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Multi-storey Car Parks, Parking Decks

Multi-storey Car Parks, Parking Decks Schreiber Stahlbau GmbH Düsseldorfer Straße 52-58 D-40712 Hilden Phone +49 (0)
Multi-storey Car Parks, Parking Decks Schreiber Stahlbau GmbH Düsseldorfer Straße 52-58 D-40712 Hilden Phone +49 (0)
Multi-storey Car Parks, Parking Decks Schreiber Stahlbau GmbH Düsseldorfer Straße 52-58 D-40712 Hilden Phone +49 (0)
Multi-storey Car Parks, Parking Decks Schreiber Stahlbau GmbH Düsseldorfer Straße 52-58 D-40712 Hilden Phone +49 (0)

Schreiber Stahlbau GmbH Düsseldorfer Straße 52-58 D-40712 Hilden

Phone +49 (0) 2103 5700-0 Fax +49 (0) 2103 5700-49 www.schreiberstahlbau.de

Contents

Our Services

p. 3

Architecture

p. 4

Façades

p. 5

Planning Details

p. 7

Traffic Flow/Ramp Arrangement

p. 7

I. Split Level Parking

p. 8

One-Way Traffic Flow

p. 8

Two-way traffic

p. 9

Separate Traffic Flow

p. 10

Mixed Traffic Flow

p. 10

II. Full Level Parking

p. 11

III. Parking Decks

p. 13

Reinforced Concrete Floors

p. 14

Fire Protection

p. 15

Corrosion Prevention

p. 15

References

p. 16

Advantages

p. 16

Costs

p. 16

Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New

Our Services

The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New parking space is needed everywhere.

Optimal Use of Space

Many expanding enterprises with growing need of space for employees, hospitals, shopping centres, office buildings, airports, park & ride facilities at stations, fair organizations and sports facili- ties want to expand, but fail because they can not provide the necessary parking space.

Efficiency

A site which is presently used as a parking space can be used as

building ground for a multi-storey car park, the stationary traffic would then be "stacked up" on multiple levels. Our steel construc- tion multi-storey car parks and parking decks offer an economical solution and meet all requirements.

Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New
Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New
Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New
Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New
Our Services The traffic volume in our cities and communities is constantly on the rise. New

Turnkey Solutions, Modular Concept

We use modular systems which means we offer only turnkey car parks, including all necessary planning services. This includes domestic services like electric installation, lighting installation, fire protection systems, lifts, barriers and cashier's office or gates. This means we can guarantee short construction times and low prices. Additionally to the examples shown here, you can find more pictu- res in “References”.

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Architecture

The appearance of a building is mainly determined by its façade. We mainly distinguish between two possibilities: The facing is placed in front of the steel façade or behind the steel façade, or between the framework supports.

Characteristic Style

If the building’s envelope is placed in front of the steel construction,

it dominates the appearance of the car park.

Transparency for more Lightness

If, for example, slender façade elements are placed behind or between the supports, the result is a visible optical structure of the

parking areas and parking decks. The car park will look light and friendly.

Architecture The appearance of a building is mainly determined by its façade. We mainly distinguish between
Architecture The appearance of a building is mainly determined by its façade. We mainly distinguish between

Variety of Materials

There is actually no limit when choosing the materials for the facing

or façade elements. The choice mainly depends on town planning factors and, of course, the planned costs.

Architecture The appearance of a building is mainly determined by its façade. We mainly distinguish between
Architecture The appearance of a building is mainly determined by its façade. We mainly distinguish between

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Façades

Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay

A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay visible – and thus also the framework. This has an important effect: The car park will not be seen as a dark, dangerous place which is only the last way out during the search for a parking space.

Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay

Safety and Confidence

Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay

An open and transparent façade, harmoniously integrated into the surroundings of the multi-storey car park, as well as spacious sto- reys and small building components, makes the car park user feels well here.

Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay
Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay
Façades A characteristic feature of our drive-in multi-storey car parks is that all building components stay

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Planning Details Traffic Flow/Ramp Arrangement The width of the ramps is worked out according to the

Planning Details

Traffic Flow/Ramp Arrangement

The width of the ramps is worked out according to the width of the parking spaces. For one-way traffic the ramp will have the width of two parking spaces, for two-way traffic it is the width of three parking spaces.

Split-level parking is our preferred ramp system, because it offers the possibility to decrease the ramp length whilst still offe- ring a normal degree of slope. This guarantees an economical use of the parking space.

Ramp Dimensions in Different Storey Heights:

Planning Details Traffic Flow/Ramp Arrangement The width of the ramps is worked out according to the

Split level

Planning Details Traffic Flow/Ramp Arrangement The width of the ramps is worked out according to the

Full level

Double ramps result in a two-way traffic system. This should only be preferred when there are extreme “rush hours” in a multi-storey car park, like in office car parks.

Using scissor ramps results in a one-way traffic system on the ramps (see illustration 1-A-I), though incoming and outgoing cars are directed along the same driving lane. The scissor ramps should have the width of two parking spaces for more user friendli- ness.

The longitudinal distance between bearers and girders will be determined according to the dimensions of the parking spaces. Normally, this distance corresponds to the width of two parking spaces.

The bearers will normally be positioned in the outer areas of the parking levels to ensure that they will not be in the way of the traf- fic flow or limit the pedestrian’s room to move – again, this will add to the user friendliness.

All parking levels have a slope of 1/60 of the span and will be drai- ned in direction of the external centre lines.

The stabilization of the building is guaranteed by the disc-shape concrete floors which guide their horizontal strength into vertically arranged bonds and into the fundament.

I. Split-level parking p. 8

One-way traffic flow p. 8 Two-way traffic flow p. 9 Seperate traffic direction p. 10 Mixed traffic direction p. 10

II. Full Level Parking

p. 11

III. Parking decks p. 13

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I. Split Level Parking

There are various possibilities concerning the traffic flow. You can see some examples in the following pictures. It should be mentio- ned that the representation of the traffic flow and the ramps refer to cars with left-hand drive in right-hand traffic. For left-hand traf- fic-operation this representation has to be mirrored accordingly.

One-Way Traffic Flow

Using scissor ramps will result in a one-way traffic flow on the ramps (see illustration 1-A-I), though incoming and outgoing cars are directed along the same driving lane. This is the usual con- struction.

Perspective: Picture 1-A-I

I. Split Level Parking There are various possibilities concerning the traffic flow. You can see some

Picture 2-A-I: Traffic flow via ramps.

I. Split Level Parking There are various possibilities concerning the traffic flow. You can see some

Further ground plan:

Picture 3-A-I

I. Split Level Parking There are various possibilities concerning the traffic flow. You can see some

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Two-way traffic

Two-way traffic Double ramps result in a two-way traffic system (see illustration 4-B-I). This should only

Double ramps result in a two-way traffic system (see illustration 4-B-I). This should only be preferred when there are extreme “rush hours” in a multi-storey car park, like in office car parks.

Perspective: Picture 4-B-I

Picture 5-B-I: Traffic flow via double ramps

Picture 5-B-I: Traffic flow via double ramps Further ground plans: Picture 6-B-I Picture 7-B-I
Picture 5-B-I: Traffic flow via double ramps Further ground plans: Picture 6-B-I Picture 7-B-I

Further ground plans:

Picture 6-B-I

Picture 7-B-I

Two-way traffic Double ramps result in a two-way traffic system (see illustration 4-B-I). This should only
Two-way traffic Double ramps result in a two-way traffic system (see illustration 4-B-I). This should only

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Separate Traffic Flow

In picture 8-C-I the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are separated. The number of parking spaces, along which the inco- ming cars are led, is high; the traffic flow is simple and clear.

