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PUBLISHED BY TEACHERS' COLLEGE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK 1906 . Department of History and Civics. D. Bo.Columbia THniv>ersit\> ZCeacbers' College Contributions to JEbucation. By Paul Abelson. MEDI/EVAL CULTURE. De Witt Clinton High School. Ph. New York City. 11* The Seven A STUDY IN Liberal Arts.

COPYRIGHT 1906 TEACHERS COLLEGE. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY .

To my wife. Abelson. . Helen C.

. and biographies of poets Appreciative teaching of literary masterpieces Summary... . . General character and scope of the teaching of logic in the universities Text books of the period Summary. Analyses of important treatises Summary. (B) The study of Dictamen. LOGIC (A) Pre-University Period. I. Text books VI..CONTENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER. . (B) University Period. -35 V... GRAMMAR -TEXTBOOKS . IV.. .. PAGE. General conditions mediaeval attitude towards the study of rhetoric. Vocabularies General character Typical dictionaries and glossaries. Methods. . RHETORIC (A) Technical study. (B) Use of commentaries. GRAMMAR .. I THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE CURRICULUM OF THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS The Greek Period The Roman Period The transition to Christian education The adoption by Christianity of the modified . First Period Donatus Priscian Other important texts. General character of mediaeval text books..... ... Conflicting views as to the extent of classical education Facts as to the general interest in literary culture in the schools of the Middle Ages Facts as to the extent of the study of the classics in the Middle Ages The study of Christian poets. 52 Text books Analyses of important texts.... 72 Scope and text books Relation of logic as taught to metaphysics The content of logic as one of the seven liberal arts. N.. pagan curriculum. . The encyclopaedic texts The individual texts. .. . General character Value of Dictamen collections for the history of mediaeval culture. 1 1 III.. THE PRACTICAL STUDY OF LATIN Scope Mastery of elementary Latin Elementary reading books and illustrative material The Distichia Catonis The fable literature A model mediaeval reading book Summary. . Text Books on Grammar General Characteristics.. Second Period The Doctrinale Other important texts. . i II.. GRAMMAR (A) THE STUDY OF LATIN LITERATURE 21 Scope.

. (2) Text books Analyses of typical texts of the period. Large extent of quadrivial instruction. 90 (B) Extent of Knowledge. ASTRONOMY .. VII.. Contents ARITHMETIC (A) General character of the Quadriviutn. . Third Period (i) Arabian Translationsassimilation of this material by mediaeval schools The practical and theoretical General character The results of this acquisition.. . X.. 128 XI. First Period arithmetical knowledge possessed Text books Second Period General character. . Music .. General character Advance on the first period. . CONCLUSION 135 137 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . Text books Influence of Boethius Emancipation (C) from Boethius Typical texts. Text books of this period Analyses of (3) important arithmetical books of the period. 119 General character First Period Analyses of important texts Second Period Assimilation of Arabian material Third Period Astronomical teaching in the universities in the i3th and 1 4th centuries Text books. Analyses of important texts.. (2) VIII. Scope The extent of mathematical instruction in mediaeval universities. . (A) Scope Music in the Quadri vium Relation to the art (B) General character Extent of instruction throughout the period.. by the PAGE. . IX. .. .v CHAPTER. of (i) (2) (i) The amount Middle Ages.. GEOMETRY 113 General Character First period Scope Text books Second Period Extent of knowledge Amount of instruction Texts Third Period Acquisition of Arabian material and its results..

