Lesson One

A: Hello. I′ m Mike. Mike North. B: Hello. I′ m Jane Helier. A: Nice to meet you. B: Who are you? A: I′ m Mike North. B: Who is he ? A: He is my friend, Mr. Palmer. B: What is your job? A: I’m an officer. B: Where are you from? A: I am from Romania. And what about you? B: I am from Italy. Are you a police officer? A: No I’m not. I’m an SPP officer and my friend is a doctor. B: Do you know where the post-office is in this area? A: Yes, you go ahead, turn left and after that you may cross the street and finally you are in front of the Post-office. B: Oh, thank you. A: But it’s Sunday today and I’m afraid the Post-office is not open. You may try tomorrow. B: Bad luck! But anyway, I’ll go and see for myself. (….) B: You’re right. It’s closed. A: I’m sorry! B: Never mind. Thank you. Good bye! A: Good bye!

Vocabulary Hello,Hi!- colloquial English. Good Good Good Good morning= to 12.oo afternoon= 12.oo to18.oo evening = 18.00 to 24.00 night = when you go to bed Surname=North First name=Mike

Mike North


Grammar Focus TO BE Affirmative I am (I’m) You are (You’re) He is (He’s) She is (She’s) We are (We’re) You are (You’re) They are (They’re) Examples: Can you close the window please? I’m cold. I’m 32 years old. My sister is 29. My brother is a policeman.He is very tall. John is afraid of dogs. It’s 10 o’clock.You’re late again. Ann and I are very good friends. My shoes are very dirty. I must clean them. I’m tired but I’m not hungry. Tom isn’t interested in politics. Jane isn’t at home at the moment. She’s at work. Those people are not English.They’re Australian. Check your progress. Exercises I. Write the numbers: 1, 6, 9, 7, 2, 4, 3, 5,10, 8. Negative I am not (I’m not) You are not (You aren’t) He is not (He isn’t) She is not (She isn’t) We are not (We aren’t) You are not (You aren’t) They are not (They aren’t) Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Are we? Are you? Are they?

II. Write the full form (she is/we are/he is not etc) 1. We aren’t 2. I’m 3. You’re 4. They aren’t 5. It isn’t 6. She’s 7. I’m not 8. We’re III.Put in am/ is / are: 1.The weather ….very nice. 2.I ……not tired 3.This case….very heavy. 4.These cases …..very heavy. 5.The dog …. asleep. 6.Look! There….Carol. 7.I …..hot. Can you open the window please? 8.This castle ….one thousand years old. 9. My brother and I….good tennis players. 10. Ann….at home, but her children ….at school. 11. I…..a student. My sister….an architect. 5

IV. Write full sentences. Use am/is/are….. 1. (my shoes/very dirty) 2. (my bed/very comfortable) 3. (your cigarettes/in your bag) 4. (I/not nery happy today) 5. (this restaurant/very expensive) 6. (the shops/not open today) 7. (Mr. Kelly′ s daughter/six years old) 8. (The houses in the street/very old) 9. (the examination/not difficult) 10.(those flowers/very beautiful) V. Write positive or negative sentences.Use am/am not are etc) 1.(Paris/the capital of France) 2.(I/interested in football) 3.(I/hungry) 4.(It / warm) 5.(Rome /in Spain). 6.(I /afraid of dogs) 7.(My hands/cold) 8.(Canada/a very big country) 9.(The Amazon/in Africa) 10.(diamonds/cheap) 11.(motor racing / a dangerous sport) 12.(cats /big animals) Grammar focus: Interrogative Examples: Is your mother at home? No she’s out. Is it cold in your room? Yes,a little. Those shoes are nice. Are they new? Are books expensive in your country? How old is Joe? He’s 24. What colour is your car? It’s blue. Where are you from? Canada. How much are these postcards?They’re 40 pence each. Short answers: Are you tired? Yes I am. Are you hungry? No,I am not,but I’m thirsty. Is he English? Yes he is. Is this seat free? Yes it is. Am I late?No you aren’t. VI. Make up questions with the words in brackets.Use am/is /are. 1.(your mother at home?) 2.(your parents at home?) 3.(this hotel/expensive?) 6

4.(you interested in art?) 5.(the shops open today?) 6.(the park open today?) VII. Write questions with :What/Who/How /Where/Why…..am/is/are. 1.What colour your car? 2.Where my key? 3.Where my socks? 4.How old your father? 5.What colour his eyes? 6.Why John angry with me? 7.How much these shoes? 8.Who your favourite actor? 9.Why you always late?


Lesson two

I.VOCABULARY 1. When you drive to the airport you see … 2. First you enter the ….. 3. When you want to fly you have to buy a … 4. You can buy your ticket at the … 5. Planes land and start on a …. 6. The people who work in the plane are called the … 7. The pilot in charge of a plane is also called the … 8. When you are going to fly you are one of the …. 9. Looking after the passengers is a task of the … 10. When a plane touches the runway we call that the …. 11. When a plane departs we say … 12. Another word for the start of the plane is the … 13. In a plane you sit in …. 14. When the plane takes off you have to … 15. Before you enter another country you must pass through the … 16. When somebody captures a plane we call it …. 17 The man who does so is a … 18. When a plane is out of control and hits the ground we speak of a … 19. To find his way in bad weather the pilot uses … 20. Aviation is the term for … the airport buildings departure lounge ticket booking office runway crew captain passengers air hostess landing the plane takes off take-off seats fasten your seat-belts customs hijacking hijacker crash radio and radar everything to do with the flying of aircraft.

II. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT LONDON AIRPORT British Airways brings you to Heathrow, London’s main airport. Heathrow handles more international flights than any other airport in the world, so that its passenger arrangements have to be good. Terminal 3, where intercontinental travellers arrive and depart, has been much enlarged to meet the big-jet era, inaugurated by the Boeing 747. 8

Down a flight of stairs marked by your flight number is your baggage reclaim unit. The customs clearance area is close at hand, and you must decide on the red or green channel. Red means you have something to declare, and your baggage will be inspected. Green means nothing to declare, and the customs men make only random checks. You will probably be able to manage your luggage yourself, with the help of a trolley. Porters are recognizable by their blue uniforms with reds lapel. Once through customs you are in the Arrivals Concourse, with bar, cafeteria, toilets, currency exchange facilities and the desks of two car-hire firms. The answer to every problem is to be found at the Information Desks of British Airways and the Airport Authority. If you want to announce your arrival to friends who have missed you for some reason, the public address system is at your disposal. III.HOME READING BRITISH AIRWAYS INTERCONTINENTAL TIMETABLE 1 January – 31 March 1979 PASSENGER INFORMATION Reservations. Airlines make every effort to provide seats for which reservations have been made. Nevertheless, no absolute guarantee of seat availability is denoted by the expressions “reservations” and “bookings” and the timings attached to them. Your fare includes. On British Airways services your fare includes all meals and gratuities in flight and on the ground from the departure of the aircraft until arrival at the airport of destination shown on the flight coupon of your ticket. Stopovers. In most cases, you may break your journey at one or more places en route, and retain the benefit of the through fare, provided notice is given at the time of reservation. Hotel expenses at each stopover will be your responsibility. Validity. Tickets issued at normal one way, round or circle trip fares are valid for one year. Reduced fares. Group travel offers big reductions for members of an organization travelling together. Full details on request. Health regulations. Valid certificates of inoculation and/or vaccination, issued on a special international form, are definitely required by most countries. Portable electronic equipment. Please do not switch on portable radio receivers, transmitters or television sets whilst on board as they can cause serious interference with the aircraft radio navigation equipment. Portable recorders, hearing aids, and heart pace-makers may be used on board. Punctuality. While every effort is made to ensure the punctuality of our services, British Airways cannot accept responsibility for the delay or suspension of a service, nor guarantes that connections will be made with other services. 9

the British and French railway authorities are considering a plan to build a tunnel under the English Channel. New prospects for a channel tunnel Britain is an Island which. freight transportation would be speeded up by 12 hours and costs cut considerably. For further details please see our booklet “Before You Take-Off”. Pack all you need during flight in a small cabin bag. but so far the astronomical cost ofd such a project has always ruled it out. which is understandable in view of the previous history of Channel tunnel plans. A tunnel under the Channel. All other articles should be packed in registered baggage. in the 20th century. Dozens of boats. instead of the present 7 hours with two changes for the boat journey. The departure time shown in this timetable and on your ticket-coupon is the scheduled take-off time.). at its narrowest point – a distance of 21 miles – between the English port of Dover and Cap Gris Nez near Calais on the French side. the authorities are reticent about the project. 10 . On Economy Class services it is 20 kilos (44 lb. BBC World Service looked at the latest developments: Once again. to a large extent depends on its links with the continent of Europe. Excess charges. Carry your passport and health certificates with you. About 120 trains a day could whizz through the Chunnel in 40 minutes. On First Class services the free baggage allowance is 30 kilos (66 lb).Baggage free allowance. Albert Matthieu. în 1802. Do not pack them. but with the growing demands on their capacity by trade and tourism. If you hold a return reservation. (or a Chunnel as the project has often been dubbed) would mean a train journey from London to Paris in about 4 hours. it is not surprising that the old dream of a tunnel under the Channel has once more been revived. while the British Rail chairman has been quoted talking about the “physical and spiritual commitment to Europe” that the Chunnel would represent. Travel advice. an aristocratic coach-and-four is proceeding along a candle-lit corridor under the sea. Even now. Your departure. A tunnel under the sea that would enable you to walk from England to France has in fact been dreamed and talked about for 176 years: in a drawing by the French engineer. such as jewellery. All the arguments in favour of closer links to the Continent have been mulled over many times before. Baggage in excess of the free allowance is normally changed at 1% of the First Class single fare per kilo. ferries and hydrofoils going back and forth across the English Channel form these links at the moment. personally. Carry any valuables. In your own interest you should plan to arrive at the town terminal or airport in good time as this will help to ensure that your aircraft operates on schedule. The check-in time at the airport or town terminal shown on your ticket-cover allows minimum time to complete all the formalities. it is necessary to reconfirm your intention to travel with the local Reservations Office of the Carrier at least 72 hours before departure. Reconfirmations – cancellations.

The following year the British and French governments agreed to go ahead. And whereas the previous plans were for a tunnel physically dug under the seabed. 3. 2. the plans for a Channel tunnel would have to be abandoned.(3) pulled up as the plane lifts off and gets into flight position.the reduced speed………(5) a change in the sound of the engine. but now there is a new interest in the project coming from other sources.You can put your suitcases on a ……….(2)of travelling..000 million. elections held up decisions and governments changed. II.This is the ticket which shows you the seat number on the plane.and take it around the airport.(8) the button.In the 1860s the Channel Tunnel company was founded. due to the economic crisis. In the past the Channel tunnel has always been thought about and planned by the British and French only.cigarettes or perfume for a smaller price at the……… . Exercises: I. White Paper proposing a Channel tunnel.does. 5. Chech in Customs Passport Control Fill in the sentences below using the following signs you can see in on airport Duty free baggage collection Car park Trolley Boarding pass:window 22 Departure lounge 1.People wait for their plane in the ………. doubts and rising costs – began in 1963 with a British Government.Tourists can buy wine spirits.into.causes.as it prepares to land.. 4. The officers sometimes ask you to open your suitcases when you are in……… 8.In the same way. pressing heard . you find your suitcases at the………. This is where you give your luggage in before the flight:………. it requires greater power than it………(4) while cruising.When waiting for a flight. in the 1880s digging actually began. The last serious attempt to get such a project under way – a 12 year saga of agreements. When you get off the plane. . 7. the plan now is to sink a concrete tube on to the bottom of the Channel. up Taking ……….(1) account the fact that you may be feeling a little nervous during the flight we would like to remind you that flying today is the safest……. and both governments turned to private constructors and investors for practical proposals. But while committees studied the proposals. Fill in the blanks in the following excerpt using these words:being.While the plane is taking off.(7) when passengers ring for one of the cabin crew. work had already started both at Dover and on the French side.way ...During the flight you may call the air hostess by ……….This bell is also ………. including a new rail link from London to the mouth of the tunnel.. 6. a bell rings. but up to the 1950s it was the question of security that prevented the competion of any plans. you can park your car in the………… .(6). When the “Fasten your seat belts” and “No smoking” sign light………. 11 .The noise you hear immediately after taking off is the sound of the landung gear ………. .. inflation pushed the building costs up and up from the original ₤120 million to a crippling ₤2. When the British Government announced in early 1975 that.

The guard waves his flag and blows his whistle. All kinds of trains are passing through the station: passenger trains – express. They pass through the gates onto the platform and the ticket-collector examines their tickets. The clauses in the second column are a sequel to the ones in the first column.9. the public address system announces that our friends′ train is in. The train moves slowly out of the station. As it is rather early. Lesson three AT THE RAILWAY STATION Here we are at the railway station. Next door to the waiting-room is the refreshment room. there is a gate at the end of each platform. The ticket-collector stands at the gate and checks the travellers′ tickets). inquiry office. so 3. There is no need for us to queue up at the booking office now There is a dining-car on your train 12 . They have booked their tickets in advance. The porters are busy carrying the luggage to the trains or pushing it on their trolleys. followed by passengers′ carriages of the first and second class. The travellers wave good-bye to the people who have come to see them off. Finally. Immediately behind the engine are the front luggage van and the guard′ s van. As they walk along the platform they pass the book-stall where people are buying newspapers and magazines to read during the journey. FLUENCY PRACTICE A. Match them: 1. After a while. left-luggage and parcels offices. they have to wait in the waiting-room.. so there′ s no need for them to gueue up at the booking office now. The train is off.goods trains. They put their bags on the luggage-rack and open the window. with smoking and non-smoking compartments. where The ticket-collector stands and checks the travellers′ tickets. so 2. Our friends are going away for their holidays. The large hand of the station clock points to 20 minutes. Your train has not arrived yet. fast or slow . (In British railway stations. This is where you show the visa on your passport………. and there are other notices over the entrances to offices and rooms: station master′ s office. The train also has a dining-car and a sleeper with upper and lower berths. they find their compartment – a second-class non-smoker. and their train has not arrived yet. local and long-distance trains. In Britain there is a gate at the end of each platform. We have booked our tickets in advance.

. You are going to travel by train. 8. . 6. 11.in the refreshment room. linking the main centres of Great Britain. a carriage where you can eat during the journey. 1.in the train. 3. the place where you put your luggage. the place where you can get information about departures and arrivals of trains.in the waiting-room.The travellers wave good-bye to the people who have come to see them off 5. 2. a place where trains stop. .on the platform. As the train moves slowly out of the The train is off station 4. . 2. The guard waves his flag and you′ ll have to wait in the waitingblows his whistle and room 6. You needn′ t take any food with you. C′ The railway passneger routes in Britain comprise a fast inter-city network. . Say what you do: . You have suddenly decided to go to Timişoara for a few days. the bags and suitcases a traveller takes with him. 5. Now you are at the North Station.inside the plane. 12. car etc.at the inquiry office. . 7. 9. a place where travel-tickets are sold.at the book-stall. especially London and south-east England. . 14. 13 . . 10. 13. the place where you sit in a compartment.in the compartment. planes. Tell the others what you do: . local stopping services.ar the booking-office. You come back by plane. the place from which people get on a train. a compartment reserved for people who don′ t smoke. and commuter services in and around the large conurbation. C. Give the name of the following: 1.) from one place to another. straps fastened to the sides of a seat in an aircraft. the person responsible for passengers′ comfort during air travel. a trip by train (bus. the place in airports where luggage is checked before being taken to the plane. the money paid for extra luggage when travelling by air. ships. as B.at the airport. 4.

Here you are. Which platform for the…. Make up dialogues using some of the following: Where is the booking office ? First class or second class ? Second class return to….a goods train.a book/stall. a passenger train . thank you.. please ? First train out from Platform three. a flight coupon – a flight number. E. Imagine your dialogue with the clerk and the people who want to buy tickets for later trains. F. Porter : You′ ll have to hurry up. 2. 4.D. 3.to arrive. Your train is due out in ten minutes and you are still queuing up at the booking office. 14 .to fly. trying to get some sleep and your neighbour is singing. 7. a suitcase – a trunk. 2. The clerk ar the inquiry office doesn′ t hear what you′ re saying. a fast train – a slow train. 6. a travel agency – a booking office. 4. an airport – an airfield. 5. 10.to take off. The air in the compartment is stuffy. G. You have to take the plane although you′ ve never flown before. . Make nouns from these verbs: – to land. The train is due out in ten minutes. You think of possible ways of making him stop. a suitcase – a briefcase. .. .to depart. What′ s the difference between: 1. . They can′ t find your luggage at the left-luggage office and bring bags of every possible description. . please. Have you got seat reservations ? Is it a through train ? See if you can find me a non-smoker. Describe your journey. 5. will you ? Can I put this case on the rack for you ? Oh. You don′ t understand her either. I′ ll get a porter. a bookshop .train. Your dialogue with the clerk. You try to persuade your fellowpassengers to open the window. You are sitting in the waiting-room. 9. You′ ve missed the train to Cluj-Napoca.to start. Act out the following situations: 1. 8. 3. a smoker – a non-smoker. 6. a left-luggage office – a parcels office.

Situated near an airport. Holiday village: 10. Other types of moderately priced accommodation. Lesson four STAYING AT A HOTEL I. A hotel offering medical treatment. Single room: 2.g. With parking and other services for motorists. Let′ s go to the restaurant car. Clientele mainly consist of airline staff and people travelling by air who only stay for one night. 5. normally with sleeping and breakfast facilities only. Motor hotel: 2. Normally with a first-class restaurant. Airport hotel: 6.VOCABULARY A. Congress hotel: 7. Can be used as a single or as a twin. Normally situated at a tourist resort e. Clientele mainly consist of people on holiday who stay a longer period than a couple of nights only. by the sea or in the mountains. Double room: 3. A number of small individual cottages or bungalows normally with cooking facilities. Hostel: 11.Hotel types: 1. Summer hotel: 9. Motel: 3. audiovisual equipment and banquet rooms for large and small groups. Resort hotel: A hotel with parking facilities and other services for motorists. a youth hostel: B. A room with one bed a convertible sofa. An inn (Br. Health spa: 8. Normally situated in the town centre. Studio room: 5.) a motor lodge. A room with two single beds for two persons. With a restaurant or cooking facilities. Modest.We′ re off. Normally situated on a highway. Suite: A room occupied by one person A room with one large bed for two persons. In operation only during the summer months. moderately priced. Room types 1. Clientele mainly consist of travelling businessmen who stay for a couple of nights only. Often used as a student dormitory during winter time. Commercial hotel: 4. Twin room: 4. physical exercise and other recreational facilities. 15 . A hotel with meeting and exhibition facilities. A sitting room connected to one or more bedrooms.

etc. 15. Room services: Breakfast: Cleaning: Dry-cleaning: Breakfast is served in your room from 7 a. Sauna attendant: Is in charge of the sauna section 16.m.6. Items handed in for dry-cleaning before 9 a. If you to have your room cleaned extra quickly. will be returned in the course of the same day. Two or more rooms side by side with a connecting door between them Takes care of registration. Connection rooms: 10. Sometimes also exchanges foreign currency. Doorman: 9. Night clerk: 6. A room used for entertaining (cocktail parties etc. Adjoining rooms: C. till 10 a. 13. Front office cashier: 5. Takes care of customers′ coats. 7. ask for Room Service on the phone. delivers messages and mail and carries luggage. Maintenance Takes care of the technical equipment in a hotel man: II. decorations and general cleanliness of the hotel. You can move from one room to another without going to the corridor. Two or more rooms with private. Carries customers′ luggage. Telephone Connects the outgoing and incoming calls. Takes care of the reception area during the night shift. please hang the Cleaning sign on the door. Lift boy: Is responsible for the lifts 12. Cloakroom attendant: 10. Receives guests. Housekeeper: Is in charge of linen. Bellboy: A two-storey suite connected by a staircase. opens the door.) A room used for showing merchandise. Hands out the keys and gives information to the guests about various hotel services. 14. Please 16 . Is responsible for the accounts and billing. orders taxi-cabs. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT Hotel services A. Room clerk/ 3. connecting doors. Floor attendant: Is responsible for the cleanliness and often also room service of a special floor. Key clerk 4. Duplex: 7. Hotel staff: 1. Shows customers to their rooms. If you wish to have breakfast in your room. hats etc. Fuction room: 8. in some hotels also receives room reservations and keeps them up to date.m. Porter: 8. Display room: 9. switchboard operator: 11.m. Room maid: Cleans the guest rooms. Reception clerk/ Receptionist: 2.

please hang the Do Not Disturb sign on your door. kindly notify Reception before 10 a. The panel at the head of your bed contains an automatic waking device.Early call: Electricity: Ironing: Laundry: Quiet: B. A safe-deposit box is avaiable free of charge. Please contact Information if you wish us to take care of your car.m. Set meals for guests are: Breakfast: 7 a. What is a hotel ? Can you name some types of hotels ? 2.30 a. Telexes are dealt with by Information. There is a 220 volt and 110 volt shaving plug in the bathroom of your room. See Cold Drinks The hotel performs numerous services for its guests. Special laundry bags with lists are placed in your wardrobe.m. Open weekdays: 12 noon-1 a. Deposits: Garage: Ice: Information: Restaurant: Shoeshine service: Souvenirs: Telex: III. The articles exhibited in the show cases may be purchased through Reception. Washing handed in by 9. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 1. The hotel accepts Eurocard as well as American Express.m. Sundays 1 p. on the same day. Lunch: 12 noon – 2 p. See corridor signs. sight-seeing.m. The hotel assumes no responsibility for money or valuables left in any of the rooms. Located in the basement. On each floor there are automatic drink and ice dispensers.m.m. The rooms are at your disposal until 12 noon on the day of your departure. Information will be pleased to supply you with full details.30 p. Please call Room Service.m. (Brasserie) On the ground floor.m. – 10. Should you require your room after that hour.30 p. Please contact Reception.m. There is a free shining machine on every floor.30 a. Dinner: 6. See corridor signs.m. Other services: Cold drinks: Conference facilities: Credit cards: Departure: call Room Service.m. – 8. you can obtain travel. Just lift your phone and ask for Information.30 p. – 1 a. If you wish to remain undisturbed. Where are motels usually situated ? 17 . For instance. theatre and cinema tickets through Information. will be returned to you after 5.

What room services may a hotel offer ? 24. night club. What facilities are generally avaible in a big hotel ? What are these for ? Swimming-pool: Restaurant. What services do they offer tourists ? Hotel Office. .central heating. Rooms overlooking the sea/park. Double rooms. .laundry service. What is a function room used for ? 13. 4. Rooms with bath/shower. Why must you plan your holiday carefully ? What must you do in order to have a successful holiday ? Not waste valuable time. Who is responsible for the lifts ? 21. When is a summer hotel in operation ? 7. What does the room maid do ? 22. 28. Rooms looking out on the town/mountains. Who takes care of the technical equipment in a hotel ? 23. etc. Bar. What is the difference between connecting and adjoining rooms ? 14. What is a holiday village made up of ? 8.telephone. Who hands out the keys to guests ? 18. Book accommodation in advance. Which of the following conveniences do you consider most important in a hotel ? Name them in the order of their importance. What types of rooms can be found in a hotel ? 10. Souvenir Shop. You can find some of the following in the lobbies of big hotels. What king of rooms do you usually book in a hotel ? Single rooms. What other services are available to the hotel guests ? 25. Who takes care of customers′ coats ? 20. Service Bureau.Who is the clientele of resort hotels ? What kinds of facilities does a congress hotel have ? 5. What are the responsabilities of a bellboy ? 19. 26. What does a concierge do ? 17. Not spend too much money. Tennis-court. Newsstand. What rooms are there in a suite ? 12. . -air-conditioning. Stationery Information Desk.cold and hot. Find accommodation. Who uses youth hotels ? 9. .lift: . . What is the role of display rooms ? 15. parking space. What services does a health spa offer ? 6. 29. Suites. TV lounge. Who takes care of registration in a hotel ? 16. What does a studio room contain ? 11. Running water. 18 3. Garage. 27.

