CIPC 2003

Louis Mattar
Fekete Associates Inc “Analytical Solutions in Well Testing”

Well Test Equation

∂ P ∂ P 1 ∂P + 2 = 2 ∂y α ∂t ∂x
2 2

Solutions •Analytical •Semi-Analytical

•Numerical - Finite Difference •Numerical - Finite Element •Boundary Element? •Analytical Element?

Issues
•Complexity of Model / Solution •Inverse Problem •Diffusity

Issue • Complexity .

calculus) • Solution is continuous across domain.Definitions • Analytical Models solve the problem directly (transforms. . substitutions.

in order to deal with complex reservoir problems.Definitions • Numerical Simulation is the process of dividing the reservoir into discrete blocks. . having different reservoir properties.

j 1 P −P = α ∂t 1 n+ i.j .j 2 1 n+ 1 i+.j P + 1 n+ 1 i−.j −2P +P ∆ y 1 n+ i.Well Test Equations Analytical Vs Numerical ∂ P ∂ P 1 ∂P + 2 = 2 α ∂t ∂y ∂x 2 2 P 1 n+ 1 i−.j n i.j 2 1 n+ 1 i+.j −2P +P ∆ x 1 n+ i.

Numerical Vs Analytical .

•Analytical : -Whole reservoir -Single phase -Exact -Homogeneous * -Regular Boundaries** .

Irregular Shapes .

Irregular Boundaries .

Modified Analytical ElementsA k1 k3 k2 .

Rubik’s Cube (Integral Transforms) .

Advantages of Analytical Solutions • Better Understanding… • Cause and effect • Physics of the process •Groups that control response kh/qµ or k/φµc .

Numerical .

Complex Reservoir .Discretize Reservoir (1+ Million Cells) .•Numerical .Multiphase** .Heterogeneous .Computationally intensive .

Complexity? or Simplicity? .

Occam's Razor If you have two theories which both explain the observed facts then you should use the simplest until more evidence comes along .

in advance? •Often these reservoir complexities are only discovered through testing . •But how often. do we know these reservoir complexities.•Numerical Simulation may be justified when reservoir complexities are known. or how well.

Issue • Inverse Problem .

Inverse Problem Well test interpretation is essentially an Inverse problem. and in general. is better suited to Analytical Solutions .

“Direct” problem versus “Inverse” problem “Direct” Problem: 2 + 3 = ? Answer : 5 “Inverse” Problem: The Answer is 5. What are the two numbers ? .

Characteristics of Inverse Problems • non-unique solutions .

K2 K1 .

2-Boundaries or Composite? .

A good looking history match is not a good enough answer. x x x x x x .

The selected MODEL must be appropriate •Numerical models are too complex-too many Degrees of Freedom •Reservoir Complexities are often unknown a priory •Cannot see forest for trees .

Analytical models allow us to focus on the main issues Create a conceptual analysis. •Pattern recognition •Judgement •Consistency checks Much better than numerical simulator .

Issue • Diffusivity .

Diffusive Nature of PTA 7 8 2 5 9 3 6 9 2 4 7 1 2 1 8 9 8 5 4 4 7 6 3 6 1 5 3 .

Diffusive Nature of PTA Homogeneous 5.2 .

The question is. how much information is contained about the spatial distribution of permeability in the well-testing response in a heterogeneous formation? “Average” permeability in a region Not Permeability at a “fixed radius” .

without any discernible difference being evident in interference test” . 428 – 437) “It is possible to have a hole in the reservoir as large as half the distance between a production well and an observation well.Sageev and Horne (SPEFE 1988.

Obs Hole Well .

Linking Analytical & Numerical • Obtain Analytical Solution • Use geostatistical model to Generate Permeability Field • Populate Numerical Simulator Example • Naturally Fractured Reservoir • Determine Fractal Parameters • Generate Permeability Field .

.

Well Testing b) using a model to forecast future performance .Modeling can mean 2 things: a) Model recognition from a set of data .Numerical .

Conclusions: .

K eep I t S imple S tupid .

but not simpler .Einstein Everything should be made as simple as possible.

Mathematics: Great Servant (Analytical) •Terrible Master (Numerical) .

I would rather be vaguely right (Analytical) than precisely wrong (Numerical) .

where gas is not fluid of interest •Water cut matching .Justification for Numerical •Detailed Geological Description of “complex” reservoir geometry available in advance •Multi-phase fluid flow.

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