in short. he is considered a with poor historian indeed. "could not have been as we have been led to believe they were. has been to discover how the inevitable spirit of change and adjustment interacted with the spirit of tradition ages in the single sphere of mediaeval life the culture of the average educated . " yielding place to the new. Modern historical criticism lays great stress on two conceptions which it properly terms canons for the scientific study of history. who does not give proper weight to the Zeitgeist of by-gone days. that while "the old order changeth." It is from this point of view that the writer has undertaken to investigate one phase of the culture of the middle ages. it assumes that there is a continuity in all history. In no branch of historical investigation have these two canons wrought such remarkable changes as in the study of the Middle Ages. Influenced by the theory of evolution." he urges. Nowadays. "Things. The aim of this monograph is to present an intensive study of the culture of the period by applying to the material presented the test of the two mentioned canons. In the second place it maintains that the only fair way to judge the past is not from the standpoint of the present but contemporary spirit of the particular age which we are engaged. that the present is deeply rooted in the past.INTRODUCTION. The new attitude towards this fascinating period of in the light of the history has in much some fields completely destroyed the value of that passed for historical truth fifty years ago. that in the history of mankind cataclysms are no more to be found than in the development of the present shape of the earth. The problem. the change is ever gradual and slow. To such an extent have our ideas about the middle ages been modified that the attitude of the modern scholar toward nearly all the traditional views of the period is one of skeptical reserve.

Professor Thorndike kindly assisted in seeing the monograph through the press. the comprehension of the jelation of this liberal education to the amount of knowledge possessed by the mediaeval world during the period and to the entire scheme of the mediaeval Weltanschauung. a determination of the scope of each of the subjects taught. Proper evaluation of this material was made possible by recourse to the results of recent historical in- vestigations in the field of Latin literature during the middle ages. and especially German. L. The great mass of periodical literature. To my friend and colleague.vii Introduction man in of the day. I wish to express my thanks to Professors D. Mr. was not historical by working some neglected vein of The problem was rather to seek among the scattered materials in the whole field of mediaeval history for data that would throw light on the questions involved. Thorndike of Teachers' College." to be found simply ore. French. Intensive studies in the general cultural conditions of limited territories in Western Europe have also been utilized. and finally. The conclusions here presented are based primarily on a detailed examination of the typical text books used throughout the periods in the schools that offered a higher education in the study of the seven liberal arts. the discovery of any intrinsic progress in the quantity and quality of the instruction afforded by the mediaeval schools. the agencies that trained the average educated man. . Colum- bia University. results devoted to mediaeval historical research likewise yielded many both positive and negative. Paul Monroe and E. namely. Prof. as is the case what the Germans conveniently term "Kulturstudien. in all of Naturally the material for such an inquiry. Professor Smith read the chapters on the Quadriv- ium and gave me a number of helpful suggestions. for their assistance in the preparation of this monograph. the researches in the history of the mathematical sciences. but one way Such a task could obviously be accomplished by a broad study of the varied fortunes of the instruments of culture of the period. The investigation thus narrowed itself to a definition of the limits of the curriculum of the seven liberal arts. Monroe has carefully gone over and criticised the entire volume. Smith. Robert I. E. and to some extent in the history of philosophy.

Bryn Mawr Park. guidance and friendly counsel. special to Professor James Harvey Robinson of Columbia obligations University. I am indebted for many valuable suggestions on mat- all I am under style. Y. Yonkers. helpful criticism. P. N. 1906.Introduction viii Raiman. March 31. Such merit as the present is chiefly due to his stimulating instruction. . at whose suggestion the writer first interested him- ters of diction and But above self in this work may possess phase of mediaeval culture. A.

4-27. all are agreed namely: that historically the cycle of the seven liberal arts in the middle ages was an outgrowth of the ancient Greek and Roman systems of education. 467-473. In the present chapter this development and adaptation will be briefly traced. however. i The available sources at hand are meagre.. ing questions. "The 1 to find : ' Seven Liberal Arts. The question of the historical development of the curriculum comprising the seven liberal arts has received very little attention from scholars.' in The Educational Review." The English Historical Review. On the chief point. 2 P. CHAPTER The Development of the I. . pp. chapter on "Seven Liberal Arts" in his Alcuin and the Rise of the . Vol. A STUDY IN MEDIEVAL CULTURE. pp. With the development of Greek life and thought the subject of music was broadened to include The only three specific studies on the topic that the writer has been able come from the pens of English and American scholars Thomas Davidson. that from the Greek and Roman course of study modified by the introduction of Christian ideals of education the curriculum of the middle ages was gradually evolved. p. 223. In earliest times Greek education consisted of the study of music and gymnastics.The Seven Liberal Arts. F. 17 et seq. II. Parker.. Christian Schools. Curriculum of the Seven Liberal Arts. "The Seven Liberal Arts. and also as an appendix to the same author's Aristotle etc. Source Book of the History of I Education. . V. 417-461 A. Vol. and the opinions of the authorities conflicting. Monroe. West.pp. p.] H. on many interest.