It′ s on the top floor. Receptionist: All right. I can offer you a room on the sixth floor. First name. Receptionist: Have you booked a room ? Visitor: No. Good evening.. Now. sir. CONVERSATION PRACTICE A. Visitor: Good. Dialogue: AT A HOTEL Receptionist: Good evening sir. Fill in an arrival card/form. Visitor: Has it got a private bathroom ? Receptionist: No. Receptionist: Will you sign the register. 31. Can I help you ? 19 Visitor: 1………. Receptionist: I′ ll see what we have. sir ? Visitor: Partly business and partly pleasure. What is the procedure of signing out ? IV. Can I help you ? Visitor: Good evening. Nationality Identity card/Passport No. . What are people requested to do on arriving at a hotel ? Register at the hotel. Sign in. Visitor: Well. please. Oh. Are you here on business. Receptionist: Single or double ? Visitor: Single. Barber′ s 30. All I want is a quiet room away from the noise of traffic. I′ d like a room for two nights. B.(Currency) Exchange Hairdresser′ s. Permanent address. please. I′ ll have it. What would you write at each of the following ? Surname. Desk.. sir. and it overlooks a back street. I′ m afraid not. We are quite full at present. Purpose of visit. let me see – yes. I′ d like to be called in the morning at seven o′ clock. I don′ t sleep very well. Complete the following dialogue with the visitor′ s replies: Receptionist: 1. Receptionist: This room is very quiet. sir. it hasn′ t but there is a bathtoom down the hall. I don′ t think I really need a private bathroom. Visitor: What about my luggage ? Receptionist: The porter will take your case up immediately. Post-office. sir. I didn′ t know I would be coming until this morning. Room 623. Date and place of birth: Signature: 32.

3………. Please……………………. 3. 7. this room is very quiet. I′ m afraid not. please ? 2…………. …………………………. 6.. 5…….. 4……………. Please…………………………. REGISTRATION FORM Please use block letters ANNOUNCEMENT OF ARRIVAL for police authorities Surname……………………. Duration of stay…………………………….? 5. First name………………………… Address in native country……………………….. My first name is……………………………………. 5. It′ s on the top floor. I can offer you a single room without a bath. room 623.. Yes. 2. ……………………………………………………………………. Date of departure…………………….. Passport No…………………………………… Where and when issued……………………….the date of your arrival. Where was your passport………………………….is my surname . Please…………………. No..2. When were you…………………………………? 9..this form.madam ? 4. sir. The ………………will take your……. What is your …………………. 10. Signature……………………… 20 .. using the registration form to help you. Date and place of arrival in country…………………… Occupation……………………. C... Have you booked a room ? 4. 6. sir. Single or double ? 3. I′ ll see what we have.at the reception desk over there. 7. D. Do you have British……………………….in your home country ? 8. Will you sign the register. 6……… 7……. Name and address of hotel……………………………………. Date of arrival at hotel………………… Where from ?……………………. Practise a similar conversation between the receptionist and a guest..to your room. Where to ?…………………………… Date and place of birth…………………………… Citizenship……………………………………. …………………………………………………………………… Room No……………………………………………………. Fill in the missing words: 1.

An important guest has just arrived and asks you about your hotel. a room with one large bed for two persons. a newsstand – a stationery. . 13. 4. signing in – signing out. but several of them are out-of-order. 8. . 6. Name the following: 1. It′ s two o′ clock in the morning. What is the difference between: 1. Services available in big hotels. a hotel – a motel – a hostel: 2. you write your name. the place where you can deposit your valuables. 5. You have stayed in an excellent hotel. 7. a hotel for airline staff and people travelling by air. 10. 4. Complain to the hotel manager about it. 11. address and nationality in it. 7. booking a room – cancelling a room F. a place where hotel guests can meet visitors and friends.single guests. a suite – a duplex. where all the staff have tried to be very helpful but they have only got on your nerves. Rooms suitable for: . 3. You are now signing out and talking to the reception clerk. the person in charge of the sauna section. You are the hotel manager. Types of hotels in your town/area. G. 6. the person who opens the door and orders taxis. 8. a garage – parking space. 3. the person who connects phone calls. 12. You booked a room at a hotel two weeks ago but nobody at the reception seems to know anything about it. foreigners can change their money there. a two – storey suite connected by a staircase. 2. a double room – a twin room. You are talking to the reception clerk trying to get a room. a room occupied by one person. 14. You tell him about available facilities. The staff necessary to operate a large hotel. a room for two single beds for two persons. 2.E. There are a lot of modern conveniences in the hotel. 8. 4. a holiday place where you can also be under medical attention. .married couples. a boarding house – a guest house. Topics for conversation/composition: 1. 3. a hotel for travelling businessmen. 5. 9. 21 5.couples with children. 6. 7.

a vast variety of fish from salmon to octopus. A bank holiday intervened. utterly reliable. I suppose we would rely on frozen. Then try to write a similar one for the main hotel in your town. The cheese-loving gent came and went – no sign of the cheese. and are prepared to go on trying till we drop dead with the effort. If we wanted to make a profit. Then there was the gentleman who came specially to enjoy our cheeseboard. They featured on the menu – the bus arrived – the cartons were there – but not the strawberries. It′ s not economic sense. 11. portion-controlled. but it saves embarrassment. Ask the estates for salmon. prawn fishers lose their gear in Atlantic storms. and has to be organized by letter or telephone to make its way to the post van or the twice-weekly bus. The ideal type of hotel. We don′ t believe in “can′ t”. which 22 . Scallop divers get the bends.9. everything from cream to Kiwi fruit is exotic in Harris. though anonymous phone calls offer you them by the hundredweight. before the strawberry episode. And what of exotica ? Well. We couldn′ t stand the boredom of it. I ordered ₤ 30 worth of the stuff from a reputable Edinburgh supplier. wild red-deer venison. V. the half-boxes of prawns. HOME READING Letter from a Hebridean Hotelkeeper The Hebrides teem with good natural ingredients: heather and seaweedfed mutton. delivered at midnight fot two hours of weary preparation. and superb shellfish (I particularly recommend those ferocious giant langoustines. Getting accommodation in a hotel. Putting your hands on all this stuff is a strenuous full-time business. though. who have whittled away a redious week in a creel by devouring their smaller relatives). 10. Probably the turbot will arrive by 5 p.45) aren′ t scheduled to arrive till 8. Read this advertisment. followed by a suppurating parcel of exploded Stilton and ther horrors. – if not I′ ll still have three hours to replace it – but the Stilton and grapes (to be served at 8. though.m. One learns to make other arrangements – never to order from one firm when you could order from two. the egg that Henrietta looks as if she might lay at any minute so that Mrs X needn′ t have a battery one in her scrambled.15 (quick dash down the drive in the rain). I used to count on things. Calum who grows our potatoes shows an unshakeable faith in beastly Kerr′ s Pinks. too few for market. and you find it′ s all being blast-frozen and dispatched south. utterly boring supplies. They must have shared a back seat with one who couldn′ t resist temptation. This may not be long if we don′ t improve on our Mark I electrical stunner for lobsters. and better than anyone has a right to expect in such a far-flung locality. recognisable by their rose-pink carapaces. All the enjoyment of our work comes from doing it as well as we possibly can. and forget all about the halibut too small for Billingsgate.

It′ s complete rubbish that they have to be dropped in snapping and kicking to develop their best flavour. Incidentally. The device was dreamt up by an Oxford professor. The porridge does not brew overnight in the Aga.consiste of the mains run through a bath of salt water – to be operated with one′ s free hand in one′ s pocket. As for those dishes beloved of female cookery writers which “keep well in a refrigerator for a week or in a freezer for three months”. and we don′ t compose Crecy soup of yesterday′ s leftover vef pace the Stornoway diner who confidently so asserted. I hope I′ ve never agreed with this horrendous misconception. not three weeks. when I must “make all the desserts and bread and freeze them for summer”. I never know what to say. may they and their authors go to perdition. 23 . fish that hasn′ t languished on ice. We like salmon from the sea not the river. We are becoming more and more obsessive about the freshness of our food. Winter ! That′ s the season. lobster that hasn′ t been ponded. according to lady customers. venison (but it must be a first-rate beast) that has been hung for three days. We′ d like that to be publicised. lobsters thus stunned before being dropped into boilling water are full of curd and don′ t shed claws. but there′ s no model on the market.

16.. The owner is the… 11. When you want ro open a bottle of wine you must pull out the…. 4. to catch the waiter′ s eye the menu (card) a table d′ hôte meal the main course desert the bill public house sign name of the pub to be in a sociable environment/to drink or eat something/to meet other people talkative satisfied publican drinks/sandwiches/crisps/ nuts/pies inn (hotel) Inkeeper (hotel proprietor) barrels or bottles draught beer ale refreshing cork dork-screw 5. 10. When you want to order something in a restaurant.. 3. you try…. 1. He keeps his customers….. Pub is short for…. The owner of the pub is called the….VOCABULARY A. 1. At the bar you can buy…. pie or fruit may be ordered for… 6. 13. 8. Ice-cream. When you' re warm. A three-course meal for a fixed price in called….. The barman is often a friendly and… 6. On it is the…. After you eat in the restaurant you pay… B. 24 . Over the door outside the pub we mostly find a…. The waiter comes and brings you…. 5. 12. Another type of English beer is called…. 7. Beer from the barrel is called….. 2. 3. Roast beef or steak and vegetables are usually….Lesson five AT THE RESTAURANT I. Beer and wine are kept in…. 4.. beer and ale are very…. 9. cakes.. 14. English people go to a pub…. A public house where you can find board and lodgings is called an…. 2. You can do that easily with a…. 15.

C. grilled or smoked (kippers). white wine or sherry. Herring. Small pies filled with currants and spices.57 litres 1. As popular for breakfast as it is for dinner. Prepared in many ways. A favourite choice for Sunday lunch. Salmon. Cornish/Devonshire Cream. Goose. Lamb. green vegetables and. Some of the most prized come from Colohester. cream and sugar.m. A Scottish breakfast favourite. A British way of life. A refreshing dessert made from brandy. Lobster. Delicious baked. but perhaps it is best when plain grilled. Served hot. Served with roast potatoes. Some say the real reason Julius Caesar invaded Britain 2. A fine British institution ! Gingerbread. A Christmas favourite. a 'nice cup of tea' is liable to be produced at any time of day. Mutton. Roast Beef. Traditional pub dish. Scotch Broth.55 litres SOME TRADITIONAL BRITISH DISHES AND DRINKS Bangers and Mash.000 years ago was his attraction to the delectable British oyster. Fried fish and potatoes seasoned with salt and vineger. rich cream usually served over frutis and deserts. Tea. onion and potato. Yorkshire pudding. Small pastries filled with meat. Fish and Chips. Syllabub. fried. Thick. Dover Sole. II. cold or smoked. Spicy cake often made is the shape of a man and decorated with currants. Thick. There are many recipes for this delicious fish. I gallon is…. potatoes.. fresh fruit. 25 . Although traditionally ' tea time'is approximately 4 p. I litre is…. but perhaps best when roasted and served with mint sauce. Steak and Kidney Pie/Pudding. Oysters. carrots and onions. Porridge. usually accompanied by biscuits and/or cakes. A pub favourite. Often smoked. boiled or baked and served in rich sauce. of course. The most famous of Britain's national dishes. Mince Pies.. Grilled. Sausages and mashed potatoes. Boiled catmeal with milk or cream and fravoured with salt or sugar. A Christmas favourite. A mixture of steak. I pint is……. Irish Stew. cremy vegetable soup.VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT 0. Scoth salmon is the best in the world..76 pints 4. Cornish Pastry. Ham. kidney and mushrooms.

Dark.. Savoury baked batter. Sometimes combined with bitter. Clear soup…. Yorkshire Pudding.beefsteak…. Bitter. Mild Ale. . BILL OF FARE Sausage…. Roast liver… Mixed grill… Stewed meat… 26 Cod fillet… Perch… Trout…. Use the formulas given below: I'll take…for the first course/ I'll order…. thank you. cakes. Mutton chop Jellied meat. A mixture of coffee. I don't care for…. Often quite strong – so beware ! Irish Coofee. Cider. biscuits. 2. Brown Ale. Please…. French soup… Vegetable salad…. it is the most popular of British daught bears. Chicken soup… Salmon…. mayonnaise dressing. Caviare…. whiskey and sugar drunk through a top layer of cream. Do you usually eat ar home ? At a canteen ? In a restaurant ? At a snack bar ? Advantages and disavantages of each. Pork chop… Jellied fish Cutlets. On what occassions do people eat out ? Why is it customary to mark important events in restaurants ? 4.. A slightly fizzy bottled beer. A dark. What would you say to…. Cheese… Roast chicken… Ham… Lamb chop… Boiled egg. Sturgeon… Plaice… Carp…. What is a table d'hote/an a la carte dinner in a restaurant ? 3. Low in alcoholic content. Served by the pint or half pint. etc). Whisky. sweet bottled beer. with cold meat and/or a hot dish.once/twice. It combines afternoon tea (bread and butter. making a substantial meal of live courses.'High Tea' is a meal you would expect to get in a Scottish or North Nountry guest house instead of dinner. Fermented apple juice. golden Scotch whisky is the best in the world. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 1. Study the menu below and choose what you like. Grills Olives… Beefsteak… Butter… Rump-steak….? No. Traditional acccompaniment to roast beef. III. full-flavoured draught beer. Herring… Noodle soup…. Pike… Zander… Halibut… Dessert Grapes Apples… Pine-apple… Stewed fruit… Cakes….. Mellow. Pale Ale. Clear and golden.

Look at the menu again and devise a menu for one of the following people or gropus of people: 1. ‘Say when‘. What are‘fish and chips ? 10. ‘ ‘Have you made your choice ? ‘ ‘What do you recommend ? ‘ ‘Pork disagrees with me‘. 8. What is ‘Scotch broth‘ ? 27 . What is ‘porridge‘ ? 14. Strawberries… Fruit salad… Drinks Soft drinks Lemonade Orange juice Tomato juice Mineral water Tea Coffee Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine Champagne Brandy Whisky Liqueur 5. 6. a girl of 18 who is going to marry in two weeks and wants to lose weight.taken/vacant seats/tables. ‘Waiter ! The menu. Icecream. 2. please ? ‘‘Certainly. ‘ Would you like some more soup ? ‘‘No. ‘ ‘May I have another helping of porridge ? ‘‘Help yourself‘.Tart…. How is herring prepared in Britain ? 11. thank you! ‘ ‘ Will you please lay the table for four ? ‘ ‘ Will your please clear the table ? ‘ ‘Please lay another plate on this table‘. What is an ‘Irish Stew‘ ? 12. What is roast beef usually served with ? 15. When are you likely to use/hear these expressions ? ‘Will you pass me the salt. 3. a New Year's party.. ‘I‘ve had enough. a spoiled ten-year-old boy. please. a footballer who will take part in the World Cup championship. thank you‘. 4. 9. a convinced vegetarian. Why is it advisable to reserve tables in advance when you want to go to a restaurant ? . What are ‘mince pies‘ ? 13. 5. In what case do you leave the choice of dishes to the waiter ? 7.

Leave the spices and the cruet-stand alone. CONVERSATION PRACTICE A. What is ‘high tea‘ ? When is it served ? 18. Stop playing with the salt-cellar.Parker: First course. both with cabbage. please. What does Yorkshire pudding traditionally accompany ? 20. please ? Thank you. Richard ? What about the main course ? Mr.Parker: Let me see. Mr. I‘ll take the steak and kidney pudding with mashed potatoes and cabbage. Mrs. Mrs. Parker: What flavours have you got ? 28 . Parker: The same. Parker: Let‘s have the set lunch. Parker: Come on. let me have a look. What kind of dessert is ‘trifle‘ ? 19. don‘t you. Why do English people like to go to the pub ? IV. children. one roast. the three-course meal for the fixed price. boys ? Richard and Charlie: Yes. Right. Would you like to order the sweet now ? Mr. Waitress: And what‘s it to be for you ? Charlie: Fish and chips. What is syllabub made from ? 17. Don‘t put the fork in your mouth.Parker: Could we have a menu. George ? What about you ? Mr. Or with the mustard. Waitress: Good. but I‘ll have it with roast . Yorkshire pudding. peas. Mrs. Dialogue: At. please. Main course: choice of fried fillet of cod. Parker: Richard likes tomato soup. veg and one fish. Charlie. Charlie likes fruit-juice and… What‘s the soup of the day ? Waitress: Tomato. Richard. What is it ? Mr. chipped potatoes. please. excuse me… Mr. What shall we have: the table d‘hôte or the à la carte ? Mrs. soup or fruit-juice. sit down at the table. Ice-cream. The Restaurant Mr. That doesn‘t mean you can start playing with the pepper-pot.Parker: Well. the same vegetables-hmm.16. So that‘s two steak and kidney. Ah. Parker: I‘ll attract his attention – excuse me… (A waitress appears behind them) Waitress: What would you like ? Mr. roast beef. Boys ? Richard: I‘d like roast beef and Yorkshire pudding with vegetables. one roast beef.Parker: Let‘s try and catch the waiter‘s eye. Ice-cream or apple-tart and custard. one mashed. Parker: Here.

First you can have soup or a salad as a…. Charlie: I‘d like vanilla.fermented apple juice. beer from the barrel. 15. the man who serves drinks in a bar. In the evening John has dinner at a…. 7. 29 a) … reserve b) … cancel c)…. Mr. 7. 6. 14. ripple. 11.menu e)…. 3. Then follows the main course i.. Finally. you can order a…. If you can‘t come don‘t forget to…. Or you ask him what he can….T. 8. Parker: This crème caramel on the menu… Waitress: I‘m afraid it‘s off. Your reservation 4. 10.. The apple-tart will do instead.a meal for a fixed price. please.restaurant d) …. sleep tight ! C. Name the following: 1. Parker: That‘s all right.steak or fish. Find the right ending for each sentence below: 1. 10. Normally service and V. j)…nightcap k)…. the man who serves you in a restaurant. Mrs.57 litres.dessert f) …. Two. 0.Waitress: Vanilla. 8. Parker: Just some water. 2. Richard: Strawberry for me.If you are quite content with the service you may give the waiter some extra money. strawberry. boiled oatmeal with milk or cream. h)….After dinner you can drink a…. the list of dishes to be ordered in a restaurant. a public house where you can find board and lodgings.e….or go straight back to the hotel. g)….recommend.A. Waitress: Can I get you anything else ? Something to drink ? Mrs.the first part of a meal. I)…. sweet food served at the end of a meal. are included in the. . 12.tip. please. (The waitress goes) B.starter.bill. If you want to dine at a restaurant you had better …. 6.thick. 9. please. 11. the owner of an inn... You ask the waiter to see the…… 5. This is called a…. 13. Goodnight. raspberry.a drink taken before going to bed. 2.a table 3. 9. 4. creamy vegetable soup. 5.small pies filled with currants and spices.

Reply to the following questions of the waiter: Would you like this table by the window ? Will you have the table d‘hôte or the à la carte ? What will you have first ? What about the main course ? How would you like the steak ? What vegetables would you like with it ? Would you like to order the sweet now ? Will you be having anything to drink ? F. a) less than 50 per cent ? b) between 50-75 per cent ? c) more than 75 per cent ? 2. Cream cake – trifle. Brown ale – mild ale – pale ale. You are in a restaurant. What proportion of a person’s income should be spent on food. 6. The good cooking of the hostess is well-known. Irish stew – stewed fruit. 5. 4. Everything you order seems to be off. a barman – a publican – an innkeeper. Which of these is a key to a successful party: a) a good wine ? b) a tasty dessert ? c) appetizing hors d’oeuvres ? 5. E. What‘s the difference between: 1. you are hungry and order a big lunch. a table d‘hôte meal – an à la carte meal. The main reason for a diet should be: a) to lose weight B) to keep fit c) to save money 4. Tick the answer you agree with most and give your reasons. What do you appreciate most when you have dinner at a restaurant ? a) the taste of the food ? b) the politeness of the staff ? c) the interior decoration ? d) the price ? e) unusual dishes ? 6. Tea – high tea. Act out the following situations: 1. (Dialogue with the waiter). 30 . A dialogue with a friend before and after a dinner party to which you have been invited. 3.D. 7. Steak and kidney pudding – Yorkshire pudding. 1. Do you think people should drink alcohol: a) at each meal ? b) only at parties ? c) never ? 3. 2. 2.

and people living in the cities lost contact with the country within a short time. in many cases. You can complete your meal with one of the famous English puddings. or potted shrimps sold from the barrows and old pie shops in the East End. But when people moved to the cities and worked long hours in factories. today. from Hong Kong. but if it’s a traditional British meal you’re looking for. as well as our own fruit and vegetables. things changed. You’ve invited a friend to have dinner with you in a restaurant. People from India and Bangladesh. Fresh foond was not so easily available and there wasn’t so much time to prepare meals. There was also more time for cooking. you still won’t go hungry. more people lived in the country and produced the food they ate. You cooked. which provide a full selection of high quality food. A joint of roast beef. opened restaurants where they serve the food of their country of origin. Britain’s colonial past has also brought food from other countries. milk. However. Curries and spaghetti dishes have become so popular that we often cook them at home.3. More and more will find an Indian or Chinese restaurant in almost any town in the country. Of course there’s one typical English meal that’s not too expensive – so try some fish and chips ! 31 . are on the menu in a lot of restaurants. You are having a meal in a quite expressive restaurant. you can try the cooking of very many countries. with roast potatoes and other vegetables is what the British often eat for Sunday lunch and these dishes. This process happened very quickly in Britain because it was one of the earliest countries to become industrialized. foreigners often complain that English cooking is unimaginative. A search for delicacies may take you to the food hall at Harrods or Fortnum and Masons. as well as traditional pies or stews. cheese. pork or lamb. Italy. Altrough we produce meat and dairy prodution (that is. Many of the traditional recipes were lost. two of London’s most exclusive shops. V. If your money cheaper delicacies such as jellied eels. so supermarkets and delicatessens sell all the necessary ingredients. But when you have to pay the bill you realize that you have left your wallet at home. HOME READING Eating In England The English have a bad reputation for food. mussels. Before Britain became an industrial country some two centuries ago. In London especially. Cyprus and Turkey have. You want to talk to the head waiter. eggs) of good quality. You complain to the waiter. 4.

means…. 6. please could you tell me the way to Baker Street ? one way street. 11 Traffic-lights are used to…. When you want to go by bus you go to a….. 4.. 10 Cars drive on the….VOCABULARY A. During the rush hour….. 7 If you have lost your way you can ask a…..Lesson six GETTING ABOUT TOWN I. 12 A green light means: 13 A red: light means: 14 In England traffic on a roundabout has…. means…. 5. 15 When two cars drive into each other.. 7. trains and cars are…… 2. Buses.. 1. six o′ clock in the morning eight o′ clock in the evening. 5 If you don′ t take care when crossing you may…... In London you can also travel… 3..m. 6 a. accident 6 When you cross the street without looking you can be….m. 8 p. 8 Then you ask…. road regulate the traffic go/cross stop right of way collide means of transport.1 In a town there is a lot of…….. 9 A street where the traffic goes in one direction is a…. The underground in London is called the…. . they… B. 2 Therefore we say that in a town the traffic is… 3 Pedestrians must walk on the…… 4 If possible you must cross the street on a…. bus-stop or a busstation. by underground tube Many people are going to and fro their work. 32 traffic heavy pavement zebra-crossing cause an knocked down by a car policeman officer.

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT THE HIGHWAY CODE Paragraphs 38-49 The safety of pedestrians. coaches further destinations local transport D. train Taxi Bicycle Plane Bus-driver Taxi-driver Pilot Engine driver Driver/chauffeur Cyclist railway-station. Form sentences from the table below acording to the meaning: Road Motorway Kerb A(n) Street Pavement Avenue Lane Is the edge of the pavement Is a narrow country road. when you see a bus stopped. usually with two or more carriage ways Is a paved way at the side of a street for people on foot II. Buses with two storeys are…. You can find the time for the arrival of the next bus…… 11. cab double-deckers. particularly in crowded shopping streets. 9. underground. Long-distance buses are called…. usually between hedges and banks Is a route. Buses are mainly used for… C. When there are many people on the bus we say… 12. The next bus is due at six means…. 15. 16. Another word for taxi is…. Coaches travel to…. the next bus will arrive at six o′ clock on the time-table the bus is crowded.8. Animals 38. Drive carefully and slowly when pedestrians are about. a way for getting to a place and may be private or public Is a wide street usually bordered by trees Is a road in a city or in a town with houses on one or both sides. or near a parked 33 .. When you want to go by train you go to a…. Match the name of the driver to the means of transport: Car Bus Tram. 10. Is built especially for fast traffic. 13. 14.

