Curtis Wong 013107 Concordia Chapter 9.

1 Vocab Progressive Movement – aimed to return control of the government to the people, restore economic opportunities, and correct injustices in American life. Florence Kelley – A newly divorced mother of three young children, moved into Jane Addams’s Hull House in Chicago. Prohibition - The banning of alcoholic beverages. Muckrakers – Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century. Scientific Management – the effort to improve efficiency in the workplace by applying scientific principles to make tasks simpler and easier. Robert M. La Follette - Under the leadership of Robert M~ La Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business. Initiative – Citizens could petition to place an initiative-a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers-on the ballot. Referendum – A vote on the initiative. Recall – Enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it. Seventeenth Amendment - An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1913, that provided for the election of U,S. Senators by the people rather than by state legislatures. Summary In the 1890s, middle-class reformers addressed many problems that contributed to the social upheavals. Journalists and writers exposed the unsafe conditions that the factory workers (woman and children) faced. Political reformers tried to make the government more responsive to the people. The reform efforts formed the progressive movement. The four goals of the progressive reform was to protect social welfare, promote moral improvement, create economic reform, and foster efficiency. There were many social problems of the new industrial age. In large cities, political bosses rewarded their supporters with jobs and kickbacks and openly brought votes with favors and bribes. Natural disasters also played a role in the reform of city government. A hurricane and tidal wave swept out the Gulf of Mexico and almost demolished a part of Texas. The politicians on the city council setup huge relief and rebuilding job so badly, that the Texas legislature appointed a five-member commision of experts to take over. Each expert took over a different city department. Another disaster led to widespread adoption of the council-manager form of government. In 1925, managers were administering nearly 250 cities. Mayer Hazen Pingree of Detroit, instituted a fairer tax structure, lowered fares for public transportation, and rooted out corruption. His city workers built schools, parks, and a municipal lighting plant. Detroit lowered gas rates and set up a system of work relief for unemployed people. Reflection In this chapter, I think that the people are really making a stand in the government, and the government is finally doing something about it, which is beneficial to the people. I think it is good that the government is making life easier for the common class, and thought that Hazen Pingree and Tom Johnson were great mayors of their time. I am sure there were a lot more middle class people that appreciated the changes than the government workers and business owners and factory owners.