VI. arithmetic. 12-16. that he placed grammar. "3 In the absence of any definite statement by Aristotle as to his views on the subject it would be fair to assume that they agreed in the main with those of Plato. geometry." whether mathematical or biological. The . elementary. from the thirtieth to the thirty-fifth year. 4 But even these "scientific studies. music. 135.. pp. rhetoric. (3) music. were never considered part of the secondary curriculum to be 1 Plato. VII. pp. Republic. Arisconsidered gymnastics and music important branches. The Education of the Young in the Republic of Jowett's translation. Aristotle etc. 3 By Davidson. 198. Chap. consisted of (i) reading and writing. gymnastics. Book II. Book III.. was to consist of the study of philosophy. lasting from the twentieth to the thirtieth year. Burnet. the only source on Aristotle's educational ideas. dialectic. He too (2) gymnastics. theory geometry and astronomy in the preparatory curriculum of Greek education. secondary education. 4 Cf. VIII. translation. 2 totle's ideas on education as they have come down to us There is no evidence to support the are very fragmentary. letters (i. 374 et seq. pp. Cf. Politics. and sometimes drawing.2 The Seven Liberal Arts Plato's ideal scheme for the higher edupoetry and letters. tion i Aristotle's curriculum. grammar) was to last till the twentieth year. 199. Jowett's Bosanquet. secondary and higher education. p. it certainly does not appear that these subjects of Plato's advanced curriculum of higher studies also formed what has been called "Aristotle's program of secondary education. In the first two divisions of the course we have a possible foreshadowing of the future separation of the curriculum into the Trivium and the Quadrivium. as has been asserted. par. .. e. was to embrace science iarithmetic. Edition of 1885. Aristotle on Education. and musical harmony. 3. as a final preparation for the practical life of the ideal citizen. 2 Aristotle. cation of the "guardian class" contemplated a complete course in what we should call elementary. The higher education. astronomy. From the text of Book VIII of the Politics. 245 et seq. that his plan for the scientific training of a man would call for more natural science than mathematics. Plato. with the exception perhaps. which was to serve as a founda- for higher studies.