You must give way once they have stopped on to a crossing. or from other places where you might not be able to see them. 43. What means of transport are there in a town ? 9. bus/tram stops. Give them. Signal to other drivers that you mean to slow down or stop. 41. and infirm. processions. When the amber light is flashing. be ready to slow down or stop to let people cross. particularly where there is no footpath. 46. or other marching groups in the road. or blind. The young and the elderly may not judge speeds very well. 4. Be careful near a parked ice-cream van – children are more interested in ice-cream than in traffic. What is traffic ? 2. 47. island. and may step into the roads when you do not expect them. 40. or by a police officer or traffic warden. leave zebra crossing clear. pedestrian/zebra crossing. What/Who is traffic directed by ? Are policewomen more efficient than policemen ? Why (not) ? 5. Never overtake just before a zebra crossing. Give them plenty of room. 42. 39. Watch out for animals being led on your side of the road and be especially careful at a left-hand bend. give way to pedestrians who are still crossing when the signal is given for vehicles to move. 49. 44.mobile shop. Be careful when there are pedestrians. and look out for children getting on or off school buses. 6.QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 1. When coming to a zebra crossing. In traffic queues. Three out of four pedestrians killed or seriously injured are either under 15 or ever 60. When turning at a road junction. green) mean ? 8. What does each light (red. What is the role of traffic-lights ? 7. Stop when signalled to do so by a school crossing patrol showing a Stop-Children sign. Watch out for pedestrians coming from behind parked or stopped vehicles. Give them plenty of room and be ready to stop if necessary. Do not frighten the animals by sounding your horn . What about London/Bucharest ? 34 . amber. What parts of the street are used by pedestrians ? What part is used for traffic ? Use: Road: pavement. A flashing amber signal will follow the red stop signal at some pedestrian crossing. What are these for ? Lamp-posts (street lamps).milestones. Give yourself more time to slow down or stop on wet or icy roads. Drive slowly near schools. At what times is traffic in town very heavy ? Why ? 3. 48. or disabled people. plenty of time to cross the road. give way to any pedestrians on the crossing but otherwise you can proceed. At pedestrian crossings controlled by lights. Be especially careful on a left-hand bend and keep your speed down. 45. give way to pedestrians who are crossing. Go slowly when driving past animals. III.

. . . to pay the fare.congested parking. the ideal road for motoring ? 21. . . 19. 16. the most common causes of traffic accidents ? List the following in decreasing order of importance. What kinds of roads are the following ? In which of them de you find the heaviest traffic ? . avenues. What are buses in London like ? 13. .have a crash. Use: get on/off a bus. .cobbled – asphalted. 20.in town: main streets. . . lanes. What does each of the following signs warn motorists about ? Uneven road.narrow streets. in your opinion. 35 . . .drive at less than 60 kilometres an hour in a built-up area.in the country: motorways. . . .overturn.10 10.pay a fine. Two-way traffic. .dip the headlights at night when there′ s other traffic about. . What is.be charged with a motoring offence . . Side road. . What may happen to the car when the driver does not observe the traffic regulations ? .tired drivers. What ′ s your favourite means of transport in a town ? Why ? 15. What are the advantages of the underground in a big city ? 18.long-short.Where can you get on a bus ? 11. Which roads are better for traffic ? .have one′ s driving licence endorsed. . .not drive under the influence of alcohol.Describe travelling by bus. .not exceed the speed limit on the motorway. .too few road signs. . cul-de-sacs.one-way streets. . ticket.careless pedestrians.faulty vehicles. . side streets.careless drivers. What are coaches ? Where do they travel ? 14.drunken drivers.no traffic lights. bus-stop.two – lane – four-lane. boulevards.come into collision with…… . 24. .run into…. . Which is the quickest way of travelling a short distance in a big town ? Explain why. thoroughfares. . in your opinion.too many road signs.faulty traffic lights. When are the rush-hours in a large town ? 17. rush hours.paved – unpaved.be stopped by a police car. cul-de-sacs. .straight-winding.broad (wide) – narrow. vacant/occupied seats. change.too many traffic lights.observe traffic lights/pedestrian crossings. one-way streets. request stop. Which are. 23. Give reasons why drivers must observe each of the following rules: .not overtake unwisely. 22. 12.

Is it the right bus. 25. does this bus go to the Tower of London ? No.Road works ahead. 26. Crossroads. You see more. What must a driver do when coming to a zebra crossing ? 30. There′ s a bus-stop.opposite the Telephone Exchange on the corner.next door to the Post-Office. Are drivers allowed to overtake before a zebra crossing ? Why not ? IV. Roundabout.CONVERSATION PRACTICE A.crossroads . Keep straight on. no – the bus you want stops round the corner.Excuse me. could you tell me the way to…. Lavel crossing. with a queue at it. 27. or walk ? Let′ s catch a bus. Where shall we go first ? How about the Tower of London ? Good. 36 . the Market Hall. Slippery road. the National Theatre. What is the road behaviour of young and elderly people ? 29. .further along this road. I mean. so we must see as much as possible. . You may ask in any of these ways: . Bend to right. Tell a tourist the way to the following places in your town (from the Railway Station): the Fire Station. Go diagonally across the park . How must drivers drive in crowded shopping streets ? 28. or go by tube. the Public Library. .not far from the Railway Station. . DIALOGUE: GETTING ABOUT TOWN John: Bob: John: Bob: John: Bob: John: Bob: Man: Well. the General Post-Office. we′ ve only got a day in London. It′ s . Turn right at the next . the Town Hall. ? . How do we get there ? You′ ve got the map. Ask the way from one point in the town to another.set of traffic lights Take the second (turning) to the right/left. though ? Let′ s ask. Excuse me.at the far end of this street. the Open Air Swimming-Pool.? Choose some of these expressions for your answers: Cross the road. should we catch a bus. the Telephone Exchange.Is this the way to….?/How can I get to…? Where′ s….round the corner. the Bus-Station.

John: Man:

And which bus do we want for the Tower ? You should catch a 70, get off at Tooley Street and cross Tower Bridge. Bob: Thank you very much. So we need a 70 - there′ s one - let′ s run – made it ! John: Shall we go upsrairs ? You see more from the top-deck. Bob: What a good idea ! Oh, here comes the conductor. John: Two to the Tower of London, please. Conductor: That′ ll be two eights, please. John (gives him money): Thank you. John: Thank you. Conductor: Any more fares, please, any more fares. Bob: Ooh – excuse me, can you tell me where to get off, please ? Conductor: It′ s the third, or fourth stop after London Bridge Station – it depends on the request stops - I′ ll tell you when we get there. John: What are we going to see afterwards ? Bob: One of the museums – the British Museum for instance. John (looking at the map): I′ m not sure how to get there from the Tower. Bob: Oh, we′ ll ask someone the way when we′ ve finished in the Tower. Somebody′ s sure to know the best way to get to the British Museum ! Conductor: You two up there – this is your stop ! Come on. John Oh, thank you – (They rush downstairs and jump off). Bob B. You want to see the sights in a town you are visiting for the first time. Make up a dialogue, using some of the following: - Where shall we go first ? - How do we get there ? - Shall we catch a bus/walk ? - Is that the right bus go to ….? - Excuse me, does this bus go to….? - Excuse me, can you tell me were to get off, please ? - I′ ll tell you when we get there. - What are we going to see afterwards ? - We′ ll ask someone the way. - This is your stop. C. Give one word for: 1. driving backwards; 2. using the accelerator pedal; 3. using the brakes; 4. Switching on the ignition; 5. Changing the direction of travel; 6. Driving into another car.

D. Express the following in one or two words: 1. stones indicating the distance from the nearest big town; 2. lights controlling traffic; 3. the place where two or several roads cross; 37

4. the place where pedestrians can cross the street; 5. public vehicles moving along fixed routes and stopping at fixed points; 6. long-distance vehicles transporting people across country; 7. the part of the car where you can put luggage; 8. the petrol is kept in it; 9. they clean the windscreen when wet or dirty; 10. the money you must pay if you commit a motoring offence. E. What is the difference between: 1. road – pavement – street; 2. traffic lights – lamp posts; 3. bus-stop – bus station; F. Topics for conversation/composition: 1. 2. 3. 4. What kind of people are most likely to lose their way ? Under what circumstance do people get lost (most easily) ? Getting lost in a big/small town. You are waiting at a bus-stop. There is an old lady waiting, too. No bus is coming and after half an hour you sympathize with each other and make comments on how bad the bus service is. 5. A friend of yours has just arrived in Bucharest and would like to come to your place. He telephones you from the North Station but as you are unable to go and meet him at the Station you tell him how to get to your place. 6. Imagine a dialogue with a traffic policeman whom you want to convince that you haven′ t committed any motoring offence. He seems to be of a different opinion. 7. A driver′ s correct behaviour: - before a zebra crossing; - in crowded shopping streets; - when elderly people are crossing the street; - near schools; - when driving past animals. 8. The commonest cause of traffic accidents/traffic jams. 9. The road behaviour of a good driver. 10. The role of the police in protecting pedestrians′ lives. 11. Steps taken to avoid traffic jams/accidents. 12. Your opinion of the ideal road for moanswer the following questions; V.HOME READING TO SAVE YOUR LIFE To most members of the public “traffic policing” means law enforcement.When caught speeding or parking in the wrong place, many people tell the police: “You′ d be better employed catching criminals”. Such a 38 4. Motorway – lane; 5. Bus – coach; 6. Lorry – van – cab.

comment might well have been made to an officer who, only hours earlier, had investigated a fatal accident in which several people had been killed. Some 6,500 people are killed and about 300,000 injured every year on our roads. There is not enough money to build roads which could prevent all accidents (even if it were possible) and the accident-proof car is still some years away. So the police must play their part in accident prevention, which is, in fact, the most important area of traffic policing. Each accident invariably has several causes: the aim is to remove one or more of those causes. Part of the police investigation is to find out exactly why an accident happened, so that it will not happen again under the same circumstances. Individual accidents are studied, statistics are studied – all to find that common theme. Is the link the vehicle ? Is it the driver ? Is it the weather ? Is the warning sign hidden ? Is the road surface faulty, or too slippery? Obviously such a study can result in a driver being prosecuted: that is one of the duties which has devolved on to the police. But the more important aspect is the work carried out to find out why the accident happened, so its repetition can be prevented. When, as the Lincolnshire Police found, young motor cyclists were having too many accidents – possibly because they were lacking in experience and were not making themselves sufficiently conspicuous - they held special road checks and told them how to help themselves. They held special evening meetings to get their messages over. They made certain recommendations to the Department of Transport. They enlisted the aid of motor cycling stars. All part of traffic policing. The results of this work cannot yet be full assessed, but the signs are encouraging. At the end of 1976 casualties involving motorbikes and mopeds had increased by 50 per cent over the 1974 figure. By the end of 1978 – the first full year of reversed: there were fewer accidents than in the previous year, despite an increase in two-wheeler motor traffic. The techniques used in the Lincolnshire campaign are applied in other areas but, of course, any increase in such activity has to be balanced with the necessary deployment of police resources in other fields. Even so, it is vital that the police should make a greater effort to gain the co-operation of the public, for the public are at risk. The motor-cycle accident campaign was just one example of police accident prevention. There are many more. Some are simple – like trying to convince people that wearing seat belts saves lives; some are more complicated – like putting forward the police view as to which side of a city a bypass should be constructed. All are aimed at protecting life. Unfortunately, there are no prices for accident prevention: perhaps because very few people intend to drive or ride so as to kill or injure. The link betweem the faulty tyre, the dangerous parking, the excessive speed or the insecure load and the accident is not clear to members of the public at the time. However, next time a police officer tells you about your missing rear light – or even prosecutes you for it – try to consider the deeper implications. He is trying to protect your life (and property). 39

One can find fresh fruit and vegetables… 5.Books can be found….Stockings.There they sell….VOCABULARY A. 7. In the water women wear bikinis and… 40 shops at the baker′ s at the butcher′ s at the greengrocer′ s at the dairy at the grocer′ s at the chemist′ s at the tobacconist′ s at the stationer′ s at the bookshop rings counters for sale merchandise shop-assistants customers department store floors ground floor basement upstairs first floor second floor ready-to-wear clothes millinery department hosiery department. cheese and eggs can be bought… 6.The goods they sell are called the…. 8. Milk.It is on the…. 1. 11. 15.. Paper. The food department is downstairs in the. 9. 2. 7. Things to eat and things to use can be bought in brigger or smaller…… 2. Clothes worn on the beach are…. 12.Lesson seven THE BIG STORES I. pencils and ballpoints are sold… 10. beach-wear swimming-caps B. People buy bread…… 3.The clothes department is on the… 8. The shoe department is…. tights and sochs are sold in the…. C. One can buy medicines….Regular buyers are called… 1. 16. Flour. 1. Meat and chicken are sold…. 9.When you enter some shops the doorbell…... rice and sugar are sold….Hats are in the… 10.The goods are laid out on the 13. People buy their cigarettes…. The departments are on different…. A large shop selling all kinds of goods is a…. The toy counter is on the… 4. They are… 14. 5. 3. 2.You can buy these goods. . 4. 6... The people seeling the goods are the.

When you go on holiday you can put all these things in a…and take them with you.Outside clothes are clothes for people who need…. Around his neck he has a…. east and west. And your lips ? 9.Clothes for moters-to-be are called… D. 4. large sizes maternity wear. 11. evening dress fur cape in the letest fashion evening-suit bow tie. You can also comb it with a….nail-scrissors power-puff lipstick perfume toilet bag with a hair-brush comb wigs or hair-pieces Oxford Street is probably the most famous shopping street in London and is divided into two-parts.What do you use for cleaning your teeth ? 6. It is here that most of the major department stores are grouped. In an old-fashioned razors there are…. whit electrical razors razor-blades after-shave lotion shaving-soap or shavingcream a tooth-brush and toothpaste a nail-brush/a nail-file.VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT SHOPPING IN LONDON swimming-trunks. What things are there on the dressing-table for your nails ? 7. Barbara′ s clothes are up to date. kitchenware and cosmetic departments are very popular. 1. It is worn outside with a… 6. And for your cheeks ? 8. 8. To smell nice ? 10. 11. With what do you brush your hair ? 12. 5. everyday wear (casual wear) T-shirts. 13. the second largest department store in London. nail-varnish. 3. ahe is dressed….Teenagers like wearing…. 9. 7. The large food hall. 41 . Barbara is at a party. This open-plan store specialises in ready-to-wear clothes for all the family. Barbara′ s husband is wearing a threepiece…. Bald people sometimes wear…. She is wearing an… 5. 12.Jeans and jumpers are clothes for… 10. the biggest being Selfridges. With what do most people shave ? 2. Men fo swimming in….When you shave with an old-fashioned razor you have to use a….3. food and household efects. restaurats. II.After shaving you can use an… 4. The largest branch of the Marks & Spencer chain is also situated near Marble Arch. The busiest section of Oxford Street runs from Oxford Circus to Marble Arch.

Another famous shopping area is Tottenham Court Road. Here you will find anything from spare parts to the very latest in stereo and quadrofonic systems. What do they sell at the dairy ? 5. ribbons Jumpers. necklaces Records Thread. III. What′ s the difference between a stationer′ s and a bookshop ? Name Some items you buy at the stationer′ s. cardigans Cups. posters and other paper items and a lovely shop in which to browse. and Ryman who specialize in modern office furnishings and equipment. a very popular shop with younger people as it sells ultramodern functional furniture and accessories at everyday prices. bracelets. is Paperchase: a delightful shop dealing in beautiful wrapping paper.Farther along Oxford Street is John Lewis. mascara. Tottenham Court Road is also renowned for its hi-fi equipment. Where do you buy bread ? What kind of bread do you like: white or brown ? 2. In which of the departments listed in column A can you get the goods to be found in column B? A Knitted goods Haberdashery Electrical equipment China and Glassware Stationery Cosmetics Record department B. lipstick. Another shop to specialize. world-famous for its fine pottery. The largest furniture shop is Heal & Son Ltd. Can you name a few departments ? Where are they usually situated ? 9. plates. Others specializing in this field are Habitat. renowned for its high-class furniture shops and radio and electrical equipment.QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 1. A lovely shop in which to browse for gift ideas. but in a different field. Notepaper. scent. pencils Hand cream. pullovers. an excellent shop for household equipment and fabrics. teapots 42 . Which vegetables do you usually buy at the greengrocer′ s and which at the market ? 3. you will find the Wedgwood pottery shop. tape. Just outside Oxford Circus Underground station. Who sells them ? 7. Lyon House and Lasky are the two largest hi-fi and electrical equipment suppliers. porcelain. glass and gifts. unique greeting cards. postcards. Where are goods laid out in shops ? 6. as well as fashion. What is a department store ? 8. Oxford Street is also renowned for its vast selection of shoe shops. eye-shade Car-rings. 4.

a china shop. 43 . What′ s your favourite time for shopping. “Mother-to-be” or “Lady-In-Waiting” will often be found instead of conventional “Maternity Wear”. though now off-the-peg clothes are the rule rather than the exception. “Gowns”. vacuum cleaners 10. 20. a hardware shop. equipped with speedy lifts and escalators. 11. 14. Can you name some shops and department stores in Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road ? What do they specialize in ? IV. Departments are carefully named. most of which are to be found in or near the West End. Do you do your shopping in a department store or do you prefer to go shopping to smaller shops ? Why ? 12. “Budget Dresses” are really cheap dresses – but no customer likes to be thought of as a “cheap”shopper. “Unisex”. with well-planned lighting. and sometimes still the words derived from the French – “Mantles” for coats. They developed in the nineteenth century. Name some items you can buy at the following: a record shop. an electrical shop. What are ′ sales′ ? How many sales are there a year ? Can you discover real bargains in a sale ? 17. a shoe shop. they maintain the dignity of that century. The big stores of London are vast buildings. many storeys high. a chemist′ s.Jewellery Light bulbs. Then there are newer words for the new trends in fashion – “Mix-and-Match”. it used to be used for the garments that were not made-to-measure. yet they are always ready to follow new trends. ventilation and heating. a toy-shop.READING FOR COMPREHENSION THE BIG STORES OF LONDON One of the features of London is the number of big stores. What is the importance of shop-windows ? What kind of goods are displayed in shop-windows ? 18. Do shop-windows influence you in your choice ? Why (not) ? 19. Would you rather go shopping alone or have a friend with you ? Why ? 15. These stores are a mixture of tradition and modernity. which are used alongside the more oldfashioned names: “Haberdashery”. Are the periods before holidays (i. “Millinery”. New York′ s Eve) a good or a bad time for shopping ? What are the advantages and disadvantages of such periods ? 16. a tobacconist′ s. refrigerators.e. Do you like to go shopping ? Why/Why not ? 13. in the morning or in the afternoon ? Give your reasons. Do you go shopping only when you need something or whenever you have money on you ? Give your reasons. The same applies to “Ready-to-wear”. a furniture shop. The goods mentioned above can be bought in smaller shops. “Layette” for baby-wear.

dairy shops. in which the goods are displayed on open counters. …big food stores i. cheese. operate on the self-service system: you go in.supermarkets.cheap dresses c. A wide variety of goods is offered – chiefly foodstuffs. ……moving stairways. At the exit there is a check-out point – a cash-desk where you pay for all your goods together. 6. . . and in these you may buy not only dairy produce but also groceries.location of most department stores. called supermarkets.names of departments. One very well-known firm of chemists has shops in many parts of London (and elsewhere). carrying people up and down to various floors. 44 . household goods. soap and household articles. Talk about the big stores of London. d. … clothes which are massproduced. Supermarkets are. …big stores where all kinds of goods are sold e. . butter are sold h.Another feature of London′ s shopping life is the chain-stires.FLUENCY PRACTICE A. Maternity wear is…. 5. here you may buy not only medicines but also cosmetics and toilet supplies. . eggs.. cosmetics and toilet supplies are usually sold B. …. These chain-stores have branches in most British towns of importance. “Budget” dreasses are… 4. b. walk round the shop and choose what you want.. Dairy shops are… 9. . not made-to-measure f.modern conveniences in department stores. Most of the food stores. Ready-to-wear garments are. Chain-stores are.. …shops where milk. V.chemist′ s shops in London. …stores where a variety of goods are offered-displayed on open counters g. Chemist′ s shops are… 8. pick up a basket.Find the right ending for each sentence below: 1. 3. a. … shops where medicines. Escalators are…. Main ideas: . too. 7. Department stores are… 2. . …clothes worn by mothers-to-be.characteristic features of chain-stores. Dairy firms have shops in various parts of London. clothing and stationery.

opening and closing times.1 Where can you find the following: Greeting cards. Cigarettes. Find the right ending for each sentence below: 1. 2. cigars. up-to-date clothes. In Britain. 8. E. cosmnetics and soap as well as medicines h)…tobacco. . Saucepans and kettles.the relationship: shop assistant – customer.departments. .When you want to buy a fresh chicken you go to the… F. Main ideas: . Name the following: 1. Describe one of the big department stores in Bucharest of in your town. a chemist sells… 7.bread and cakes. Jewels. clothes for mothers-to-be. 6. a grocer sells… 5. 4. D. a baker sells… 4. men′ s swimsuits.toothpaste. you comb your hair with it.display of goods. 5. clothes for people who need larger sizes. chocolates.books e)…. Newspapers. sausage and chickens c)… dairy products d)…. lotion used after shaving. clothes for everday wear. clothes worn on the beach. onions. To what specialized shops do you go if you to buy the following: bread rolls. Writing paper. When you want to buy a ring you go to the… 10. 3. a dress worn at a formal party. oranges. Tights. 45 a)…. fish. a bookseller sells… 6. b)…meat.C. rice. cheese. Watches and clocks. a tobacconist sells… 9. 7.selling system.groceries f)…fruit and vegetables g)…. a milkman sells… 3. meat. Teapots. . Papernags. i)…jeweller′ s j)… butcher′ s . Casseroles. a greengrocer sells… 8. 9. cigarettes. Furniture E. a butcher sells… 2. 10. you clean your teeth with them. .

11. bald people sometimes wear them; 12. the goods sold in a shop; 13. the people selling the goods; 14. regular buyers; 15. they sell hats there; 16. they sell tights and stockings there; 17. a large shop selling all kinds of goods; 18. the goods are laid on them. G. Match the pairs of antonyms: 1. winter wear 2. morning dress 3. ready-made 4. short-sleeved 5. expresive 6. in fashion a) evening dress b) tailor made c) summer wear d) out-of-fashion e) long-sleeved f) reasonably priced

1. To which department in the Co-op Bargate Store would these people go: - a recently married couple; - a twenty-year-old girl; - a tourist before leaving the town; - pop music fan; - a couple on their golden wedding day. 2. Add other departments to the advertisement. I. What is the difference between: 1. a shop – a department store; 2. a lift – an escalator; 3. ventilation - heating; 4. a department – a counter; 5. a grocer′ s – a greengrocer′ s 6. a market – a supermarket; 7. ready-to-wear clothes – clothes made-to-measure; 8. a stationer′ s – a bookshop.

