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1, Key Terms, Notes, and Reflection Key Terms Chap 3.4 The Market Revolution- The changes that occurred in the first half of the 19th century, in which people bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves. Free Enterprise- The economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production. Entrepreneurs- Businessmen from a French word that means “to undertake”, invested their own money in new industries. Samuel F. B. Morse- A New England artist, developed the telegraph in 1837. Lowell textile mills- Textile mills that mainly employed young women. Strike– Work stoppage to force an employer to respond to demands. Immigration- coming and settling in a country of which one is not a native. Great Potato Famine- In the mid-1800s, a blight on potatoes in Ireland that resulted in many deaths and increased immigration to America. National Trades' Union- The first national association of trade unions. Commonwealth v. Hunt- An 1842 case which the Supreme Court upheld workers right to strike. Chap 3.5 Second Great Awakening- a 19th century religious movement in which individual responsibility for seeking salvation was emphasized, along with the need for personal and social improvement. Unitarians- Member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in the individual. Ralph Waldo Emerson- New England minister, writer, and philosopher. Transcendentalism- Philosophy which emphasized that truth could be found in nature, intuition, and imagination. William Lloyd Garrison- The most radical white abolitionist, young editor. Frederick Douglass- Eager reader, born into slavery in 1817. Nat Turner- Slave in Virginia whom organized a rebellion. Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Ardent abolitionist. Seneca Falls convention- A womans rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. Sojourner Truth- African American women who fought to gain recognition of her problems. Chap 4.1 Sucession- The formal withdrawal of a state from the Union. Millard Fillmore- Taylor's successor, who supported the compromise. Underground Railroad- System of escape routes. Harriet Tubman- Slave & conductor of Underground Railroad. Harriet Beecher Stowe- Published Uncle Tom's Cabin which stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. Franklin Pierce- Democratic candidate. James Buchanan- Democratic nominee. Dred Scott- Slave who appealed to the Supreme Court for his freedom on grounds he lived in free state. Abraham Lincoln- Republican challenger. Jefferson Davis- Former senator elected as president. Summary / Notes
Chap 3.4 The period of time where people bought and sold goods rather than making it for themselves is called the Market Revolution. There was also a sudden boom in new inventions to be sold by entrepreneurs. While some inventions only made life more enjoyable, others pushed the economic revolution and transformed manufacturing, transportation and communication. An invention would be the telegraph, where messages can be sent across the country in less then a second, the steamboat and railroads. Thousands of works fled from the farms to the textiles. Most of these workers were young woman. The problem was that work conditions were literally like hell. Sixteen hours of work a day, conditions in where workers became sick, and often accidents involving death and machinery. Workers form unions and strike for better working conditions.
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The Second Great Awakening was a widespread movement to awaken religious sentiments. Preachers organized meetings to revive religious faith through impassioned preaching. A New England writer and philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson developed a philosophy called transcendentalism after visiting romantic ideals.
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The Unitarians was one of the growing religious groups. By the 1820s, many antislavery societies emerged and criticized slavery. There were both black and white abolitions in these societies. This was the paper that inspired people like Frederick Douglass and Nat Turner to become abolitionists and fight for the emancipation.
One of the most radical abolitionists was a young editor named William Lloyd Garrison.
Garrison established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an even more radical message: immediate emancipation.
Women barely had any rights. Women participated in all the important reform movements of the 19th century, which included improving rights for women.
That started many womens rights movements. The major one was called the Seneca Falls convention.
David Wilmot, added an amendment to a military appropriations bill that proposed that California, as well as the territories of Utah and New Mexico, would be closed to slavery forever.
The Northerners feared that adding slave territory would deny economic opportunity to free workers.
Southerners opposed the proviso because some believed it would raise complex constitutional issues and or swing the balance of power permanently towards the North.
California had grown quickly in population that made it create a new constitution to forbade slavery.
President Zachary Taylor, a slaveowner, actually supported the California's admission as a free state, because he believed the climate and terrain weren't suited for slaves.
Henry Clay shaped a compromise that both North and South would accept. The compromise was called the Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 included the following terms -California admitted as a free state -Utah and New Mexico territories decide about slavery -Texas-Mexico boundary dispute resolved, and Texas paid 10 million dollars by federal
government -The trading of enslaved persons is banned, but slavery is not, (in the District of Columbia) -Stricter fugitive slave law
Lincoln was elected president in May of 1846
Chap 3.4 Chapter 3.4 is basically what we have learned before, about factories, industrial or agricultural. They both had ways of making and spending money, but during this time period, it was called the Market Revolution. Not everything was based on agriculture or food anymore, this is where they expanded and made a lot more money. I think back then is way different from now, even with our markets because we import / export from a variety of places and have more advanced methods of transport / payment. They also made stuff like telegraphs, i cannot believe how they can use those pieces of pulse and beats as a language. I would like to see for a day how communicating using the telegraph would be useful, cause i highly doubt that. If they thought the rivers were crowded of steamboats, they should see the way our freeways are now. I thought it sucked when everybody had to get new jobs especially the women. It sucks that there are even wage cuts after that...
Chap 3.5 I personally do not agree with the great awakening or religion at all, because, well, i just hate religion and don't understand why people believe in a religion. I was glad in this section
where even whites started criticizing slavery, it must of ended soon. The slaves must of gotten a lot of support. I have read about Frederick Douglass in the past a few times, and am glad that i read about him again in this section. I almost forgot what he has done. Anti-slavery for the win. I am also glad that women can fight for their rights, and am surprised only a few American girls had formal education. I'm guessing that men were more brain smart than women. Don't know if it still is now.
I was surprised at the differences from the North and the South. I thought that it was only a money problem but it had slaves and job and economics issues. I found it interesting to see how fast California has grown after the gold rush, and i wonder how many conventions there were. I am glad the Compromise of 1850 was made, that settled both the North and Souths differences, because everything would be different today probably if it wasn't for that. Also, its great to learn about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad again.
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