Perspective: Picture 8-C-I

Separate Traffic Flow In picture 8-C-I the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are separated. The

Picture 9-C-I: Separate traffic flow with short approach

Separate Traffic Flow In picture 8-C-I the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are separated. The

Mixed Traffic Flow

The scheme in picture 10-D-I is suitable for a one-way traffic flow, as the traffic is led along all parking spaces. However, this kind of traffic flow can cause jams during rush hours, as the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are not separated.

Perspective: Picture 10-D-I

Separate Traffic Flow In picture 8-C-I the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are separated. The

Picture 11-D-I: Mixed traffic flow with short approach

Separate Traffic Flow In picture 8-C-I the lanes for incoming and outgoing cars are separated. The

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I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked

I. Full Level Parking

BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked up" in a distance of 2.80 m along the width or the length of the car park. The clear height is 2.52 m or 2.135 m directly under the gir- ders.

The basic grid (bearer-free area) corresponds -like in the split level arrangement- to two parking space depths (2x5 m) plus driving lane (6 m) which adds up to 16 m. The depth of the grid is deter- mined as 2 parking spaces (5 m). These grid elements of 5 x 16 m can be arranged any way.

I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked

Picture 12-I:

Ground plan example 1 with section

I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked

Picture 16-II:

Ground plan example 2

I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked
I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked

Picture 15-II:

Ground plan example 5

Picture 13-II:

Ground plan example 3 with section

I. Full Level Parking BIn a full level system the single parking levels will be "stacked

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Picture 14-II:

Ground plan example 4 with parking space arrangement

Picture-17-II: Grundrissbeispiel 6 mit Stellplatzanordnung 12

Picture-17-II:

Grundrissbeispiel 6 mit Stellplatzanordnung

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III. Parking Decks

The ground level parking areas of the parking decks and the multi- storey car parks are paved with interlocking pavers in the slope of the parking level(s). The draining of the parking decks is (with width up to 32 m) managed by gutter bearers in the external centre lines or in front of the ramps. With widths of over 32 m, additional cen- tral gutters with metal gratings will be integrated.

III. Parking Decks The ground level parking areas of the parking decks and the multi- storey

Picture 18-III: Ground plan example 1 with section

III. Parking Decks The ground level parking areas of the parking decks and the multi- storey

Picture 19-III: Ground plan example 2 with section

III. Parking Decks The ground level parking areas of the parking decks and the multi- storey

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Reinforced Concrete Floors

Reinforced concrete floors are preferably manufactured by means of the composite construction method with a break-mould form made of additive profile sheet metal, which also serves as tensile reinforcement for the concrete slab. This means that free spans for the floors = centre-to-centre distance of the supports of up to 5.80 m are possible.

The profile sheet metal is coated in a colour at choice. A special advantage of this construction method is the extreme rigidity together with low floor cross sections.

All concrete floors (parking levels) will have an all-over coating to prevent corrosive salts and chloride seeping into the concrete.

Other floors systems are possible at the customer’s request. However, we think that other systems have, in the long term, only disadvantages. If you use prefabricated building elements, composite floor girders have to be integrated in 2.50 m distances. A coating of the con- crete slabs may not necessary when using prefabricated building elements, however, there will be numerous joints which disturb the visual impression of the surface.

Reinforced Concrete Floors Reinforced concrete floors are preferably manufactured by means of the composite construction method

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Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground

Fire Protection

Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground multi-storey car parks according to German building regulations). A third of the external wall surface is always open, so hot smoke can evaporate quickly and is automati- cally replaced by fresh, cool air. This means that, in the case of a fire, the air temperature will not rise excessively and the critical steel temperature will not be reached.

Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground
Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground

Concrete Cover Construction Method for Compact Architecture

In contrast to open multi-storey car parks, the framework of closed

multi-storey car parks has to be protected against fires.

Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground

No Chance for Fire

Fire behaviour tests in multi-storey car parks proved that, even in the worst case, fire spreads only to the next car. Apart from that,

the rise in temperature in the area surrounding the fire was not enough to reduce the carrying capacity of the steel construction. This is due to the fact that modern cars do not contain much inflammable material except petrol, tyres and seat fabrics.

Concrete cover composite supports as fire protection in a deep basement This also applies to open car park levels under ground level which cannot be aerated sufficiently (1/3 of the external wall surface). These levels could be build in concrete cover construction method.

Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground
Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground

Corrosion Prevention

The corrosion prevention requirements should be determined according to the environmental conditions. The coating systems offer additional designing possibilities (choice of colour). We offer:

· Galvanizing with a layer thickness of 575 g/m 2

· Colour coating, i.e. surface preparation by abrasive blasting SA 2.5, zinc phosphate couch/precoating in the workshop, protection coating at the site by two component epoxy in colour at choice.

· Duplex system, i.e. galvanizing, primer in workshop, final coating at site, colour at choice.

Fire Protection Usually, additional fire protection is not required in our drive-in car parks (open overground

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References

The traffic volume in our cities and communities is on the rise. New parking space is constantly needed everywhere. Due to the shortage of space it is necessary for the stationary traffic to be “stacked up” on multiple levels.

Our multi-storey car parks in composite steel construction fulfil all requirements regarding construction costs, long-term efficiency and technical requirements.Various solutions regarding

the façade design offer architects the possibility to see the car park not as some less attractive commercial building, but as an important town planning element.

Lammerting Immobilien Gruppe, Köln

Multi-storey car park with 500 parking spaces

Architects: Hahn, Köln Year of construction: 2000

Egetürk GmbH & Co.KG, Köln

Multi-storey car park with 500 parking spaces

Architects: Büro Phillippson & Partner, Köln Year of construction: 2002

Canvas Bau + Objektmanagement, Speyer

Multi-storey car park with 350 parking spaces

Architects: Scheubert, Speyer Year of construction: 2001

CIV Versicherung, Hilden

Multi-storey car park with 200 parking spaces

Architects: Wallraf & Partner, Köln Year of construction: 1999

Stiftung Maria Hilf, Stadtlohn

Parking deck with 180 parking spaces

Architects: Reichert, Gronau Year of construction: 2002

Stadtwerke Mosbach, Mosbach

Multi-storey car park with 450 parking spaces

Architects: Wolf, Mosbach Year of construction: 2003

P&R Stadt Greven

Multi-storey car park with 180 parking spaces

Architects: Kantorski, Münster Year of construction: 2000

Kittelberger Immobilien OHG, Kaiserslautern

Multi-storey car park with 330 parking spaces

Architects: Büro Schenk, Pirmasens Year of construction: 1999

Marktkauf, Mönchengladbach

Parking deck with 630 parking spaces

Architects: Büro Otten, Mönchengladbach/Korchenbroich Year of construction: 2001

WBG, Nürnberg

Multi-storey car park with 125 parking spaces

Architects: Semmer-Rammensee-Dietz, Nürnberg Year of construction: 2003

Stadt Laatzen, Laatzen (b. Hannover)

Parking deck with 100 parking spaces

Architects: Horstmann & Renk, Laatzen Year of construction: 1999

Advantages

Here you see all advantages of our multi-storey car parks in steel composite construction in a summary:

economical user-friendly high sense of security for users short construction times 100 % recyclable expandable various uses esthetical design reusable long-span no supports slender framework means optimal use of space

Costs

The costs for our multi-storey car parks are determined by the following factors:

  • a. Topography, foundation soil

  • b. Ground plan and symmetry

  • c. Number of staircases and lifts

  • d. Façade design

  • e. Number of parking spaces

The costs for a standard multi-storey car park with 300 parking spaces, normal foundation and functional façade, are approxima- tely

4.000,-- Euro plus VAT per parking space.

The costs may vary depending on the general set-up.

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