J. Topics for free conversation/composition: 1. Make a comparison between a department store and a small shop (kinds of goods, display, time necessary for shopping etc.) 2. Trying to buy a present for a rather snobbish friend. 3. Going to the sales. 4. Going shopping od the 31st of December (in the morning, in the evening). 5. Unusual things that may happen while shopping. 6. The shops in your street/part of town 7. Advantages and disadvantages of shopping areas. 8. Comment on the home reading: “No British Things?” by Lord Allen. 46

VI.HOME READING No British Things? by Lord Allen “Buy British” is a hackneyed slogan, perhaps even banal, but all the same it has some economic sense behind it. I have recently realized though, the immense practical difficulties which face the ordinary shopper who wants to carry out this injunction. I am all in favour of international trade; and it is a pleasure to buy good British products in, say, Beverly Hills. I recongnize, too, that for some rather special products, notably motorcars, the purchaser is able to make a conscious and deliberate decision whether to buy British or to buy foreign; and that for yet other products, such as watches and cameras, we have simply given up. But, for the rest, have we in practice enough freedom of choice. The other day I bought a pair of ordinary gardening gloves; when I undid the package, itself an increasingly difficult operation, I found that they had been made in Canada. Inside a new mackintosh a small label disclosed that it had been made in Denmark. A bedside clock I ordered from a mail order firm turned out to be German. My lawnmower and hedge trimmer both have American motors. My electric razor is American, but made in France. My wife and I each have a camera; one is Japanese; the other is German, but made in Singapore. A new sink for the kitchen is French, as are some picnic tumblers. Close examination of a spectacle frame disclosed that is the proper Germany. A reelto-reel tape recorder (I hope that is the proper description) is Swiss. A portable radio and a cassette recorder, not surprisingly, are Japanese. When an American-made electric carving knife packed up, the only replacement readily available was French. This is by no means an exotic list of purchases. Something like it would be found in many households. It is not that foreign products are particularly cheap. Nor are they always well made and reliable. I may have been less lucky than some. But the fact is that the aperture on the Japanese camera stuck and ruined four reels of holiday film. The face of my bedside clock is so cluttered that it is difficult to read the time and, anyway, I have abandoned it, ar it was so noisy that I found it difficult to sleep and when I at last fell into an exhausted slumber the alarm was not loud enough to wake me up. Even my splendid tape recorder has begun to make loud scratching noises. 47

The Japanese radio shows its contempt for the UK market by giving the names only of European stations, which it cannot get from here – although, unlike some others, at least it does not go in for American spelling. The battery of the hedge trimmer no longer retains any charge. A screw came out of my spectacle frame, which then fel apart. All the buttonholes on an American shirt came unstitched; and the Japanese cassette recorder, as I write, is back at the repair shop for the fifth time. My experiences of disaster may be unusual. But the acquisition of a whole range of foreign-made goods in the course of ordinary shopping is not. It is not that the purchaser goes out to buy foreign products; often they are all he can get. Given our economic problems, and recognising as well our deep commitment to international trade, I cannot help but wonder why we cannot put in a rather bigger effort to make things ourselves.I do not want to pick on the Canadians in particular,but is it really beyond us to make our own gardening gloves? When we ourselves depend so much on exports, we obviously cannot close our own doors to imports. But need we fling them open quite so wide ?


.. express (special delivery). Then you put the letter in a…….B. 17. 15. 10. 49 . On the pillar-box you find the time of…… 6. mail (postage) stamp postage postman collection postmaster at the stationer′ s signing a letter signature envelope Your own address (the address of the sender) the name and address of the addresses a stamp piller-box letter-box post(office) box (a box number) ordinary mail (first or second class). The man who delivers the letters is the…… 5.. 12. 2. The man in charge of the post office is the…. 1. 14. The name you put there is your…... 9. Each letter or postcard must have a…..Lesson eight AT THE POST OFFICE I. 4.O. The money you have to pay for the stamp is the……. as registered mail printed matter 18. Big firms often have a P. On the back of the envelope you write…. On the front of the envelope you write…. Putting your name at the end of a letter is called….VOCABULARY A. On the envelope you stick…. 3. The place where the postman delivers your private mail is the……. You buy writing-paper…. 16. That is a…. 7. Newspapers and magazines sent by post are called…. 8. 13. Another word for the post is the…. Before mailing it you must put the letter in an… 11.. You can send your letter by…...

but you must not forget to say your number figure by figure and remember that the figure o (nought) is read as the letter “O” . II. Cheques are kept in a……. the exchange puts you through to your correspondent. The money in a country is called the…. 14. How much one currency is worth in terms of another depends on the…… 5. The sum of money which is owed to a bank is the…… 12. In towns there are several collections and deliveries a day. There are also registered letters and printed matter. The letters whose receivers are unknown are either returned to the senders or carried to the dead-letter office. 8. Telephone. The money you have in a bank is our…… 11.B. People travelling abroad often use…. When you are not a telephone subscriber. Money can be sent by post in the form of a… 3. III. When you have used more money than there is on your account the statement will show an…. If you have no cash on you. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 50 ..VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT you can deposit or writhdraw money from an account there postal order (money order) currency rate of exchange by cheque travellers′ cheques cheque-book banker′ s card account balance/credit debt statement overdraft he owes money to the bank (overdraft) Letters. Recorded delivery is particulary suitable when a record of posting and delivery is needed rather than compensation for loss. 7. 13. Everyone who puts money in a bank must have or open an…. In Britain letters are brought from pillar-boxes to a Head or Branch Post Office where they are sorted. Then they are carried to their destination and delivered. The bank sends you a list of transactions called a…. 10. Letters arrive more quickly by registered post and compensation is offered in case of loss or demage. When you pay by cheque you must also show your…… 9. you must go to a call-box.. He is in the red means…. Post Office Savings Bank means that…… 2. If you cannot use the dial telephone. you can pay… 6.. 4. 1. Documents and papers of little or no monetary value may be sent by recorded delivery.

Where does the postman deliver your private mail ? 13. 14. .fill in the form with capital letters. . .a telegram.the sender′ s name and address. 51 .a registeres letter .buy/renew a television/radio licence. What′ s a mail van ? 19. What details must be filled in on a postal order form ? . Where do you stick the stamp (s) ? 8. What is “postage” ? 9. When do you send postcards and when do you send letters to your friends/relatives ? 5. . . Who delivers the letters ? 11. How do you ussually send letters ? Which is the cheapest/quickest/safest way ? . Where do you put the letter after you write it ? 6.an ordinary letter .draw a State/old age pension. 2. What do you write on the back/front of the envelope ? 7. Have you ever received a postal order ? Who was it from ? 22. How many collections a day are there in a big town ? 12.buy stamps/postcards/envelopes.by recorded delivery.the payee′ s name and address. How long does . What must you do if you want to send a telegram ? – get a telegram form. What is “printed matter” ? 17. Expand these telegrams into complete sentences.deposit/withdraw money from the post office bank.by air mail. What happens to the letters whose receivers are unknown ? 16. . . .send letters/telegrams/money orders/parcels. a parcel to reach Oradea if you send it from Bucharest ? 18. Where do you drop the letter after you have written it and put it in the envelope ? 10.by surface mail.an airmail letter take . . What can people do at the post-office? What do you go to the post-office for ? . When is recorded delivery used ? 15. Who is in charge of the post office ? 3. What is another word for Post ? 4.make telephone calls. When do people send telegrams ? 20.1. . ARRIVE 10 PM PLEASE MEET JANE RETURN IMMEDIATELY HOUSE BURGLED POLICE REQUIRE LIST ARTICLES PARCEL NORTH STATION COLLECT TOMORROW LATEST CONTRACT CANCELLED DANGER BANKRUPTCY REQUEST INSTRUCTIONS BOY WILLIAM EIGHT POUNDS BOTH WELL 21.by registeres post.

give you a receipt. 23. What kinds of pensions are paid by the State ? IV. a postcard or a small parcel. The Post Office not only delivers and sends letters and other mail.seal it with wax. What are “travellers ′ cheques” ? When are they used ? 27. you hand it to the assistant. Remember: the charge depends on the number of word. called pillar-boxes. What is the debit ? 31. It is the postman who brings many items of news to everybody. or they are iron cylinders painted red.READING FOR COMPREHENSION THE POST OFFICE The Post Office has many duties and has hundreds of thousands of officials: postmasters who are in charge of post offices. If you want your letter to arrive more quickly than by ordinary post. you needn′ t go to the post office. .weigh it on the scales. but also controls the telegraphs and telephones. If you want to post an ordinary letter. In Britain these boxes are either fixed in the wall. who weighs it on the scales. you can claim payment from the post-office. standing by the kerbstone. but in villages there may be only one or two collections. What are some of the things people save money for ? 25. post-office clerks and many postmen. What kinds of things do you use cheques for ? 26. What is a bank account ? 29.. What does the Post Office Savings Bank mean ? 24. The time of the next collection is indicated on a little plate. In cities pillar-boxes are emptied several times a day. A telegram reaches the addressee in two or three hours. What does the post office clerk do when you want to send a parcel ? Why are all these done ? . . if the parcel is lost or stolen. so try to convey your message in as few words as possible. you can drop it into the nearest letter-box. What is the money you have in a bank called ? 30. (You can also dictate a telegram over the telephone). you can send it by Air Mail. Where are cheques kept ? 28.the amount to be sent. 32. The letters whose receivers are unknown are either returned to the senders or carried to the dead-letter office. When you send a parcel. and pays out pensions and allowances. You pay according to the weight of the parcel and the clerk gives you a receipt. issues television and radio licences and registers them. Then. and dropping the letters into our letter-boxes. going round from house to house. Do you want to send a telegram ? Just ask for a telegram form at the counter and fill it in. which is changed by the postman every time he comes to collect letters. 52 .

Speak about writing and getting a letter. V. and then you can speak.Do you want to have a conversation with a friend of your who lives in another town ? Then you make a long-distance. It is posssible to make a direct besides. It is easy to make a local call from then you fill it in and pay the a telephone-box charge which depends on the number of words. you may drop letters into you first dial the code number letter-boxes which are fixed in a wall and then the number of the subscriber 6. making telephone calls (trunk / local calls). 4. many postmen. The postmen is one of the most the clerk weighs the parcel on popular officials. You either ask the operator to connect You. sending letters. you press in the coin. hear the several times a day dialling tone. if your friend lives in a bigger town you may dial the call yourself. the scales and then gives you a receipt. dial the number and press in the coin. or. duties of the post-office. In Britain. pillar-boxes are emptied you lift the receiver. If you make a local call. called pillar-boxes. 8. 3. licences and pays out pensions and allowances. standing by the kerbstone. B. you or you may use iron cylinders first ask for a form painted red. 5. 7. When your hear rapid pips. Main ideas: 53 . There are dozens of people working in a he brings news to everybody and Post-office. sending parcels. When you hear the dialling tone indicating that nothing is wrong on the line. The Post Office delivers and sends a postmaster. You first dial the code number for the town that you are calling and them the number of the subscriber. Main ideas: people whose work is connected with the post-office. you go into the telephone-box and lift the receiver. two collections. 9. Match the two columns according to the comprehension passage above: 1. sending telegrams. letters and other mail. FLUENCY PRACTICE A. In order to send a parcel you have in villages there are only one or to go to the post-office. it issues TV and radio call to a big town. C. post-office clerks. In cities. If you want to send a telegram. Talk/write about postal and telephone services. drops letters into our letter-box 2. dial the number want.

2. 6. a pillar-box – a letter-box 2.ordinary mail. with details of how much it will cost to send the telegram/parcel and how long it will take to reach its destination). D. the person who receives the letter. . 3. E. because they are shops as well – in small villages they may be the only shop: 54 . The latter are very interesting places. .pillar-box. 14. . 7.letter-box. A credit – a debit.stamp. Resaons for sending letters/postcards to people.sorting. 5.dead-letter office.writing the letter. Name the following: 1. 5. the money you pay for a stamp. VI.collection. 10.adddressee. . . The role of registered post. a collection – a delivery.registered mail. money sent by post. A postmen – a postmaster. Sending a telegram/parcel. . 9. 12. 8. . 5. cheques used by people travelling abroad. 4. HOME READING AT THE POST OFFICE In England there are Post-Offices and Sub-Post-Offices. (Dialogue with the post-office clerk. the place where your postmen delivers your private mail. discussing what might be in it. . 6. . What′ s the difference between: 1..signature. Topics for conversation/composition: 1. the sum of money owed to a bank. ordinary mail – express delivery.writing paper. A postmen′ s working day. 7.envelope. the money in a country. the man in charge of the post office. . the man who delivers the letters. the name you put on a letter. F.sender. . . 11. 3. . 8. 4. newspapers and magazines sent by post. A dialogue between the person who has received the parcel and his friend. 2. Writing and sending a letter. . 13. 4. the quickeast kind of mail. the person who sends the letter. The sender – the addressee. Sending telegrams.delivery. the money you have in a bank. Work in a post-office. 6. 3.

Right. it′ s a boy ! Postmistress: Ah. it′ s not urgent. Mr. Postmistress: Oh. because we don′ t do registered parcels any more. Finished your telegram ? Good.The Postmistress: Mrs. Postmistress: There you are. Barclay: Oh. how big are they ? Well. are you ? Mrs.Office Savings Account. ? Mr. Wallace How′ s Mrs. Anything else ? Mr. And I′ d like a television licence form. Just let me count the words. and what else ? Mrs Barclay: This one to London. Here′ s some money to go into my wife′ s Post. Mr. Wallace…. Barclay: Can you tell me how much these letters will cost ? There′ s one for my son in Sweden. Here′ s a pen. what can we do for you ? Mr. Thank you. please. yes. well. Ah. if I may. Postmistress: Do you want them registered or sent recorded delivery ? Let′ s see. Yes. Fill in the name and address on there. Should I send it by air or sea ? Postmistress: All letters go to Europe by air. make it second class. Mrs. Ah. Mrs Murphy ! What can we do for you ? I′ ve come to collect my old-age pension – for two weeks. there′ s your change. off to see your daughter. too. Wallace: Oh. yes. Wallace: It′ s a boy. we′ ve got special telegrams for that – just let me give you a form and you can fill it in ar the desk over there. Murphy: Hello. Then I′ ll stamp it and there we are. they′ ll have to go recorded delivery. Postmistress: Believe me. There′ s her book. it′ s a waste of money – you won′ t have time To watch television with that new baby around ! 55 . Postmistress: There′ s your change. Grosvenor: I′ ve got these important papers to send to London. Postmistress First or second class ? Mrs. Grosvenor. Murphy: That′ s right – oh – and you can give me a couple of 8 p stamps.

or phone them. If you have not got enough money you can ask for a person-to-person call and… 9.Lesson nine ON THE TELEPHONE I VOCABULARY 1. 3. Then you…. the verbs. When you can′t find it there you can dial…. When the person we want to call is already speaking to someone else we say that… 12. When there is a difficulty with the connection the operator may tell you to…. When you make a telephone-call you lift the…. That means that the receiver of the call… 10. or ring them or give them a 56 Receiver Dial the number (telepfone) directory Directory inquiries Long-distance call or a tunk call Direct International code-number Have the charges reversed Has to pay for it Hold the line The line (number) is engaged it′s out of order . VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT The Language of Telephoning The language of telephones and telephoning is worth getting right. 4. When the phone is not working we say… II. First. Making a call to a place far away is called a…. 6. You telephone someone. 5. Then first dial the… 8. 11. 2. To most countries in Europe you can phone… 7. If you don′t know the number you can lock it up in the….

lift/pick up the receiver. 5.AND. Try again. If you use a public telephone.ANSWER PRACTICE 1. please. You are through Who is (that) speaking ? I′ll ring you buck later. 7. .hang up the receiver. .direct trunk-calls. Do you prefer a party-line telephone or a private line ? Why ? Advantages and disadvantages of each. you call them. What kind of trunk-calls can you make from your town ? .dial the number. What conveniences does a telephone offer ? 2. If you′re American. Sorry.wait for the dialling tone. Who uses the telephone most in your family ? Why ? 11. . What are the disadvantages of using a call-box ? 6. Think of a similar set of instructions for using a Romanian call-box. . When you′re speaking to someone by phone. Read the following instructions for using a call-box in Britain.look up the number in the directory. If you′re using a public telephone and want the person at the other and to understand you′re running out of time or money. The telephone exchange can be just the exchange but never ′phone exchange′. you say you′re ringing from a call box. Explain what a transferred charge call is. Hold on. 9. Apart from getting a wrong number.drop the coin into the slot. but nobody else does. What services does the Inquiry Bureau/Office offer ? 8. When are these phrases used ? You are wanted on the phone. . Wrong number. you may get a crossed line. .dial the operator to ring the number for you. III QUESTION. 10. you′re on the phone. or call them up. TO MAKE A CALL Have money ready 5 o or 10 p Lift receiver 57 . What is a telephone extension ? 4. What verbs can be used when you want to say you′re going to make a telephone call ? 3. This is Mary speaking Hold the line.ring. The line is busy/engaged Can you leave a message ? The line is free/clear. How can you make a local telephone call from a public telephone box/callbox ? . The post office calls them ′payphones′. or a bad line. you make a call from a phone boy (in a restaurant or at a station). 12. or ask the person at the other and to speak up. or from a telephone kiosk (in the street).

Tell me what I have to do. She has just had lunch with an aunt. Now wait ! Listen. Now I put two pence in this slot quickly – you must have the money ready. Let′s try the next box we come to. who comes from a Welsh village. press in coin To continue a dialled call put in more money during conversation or when you hear rapid pips again IV. Let′s go tonight. (They walk along to the Underground station and find a box free there. Erica:Now I′m going to dial the number I want. Can you hear it ? Megan: Yes. Can you look up the number for me – I haven′t my glasses with me. I′m sorry. I′ll book the seats now. Erica dials again). It′s very difficult getting a theatre box office on the telephone – the number always seems to be engaged. In that the Siddons Theatre box office ? Box office: Speaking Erica: Have you any seats at a reasonable price for the Friday evening performance this week ? 58 . Hallo. though. Erica: Megan: Erica: There′s a good play on at the Siddons theatre. Erica Antrim. Good. Erica: Good. Erica:You lift the receiver and wait – usually only a second-for the dialling tone. Look. is spending a week in London with friends. Erica wants to take Megan to the theatre. I can. I can′t manage tonight.we′re through. CONVERSATION PRACTICE A. otherwise you can be cut off again. The pips . Dialogue: On the Telephone by Ona Low Megan. That′s the number engaged signal. I′m free on Friday. Here′s the right directory Megan: It′s 987-3624. Erica:Have you used a telephone like this before ? Megan: No. there′s an empty telephone box.Listen for continuous purring Dial number or code and number When you hear rapid pips.

Thank you. Johnson please ? Mr. Erica: My I have two et ₤1. Who answers her ? 9. Rogers. Where does Megan look up the number of the theatre box office ? 6. Where does Megan come from ? 2. please.Box office: The only seats we have left are at the back of the stalls. Squeers: Can I speak to Mr. Voice: I′m afraid she′s not in just now. please. please ? Squeers: George Squeers S-Q-U-E-E-R-S. A-N-T-R-I-M. 39 and 40. I do hope they′re good seats. Good-bye. Mr.507 When must I collect them by ? Box office: Half an hour before the performance at the latest. Where does Erica want to take Megan ? 4. one pound fifty pence. Johnson: Mayfair – two – oh – three – seven. please ? Erica: Antrim. I′ll tell her. Who has she just had lunch with ? 3. Secretary: Onley Hall 4104 Squeers: Can I speak to Mr. Answer these questions about the dialogue: 1. Voice: Eastwood 3248 Squeers: I wonder if I could speak to Mrs. Squeers: Oh. B. Mr. Davis. Voice: All right. please ? Would you tell her that George Squeers called and that I′ve managed to buy two tickets for her and her husband for tonight′s performance. Johnson: Speaking. 2. Mr. Mr. When must she collect them by ? C. After that they may be sold. Squeers: Good morning. would you give her a message. This is George Squeers speaking. What name is it. 59 . Can Erica get the box office on the phone ? Why not ? 7. Where do they go to book the seats ? 5. Davis: Hallo. Would you repeat your name. Does Erica book seats for the Friday evening performance ? 10. well. Where does she try again ? 8. please ? Secretary: Just a moment. I′ll put you through. Read the following dialogues which contain some typical set phrasses used on the phone: 1. 3. I′m so glad. They are Row W. Mr Squeers. Squeers lifts the receiver and dials 2031. Voice: Yes. (She replaces the receiver) That′s settled. Davis here.

I′m afraid you′ve got the wrong number. This is the British system: A for Andrew B for Benjamin C Charlie D David E Edward F Frederick G George H Harry I Isaac J K L M N O P Q R for Jack for King Lucy Mary Nellie Oliver Peter Queenie Robert S T U V W X Y Z for Sugar Tommy Uncle Victory William Xmas Yellow Zebra My name is Philip Binham.). This is Ann speaking. but Americans don′t. I′m so sorry. D. Binham: B for Benjamin. When spelling the same letter twice. Hallo. I′m sorry. A B 1. My wife isn′t in. P for Peter. The British say “double 7” in a number like 6774. May I use your telephone ? d) Mine is out of order 5. H for Harry. Hold on. Good-bye. Voice: That′s all right. A for Andrew.). I for Isaac. a) Can you leave a message ? 2. Telephone numbers: O is pronounced (ou) (Br. b) Can I speak to Mary ? 3.Squeers: Thank you. as in RUBBER: R-U-double B-E-R. I for Isaac. Then practise spelling your name and telephone number. H for Harry. N for Nellie. zero (Am. M for Mary. Philip: P for Peter. British people usually say “double B”.double E-D. I for Isaac. Squeers: Oh. (Philip Binham) 60 . but Americans say six-seven-seven-four. D′ Read these rules about spelling names and telephone numbers in English on the phone. please ! e) I′ll put you through in a moment 6. 4. c) I′ll ring you back later 4. Hold the line ! f) I′ll be back in a moment. L for Lucy. please ? Voice: Foster ? There is no Goster here. or FEED: F. Choose from column B the sentences that are connected with those in column A. Voice: Hello Squeers: Can I speak to Dick Foster. “double E”. I′m quite busy right now.

7. 61 . G. Inpleasant talk with the lady with whom you have been sharing the same party-line telephone for several years. short-distance calls of up to about twenty miles. 5. I′ll put you through. would you give her a message ? Please forgive my troubling you.“There is something wrong with our phone”. the person who puts you through when make a trunk-call. well. . .“Hold the line while the operator puts you through !” .to put the coin in the slot. 7. . 6. Name the following: 1. F. . Advantages and disadvantages of having a telephone at home. Give your reasons for interrupting someone else′s call. the narrow opening in a public telephone where you drop the coin. 4. 5.long-distance calls. 2. A young man is making a phone call from a telephone-box. Phone Directory Inquiries. . Your experience in making a long-distance call. telephone calls over longer distances. the sound which tells you the telephone can be used. ? B: Speaking Who shall I say is calling ? Just a moment. Topics for free conversation/composition: 1. A: I′m afraid she′s not in just now. . please. a phone that is not working. 8. You have never used a public telephone before. He is trying to bring the conversation to an end as he has noticed the queue outside. H. People outside the call-box are complaining. 6. 4.E′ Give synonyms to the following: . 3. B: Oh. You have to make an urgent phone call. 8. 3.the number is engaged. Hold the line. the part of the telephone you lift to your ear. Make up a short dialogue using the following: A: Can I speak to….to call back. a list of names of people in alphabetical order with their addresses and telephone numbers.the line is free.“Don′t hang up !” . 2. You have forgotten the telephone number of the person you′re going to ring up. Your friend is giving you instructions. and also speak into.to phone someone. Hang up the receiver and dial again. I′m afraid you′ve got the wrong number. .to lift the receiver.

11. for example. a message can be left for him to ring the operator when he is available. For an additional charge the cost of the call can be transferred to the called number if it is accepted when the operator offers the call. A useful service.m. Private telephone lines versus party-lines. 10. but the charge for the call can be brought to the person required. V. A small extra charge is made. telegrams).9. can be brought to the telephone. These can be useful on trunk-calls to guests in hotels or someone in a large firm. From your residential or business telephone the cost is debited to your bill. An inland telegram can be sent from any telephone.30 p. Personal calls. The use(e) of the telephone directory. HOME READING CALL-SERVICES WITHIN THE UNITED KINGDOM Alarm calls. Directory enquiries. 12. Alarm calls for early morning should be booked before 10. at a small fee not only for early morning alarm calls but also. If you cannot find the number you want in the directory or you do not have the directory concerned call DIRECTORY ENQUIRIES. Telephone services (alarm calls. Also a daily fixed-time call over a period of consecutive days can be arranged. as a reminder of an appointment. or an acceptable substitute. 62 . Using public telephone-boxes: advantages and drawbacks. transferred charge calls. The operator should be told that a transferred charge call is wanted before other particulars are given. the previous evening. A personal call fee is payable whether or not the call is successful. A call can be booked in advance with the operator to be connected at ar about a specified time. If the person wanted cannot be found. Fixed-time calls. Telegrams. emergency calls. Transferred charge calls. Just dictate your message to the telegraph office – see your Dialling Code Booklet.

