted by N. N = {1, 2, 3, …}

Whole numbers

If we include zero to the set of natural numbers, then we get the set of whole numbers.

The set of whole numbers is denoted by W. W = {0, 1, 2, …} Integers
The collection of numbers … –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3 … is called integers. This
collection is denoted by Z, or I.
Z = {…, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}
Rational numbers
Rational numbers are those which can be expressed in the form
q p
, where p, q are
integers and q  0.
Example:
1
,
,
,
2
4 3
9 6
etc.
Note:
12
1.
15
12 15
 
5 4
, where the HCF of 4 and 5 is 1
12
and
15
3 3 5 4
are equivalent rational numbers (or fractions)
x 
Thus, every rational number ‘x ’can be expressed as
such that the HCF of a and b is 1 and b  0.
b a
, where a, b are integers
• 2. Every natural number is a rational number.

• 3. Every whole number is a rational number. [Since every whole number w can be expressed as

# w

• 1 ].

• 4. Every integer is a rational number.

# There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers.

Example: Find 5 rational numbers between 3 and 5

# 12

.

Solution:

3

3

3

9

9

6

54

8

8

3

24

24

6

144

5

5

2

10

10

6

60

12

12

2

24

24

6

144

It can be observed that:

54

55

56

57

58

59

60



144

144

144

144

144

144

144

3

55

7

19

29

59

5

 

8

144

18

48

72

144

12

# 59

5 rational numbers between 3 and

# 8 5
12
.
Irrational Numbers
Irrational numbers are those which cannot be expressed in the form p
q
, where p, q
are integers and q  0.
Example:
π,
2,
7,
14, 0.0202202220 ...
 There are infinitely many irrational numbers.
Note:  = 3.141592… is irrational. Its approximate value is assumed as
3.14, both of which are rational.
22
7
or as
Real Numbers

The collection of all rational numbers and irrational numbers is called real numbers. So, a real number is either rational or irrational. Note: Every real number can be represented by a unique point on the number line (and vice versa). So, the number line is also called the real number line. Example:
Locate
6 on the number line.
Solution:
It is seen that:
6 
5
2
1
2  To locate 6 on the number line, we first need to construct a length of # 5. 5 
2
2
1
By Pythagoras Theorem:  OB
2
OA
2
AB
2
2
2
1
2
4
 
1
5
OB
5
Steps:
(a)
Mark O at 0 and A at 2 on the number line, and then draw AB of unit length
perpendicular to OA. Then, by Pythagoras Theorem,OB  5
(b)
Construct BD of unit length perpendicular to OB. Thus, by Pythagoras
OD 
5
2
1  6
2
Theorem,
(c)
Using a compass with centre O and radius OD, draw an arc intersecting the
number line at point P.
6 .
Thus, P corresponds to the number
Real numbers and their decimal expansions:
The decimal expansion of a rational number is either terminating or non-terminating
recurring (repeating). Moreover, a number whose decimal expansion is terminating
or non-terminating repeating is rational.

Example:

 3  1.5 Terminating 2   15 Terminating 8  1.875   4 1.3 Non-terminating recurring 3  1.333  .......  24  1.846153846153  1.846153   Non-terminating recurring  13 Example:

Show that 1.23434 …. can be written in the form p

# q

, where p and q are integers

and q 0. Solution:

# 1

Here, two digits are repeating. Multiplying (1) by 100, we get: 100x = 123.43434………
=122.2 + 1.23434 ……
..
(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get:
99
x 
122.2
122.2
1222
 
x
99
990
611
495
611
Thus, 1.234
.
495
The decimal expansion of an irrational number is non-terminating non-recurring.
Moreover, a number whose decimal expansion is non-terminating non- recurring is
irrational.
Example:
2.645751311064……. is an irrational number
Representation of real numbers on the number line
Example: Visualize 3.32 on the number line, upto 4 decimal places.
Solution:
3.32
3.3232 ......
 3.3232
approximate upto 4 decimal place

Now, it is seen that 3 < 3.3232 < 4. Divide the gap between 3 and 4 on the number line into 10 equal parts and locate 3.3232 between 3.3 and 3.4 [as 3.3 < 3.3232 < 3.4]. To locate the given number between 3.3 and 3.4 more accurately, we divide this gap into 10 equal parts. It is seen that 3.32 < 3.3232 < 3.33. We continue the same procedure by dividing the gap between 3.32 and 3.33 into 10 equal parts. It is seen that 3.323 < 3.3232 < 3.324. Now, by dividing the gap between 3.323 and 3.324 into 10 equal parts, we can locate 3.3232.  Operation on real numbers
Some facts
(a)
The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always
irrational.
(b)
The product or quotient of a non-zero rational number with an irrational
number is always irrational.
(c)
If we add, subtract, multiply or divide two irrational numbers, then the result
may be rational or irrational.
Illustrations
2
2
3 is irrational
3
5 
2  0 is rational
2
15 is irrational
2  2 is rational
6
3
is irrational
2
 1
is rational

Identities If a and b are positive real numbers, then ab  a b
(a)
a
a
(b)
b
b  (c)
a  b
a 
a b
b a  b  a b
 a b
2
 
 
 
2
(d) (e)  a  b  c  d  ac  ad  bc  bd
a 
b  a  2 ab  b
2
(f) 
a
b
The denominator of
can be rationalised by multiplying both the
x 
y
x 
numerator and the denominator by
y , where a, b, x, y are integers.
The denominator of
a
c  d
b can be rationalised by multiplying both the
numerator and the denominator by c 
d , where a, b, c, d are integers.
Laws of exponents
a a  a
p
.
q
p  q
(a)
a
p
q
 a
pq
(b) 
p
 a
p  q
(c)
a a
q
ab  a b
p
p p
(d)
, where a > 0 is a real number and p, q are rational numbers.
Note:
1
x
a  a
x