63 .

The trees put forth…in spring 6. 1. But in summer it A. Britain has a wet… 2. 12. 8. 2. In the morning there is…on the grass B. Clears up Moist Dew Snows Snowmen Snowballs Melts/thaws Buds In blossom (bloom) Crops Fall off. They play with… 4. the heat is… 15. 8.Lesson ten THE WEATHER I. the sky usually… 16. When the rain or snow falls only for a short period of time we call is a… 7. Find in column B the definition for each item in column A 64 . 3. Children make…in winter 3. A light rain is called… 5.…are harvested. Oppressive. After the rain. And we hear… 11. Britain has a wet…s often…. 1. When it rains for a long time everything gets… 4. After a very hot day there may be a… 9. In winter it often…. A very violent wind is called a… 13. When it is very hot. In spring. What we see then is… 10. In autumn. Another word for a storm is a….The air is…and fresh after the rain 17. In summer when the trees are full of flowers we say they are… 7. the snow… 5. When it ′ s raining heavily we say… 6. 1.VOCABULARY A. A thick mist we call… 14. When the sun is not shining we say that it′ s…. C. The leaves turn yellow and… Climate Warm/sunay Wet through Drizzle it′ s pouring Shower Cloudy/dull/overcast Thunderstorm Lightning Thunder Gale Hurricane Fog.

pink and gold. At noon the sky is evercast with heavy black clouds.an area. Fortunately however. This beautiful sunset promises a fine day tomorrow.Then it lightens again and thunders. . . followed by a clap of thunder. It threatens to be a heavy shower. It is dusk. and the stars appear one by one. wind. Clouds appear in the sky. The sun is just appearing above the horizon. The air is moist and fresh after the rain. Suddenly the afternoon sun shines out brightly again from the edge of a cloud. There is moist dow on the grass. III.near the equator.conditions of temperature. 3.weather conditions. A cool breeze is blowing from the south-east. a region. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT A SUMMER DAY It is dawn. The sun is setting now and all the western sky is tinged with red.A Hail Lightning B Brief fall of rain Arch containing the colours of the spectrum formed in the sky after rain Sleet Rain in very small fine drops Shower Falling snow or hail mixed with rain frozen raindrops falling from the sky Fog bank of snow heaped up by the wind Drizzle Violent wind (storm) Rainbow Flash of bright light produced by natural electricity in the sky Hurricane Vapour suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth′ s surface II. QUESTION AND ANSWER PRACTICE 1.in the polar region. The sun slowly rises higher and higher and soon it has a dazzling brightness. but no clouds are seen in the sky.in the middle latitudes. . the breeze increases in strength until it becomes wind. Which part of the world does Britain/Romania lie in ? . 2. The hail changes again to rain. The raindrops sparkle on the grass and the horizon is overarched by a beautiful rainbow. etc. Night is coming on. . which glitters in the sunshine. Large raindrops begin to fall. What is ′ climate′ ? What elements are taken into account when we speak about the climate of a particular area ? . As day advances. and the black thunder-clouds move away. the bright red remains for a while. rainfall. the hailstorm does not last long. What are the characteristics of climate in the middle latitudes ? What is the climate of Britain/Romania like ? 65 . Suddenly there is a flash of lightning. and hailstones as large as peas fall with great rapidity. The shadows darken everywhere. Even after the sun has set. .in the tropics. (Hail is frozen rain).

sunset. . . . thunder-clouds.it′ s clearing up. What is ′ weather′ ? .The rainbow appears above the horizon. Describe an English summer day under the following headings: .conditions of temperature. etc: .Sunddenly there is a flash of lightning. . The stars are twinkling in the sky.heat: oppressive/unbearable/scorching. .the climate: temperate. bariable.breeze.. . . sunshine.The black thunder-clouds move away. 7. What happens in autumn ? 66 . 4.night. 9.The sun shines brightly again.morning. . These sentences describe a summer shower.four seasons. Use: . During what parts of the day do these events happen ? The sun is rising Darkness has fallen The sun has set. a specific time. The sun is shining brightly.afternoon.rainbow.The air is moist and fresh after the rain. . irregular.the snow: melts/thaws. rain.(a flash of) lightning. . . . . . .It lightens again and thunders.the trees: put forth buds. . wind. Put them in the right order: .The sky is overcast with heavy clouds.dusk.a particular area. continental. . noon. insular. .sky: clear.the birds: build nests. .(a clap of) thunder.Large raindrops begin to fall.rainfall. rain. are in bloom. . bright. .Fortunately the shower does not last long. . .dawn (daybreak). Give a simple description of spring. 10. . . overcast. . lay eggs. What are the characteristics of rain in summer ? .clouds: dark. .The sky clears up. . Burst into leaf. 5. There is moist dew on the grass. 6.winds.temperature: varied. .shower: thunderstorm.wind. hailstorm. 8.rainbow. . .The raindrops sparkle on the grass.

Dickensian fogs. but because there is always an element of surprise in the British climate. icicle.snowball. 12. from December to February. sunny season when the flowers bloom and the birds sing and the trees burst into leaf. and the west ba comparison wet. Perhaps they were…. July and August. snowflake. are in theory still summer. but the trouble is that you never can be sure when the different types of weather will occur. thick. skating-rink. In theory. snowstorm. and the summers really were summers. Winter. 11.leaves: turn yellow. the south of Great Britain is warm and the north by comparison cold. Describe winter in your own words. snowdrift. ice. fall off. snowman. the weather seldom runs to extremes. sparkling cold. the English seasons of today are in a hopeless muddle. of ploughing. The summer months.Anyway. should in theory be a season of bright. with heat-waves and even drought. everybody in England who is old enough to begin looking back can remember that when he or she was a child the winters really were winters. inherited from many generations of 67 . and November is sacred to good. thick/dense fog. Spring lasts approximately from March to May and is a gentle. the weather of the British Isles is generally one long series of exceptions to its own traditional rules. of gradual preparation for the winter. IV. No ordinary mortal can guess from one day to another which season he will find himself in when he wakes in the morning. Like the hills and the landscape. Autumn. One takes some winter clothes as a matter of course on one′ s summer holiday. Why do children like winter ? . from September to October or November.drizzle. June. By some inexplicable process.. The one certain thing about the English weather is that it isn′ t what it used to be. . Use: . with snow. but he has his own private meteorological wisdom. In practice. snow ploughs.mist.crops are harvested. with long hot days and the whole nation out of doors getting suntanned. frost. READING FOR COMPREHENSION THE WEATHER IN THE BRITISH ISLES The English weather is the subject of innumerable jokes and provides an inexhaustible topic of conversation: this is not because the British are too dull to think of anything else to talk about. mud. the east is dry. . and starts out in dazzling sunshine with mackintosh or umbrella over one′ s arm. Official weather forecasts do their best with the cyclones and anticyclones and depressions over Iceland upon which the Englishman′ s sunshine and rain depend. is the season of falling leaves and bonfires. too. In theory there are four definite seasons. snow: dreep/thick.

the English weather (in practice). In theory. 2. fine before eleven”. . Like the hills and the landscape the British weather rarely runs to extremes. b) The weather in Romania. . Trees put forth buds. In what seasons do these events happen ? Crops are harvested./Red sky at night.weather-wise ancestors. the snow melts. leaves turn yellow. Main ideas: a) The weather in the British isles: . After reading the comprehension passage carefully. When plans for the following day are being discussed. say which of the following statements are true and which are false.general characteristics. he is able to remind his family of the old saying. winter. . upon which the Englishman′ s sunshine and rain depend. there is drought. V.general features. Weather forecasts often mention cyclones. 3. 68 . and it is by that that he instinctively goes. flowers bloom. But one thing with which the foreigner can amuse himself is trying to decide when the people who talk about the weather mean less than what they are actually saying.the Englishman and the weather forecasts. In summer flowers bloom and trees burst into leaf. Correct the false ones. “Red sky at morning. There are very few exceptions to the traditional rules of the English weather. it is no wonder that the Englishman talks a lot about the weather. It snows. 5. he remembers. 1. shepherd′ s delight”. “Rain before seven. with so many exceptions to so many rules to be discussed. summer. when they mean more and when they are genuinely enjoying the fact that it is (as can sometimes happen even in England) ′ lovely weather for the time of year′ . B. When plans are being made for the afternoon. anticyclones and depressions over the continent. in spring there are long hot days and the whole nation is out of doors getting suntanned. 7. Talk about the English and the Romanian weather. 6. it often drizzles. the sun rises late and sets early C. It often rains in autumn. the season of falling leaves.FLUENCY PRACTICE A. autumn. 4.characteristics (in theory) of: spring. Winter is the season of bright. . shepherd′ s warning. Living in so temperamental a climate. sparkling cold.

5.again. rain – hail..dew on the grass. It′ s 30º C means…. Describe a typical spring/summer/autumn/winter day in Romania. The sky is…. 2.with heavy clouds. Hurricane – storm. sleet 69 . E.the Romanians′ attitude towards the weather. The sky is…. frost 8. Fog – mist. 3. What kind of weather we may expect. Lightning – thunder 1. 6. Differences between the English and the Romanian climate. Do you think the weather may affect people′ s character/mood/health ? In what way ? TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER H... The sun is shining brightly. If the weather gets worse. Give reasons. What′ s the difference between: 1. 3. 6. 2. We can read the temperature on the…. The heat is… 6. Children′ s activities in each season. The weather is changing from one day to the next. Information about tomorrow′ s weather is called the…. 8. It′ s swfully hot in here. 5. cool – cold. 8.the four seasons. Topics for conversation/composition: 1. The black thunder-clouds have moved away. Snowflake – snowdrift. 7. Frozen ground or air is called…. 4. breeze – wind. thermometer 5. 11. F. weather forecast. Large drops are beginning to fall. 10. 5. Nature in spring/summer/autumn/winter. . Parts of the day. Drizzle – sleet – shower.. Partly frozen rain is called…. 6. it…. A summer shower. 7. The barometer tells us…. 4. wet – damp. 3. 2. D. Your favourite season. The weather is usually…. 4. 2. There is…. dew – frost. 4. It′ s going to be a…. THE TOPIC DICTIONARY 1. 7. When the temperature is below zero we say that… it′ s freezing. 9. 3. clear – overcast. Fill in the blanks with the missing adjectives: There are clouds in the sky.at this time of year. It has a…brightness. it′ s thirty degree centigrade. Deteriorates 7. The grass is wet.shower.

except on high ground in Scotland. So no star-gazing tomorrow night. Temperatures tomorrow will be slightly above average – though not very much. 4. 16. .9. A small ball of hail is a…. hail hailstone hailstorm snowstorm blizzard snowdrift drought floods II. 13. A great overflow of water is called…. A…. 12. 10. The outlook for the rest of the day: quite warm. Drizzle. Snowstorms Hailstorms Drought. 3. Minimum temperatures tonight should be about average in most parts of the country. What is the importance of weather forecasts ? What′ s the weather like when the temperature is below zero ? Where can people read the temperature ? What does the barometer tell us ? In what seasons do these happen ? Sleet. 70 Frost Floods. then remember: ′ April showers/Bring May flowers′ . Frost is unlikely. linked with sporadic outbreaks of more thundery rain and people in the West can expect one or two sunny intervals. A…. Blizzards. Showers. without any rain. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT A TELEVISION WEATHER FORECAST The weather tonight will be fine in most places east of a line from the Pennines to the Isle of Wight.m. but this fine weather will gradually deteriorate during the course of the night under the influence of a depression coming from the Atlantic. but there may be one or two mist and fog patches in low-lying areas towards dawn. 2. so don′ t cast a clout till May is out – and if the rain gets you down. A long period of dry weather (usually in summer) is called….is a deep mass of snow formed by the wind 15. and clouds will have reached most places by about 6 a. III. 11. the rain will develop into isolated showers. thick clouds. A…is a long severe snowstorm 14. 5. which will give way towards sunset to high. Frozen raindrops which fall as little hard balls are….is a very heavy fall of snow. though people on the East coast can expect a rather cold north-easterly wind from the Continental area of high pressure about fifteen to twenty miles per hour. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER PRACTICE 1. with rain spreading from the west during the course of the morning. A storm when hail falls heavily is a…. Goodnight.

windy. Local morning mist. cool. How do farmers fight drought ? 8. they get worse and worse. 11. Why are hailstorm dangerous for crops ? 7. which one was supposed to put out on one′ s windowsill. “What′ s that “? “This was a small China donkey with a tail of string. Why do you think the Englishman says. cloudy. Occasional rain in most parts. If tail is wet…. foggy. Minimum temperatures – slightly below zero. masses of cold air. dry. cold. “These weather forecasts. 12. but…” Bob got up and turned off the radio.What is the weather like on a typical spring/summer/autumn/winter day ? fine/fair. Describe the meteorological conditions that might give rise to these remarks about the weather: Isn′ t it lovely weather today ? What an awful day. ′ Britain has no climate. only weather′ ? 10. wet/damp. On it were written various directions. chilly. oppressive.Rain. and a risk of thunder. depressions and areas of high pressure. Scorching heat. It′ s been rather a good winter. hasn′ t it ? Have you heard the weather forecast ? IV.6. isn′ t it ? Looks a bit like rain. bas/nasty. cold fronts. “Did he use the old rhymes too ? And the Donkey Barometer ?” Alice asked. stuffy. Dialogue: TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER “Today′ s weather: Most areas will be dry. light variable wind. masses of warm air – my grandfather could predict the weather better from the way his corns felt”. doesn′ t it ? I expect it′ ll clear up later. sunny. of which the most striking were: If tail is dry… Fine. In what season are you more likely to get the following information in a weather forecast ? The weather is unsettled to fair. warm fronts. Cool. rainy. Highs and lows. hot. CONVERSATION PRACTICE A. snowy. Showers with bright intervals. 71 . What may happen if you are caught by a blizzard in the mountains ? 9.

Yes. it certainly seems to be letting up. It′ ll probably cloud over again before we get up in the morning. 4. “Showers can be very heavy. “Nor have you”. are those snowflakes ?” “No. Then we had a very damp and chilly autumn and a warm. One minute. 8. “No. I even saw a tree struck by lightning. a long period of dry weather. 2. Well. Look out of the window now: it′ s drizzling already”. 2. but it was quite a long way away. I remember. it′ s where the dustmen dropped some of the wastepaper when they were emptying the bin”. it looks more like Scotch mist. Good lord. 6. soak you to the skin. a long severe snowstorm. The sky′ s clearing. B. as usual”. there was a tremendous heatwave here – cloudless skies – or only fluffy cumulus – temperature in the eighties. It looked like a cloudburst for a moment then”. anyway. “Ah. Answer these questions: 1. though. 9. 5. there were large black thunder-clouds over-head. I remember when I was a girl we had one of our windows smashed by a hailstorm. with snowdrifts the feet deep .you′ ve never been snowed in. “It might be even sleet. a great overflow of water. the next. 3. a very heavy fall of snow. a light rain. “Of course it isn′ t. and the sound of the thunder didn′ t reach me for a second or two”. but you′ ve never been caught in a snowstorm. partly frozen rain. “You′ re right. 6. 7. How would you distinguish the weather in Britain from that in Romania ? C. That summer was a real scorcher – water shortages. Look at the barometer. “Thank goodness for that”. the rain′ s easing off. it′ s hanging in the air”. “There′ s no need to laugh. when I went on a skiing holiday in the mountains two years ago”. not in a proper blizzard. it′ s cold enough”. “In the summer of that year. wet winter – floods in the West country. a short summer rain. Express the following in one word: 1. 4. a very violent wind. there were no clouds in the sky.If tail falls out… Earthquake. and hailstones like large marbles coming down. everything – proper drought. 72 . 3. and had to wait for a snow plough”. no rain for almost eight weeks. Does Bob believe in weather forecasts ? What is Alice′ s attitude ? What incident in her childhood does she remember ? What unusual thing happened to Bob once ? Give several reasons why the weather is a constant topic of conversation in Britain. “Oh yes.

Perhaps you don't like so many tourists in your country.makers travel to all parts of the world. Holidays Yes – holidays ! In fact there have always been holidays – in ancient Rome there were more than 150 a year – but a holiday used to mean simply a day when you didn't work. and which sends office workers and shop assistants to Spain. But in 1969 Neil Armstrong stepped out of his space capsule and made his famous statement: “That's one small step for a man. 73 . men were walking on the moon. Computers They have already revolutionized the way we live and work. More computer wonders are yet to come. They were all buildings and statues. Space Travel Only a few years before. one giant leap for mankind”. but you must agree that a phenomenon which sees the population of Greece treble in summer.5. 10. We don't know how much they are still changing the world. 2. 1. or the Caribbean is a wonder of the world. But it is early days for computers. reputable scientists declared that it was impossible. from about 50 years in 1906 to about 75 years today. 4. Here is my list. a deep mass of snow formed by the wind. In the last two centuries we have seen unprecedented technical and scientific achievements. Turkey. Now holiday. 3. These are surely our modern wonders. Medical Science Surely nothing has done more for the comfort and happiness of mankind than the advance of medical knowledge ! How many millions of people have benefited from the humble aspirin ? How many lives has penicillin saved ? Average life expectancy in Europe has risen dramatically over the last hundred years.a thick mist Lesson eleven WONDERS OF THE MODERN WORLD I don’t believe that today's wonders are similar in kind to the wonders of the Ancient World.

according to which you think is the most important (l = the most important.Comprehension check Here are seven more statements made by Ann about her choice of wonders. Jonathan Swift wrote. whole villages in France died of hunger. In 1709. The Olympic Games It is true that the Olympic Games are now commercialized and there is greed and drug abuse. b. Agriculture In 1724. If only the politicians could find a way to share it with those parts of the world where there is still famine. This is surely the greatest wonder of all ! VOCABULARY EXERCISES 1. We are still here The last wonder of the modern world is simply that we are still here. Computers Medical science The Olympic Games We are still here Discuss your decisions as a class. sometimes more easily than adults ! d. Which statement goes with which wonder ? Discuss your answers with a partner. In Europe our farmers have done this. What do you think are some of the greatest wonders of the twentieth century ? Don't just think of buildings ! 2. In what way do they say modern wonders are different from ancient wonders? Put them in order. c.5. 7. We see people from warring countries shake hands. Surgeons can perform the most amazing operations. it is a competition in which every country in the world takes part. for a brief moment. We have bombs that could destroy the world but we have not used them. 6. a. 7 = the least important). No government dares to use such weapons. we see these countries come together in peace and friendship. 1-7. 74 space travel holidays agriculture . However. Every four years. in Europe we can't eat all the food we produce. Small children can program them. Now. We feel hope again for the future of mankind. 3. “Whoever makes two blades of grass or two ears of corn grow where only one grew before serves mankind better than the whole race of politicians”.

Talk together as a class. 3.. 6.Work in groups of four. 4. scientists said that it was impossible.e.work. Check your answers with the text. Computers………………………already revolutionized the way we live and work. The telephone The car The television The plane The space satellite The atom bomb The space rocket The computer The fax machine The washing machine 6. How many lives……………. 5. 1. Which do you think is the most important ? Which has changed the world the most ? Mark them 1 for the most important down to 10 for the least im portant..walking on the moon.penicillin saved ? 5.now commercialized. We…………….Discussion What machines are important in your life ? In pairs. Not as much money goes into research as in the 1960s. It is important to try to correct your own mistakes. What other machines would you add to the list ? Writing Correcting mistakes 1. A holiday used to mean a day when you……………………. The Olympic Games…………………. Only a few years before men………………. g. Progress in this area is slower now. We produce enough to feed the world.know how much they…………………still changing the world. 2..Language work Complete the following with the correct auxilliary verb in the positive or negative form. put the inventions in order. Try to persuade the others that your order is the right one ! 7. Maybe visiting one country a day is not your idea od the best way to see the world ! f. 4. 75 .

Word missing Sp – Spelling Read the letter and correct the mistakes. Her teacher has used symbols to show her the kind of mistakes she has made. I have met a give called Christina. Bennett work in a hospital. so I visit galleries and museums. T – Tense P . Look at the letter that a student has written to her friend. 18 Greencroft Gardens London NWb Tuesday 10 May Dear Stephanie Prep Gr How are you ? Im very well. I want learn english because is a very important Gr Gr Gr language. so in the afternuons I go always sightseeing. She said me my WW Gr English is OK. WW Do you like to visit me in London ? Why don't you come for a weekend ? 76 . They have two son Gr and a daughter. Ann don't give us too much WO Gr homework. night we go to the cinema. I like very much painting. Gr. My teachers name is Ann. Mr.I'm stay with a English family called Bennett. T Gr She came from Greece and she have a lovely flat near Regent's Park. I came in London two weeks ago for to P study at a language shool.When you write. and I'm very interesting for modern art.Punctuation WO – Word order Prep – Preposition WW – Wrong word Gr – Grammar . and Mrs. English people is very kind. Last T Sp. but the film wasn't very exiting. but I do a lot of mistakes. but they speak very quickly ! P WW I study in the morning. London is much more WO Gr Prep big than my town. Bennett is teacher.

S. We walked for over two hours and I had to take a train to get back to the hotel! I’ll write again In a few days’ time and I’m sure I’ll have a lot to tell you.. I'd love to see you. Kati Write a similar letter. Box 97431 Nairobi. André 2. Love. Although I haven’t seen much yet.Write to me soon. Write a letter to a friend giving some of your news. 14 Preston Ave. England 15th Aug. 2000 77 . The personal letter The Star Hotel. Yours sincerely. I arrived in London last night and your friend Peter met me at the station. Examples 1.. I’m glad he was there because I don’t think I should ever have found my hotel alone. 2002 Dear Madeline.O. Kenya. East Africa 19th Jan. London. I think I’m going to enjoy myself here. The business letter P. Lesson twelve WRITING A LETTER I. S.W. Imagine you are a student (of languages ? of art ? of music ? in another town. I had never imagined London was quite so big. Last night Peter and I went for a “short” walk.

Ion Ionescu Minister of Defence I. Minister. Useful phrases: The personal letter: I am sorry it has taken me so long to reply to your last letter but … 78 Vocabulary Focus: .. I very much regret to have to inform you that the machine has been badly damaged. Your appointment as Minister of Defence offers me the pleasant opportunity to extend sincere congratulations and to wish you every success in fulfilling the highly responsible mission you have been entrusted with. Edwards 3.. London. I avail myself of this occasion to express my hope that the good bilateral military relations between Romania and Sweden will further develop during your mandate. JB/4703/08 which I ordered from you on Nov. The tape-recorder No. Dear Mr. the assurance of my highest consideration. In the meantime.W. Electrical Supplies. The official letter Dear Mr. to the mutual benefit of our countries.T. S.3 Dear Sirs. Please accept. I shall hold on to the machine you sent until I hear from you. 57 Amhurst Crescent. When I opened the packing-case I found that the lid of the recorder had been cracked. 17 th arrived last night. Minister.West and Co. Ltd. J. Yours faithfully. Would you please let me know whether you would be willing to send me a new recorder and if I should arrange to return the damaged one to you.

apologize for the inconvenience you may have caused and suggest another meeting. Explain why you were not able to meet him. I shall not act until I have received instructions from you. Exercises A. Write a letter thanking him for 79 . A letter to a friend giving him advice on what to take with him on a camping holiday. I look forward to resuming our direct dialogue on topics of mutual interest. It was such a disappointment to learn … I was sorry to hear … I shall be looking forward to seeing/hearing from you soon. 3. Write a letter informing him of what you have done. Write personal letters of between 80 and 100 words on each of the subjects given below: 1. 21st. A friend who lives abroad will shortly be visiting your country and has asked you to make arrangements for his stay. I regret that … I read your advertisment in last Monday’s issue of “The Commercial Gazette” and … I am looking forward to hearing from you soon. You have just returned home after a pleasant visit to a relation in the country. 4. 2. I would greatly appreciate an early reply . and has the honour to … II. Would you please let me know as soon as possible whether you would be willing to … The official letter • • • • I take great pleasure in congratulating you on the occasion of … I avail myself of this opportunity to renew the assurance of my highest consideration. You had arranged to meet a friend in town but it was quite impossible for you to be there.• • • • • Thank you so much for answering my letter so quickly. I sincerely hope you will be able to help me in this matter. Please give my love/regards/ best wishes to … The business letter: • • • • • • • • In your letter of May 22nd you inquire about … In reply to your inquiry of Oct. The Embassy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland presents its compliments to ….

C.. “Nine o’clock”) complaining about an article you read recently. 3. Write a letter to your local bank asking for information about how this can be done. evidenţiind efectele atentatelor din 11 septembrie 2001 asupra mediului de securitate şi schimbările survenite în abordarea şi prevenirea unor astfel de acţiuni. Am fi onoraţi dacă aţi accepta invitaţia de a participa la această conferinţă. asigurarea înaltei mele consideraţii. 5. Write a letter to an English-language newspaper published in your country (e. 4.c. Colonel Vasile Vasilescu 80 . Write a letter to a friend of yours asking for a loan of some money which you urgently require.his hospitality and saying what you enjoyed most while you were there. B. Write business letters of between 80 and 100 words on each of the subjects given below: 1. Aşteptând cu interes oportunitatea unui dialog direct cu dumneavoastră. You ordered a new car from England but when it arrived you discovered that there was no spare wheel in the boot. Write a letter stating your qualifications and requesting that an application form be sent to you. Write a letter pointing this out and requesting that a spare wheel be sent immediately. Write a letter of recommendation for an ex-employee of yours who has applied for a position with a firm abroad. Domnule General. O nouă perspectivă asupra procesului de colectare a informaţiilor”. by air if possible. Say why you want it and when you expect to be able to return it. 2.g. 5. care vor susţine prezentări pe teme de actualitate. în perioada 12 – 14 mai a. vă rog să primiţi. An organization abroad has offered scholarships for those wishing to study languages at a university. Translate into English: Stimate Domnule General. Am onoarea de a vă informa că. La acest eveniment vor lua parte specialişti din Europa şi Statele Unite. You wish to deposit money in a bank abroad. Serviciul de Informaţii va organiza conferinţa internaţională cu tema “Terorism şi contraterorism.

three. or four on how important each one is to you. Very Important 2 –Important 3. 1. two.Not important at all Work indoors Work outdoors Travel on the job Speak another language on the job Use my hands Being artistic Use my creativity Use my business skills Work with numbers Have lots of public contact Help others Work where I am my own boss Work closely with others Work with words (write) Have a job where everyday is different and exciting Have a job where I know what to expect everyday Have a job that pays a lot of money Have a job where I work alone Supervise others Have a job where I work with machines 81 .Lesson thirteen WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO YOU IN A JOB ? Rate the job characteristics below with one. Nor very important 4.

knows his/her strengths and weaknesses.- Don't have too much responsibility Have a job that I can forget about. kinesthetic. or written word learner. X-ONOMICS If you are between the ages of 16 and 25 in America. aural. education doesn't stop with the diploma. Most professionals continue taking many on the job training courses like “How to be a Good Supervisor”. So what exactly are these skills ? Learning to learn skills mean that you are aware of how you learn best and you are continually learning. communication. writing and math. what are some things which you know that you would like in an ideal job ? Now write a one paragraph description of your “ideal job”. Still. unemployment among youth between the ages of 16-19 is running as high as 47%. personal management on the job. “Working Within Teams” or “Problem Solving”. but college graduates are entering a job marker in which 22% of the jobs are part-time low wage jobs which are entering a job market in which are often a dead end.000 or more from school loans. leadership. and the gap is widening fast. in part because of computerization and the need for greater “Job Readiness Skills”. If you have good learning to learn skills. you can accept criticism and feedback from others and you also know if you are a visual. many college graduates are entering the job marker with a debt that can be $10. As society becomes more and more complex. is constantly taking on new challenges. college graduates earn an average of 77/ more than high school graduates. For most Americans. The Department of Labor identified the following job skills necessary to be successful in today' s changing and global workplace: learning to learn. A person with high personal management skills can set personal goals. just having your basic skills. and the basic skills of reading. is getting a job still a piece of cake ? Well it depends on what you are looking for. Why is this increasing at such an alarming rate ? It is increasing. barely gets you a job as a taxi driver these days. group efectiveness. and is able to handle a 82 . In inner cities. critical thinking. so I can concentrate on my family Have a very low stress job Have a job where I work with media or music Have a job where I am constantly learning something new Have a job where I work in nature or out of a city Have a job is in the city As you look over your answers. Coupled with this.

Not. Based on the reading. People who cannot work well with others often don't last long in today's new job market. Asian. companies don't really know how to manage them and often lose them. so people must be able to get along with and communicate with people who are African-American. These young X'ers are more individualistic and daring than their parents were. including: group effectiveness. People must also be able to handle problems and conflicts as they arise and recognize both sexual and racial harassment. people must have respect for orthers ethnic and class backgrounds. to be successful in today's job.number of tasks and responsabilities at the same time. These are what companies would like to instill in older workers. the workplace is becoming culturally diverse in al fields. To do this. In addition. Most young people enter the job force today with computer literacy. one must have both leadership and critical thinking skills. How are critical thinking and leadership skills taught in your school ? THE ANTI-SLACKER Basically everyone under 30 these days is part of this mysterious Generation X. What will they create ? What do they have to offer that the older generation does not have ? What do they bring with them ? The answer is becoming increasingly clear: They have almost everything that the past generations didn't have. She or he can also organize his or her time and money. Three other job skills are those needed to work well with others. all born between 1965 and 1976. Many of the brightest haven't even finished college. it tried to characterize this whole generation as one which had no ambition. Fundamentally. Increadingly. White. Finally. When the movie “Slacker” came our in the late 80 s. in fact. and have wound up finding themselves expert consultants in new 83 . points of view and life styles. What does a culturally diversified workplace mean ? What skills does one need to be successful in a diversified workplace ? 2.5% of these people. city to city. and Native American. but on some level feel it is just too late. and was not interesed in entering the “real world” of work. what might the term “Lifelong Learning” mean ? 3. In the United States there are 44. They must be able to understand different types of organizational structures and solve problems within those structures. an understanding of diversity and a global mind set. What do you think these differences are ? 1. Latin. He or she must be able to identify problems. no hope in the future. The problem with these young keen workers is that. but have spent time hopping around from job to job. People need to be able to negotiate and to find win-win solutions so that everyone can get along and work in a team. they must be able to look at the values and priorities which lie beneath many different types of organizational structures. and negotiation skills. choose appropriate solutions and then make fast and efficient decisions. they must understand the difference between good management and good leadership. Now older workers watch in awe as the young X'ers enter the job market. communication. Gypsy.

Give priority to originality. They are the MTV generation. ………………city……………………. They won't.Zip………………………… message phone…………………. Many watched their parents get divorced lived through other major changes around the house and in the world. and you just might come out ahead ! 1. a Harvard drop-out and a billionaire at 31. Finally.. soc.Black………………. Frequently. recognize that they are young and fearless. US Citizen ? Yes…………. They have watched the older generation do this. APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT Last……………first…………………middle initial…………………. Don't expect these young people to be coming to work in a suit. What kind of office or work environment is a new younger generation worker looking for ? 2.. Native American…………. they grew up with working or single moms and dads. they want it now”. in fact.Hispanic………………………. Result: They adapt very well to ambiguity and change..#…………. They are not loyal. founder of Microsoft at age 19. or senzorial limitations or disabilities ? 84 . but they are more afraid of people not resolving problems and ignoring them. These young people like to feel that they are doing a good job and like to be recognized for their talents. Second.. they thrive on it. Their hero is Bill Gates. So what are companies now having to learn about this new generation ? First. In the United States there are many questions which are illegal to include on a job application..date of birth……………………. What is your ideal working environment ? 3. (Answers found at the end of the chapter). Make the company a place where creative and inventive minds can feel free to work.age…………. Race: Cauc………………….sec.phone………………address…………………………………. These young people are saying “embrace adversity.No………. Who are other examples of Generation X heroes ? To get a job there are three very important stages: the application form.state……………. Third loosen up. you must offer him or her new and bigger challenges on the job or they will become bored quickly and leave fast. Let then try what you might think is even the unthinkable. look ar the job application below and decide which questions you think are or should be illegal to ask someone applying for a job.. As a class.Asian…………………….. they need to anticipate unpredictable career paths.female………………. the resume and the interview.uncharted work areas or starting their own companies.date…………. give him or her a lot of praise. “they don't wait.. it creates leaders”. mental.Sex:male………..Other……………… Do you have any physical. They are not afraid of problems. It is better to relay not only the dress code around the office but the whole atmosphere. Many generation X'ers grew up in unstable or changing families. An X'er will not work year in and year out to get to the top of the company.. Many successful X'er.

. 85 .98102 (206-987-6543) Work Objective: To apply my communication skills and knowledge of Tourism in a forward thinking company Work Experience: Summer Tour Guide (1994-5) Jet City Tours. Do you have a driver's license ?………………………………………………….. RESUME Eileen Ryan 1020 Beach Road Seattle.. Duties:……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… Reasons for leaving:…………………………………………………………. Located reasonable accommodations and assisted travelers with problems. Date available…………………Minimum acceptable salary……………………. WA. Assisted travelers in the Seattle area.. Have you ever been convicted of a felony ?……………………………………. Have you ever been discharged Or forced to resign from a job ?…………………………………………………. state the name of the organization:………………………………………… Education School attended Date completed Graduated Work experience Employer……………………………Title……………………………….. Washington. Address…………………………….Supervisor's Name………………… Dates worked: From……………To…………Salary…………………. Seattle. please describe:……………………………………………………………… Occupation of Husband/Wife:……………………………………………………… Name of spouse's employer:………………………………………………………. Translated French and Japanese documentation... If yes.Full Time:………………Part time……………. Positiondesire:………………. The following resume is a good example for someone who does not have a lot of work experience but has other life experiences which show that he or she will be a good employee. Hosted guided tours.Yes____________ No______________ If yes.

If an employer asks you an illegal question. Washington Helped unemployed youth find jobs. The University of Washington. Assisted with food prep. Seattle. Discuss ways of coping with rejection after not getting a job that you wanted. Volunteer Work: Seattle Food Bank (1990-92) Volunteered once a week at the food bank. Contacted perspective employers. Interviewers should select only 7 questions. Seattle. Served hot coffee to customers. WA.Waitress (1992-94) The Broadway Bar and Grill. Inventoried food which was brought in to the center. One by one the students are called into the room to interview. Researched perspective catering jobs for company. Take time and prepare your answers on another piece of paper but then be ready to roleplay them at a mock interview by one of your classmates. Linguistics. Three Students play the role of employers.S. After the five have been interviewed the employers make their choice and the class makes theirs. 1995 THE INTERVIEW SCENARIO Below are the most frequently asked job interview questions. Served food and drinks to a tourist clientele. citizen ? • What would your teachers say about you ? 86 . They leave the room. • Why don′ t you tell me about yourself ? • What interests you about this position ? • Why did you choose this company ? • What would you say are your major strengths and weaknesses ? • What skills do you think you could bring to this company ? • Why should I hire you ? • What is your marital status ? • How does your previous experience relate to the jobs we have here ? • What are your future goals or plans ? • What would a previous employer say about you as an employee ? • Are you a U. The rest of the class observes. Are they the same ? Discuss the strong and weak points of the interview. how will you handle this withour answering the question ? To set up Role-Play: Five students volunteer to apply for the job. Also helped raise money for foundation. Cashiered. Discuus the strong and weak points of the interview. Delivered workshops on resume writing and job interviewing skills. Education: BA. Seattle Aids Foundation (1993-95) Typed up information on AIDS to be distributed to various high schools in Seattle area. Summer Youth Counselor (1990-92) YMCA.

This was his sixth job inteview in a month. He and his girlfriend had been living together for just six months. He looked sharp. Rejection was depressing. They said it would be easy for him to find a job. but time were tough and he was the youngest worker. It was after one month that he got laid off from his job at the warehouse. She said that he was drinking more than when she had met him. what would they be ? • What would your fellow workers say about you ? • What is your height and weight ? • Tell me about your favorite supervisor. His girlfriend had even given him a brand new tie. she saying it would bring him good luck. good luck was what he needed. He needed a job. He had pressed his slacks and dry cleaned his suit.• If you could describe yourself as a worker in a few words. Well. He had carefully dressed in the morning. He was pretty hopeful at the beginning. but now he was beginning to doubt himselt. His girlfriend told him that he had changed and he wasn′ t fun anymore. and they didn′ t have any extra money to go out to eat or even to the movies. He felt that his girlfriend thought he was a loser. Why weren′ t they hiring him ? What was he doing wrong ? What was he saying wrong at the interview ? Things were getting stressful at his house. They had told him that he was a good worker. Watching TV every night was getting boring. it was probably true. but looking for a job every day was depressing. Well. what do you like about him or her ? • What are three accomplishments that you are most proud of ? • Who is your spouse′ s employer ? THE JOB INTERVIEW Alex was nervous as he stepped into the office. He was always worried. What was he going to do if he didn′ t get this job ? 87 . Sometimes he just didn′ t feel like he could cope with it anymore. His hair was short.

it gradually developed into the wealthy capital of a thriving industrial and agricultural nation. Sutton.580 sq km (620 sq mi). capital of the United Kingdom. he is tired of life”. Greenwich. Tower Hamlets. took a deep breath and shook the manager′ s hand… 1. Havering. is applied only to a small area known as the Square Mile (2. Define what you think job discriminationis. The 13 inner London boroughs are Camden. or “the City”. Ealing. Merton.“Mr. which covers some 1. Bromley. Islington. The City of London and 32 surrounding boroughs constitute the Greater London metropolitan area. Haringey. The 19 outer boroughs are Barking and Dagenham. a centre of academic excellence. it is the foremost tourist destination in Britain. Croydon. but it remains a flourishing financial centre and home to one of the world's most important stock exchanges. Barnet. It is situated in south-eastern England at the head of the River Thames estuary. Hammersmith and Fulham. and the City of Westminster. The expansion in the 19th century of the British Empire increased London's influence still further. Bexley. Lewisham. Newham. Harrow. Setted by the Romans as an important shipping point for crops and minerals. Enfield. Alex stepped into the office. Hounslow. city. and Waltham Forest. Since World War ll the city's prominence on the international stage has diminished. Hackney. Lambeth. What do you think equal opportunity in the work-place means ? 2. Southwark. and one of the cultural capitals of the world – well deserving of the observation by Samuel Johnson that: “When a man is tired of London. 88 . would you like to step in to the office now ? We are ready to interview you now”. Hillingdon. Redbridge. Kensington and Chelsea. Lesson fourteen WELCOME TO BRITAIN London (England). Wandsworth. The term “City of London”. In addition. Richmond upon Thames. Kingston upon Thames. Smith.59 sq km/1 sq mi) that was the original settlement (ancient Londinium) and is now part of the financial and business district of the metropolis. Brent.

89 . with two thirds resident in outer London. part of the London economy. may be the largest such concentration in any city in the world. one of the largest international insurance markets.000. it has recently been increasing. Downing Street (home to the Prime Minister at No 10.238 per sq mi) relative to other metropolitan areas in the country. Although the population is no longer as large as in mid-century (peaking at about 8. the Secretary of State for the Environment has responsibility for the capital as Minister for London. Various other government departments and public bodies are also sited in central London. Newham. the largest centre in the world for trading overseas equities. Other service sectors supporting significant levels of employment include public administration (central and local government and other official agencies).346.Government and Administration London is the seat of central government in Britain.000 in the 1951 census).500 (representing about 12 per cent of Britain' s overall population). London is one of the three main global financial centres (with New York and Tokyo) and is noted for having a larger number of international banks than any other financial centre.967.5 million in 1981). Within the Government. The Houses of Parliament – the House of Commons (the lower house) and the House of Lords (the upper house) – are located at Westminster. The financial and business services sector makes up over a third of the capital's GDP.000 per year since 1984. and Tower Hamlets. About 85 per cent London's employment is now in service industries. London's population is heavily concentrated (at about 4. the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. though relatively small. and the central offices of the main political parties. at almost 750. rising at an average of 20. the Treasury. at No 11). notably in financial and business services which. retail and wholesale distribution. Economy Economic activity in London contributes almost one sixth of Britain's nonoil gross domestic product (GDP).409 people per sq km/11. Hackney. Population Patterns and Trends In mid-1994 the population of Greater London was estimated at 6.1 million (compared with over 3. are also based in London. Ethnic minority communities account for over a third of the population in the boroughs of Brent. education and health services. and transport and communications. The arrival of immigrants has contributed considerably to the variations in population figures. and the Ministry of Defence are concentrated around Whitehall. In mid-1995 the total number of people employed in the capital was 3. Manufacturing makes up an important. hotels and catering. and traditionally the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The administrative structure of the legal system. and the capital is the most ethnically diverse region in the United Kingdom. a banking sector that accounts for about 20 per cent of total international bank lending.

affordable by the lower middle classes with the aid of cheap mortgages. Settlement – act of settling . So long as the British Empire remained powerful. becoming an early home of the motor-car and electrical industries. A new suburban culture highlighted the semi-detached house. major markets for transactions in commodities. a subsidence or sinking . The capital's old industrial base has. rest or comfort . After World War I. and its transport system is out of date. computer. to fix etc . the upkeep of its infrastructure is extremely expensive. London has always been multifaceted. but the uneasy relations between Britain and the European Union threaten to put that in doubt. no social gatherings or institutions. and advertising consultancy). unemployment remains high. one of the world's biggest financial derivatives markets. London's future remains somewhat enigmatic. which gave a lasting boost to the economy of west London. and the port handled immense quantities of trade from all over the world. the building of new arterial roads. Placing of a minister . particularly for high-quality goods. the growing contrast between rich and poor. the motor bus. Meanwhile. dramatically declined. and a vast range of ancillary and support services (legal. run-down inner-city areas. The City's finance-houses. London also remained a major manufacturing centre. accountancy.the act of putting aboard ship . to adjust . and eventually the rise of car ownership led to the mushrooming of outer suburban dormitory areas 15 to 25 km (10 or 15 mi) from the centre.the world's largest foreign exchange market. arrangement . Vocabulary in context : Shipping .payment . being an old city. London continued to thrive and sprawl. It was not to everyone's taste. was life “without any society. and the absence of a proper democratic government for the metropolis bode ill for the future. with many distinct growth points. the underground railway system. and insurance companies had no equal. At the close of the 20th century. London's world position depends heavily upon the continuing success of its financial sector. Some became employment centres in their own right. ships Ships collectively . accommodation on board ship To settle – to dispose in stability. and crime and poverty are escalating as in many Western cities. Many believe that the emergence of impoverished. The Empire Exhibition of 1924 boosted Wembley. and a mixture of strengths enables it to respond positively to economic challenges. overriding the disruptions of World War I. transporting by ship . as dull a life as mankind ever tolerated”. Electric trams. London's economy boomed. merchant banks. “The life of the historians. On the other hand. a settled colony 90 . management. As a great historical city it is a vast tourist attraction. property. however. the greatest concentration of international bond dealers. built in huge numbers from the 1920s. state of being settled . while air travel led to the construction of London Airport (later called Heathrow).

an article of traffic. Foremost – (double superlative) first in place . Wholesale. not original. Suddenly prosperous. concerned with.to make less. a character denoting a number. appearance. pl. ministery. Figure –amount . Accountancy – office . Boom. first in rank and dignity. produce. to take a part from. Semidetached (house). fairness an equitable right.maintenance Make up sentences using the above words 91 . Outer – more out or without /external Census – an official enumeration of inhabitants with statistics relating to them. a geometrical form . to straggle Dormitory (area) – a large sleeping room with many beds . in small quantities/ adjective. to grow less . Diminish . vb to provide food Equity (ies) – moral justice. a shape.partly separated joined by a party wall to one other house only.a pole by which a sail is stretched. To site – to locate Overall – above all .entertainment. To sprawl – to lie or crawl with limbs flung about. over the whole.a town that sends representatives to parliament . goods. most advanced . including everything .supplementary subordinate . Derivative – derived or taken from something else.S) To boost – to push up. to become . to advertise or promote to supplement voltage of . to raise as price morale. Ancillary – subserving . engaged in. a college hostel a small town or a suburb – dormitory town /suburb (U.A local community . By wholesale – extensively and indiscriminately Catering .sale of goods. a type or emblem . Retail – sale to consumer .work . to go on with a rush. profession of an accountant.altogether. degrade. usually by the whole piece or large quantity to a retailer . Commodities . a writing of obligation to pay a sum or to perform a contract /a mortgage. the spirit of justice which enables us to interpret laws rightly. an establishment of social workers aiming at The benefit to the surrounding population. link or connection or union . auxiliary . Upkeep. value or price. Borough – a town with a corporation and special privileges granted by royal character . that which is derived Bond ( dealer ) – that which binds.

they are entitled to claim a deduction of their income tax for allowable expenses and are entitled to free first class railway travel or free travel by air between Westminster and their constituencies. the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats. An election is held every five years. the rest are from Scotland. Members are paid by their constituents.The House of Commons consists of 659 members one for each constituency.and some a remembers because of their jobs(bishops or archbishops). There are three main Parties: the Conservatives. Bills have to pass through both Houses and receive the Royal Assent before they become Acts of Parliament. To the right and left of the house are two Divisions Lobbies. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen reads the most gracious opening speech to the assembled Lords and Commons. Lincoln The British Parliament consists of the Sovereign. 92 . The House of Lords has about 1200 peers.some are appointed by the Queen (life peers). About 80% are from England. one for the “Ayes” and one for the “Noes”. Wales and Northern Ireland. forms the Government.Lesson fifteen THE REFORM OF PARLIAMENT The ballot is stronger than the bullet A. One has to be eighteen to vote. the House of Lords and the House of Commons.Members are not paid a salary and are not elected by the people. Some of them inherit their seat (hereditary peers). and the party that wins. However they are entitled to the cost of fares incurred in attending the House and to other expenses so incurred.

8.Gothic. many. by. 5. took.The division bells call members to attend debates.Parliament.built. Members have eight minutes in which to reach the appropriate lobby. crowds. election. 5. 3. can. in the Clock Tower. Legislation will create a transitional House of Lords in which no one Party will be allowed to create a majority. it before. fit and effective second chamber of Parliament for the 21 st century. sun.Members of the House of Lords get higher salaries than members of the Commons. After the order is given to “Lock the doors”.It is more widely known as the Houses of Parliament.Westminster.was. The Government will establish an independent Appointments Commission to recommend non-political appointments to the Transitional House. It is being Considering that the House of Lords has an anachronistic character and an Unrepresentative composition. closed. 7. secret.Only the members present in each lobby may vote.Palace. The proceedings may take place in the House or in the Committees. like. will renew the House of Lords as a modern.provided. to arrive. After he has collected the voices the Chair announces:” I think the Ayes/Noes have it. 2. If his decision is challenged the order is given to “Clear the Lobby. The options for long term reform will be considered by a Joint Committee if both Houses.The Palace of Westminster is situated on the bank of the river Thames. The first step will be followed by long term reform. a flag is flown in Victoria Tower and a light is on at Night.tourists. “As many as are of that opinion say “Aye”.a taxi. 93 . only the members are allowed to vote. the. members. These important and radical changes. 6. elected. Modernizing Parliament means reforming the House of Lords. 9. The Government will introduce legislation to remove the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords.shade. At the end of a debate.All the members of the House of Lords are hereditary peers. 2.free.some. too.A decision is taken after a debate and members vote by show of the hand.in. people. 4.If the Union Jack is flying over Victoria Tower. at ballot . divisions bells ring in all parts of the Palace to call members to vote.Bills are discussed in the House of Common and passed by the House of Lords. if. 3. at the museum. Tick True or False 1.a holiday.When Parliament is sitting. from.the umbrellas.several. Build up correct sentences: 1. 4. spoil.are of. 10. the contrary “No”. Parliament is in session. which will be asked to examine a range of possible alternatives covering role and functions as well as composition. you.Elections for the House of Commons are held every five years.style. the Chair puts the Question to the House. which are part of the Government’s programme of reform of the representative institutions in the United Kingdom.

There are now one hundred 94 . judicial and executive branches of government.Lesson sixteen ACROSS THE USA 1. Each division is almost independent of the others. The legislative division is responsible for marking the laws of the country. but no longer than that. was elected four times. written almost two hundred years ago. The President is elected by the people for a four-year term. but since then Congress has passed a law making anything longer than two terms illegal. 4.) Under the President are ten Cabinet officers. 2. The foundation of the government of the United States is the Constitution. This is usually called the system of checks and balances. The executive division carries out these laws in the ways described above. The Constitution divides power among the legislative. Franklin Roosevelt. These men are appointed by the President with the approval of the Cabinet. Each state sends two senators to Congress. 3. the Senate. The national government shares its powers with the states. The head o the legislative branch is Congress. The head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court. He may ba re-elected and serve eight years altogether. (A famous President. (There are a few independent agencies which are responsible directly to the President). Each division has some power to act as a brake on the other divisions. or lower house. The United States has a federal system of government. Congress is divided into two houses. The head of the executive branch is the President. or upper house and the House of Representatives.

A bill may be introduced in either the Senate or the House of Representatives. There is no limit to the number of times a senator or representative may be re-elected. The Constitution of the United States may be changed or added to if enough people vote for it. Cases tried there may be appealed in one of the eleven courts of appealed in one of the eleven courts of appeal. it is sent to the President for him to sign. One third of the senators complete their terms of office every two years. in the Supreme Court. If it passes both houses. 5. These federal courts only decide cases involving federal laws or the Constitution. However. so that the whole House is elected every other year. It has one chief justice and eight associate justices. They all finish their terms of office at the same time. the President may not think it would be a good law. The people are counted every ten years. and above them. Congress may pass the bill again in spite of the President′ s objections.senators. but this does not often happen. The President appoints these men for life. which must always begin in the House. the people of a state are pleased with the work of a certain senator or representative and send him back to Congress again and again. the smaller of the 95 . The House of Representatives has more than four times an many members as the Senate. Words and Phrases Legislative Judicial Executive Senator . sends forty-three representatives. When there is a dispute about the meaning of the Constitution or the legality of a law. He sends the bill back to Congress explaining why he thinks it is bad. like New York. and the number of representatives adjusted. A state with few people. sends one. If the President signs the bill. Each state sends a different number of men according to the population. like Alaska. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the juridical branch. and he may refuse to sign it. but his choice must be approved by the Senate. If a bill is approved by one house. it is the Supreme Court which gives the final decision. but they are not all elected at the same time. Even though the world has altered greatly since the Constitution was written. if necessary. Two senators from the same state never finish their terms at the same time). They are elected by the people for six year terms. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In many cases. A state with many people.law making – having to do with the courts or with judges – a man or an organization that carries out the laws – a member of the United States Senate. Members of the House of representatives are only elected for two years. it then becomes a law. very few changes have been necessary. it then goes to the other. The only exceptions are tax bills. The third branch of the government is judicial.

representative 6. 3. using the proper form of the verbs be or have (The phrases are not in the correct order): Example: The United States system of government a federal system The United States system of government is a federal system. His advisers are called ___________officers. The legislative branch is responsible for making____________. The President 2. 4. judicial 4. 2. Congress is divided into two houses. legislative 2. Did you hear that our new uniforms are being altered ? He made a quick of their work. The Supreme Court is the__________court in the country. the larger or the two houses of Congress. Mr. The Constitution (may. Join the phrases in column 1 with the correct phrase in column 2. I′ d like you to meet Senator Smith. check Drills A. The Constitution (has. The President is elected for a _____________year term.two houses of the legislature or Congress Representative – a member of the House of Representatives. The President____________bills after they are passed by Congress. dispute 7. They′ re having a dispute over boundary lines. 9. 10. 5. . Complete these sentences: 1. 1 1. senator 5. The judicial branch of the government is the executive department Miss Briggs. Jones is a representative from the tenth district in Kansas. ______________. 8. The foundation of the government of the United States is the _______. and____________. may net) be changed. 6. the____________and the House of__________. B._______. he represents the people in a district and is sometimes called a Congressman Dispute – quarrel or argument Alter – change Check – control or supervision to determine accuracy 1. 7. The Senate 2 Two senators Counted eveey ten years 96 The legislative body in the United States is called the Congress. has not) been changed very often. Power is divided among these three branches of government. alter 8.

CRIME ACTS a. The unlawful possession. The deliberate destruction or degacement of property. or purchase of alcohol. The population 6. weapons violation to match the different acts of crime qith their DEFINITIONS 1. try definitions. assault c. Each state 4. The Supreme Court 10. Alaska 8. vandalism k. Unlawful taking of an automobile or motorcycle. arson b. rape i. possession of stolen property h. The capital of the United States 9. burglary d. motor vehicle theft g. The act of internationally placing one in fear of being physically injured. Robbery j. The Constitution 7. 5. 4. drug violation e. The House of Representatives 5. consumption. liquor violation f. 97 .3.Bills One hundred senators Located in Washington One representative One chief justice and eight associate justices More than 400 members Elected to a four year term sent to the President for him to sign Had very few changes Lesson seventeen YOUTH AND CRIME PART 1 To get started. 3. When a person knowingly or unknowinghy has stolen property. 2.

The deliberate burning of property. The act of taking personal property of another forceful entry wit hout right. Unlawful possession and/or use of weapon. Others would argue that mostyoung hackers break into systems simply for the pleasure of the challenge and do not intend any harm or damage. Some hackers spread computer “viruses”. 1. These viruses are designed to play practical jokes or destroy and change computer files and systems. are prosecuted. computer hacking is considered a criminal offense and hackers. Often the hackers release the private information to the p ublic or try to alter or destroy a file. 8. Unlawful taking of property from a persona by force or threat. we have begun to witness a new genre of crime which was unknown just two decades ago: computer crime. Corporate and government computer systems are the most popular and challenging targets for these computer “hackers”. most computer crimes are undetectable and are not reported to the police because corporations are hesitant to reveal their vulnerability to computer hackers. They belive that they can be rehabilitated through counseling. 2. Eighteen-year old Sam and Theo hack into the local telephone company's computer system and files. Occasionally. ude. Many people velieve that these hackers are dangerous and should be punished as criminals with lengthy jail terms and heavy fines. If Sam and Theo are found quilty. Quite often high school or college students internationally try to break into a computer system in order to gain access to classified or confidential files. if caught. 11. 9. 98 . This type of crime can be defined loosely as unauthorized access. They decide to tell their friend Brian about their success in entering such a challenging system and eventually give him the access to free phone calls. change or taking of another' s computer system or files. After three months and $ 1500 of long distance phone calls. Dealing.6. how should they be treated ? With a jail sentence ? A fine ?Or psychological counseling ? What about Brian ? Explain your decision. a hacker may try to embezzle or steal money. or purchasing drugs. Are Sam and Theo guilty of the charges ? What about Brian ? Explain your response. 7. In most states. They mange to alter and recreate files so that they can now make long distance phone calls and have them charged to comebody else. stealing and international destruction of property. COMPUTER CRIMES Because we have entered the age of sophisticated and inovative computer technology. possessing. Unlawful sexual intercoursw without consent.However. 10. the boys were finally caught and charged with illegal trespassing.

and walked off. Bosnia-Herzegovina – When a reporter approached some Army sergeants huddled around a kerosene stove for warmth recently. tells the soldier he “can be an unofficial spokesperson”. the war that many military commanders have openly blamed the press for losing.” the guide. “Sure. AND THE PRESS Raymond Bonner TUZLA. It is a far cry from Vietnam. prepared by the US Army headquarters in Europe. the reception was as chilly as the weather they were trying to ward off.Lesson eighteen KEEPING THE PEACE IN BOSNIA. the pocket-sized 16-page “Soldier’s Guide to Bosnia-Herzegovina” has a section devoted to “Meeting the Media”. said the lieutenant. sir?” one sergeant asked when an officer came over. “Can we talk to him. where the US military advisers sometimes hid from the reporters and an Army colonel once told a couple of American reporters that he would like to get them up in a helicopter and shove them out. an official military escort had to be present when a reporter tried to interview a soldier. sir. Here. Far from telling the troops to hide or smartly snap “No comment. tell him whatever you want”. 99 . The seasoned soldiers were as surprised as the grizzled reporter. or Central America. In the Gulf War. trying to engage them in conversation. and woe to the journalist who tried to elude the censors.

as do European networks.” Long-time military affairs reporters say US officials learned a hard lesson from the extensive publicity about restrictions on press coverage during the Gulf War. has converted one of the restaurants – in a two-story brick building with a gabled roof – into a television studio. CBS has erected a two-story building. “In the last couple of years we’ve been working hard to make people understand that the media is always going to be in the field. Until the Americans began arriving. one.” he said. Two. Whether the cordial relations between the military and the press holds might depend on whether the journalists start asking questions that the American commanders might prefer not to address – questions like those that 100 . and the space heater – out of the camera’s view – warms interviewers and interviewees. there were so many reporters covering the war in Bosnia before US units arrived that the Pentagon efforts to restrict information would probably have been futile. Bob Gaylord. “The most expensive weather coverage” joked one journalist when reporters were reduced to writing about the bad weather that initially delayed the arrival of the troops. the Army is going to do a great job and we want people to understand what kind of job they are doing. this is a peacekeeping operation. as large as many homes. bowing to the prevalence of broadcasting. This is peacekeeping. “that. Joe Kindel. a Pentagon spokesman. which got into the real estate business ahead of the other networks.”) The presence of the press is highly noticeable now. ABC and NBC have matching platforms along the slushy road. He said US military officials had decided that “open coverage” was not only inevitable but could also be useful. (In Washington. “It’s been an evolution”. “We need the media on our side” said First Sgt. CNN. And the nature of the mission here is different than it was in the Gulf. where bright lights shine on reporters doing the morning show. “This is not exactly popular back home. Technological advancements like satellite telephones have also reduced journalists’ dependence on the military to get out information. and the American taxpayer is paying for it – in a big way. who has been in the Army for 18 years. it is one we want the public to understand. there were only a couple of restaurants. “We made a decision early on. Col.The Army. a spokesman for the Army here. Kenneth Bacon. strategy or tactics. in a remote area 10 miles outside of Tuzla. with many US papers sending at least one reporter – sometimes two – and at least one photographer. said there was always a tension between the need of the press for information and the requirements of military commanders to control the dissemination of details about their actions. not war making. Across the street. And three. a general store and a few houses at what is now the entrance to the base. said about the military’s change in attitude toward the press.” In addition. even advises soldiers to keep their answers short because “broadcasters will edit your 30 seconds of comments into a single three-to-five second soundbite”.

storey) (n. plays. letters.) an enclosed apparatus for cooking or heating rooms to ward sb/sth off (phr.) experienced grizzled (adj.) a part of a building with rooms all at the same level.) censoriousness (n.) to speak or say sth in a sharp usually angry voice to bow (v.) to prevent sth dangerous or unpleasant from affecting or harming one seasoned (adj.E.) (down) (to/before sb/sth) to bend the head or body as a sign of respect or as a greeting soundbite (n. VOCABULARY to huddle (v.) a person officially appointed to examine books. etc and remove parts which are considered offensive. esp by a political party WORD FAMILIES • censor (n. under a sloping roof slush (n.) soft.) to crowd together.) to avoid to snap (v.) censorship censorious (adj.) there will be trouble for sb to elude (v.) a short piece of recorded speech used esp in a news broadcast on television or radio spokesperson (n.) having grey hair a far cry from sth/doing sth (idm. films.) to push sb roughly woe to sb (idm.) a person who speaks on behalf of a group spokesman – spokesmen spokeswoman – spokeswomen story (B.arose last week about what role the Americans have in any investigations of sites widely believed to contain the mass graves of several thousand Muslims who were massacred by Serbian forces after the fall of Srebrenica last summer. melting snow on the ground slush fund (idm. esp in a small space and often because of cold or fear stove (n. a floor gable (n.) a fund of money used for illegal purposes. usually dirty.) Note the difference! 101 . politically unacceptable or (esp in war) a threat to security to censor (v.) a very different experience from sth/doing sth to shove (v.) the triangular upper part of the side or end of a building.v.) tending to find faults in people or things censoriously (adv.

inconspicuous. 102 . tense. Answer the following questions: 1. II. cheap. floor.) interviewer (n. Topics for debate: 1.) strong criticism. How was the realtionship between the US Army and the press during the Vietnam and the Gulf War? 2. 2. useful. covertly. to show formally that one disapproves of sb censure (n. formal. How did this relationship change during the peacekeeping operations in Bosnia? 3. What are the sore points which the American commanders would rather elude when being interviewed? IV. to avoid. to emerge. The extent to which the public should be informed on military operations. isolated. to conceal. III. The visibility of SPP in the Romanian mass-media. to postpone. Find words in the text above that are synonyms of: grey-haired.) interviewee (n. spread.) the sending out of programmes on radio and TV • interview (n. unavoidable. Find words in the text above that are opposites of: warm. inexperienced. Can you name at least three TV stations that covered the US operations in Bosnia? 5.) interview (v. to demolish.to censure (v. dark.) to criticize sb severely.) broadcasting (n. disapproval • broadcast (n.) broadcaster (n. What are the causes and results of this change? 4.) a radio or television programme to broadcast (v.) I. 3. to transform. The Romanian press and the NATO military campaign in Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1999.

will 103 . The informative communicator has the purpose of creating mutual understanding of data that are considered to be accurate. persuader and persuadee. it is communication about a subject matter that has attained the privileged status of being beyond dispute. interactive process in which a sender and a receiver are linked by symbols. verbal and non-verbal. Persuasion is transactional. Persuasion is a subset of communication usually defined as a communicative process aimed to influence others.Lesson nineteen PROPAGANDA AND PERSUASION Communication has been defined as a convergence process in which sender and receiver. it promises to help people by satisfying their wants or needs. A persuasive message has a point of view or a desired behaviour for the receiver to adopt in a voluntary fashion. People seek information when they need to understand their world and once gained it tends to reduce uncertainty. The informative discourse is considered neutral. through which the persuader tries to influence the persuadee to adopt a change in a given attitude or behaviour. Both parties. When the information is used to accomplish a purpose of sharing. it is considered informative communication. either through mediated or non-mediated means. continuing. create and share information. based on facts. It is a complex. explaining or instructing.

manipulate cognitions and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist. It is deliberate because it is wilful. fabrications and deceptions. To be effective. with the difference that the purpose exceeds the notion of mutual understanding. we can say that it is the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions. Although propaganda takes many forms. Sometimes propaganda is agitative. The aim of propaganda is to promote a partisan or competitive cause in the best interest of the propagandist. but not necessarily in the best interest of the recipient. to complete sth successfully to gain (v. carrying out something with organised regularity. accepting and non-challenging way. some newspapers are for certain political parties openly and present the views of these formations. some other times it is integrative. creating new positive attitudes. VOCABULARY to share (v. it attempts to direct communication towards an objective that has been established a priori. Propaganda is also described as white. The shaping of perceptions usually focuses on language and images. symbols. Radio Free Hungary attracted world attention and sympathy in Western countries for commenting the events of 1956 when the Russians sent their tanks to Budapest. posters are used. the term systematic means precise and methodical. attempting to arouse an audience to certain ends with significant changes. trying to build credibility with the audience. Propaganda utilises informative communication in a similar fashion.) to obtain or win sth. For example. The direction of a specific behaviour is the final behaviour of a propaganda effort. with the aim of rendering an audience in a passive. Black propaganda is credited to a false source and it spreads lies. grey or black in relationship to an acknowledgement of its source and its accuracy of information. The propagandist is a sender of messages who uses special talents and also scientific work to influence the attitudes of an audience. that is why slogans.) to succeed in doing sth. the source of the message is correctly identified but the information is inaccurate.) to give a share of sth to others. Grey propaganda is somewhere between the two other forms. For example. this representing the achievement of a response or a reaction from the part of the audience. it is almost always in some form of activated ideology. It is used in advertising and electoral campaigns most of the time. Manipulating cognitions means changing and forming people’s trust. The best example is that of a teacher convincing his students about a certain theory. but it was in fact a fake operated by the KGB with the intention to demonstrate that the United States could not be relied upon to help a country in revolt.perceive the change as mutually beneficial in the end. and the information in the message tends to be accurate. Defining propaganda. intentional and premeditated. esp sth that is wanted or needed 104 . propaganda should be adapted to the particular needs of the situation and the target audience. White propaganda comes from a source that is identified correctly. to tell sb about sth to accomplish (v.

to rely upon. etc to further (v.) to lead sb to do sth through reasoning or argument. to focus.) an effort to do sth to achieve (v.) to make or suggest a connection between people or things to exceed (v. You cannot …. to go beyond what is allowed or necessary target audience public-ţintă attempt (n.) to try to achieve sth behaviour (n.) to provoke a particular feeling or attitude end (n.) an object that seems genuine but is not to rely upon (v. attempt. esp by effort. esp than a quantity or number. him when it comes to solving a difficult problem.) (here) an aim or purpose fake (n. to persuade. nor asks questions about the others’ private lives. The road continues …. his thoughts with others. 5. Insert the following words in the sentences below: to share. target.) one’s attitude and manners to link (v. 4. 2. status or standard.) EXERCISES I.. He neither …………. The officer aimed carefully but he missed the ….) to help the progress or development of sth wilful (adj. to trust or have confidence in sb/sth WORD FAMILIY to persuade sb into sth/doing sth (v. the village up into the hills. 1. skill. to convince persuasion (n.) to be greater in number or size than sth. beyond. We tried …… our goals but we finally failed in our … 3.) at or to the further side of sth to attain (v. to exceed.) persuader (n. He is rather discreet. to accomplish.) persuasiveness (n.) persuasive (adj.) deliberate to focus (on) (v.) persuadee (n.) to need or be dependent on sb/sth.) to concentrate on sth to arouse (v. purpose.) to succeed in reaching a particular goal.) to succeed in getting sth to aim (v. 105 .) persuasively (adv.beyond (prep.

What factors should a propagandist take into account for an effective propaganda? 6. Make sentences of your own using the words above. What is grey propaganda? Give examples. TOPICS FOR DEBATE: 1. in life. 9. on achievements. without taking into account the failures. Potential actions to be taken by the intelligence services in order to counter such terrorist attempts. 2. What is usually the purpose of propaganda? 5. 106 . III. What are the features of informative communication? 3. What is white propaganda? Give examples. What are the features of propaganda? 7. Can you define black propaganda? Give examples.her to come with us. 9. 3. Please try and …. Answer the following questions: 1. Can you define persuasion? Have you ever participated in such a communicative process? On that occasion.the speed limit. why are slogans and visual symbols so important within a propagandistic process? 8. In your opinion. The review ….6. 8. 10. Propaganda in Romania prior to 1989. IV.. The role of propaganda in organizing terrorist attempts. were you a sender of information (persuader) or a receiver (persuadee)? 4. 7. II. What is the definition of communication according to the text above? 2. Getting rich seems to be her only …. You should not ….

Lesson twenty THE IMAGE OF THE POLITICIAN It is a five-minute biographical film. Other propaganda pops up in brochures. one that many Americans viewed on their TVs early in the 1980 presidential campaign. It opens with Ronald Reagan accepting his party’s nomination. minidocumentaries. A flashback takes the viewer to pictures of the candidate’s youth in “America’s heartland. lapel buttons. He will do as much for the nation”. to his World War II military record. to his success as California’s governor after taking over “ a state in crisis”. capable of anything the times. and other electronic devices to campaign. newspaper advertising. situation and constituents demand… 107 . even – would you believe? – on toilet paper. to Hollywood where Ronald Reagan attracted audiences because he was “so clearly one of them”. call-in radio shows. There was nothing particularly unusual about the Reagan TV ad. The overall message: “Governor Reagan dealt with California’s problems. small-town Illinois”. to Reagan’s work as “dedicated union man” and. then. lengthy biographical sketches. Candidates for public office routinely employ a variety of spot advertising. bumper stickers. money and artistic talent is expended on convincing voters that each candidate is a man or woman for all seasons. televised town meetings. Considerable time.

Two devices in that artistry are particularly key mechanisms. Voters’ impressions on candidates’ qualities derive only in part from campaign propaganda. his qualities. But it is not the unique traits or qualities inherent in the product that are stressed. for instance. program and destiny. The industry has developed an aesthetic style consistent with the artistry of modern advertising. the array of forces. Carter did. that is. slogan. The progress is not one-way. threats and enemies that must be confronted and vanquished. qualifications. Many are indistinguishable in taste. fund raisers. If successful. positioning the candidate and fashioning the image. Rather. Campaign propaganda aims at mediating two closely related. but TV ads alert us that Miller Lite is favored by former athletes. brochure. organisers. First. carved out a whole new market. advertisers. the candidate’s fantasy chains out to become the news media’s and the voters’ fantasy as well. pollsters. In commercial advertising positioning places a product at a particular point or with a particular stance as a means of distinguishing it from competing products that. advised against Carter’s positioning himself on the liberal/conservative continuum.…Candidates. hairstylists and all manner of consultants. Each speech. in substance. campaign propaganda can be regarded as an example of fantastic art. public relations personnel. are strikingly similar to the product being huckstered. to solve problems. and ended up with the nomination. of course. the use of artistic devices to promote a candidate’s rhetorical vision of his presidency. A household cleanser or trash bag may position itself to 108 . The linkage of the two fantasies is essential. position paper. Caddell noted that his polls indicated a large portion of Americans were disenchanted with government and with the failure of the politicians. propaganda mediates realities about the nature of the world. An entire industry now exists to construct such fantasies. dangers. Hence. craft appropriate propagandistic artifacts for them. Jimmy Carter and his team conceived a successful pre-campaign scenario of the news media: Jimmy Carter’s pollster. overlapping fantasies. Consider beers. advertisers mold a picture of the product as distinct because of the people who buy or consume it. and espouse each candidate’s rhetorical vision. propaganda constructs fantasies about the candidate. Such crafting is an artistic enterprise. The attempt is to carve out a share of the market. press secretaries. TV producers. are in a position to act out their fantasies. how voters contrast the candidate’s fantasies with their own makes a difference. These visions appear over and over again in each candidate’s propaganda. Schlitz is the cool and tough brew of macho James Coburn and Natural Lite is the favorite of discerning women. This industry of “propartists” consists of specialists with a variety of skills. that is. They dramatise their fantasies by creating rhetorical visions. Positioning puts a candidate in a place to run from in a campaign. Image making is what the candidate runs as. the destiny of the candidate becomes the destiny of the political world. He advised Carter to position himself as the anti-Washington candidate. Now consider candidates. liberal or conservative. Second. There are. TV or radio advertisement and so on is a carefully crafted effort to portray the candidate’s rhetorical vision. In 1976. Pat Caddell. filmmakers.

) a person who conducts a poll of public opinion to fashion (v.) an impressive display or series to vanquish (v. Anderson telling that he was a “candidate with ideas”. improve conditions of work.) a person’s position or way of standing strikingly (adv) extremely to huckster (v.) an organized association of employees engaged in a particular type of work. to denote he was no Kennedy. etc.v.) to make sth skillfully.carve out a market segment. esp by hand to portray (v.) the time when a person is young (trade) union (n. resources and luck. reputation by hard work to stress (v.v.) to give special importance to sth 109 . Fashioning image themes that strike responsive chords requires skill. to remind voters that he was not like the older Reagan.) to use or spend resources in doing sth to act out (phr.) a part of a film that shows a scene earlier in time than the main story youth (n. a theory pollster (n. the desired image may not follow.) to act a part.) to describe or give an impression of sb or sth esp when one is not given a complete and fair picture hence (adv.) to build one’s career. VOCABULARY to view (v.) to turn out overlap (v. John B.) a bar fixed to the front and back of a motor vehicle to reduce the effect of an impact to expend (v.) to give one’s support to a movement.) (here) to cover part of the same area of interest. In 1980. with varying degrees of success. and Jimmy Carter dramatising himself as “moral” and “a good family man”. but if “Big Wally” or the “man from Glad” does not conform to what the pop song calls “dreams of the everyday housewife”. formed to protect their interests. ad(vertisement) (n. to look at or watch sth carefully flashback (n.) to give form to sth stance (n. usu in a real situation and for some purposes to craft (v. the process gave us George Bush jogging while he waved and talked.) for this reason to chain out (phr.) to defeat an opponent to espouse (v.) the front part of the collar of a coat or jacket that is folded back on either side of the chest bumper (n.v. services. esp when not expected lapel (n. etc to pop up (phr.) to appear or occur. responsibility array (n. esp in advertising to carve out (v.) to regard sth/sb as sth. to mark himself off from the republican pack.) a public notice offering or asking for goods.) to sell things by using aggressive methods.

What kind of propagandistic materials are used within an electoral campaign? 4. as a cold. She ……………. 6.to mold (v.) to shape a soft substance into a particular form or object continuum (n. Make sentences of your own using the above-mentioned words. Cigarette ………………… has been banned. In most of the cases. He has been ……………. In your opinion. the enemy was finally …………. advertising. 3.They designed new policies in order to attract the ………. 9. They are conducting a public opinion …………………… in order to establish which of the three candidates is likely to be elected. calculating character. 5. a name for herself as a reporter.. to portray. slogan. is to blame for starting the rumours. Who is the politician portrayed as a “dedicated union man” in his electoral campaign? 2. What are the elements to be considered when building the image of a politician? 6. According to the text. Insert the following words in the sentences below: to carve out. 1. II. “Power to the people” is their campaign ……………. to craft. His carefully ……………… speech impressed the audience..) a sequence of things of a similar type in which the ones next to each other are almost the same. Answer the following questions: 1. market. He spotted a gap in the ………………. media. What other official positions had Ronald Reagan held before being elected as the President of the United States? 3. 8. What are “propartists”? 7. After that decisive battle.. is there any similarity between persuading people to buy a certain type of beer and persuading people to vote a certain candidate? 8. what are the “rhetorical visions”? Can you give examples of “rhetorical visions” of the candidates for Romania’s presidency? 5. 4. the form of the words must be adjusted in accordance with the context and the appropriate grammar rules. What strategy did Jimmy Carter adopt for his electoral campaign? 9. 7. Who advised Jimmy Carter to adopt the above-mentioned strategy? 10.. III. to vanquish. 2. The ………………. and made a fortune. voter. 10. poll.How important are the “dreams of the everyday housewife” in drawing up the campaign strategy of a politician? 110 . but the ones at either end are quite distinct EXERCISES I.

non-traditional cross-border threats. (2) Western interests. in the program of the politician you advise? In what order? Why? 6. NATO decided to stabilize the East by projecting its security through enlargement.IV. Romania’s accession strategy took into account three basic factors influencing its international policy that have remained viable for more than a century: (1) national performance. Which events would you introduce. where would you start your image building IV campaign from? What slogan would you use? 3. When establishing the agenda for the political campaign. and the proliferation of non-military. and in response to persistently expressed desires of the former Warsaw Pact members to join the North Atlantic Alliance. which part of Romania should a politician start? Why? 5. In order to balance these risks. Ioan Mircea Paşcu Minister of National Defense The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact dramatically changed the entire European security landscape. It brought new risks associated with the disintegration of the USSR and of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Romania was an enthusiastic supporter of this process from its initiation. The disintegration in the East threatened to affect Western integration. Of these. What do you think about the ethics of a political campaign? Lesson twenty-one NATO ACCESION STRATEGY FROM MADRID TO PRAGUE Dr. […] Gaining admission to the alliance required an accession strategy. Which type of media do you think is the most important in a political campaign? Why? 4. and by being the first country to sign the PfP agreement when it was formally initiated in January 1994. illustrating its attitude by embracing the Partnership for Peace (PfP) as a necessary way station on the path to full NATO membership. as a possible image builder. TOPICS FOR DEBATE: I 1. national 111 . Can you remember any of the political campaigns in Romania? What II impact did it have upon you? III 2. and (3) Russia. If you were a politician.

the last two – Western interests and Russia – were not sufficiently strong to compensate for the relative fragility of the first – our national performance – regardless of whether that fragility is explained by the incapacity to erase. The best it managed to do was to receive the nomination as the first candidate in line for consideration at the next summit dealing with enlargement. performance in the MAP represent material yardsticks against which the ability and willingness of the potential NATO allies can be evaluated. in due time. and the normalization of relations with neighboring countries. Participation in the Kososvo campaign. in contrast to the state of affairs at Madrid 1997. one of the most difficult legacies of the communist past or by the lack of political will. The most important change common to both is that of attitude. in the anti-terrorist campaign and. are now higher than they were prior to both the Madrid and Washington summit meetings. NATO is no longer limited to judging candidates on the basis of promises. as clearly stated by President George Bush in Warsaw 2001. As for the remaining two pillars – Western interests and Russia – they also changed dramatically.performance was considered the most important. If in the previous round candidates were faced with an uphill battle in which they sought to present arguments of why they should be considered for admission. The most radical modifications were introduced after the tragic events of the 11 September 2001. where Romania is located. the gradual transformation from a command economy to a market economy based on the private initiative. Romania’s chances for obtaining an invitation for admission into NATO at the Prague summit. For example. geopolitical and military capability factors have increased in importance almost exponentially. especially in the military field. have become much more relevant to NATO and to global security. all candidates sharing Western values and fulfilling the requirements are entitled to serious consideration for membership unless there are strong arguments against their admission. While a more sophisticated understanding of how NATO decision-making processes work. a better understanding by the West of the risks and requirements presented by the new world order. Moreover. or the relative effectiveness of their lobby groups. […] Generally speaking. as well as the degree to which it is prepared to assume the obligations of membership. now. the problems of the Southern Flank. There were a number of goals pursued to this end including the consolidation of the democratic political system erected after the violent overthrow of the Communist regime. […] Romania was not invited into the alliance at Madrid in 1997. […] The conditions for the next round of enlargement have been modified significantly from those existing at the Madrid summit. expectations. National performance – to evoke the first pillar of Romania’s candidacy – can now be judged in a much more objective manner than was previously possible. […] The causes of Romania’s failure at Madrid were objective and subjective and influenced by both external and internal factors. Now NATO can judge actual performance and accomplished fact. Of the three pillars sustaining our candidacy . and the improved 112 . most importantly. The main difference is that.

) to remove somebody/something from a position of power using force .threatening (adj.) all the features of an area that can be seen when looking across it (also fig.) to accept an idea willingly and enthusiastically .) to follow.) 113 .landscape (n.previous (adj. and… (adv.to join (v.phr. VOCABULARY The Warsaw Pact The North Atlantic Alliance The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) The Partnership for Peace (PfP) Membership Action Plan (MAP) the Southern Flank . brought.v.legacy (n. the primary reason for this improvement is Romania’s performance: both in achieving reform goals and in its ability and willingness to contribute to the alliance in the service of norms and values shared by us all.) to obtain .to pursue (v.) a regular sequence of activities .) to look for something Word Families .) standard .to overthrow (v.to sign/ conclude/ ratify an agreement/ a treaty/ an MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) a semna/ încheia/ ratifica un acord/ tratat/ Memorandum de Înţelegere . but also… .) whole.) to come carrying something or accompanying somebody . brought (v.path (n.) soldiers.) way . sought.phr.) not only.) ameninţare .threat (n.to bring.) involving movement or action across a border .to embrace (v. the armed forces .Russian-NATO relationship have all contributed to the enhancement of Romania’s candidacy.to make full use (v. sought (v.) a folosi din plin .cross-border (adj.) .) to become a member of something . complete .to seek.to threaten (v.) to manage something .round (n.) coming before in time and order .) a lua în consideraţie ..yardstick (n.the military (n.phr. to do have or take part in something .to gain (v.entire (adj.both….) a thing passed to somebody by people who lived before them or from earlier events .) .to deal with (phr.to take into account (v.

way.) to succeed in doing something. to topple.) EXERCISES: I. III.) not to succeed in something .to enlarge (v. extension.entire = a) complete b) empty . Then correct the false statements.accomplishment (n.. widespread. to achieve . 4.) to do a piece of work .large (adj. In order to address Western interest. 3. Find in the text synonyms of the following words: to integrate into.) . . 114 .to perform (v. Choose the correct definition for each of the following words: II.) to need or depend on something . Romania’s accession strategy was based on five fundamental aspects of its international policy.threateningly (adv.) .) .) . to assess.actual = a) characteristic of the present b) existing in fact .to require (v. heritage. standard.to accomplish (v. Romania sought to make the various NATO countries aware of the opportunities and requirements connected with Caspian Sea oil.) . Romania was the first country to sign the PfP agreement.to fail (v.former = a) of an earlier period of time b) suitable for official or important occasions.) .) to become or make something larger . 1.failure (n. false (F) or not mentioned (NM). aim. Scan the text and then decide if the statements below are true (T). The Partnership for Peace was initiated in 1995.enlargement (n.performance (n. 2.requirement (n. whole.

Lesson twenty-two CONTRIBUTING TO CONFLICT PREVENTION Today the subject of conflict prevention is perhaps one of the most interesting and at the same time nearly the most significant for the international life. But the roots of conflicts. the roots of today's disputes or open conflicts can be found in the depths of the history. NATO’s enlargement policies suffered radical changes. it gives the facility to manage the advance of the co-operation avoiding old mistakes as well as tragic historical experiences. The main idea of the “romantic” young nationalists' leaders was the fight for independence. In order to be able to act for a genuine prevention of the conflicts. Topics for debate: 1. The social protection measures and their effectiveness. 8. The benefits derived from Romania’s being invited to join NATO.5. Downsizing the military personnel. could be found more clearly in the “romantic goals” that enlightened the 19th century elite from every country in our area. NATO started to assess the candidates on the basis of their lobby groups’ effectiveness. After the WTC attacks. It seems obvious and entirely clear that in our days . 7. 6. for the setting up of the states that have arisen from the former Ottoman or Austro-Hungarian empires. one should be aware of the former disputes and old conflicts between the two parties now involved in a normalisation process of their relations. IV.more than ever before – the management of diplomatic activity should take into consideration the necessity of avoiding open conflicts as a priority of international relations. To administrate in normal conditions a bilateral co-operation. Romania received the nomination as the first candidate to be considered for admission at the next summit dealing with enlargement. In our area. Romania’s failure at Madrid was influenced only by internal factors. At Madrid. During 2000. After the tragic events of the 11 September 2001. military downsizing was largely accomplished by reducing the number of conscripts called up. Romania’s relation with the United States. The new responsibilities. to study and to deeply understand their roots. generally speaking. It shows the major repercussion of the study of “roots of the conflicts”. 115 . The reform and restructuring of the Romanian armed forces involved an increase in the number of troops. 2. 3. it is imperiously necessary to find out. 10. 9.

even a xenophobic policy meant to aggressive foreign policy. to die out . the lowest part of something. To arise – to rise up. to originate from . with the aim to find out means and ways to improve cooperation between neighbour countries. the new independent states exhibit a strong nationalistic feeling.come into being To carry out – accomplish Disgust – distaste. 116 . On bilateral basis. displeasure extreme. to extinguish – to quench . The results of this kind of policy were the open conflicts that happened in former Yugoslavia. preached the national intolerance and xenophobia. to add . try not to do something. but also to be aware of the interests of studies of its partners. In all former communist states. which in order to earn more votes. The communist period has cast a shadow on the national and nationalistic feelings. To avoid – to keep oneself away from something. pure. Depth – deepness. Sea University Centre for Conflict Prevention.to present formally or publicly . to put out to put an and to. trying to annihilate this strong cultural characteristic of people. annoyance to cast – to throw off . The Romanian Association of International Law and International Relations is very interested to continue to work with the Black. as well as in the old Soviet Union area. How can one explain this trend ? The new independent states that were born in the former Yugoslavian space or the old Soviet area felt the same necessity to express their national identity. in its contacts with representatives of Associations and Institutes. to destroy annihilate .During the period between the two world wars one can easily remember the nationalistic and xenophobic policies carried out by the fascism parties or by the fascist and nazi governments which had led to notorious exaggerations and even disgusting crimes. to exhibit – to hold forth or present to view . This king of manifestations could jeopardise the normal behaviour between neighbour states and even threaten peace. Besides this legitimate necessity to show up their sovereignty.out of .to drop prematurely . But the well known word of order of communism that any cultural activity should be “national in shape and international in content” was completely unable to extinguish the strong historical feelings of the people from our area. Former . native . In this exercise it will atemmpt not only to make known its achievements. real. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT: Genuine – natural. the democratisation of life brought on political stage some very nationalistic parties. the Romanian Association of International Law and International Relations will continue to touch the subject of conflict prevention. to assign as . After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the break-down of the Soviet Union. this king of nationalistic feelings knew a strong revival and gave birth to new open conflicts.past . before in time.

hostage-takings. danger. Ironically.make progress . Make up nouns from the next words: avoid . aim – point . to follow up with something to attempt – try.intimidate to indicate danger . kidnapping. and therefore tend to prefer acts with the least likelihood of the perpetrators being caught. strategies. avoid . helping to undo the Taliban in Afghanistan and reduce al Qaeda’s capacity by more than half. to threaten – offer a threat . be aware of .to purpose or to try to do. government security has made these tactics more difficult for terrorists to perform. and bombings. ship destruction. the US/allied terrorism knowledge base has developed well during 2002. improve . the assassination of leaders. enhanced government security has helped lead the 117 . Terrorism‘s performance inventory has included airline hijacking. hate the risk of capture. to improve –make better . level . […] Terrorist cells.to show .make an effort. For instance. endeavour . with 9/11 being the tragic exception. exhibit . to direct a blow or missile . organisations. aware . threaten . to give advice in an offensive . The year’s information has also indicated that terrorism will continue for some time (“Maybe decades”. to preach – to deliver a sermon . former . Over the years. according to Washington and the allied capitals).deliver . but fortunately revealing enough terrorism characteristics for the proper shaping of US/allied counter-terrorism policies. Make up sentences using the following words in sentences on your own: Genuine . ambushes. object or purpose . the following issues culled from the year’s US and allied government and private sector reportage. Lesson twenty-three TERRORISM AND COUNTERING TERRORISM. improve. being of few persons. missions and tactics. personal assault jeopardy – hazard . threaten . to other al Qaeda leaders and indeed to all of the world’s terrorist lairs. exhibit . YEAR 2002 Marvin Leibstone While unable to get information capable of taking counter-terrorism directly to Osama bin Laden.

rather it could signal terrorist plans for fewer but more lethal activities.to catch (v. Implied is that expected lower frequency of suicide-activated terrorism is no indication of terrorism dwindling. that terrorist leaders could begin saving their fewer martyrdom candidates for “the Big Job.to kidnap (v. a new terrorism tactic will be sought by perpetrators. value or status of somebody/something . and/or sniper attacks.) to give a shape or form to something . […] Suicide bombings won’t be an everyday.) a person who commits a crime or does something considered wrong .) to seize control of a vehicle.t. for terrorist leaders cannot always recruit persons willing to give their lives for a cause. from the likelihood of European Union Rapid Reaction Force. one that can be planned and executed from remote locations.to shape (v. As government security improves. however. more is needed than recently gained support from the UN.) to increase or improve further the good quality. Nevertheless. many experts predict.) to capture somebody/something after chasing them or by trapping them.) to make facts known. terrorists will return to a particular tactic as soon as related government security becomes lax.terrorist groups toward the path of suicide bombings. from newly democratic and Euro-leaning Russia and from Asian allies. Also likely are chemical and biological explosions set off electronically from distant locations. as there’s no fear of the perpetrators being caught and interrogated.t. esp an aircraft.” a Middle East affairs analyst claims.) an explosive weapon directed at a target.to hijack (v. and employment of surface-to-air missiles against aircraft (if terrorists can obtain man-portable SAMs and smuggle them into firing position).to enhance (v.t. in order to force it to go to a new destination or demand something from a government in return for the safety of its passengers and crew .) an important topic for discussion or argument . the catastrophic 9/11-style event”. Likely for the near future are Internet attacks from far-off bases against city and state quality-of-life infrastructures such as electric power.t. […] For a campaign of successful pre-emption and reprisals.) to take somebody away by force and illegally. from an enlarged NATO. “The suicide bombings against Israel will sooner than later become less frequent. automatically or by means of an electronic device 118 .t.missile (n. or weekly affair over an indefinite period.perpetrator (n. to cause or allow something to be seen .t.to reveal (v. to seize and hold somebody . For a US-led anti-terrorism coalition to exit the realms of the Quixotic and to claim victory. adding. needed are precise understandings of year 2002’s many distasteful lessons. with little chance of apprehension.issue (n. esp in order to obtain money in return for releasing them . VOCABULARY .

Does the US/allied terrorism knowledge base contain relevant information for the actual apprehension of Osama bin Laden and of other al Qaeda leaders? 2. Topics for debate: 1. to demand or request something because it is or one believes it is one’s legal right or one’s property . suitable. V III.cell = a) each of the small sections that together form a larger structure. usually for payment. c) to perform something on the stage. c) a small group of people forming a centre of political. . send or bring goods secretly and illegally into or out of a country. esp without paying customs duty. What methods have the terrorists developed in order to reduce the chances of apprehension? 3. improved.martyrdom (n.) something/somebody (into/out of/across/through sth) to take. criminal (n..apprehension = a) an anxiety about something in the future.to smuggle (v. to look for. b) a very small unit of living matter.t. b) to kill. for example. prevention. . esp as a legal punishment. Find in the text synonyms of the following words or phrases: safe haven. unpleasant. Answer the following questions: VI 1.to claim (v.) a martyr’s suffering or death EXERCISES: I. to select. especially by the police. c) the action of learning something. What do the following words or phrases mean in the text: . . The US/allied counter-terrorism policies.execute = a) to do or perform what one is asked or told to do. Could the Internet be employed as a criminal instrument? Explain. The influence of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 upon the security environment? 2. 119 II.) to state or declare that something is a fact or is the case but not to prove this. c) the action of filling in a form. to send.t. VIIIV.). b) the action of seizing or arresting somebody.employment = a) the action of making use of something. b) the action of giving work to somebody. . esp when this is against the rules . distant. take or bring something/somebody secretly to or from a place.

of -sight transmission paths for best results . and some examples of transmitter detectors and direction finding equipment.3. Conventional military radio sets are not efficient In built –up areas. by and large. particularly in an urban environment.of -sight or near line. too heavy. Anti terrorist operations involve the detection of illicit transmitters. surveillance tape recorders. The likelihood of terrorist attacks in Romania. bulky and complex. in addition to examples of radio equipment suitable for use in IS situations.Special radio equipment has therefore been developed for IS and police work. Lesson twenty-four SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS AND ADP EQUIPMENT Certain Categories of IS equipment are an indispensable part of an anti-terrorist war. security forces are rarely in a position. it is important that transmissions are scrambled or in cipher. to use conventional radio equipment: it is. In situations where security forces are operating from permanent bases. Communication in an IS context can be considered in two main categories as follows. they require line. Radiomicrophone detection. This section of the book therefore includes some examples of portable scrambling and cipher equipment. although they are more accurately categorized as espionage or anti –espionage equipment. as well as encryption units and jammers are also included. In particular. and other bugging equipment are also covered in this section. 120 .

This net will ideally be encrypted as terrorists are likely to be monitoring VHF and UHF frequencies. Thus the company commander is likely to have a large number (perhaps twelve or fifteen) of small sub-units under hid command. a 121 .e. Both the force commanders may operate from vehicles or helicopters.The political leadership requires up to date information on which to base decisions and needs to be able to promulgate orders quickly. that to his commanders will be a secure all informed radio network. He will therefore require at least two separate channels of communication. Secure. so the force radio network must include sets suitable for use with foot patrols. These should fill the following requirements.and at the same time. this may not be the case in rural operations. Base station system in the force commander’s HQ.the platoon as a level of operational will often be omitted.and it should contain built-in encryption. Company/team system. compact and light weight and capable of withstanding exceptionally rough handling. vehicles and helicopters. The net could be made up of the following elements: 1. These could be four to eight men strong and will need to be in touch with company all the time. The force should be on one All inform radio net . reliable communications between the political leader responsible for committing the force and the commanders of the government agencies on the ground are extremely important . The system should be a voice equipment VHF/UHF frequency range. provide a link with the police and the government official to whom he is responsible. one to higher authority and one to his subordinate commander. 2.This is essential if the all important co-ordination between the different groups is to work. 3. with a minimum of three switched channels . In practice this procedure usually involves a government crisis office manned by the responsible minister and his advisors (in secure communication with the head of the state) and a tactical incident control centre: These communicate with one another by secure encrypted telephone.His HQ will therefore be an outstation on the force commander’s radio set but will be the base station or control for communications with his sub units or assaults groups. That to higher authority will probably be a secure telephone link in most circumstances. Similarly. This must provide the force commander with communications to his men throughout the likely area of operations . Individual hand–held transceivers. They should be small. However in some circumstances it may be appropriate for each member of a ‘brick’ to be in direct contact with the brick commander by means of individual hand held transceivers. the company or team commander and downwards to his sub units or assault groups . body worn with a ‘hands -off operational capability to allow the user maximum freedom to use his weapons or other equipment. They must be easily operated.• Strategic Communications. In US urban operations . • Force Tactical Communications. Many of the small sub-units in a company (known in British Army parlance as ‘bricks’) will be operating in a sufficiently cohesive manner for radio contact between them to be unnecessary. It should be able to be used with a covert earpiece: i.

available for use as a personal radio by removal from the amplifier and the connection of the battery. and . Sometimes it may be necessary to limit this facility to selected members in order to prevent congestion the net during an operation. the radio is always . These may be single or two frequency simplex. the vehicle supply will provide the power. and. A heavy duty Ni-Cad battery is used for the transport role. a British Company that specializes in military communications systems. The 2.the very compact basic building block of the modular system. Cougarnet is a totally secure lightweight FM radio communications system.condition that cuts off the loudspeaker (essential for sniper. The British Army currently uses this equipment in Northern Ireland. To ensure optimum flexibility in operation. the set has ten programable channels to gain access to any of several networks. be useful for some members of a ‘brick’. but it is one of the most effective and one of those incorporating the latest technology.watt personal radio can be converted easily into a high powered radio by simple connection to an amplifier. line-of-sight transmission = sistem de transmisie prin releu 122 .which allows the radio to be stored in a convenient place close to the antenna when being used in the mobile or static roles. A station is equipped with two radios. using a synthesizer-controlled hand held radio. An example of an unusually flexible and adaptable IS communication system is Cougarnet. This may in certain circumstances. Cougarnet is not the only system of this kind. security and emergency service units. It is this modular approach that ensures the system is easy to operate and makes Cougarnet attractive to a wide range of military.) A brief description of the Cougarnet concept will serve here as an example of the necessary parameters for an effective IS communications system. easily. In operation the Cougarnet system consists of a number of unattended talk-through stations linked together to allow users operating over different frequencies in different areas to communicate with each other.(A detailed specification follows later in this section. In the static role. allowing either independent operation or integration into a command net or combined operations.in the event of the failure of one the other is automatically activated. or a mobile or transportable manpack(depending on power supply). VOCABULARY a. bodyguard or covert role). antenna and speaker/microphone. The radio can be controlled remotely via an extended control unit. it should be able to be used with throat microphones. These links can be switched on or off from a central controller. paramilitary.power can be provided from an AC power supply: in the mobile role. it should be able to be used with discreet or covert microphones. At the same time. Similarly. which is manufactured by Racal. A method of continuous checking is built into the system during normal operation. Finally. The radio can be changed from one role to another by simply altering the power supply. and the unit can then be used as a static base station.

discreet/covert microphone = a microphone that is hidden h.S.b. Make up sentences of your own using the words given above. e.S. a. e. bugging equipment = a device that intercepts something ( i. b.S. jam = the failure of a system or machine caused by something getting stuck or not working properly c. f. Answer the following questions referring to the text. up-to-date information = recent. I. vehicle = internal security vehicle e. ‘brick ‘= a small sub-unit in a company g. latest news. a phone conversation) d. unit? What is specific to strategic communication? What can a net be made up of? What do you understand by “brick” ? Give an example of an unusually flexible and adaptable I. c. g. d. communication system. built-up area = an area where there are many buildings i. What is the station equipped with? 123 . II. Why aren’t conventional military radio sets efficient in built-up areas? What can you say about communication in an I. up-to-the-minute information f. data logging = a record of all the data EXERCISES I.

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