the subject under and Aristotle appear to have adopted in toto the prevailing Greek ideas of the time. in which the Greek authorities are quoted. He includes in his list all those that were current three hundred years before his time. determined the character of the preparatory instruction. an obvious error. The quotation omits gymnastics.. however. Hence the instruction in these different liberal studies must have been little . Plato 2 Cf. except drawing and gymnastics. and. mentioned as the more advanced studies. (6) geometry. 3 It should not be supposed that the instruction in these various fields. so the rhetorical school in the Hellenistic period of Greek history. pp. when relegated to the position of preparatory subjects. his catalogue of preparatory subjects. pp. (5) arithmetic.The Seven Liberal Arts 3 studied before the Greek boy had reached the "ephebean" age. 132. cit. It should Survey of Pre-Christian Education. discussion. was as thorough as when they were considered as advanced studies. The higher school too often dominates the one of lower rank in the educational scale. (3) music. op. they represent essentially the practice of Greek education in their day. the division of the later periods. p. 133. be noted here that while the works of Plato and Aristotle on education are theoretical plans. (4) drawthe last two being distinctly/ ing. as at no time was that subject omitted from the Greek preparatory curriculum. 287 et seq. Here again we have a foreshadowing of the distinction between the Trivium and the find no Quadrivium. of One of the effects of this some study consisted of a study of the following subjects: (i) gymnastics. All these studies are adds. there are frequent references to the encyclical liberal arts. * We further record of changes in the Greek curriculum of the liberal studies till the first century of the Christian era. For preparatory education. He rhetoric and dialectic. 3 1 Cf. (2) grammar (rudiments of the language). Laurie. 30 A. In the works of Philo Judaeus (fl.). ranking as it did with the modern college. Their ascendancy made rhetoric: and not natural science the essential subject of the higher edutical change was that mathematics had to be introduced into the preparatory curriculum since the value of mathematics to the Greeks was considered very great. as today the college largely determines the curriculum of the secondary school. Thus we find that in the third century the preparatory work of the Greek young man cation of the Greeks. Vide Monroe.i Set over against these "scientific studies" were the "prac- j studies" of the Sophists. spoken of as pre- paratory subjects and are clearly differentiated from the higher Philo does not mention astronomy in study philosophy. 240. D. c. Aristotle etc. Davidson.

. according to him. and contained treatises on grammar.' Dialectic. there were only three or four preparatory studies in the curriculum: letters. it would appear that until after the period of Alexander the Great. pp. a the Passing on to second Punic of the Romans. Varronis Disciplinarum Libris. then. was entitled Disciplinarum Libri Novem. 3 Ritschl. After period during which the education of the young Roman was conducted by Greek teachers in the Greek language. rhetoric. and (6) music. op. but in which Roman and not Greek literature should be the basis. II. M. and surely was not better than the instruction afforded in the average school of the early middle ages. medicine and arithmetic. p. . cit.4 The Seven Liberal Arts In the first half of the third century we find a writer alluding grammar. at least six of the seven subjects which later constituted the mediaeval curriculum were studied in the first century of the present era. 243. Erziehung cit. (2) rhetoric. 1 Sextus Empiricus. now lost. music. Bd. 237 et seq. Although the number of these was not definitely fixed at this time.C. T. strong efforts were made to establish a national literature and a national education. (5) astronomy. gymnastics. und Unterricht im Klassischen Alterthum. Varro (116-27 B. geometry. His work. pp. did we first find that to of only after War Rome the begin adopt Greek innovation ideas education. Grasberger. more subjects. dialectic. in such a way as to leave no doubt that he speaks of them as liberal arts. op. music. "De M." in Opuscuia III. This period marks the beginning of text books written in Latin. cited by Davidson. were added to the curriculum and that (i) . and drawing. 3 more than elementary at this period. like dialectics and mathematics. contemporary of Cicero and Caesar. attempted in common with them to build up a system of education based on Greek ideas. To further his objects he wrote treatises on all the subjects taught in Greece in his day. to in this gradually there came to exist in free Hellas a cycle of studies which were considered the minimum of liberal training way for the average free man. (3) geometry. (4) arithmetic. 242-243. 2 L. The books were undoubtedly written for the architecture. In Greece. that with the growth of knowledge. astrology. was then still considered a higher study. For full references to Philo vide Davidson.). but omitted drawing and included astronomy. p.

1882. Laurie. 38 et seq. Music. Grammar. cit. and Architecture. which were at this time already clearly 5 dif- The practical ferentiated from the higher rhetorical schools. Rhetoric. his ideas as to what constituted the circle of the liberal studies seem to have been . 333 et seq. a Nor does Quintilian (A. Opera. the sixteenth year of the boy's age. were to be studied in a superficial manner. 35-95) seem to have had any conception of seven liberal arts. Etude sur la Vie et les Ouwages de M.. avail to 352-372. 65). 3 then.) accepts. now he speaks of medicine as a liberal art. pp. and cites additional proof in support of the former's conclusion. This was all the instruction studies which sisted only of . given till So far. Varron. repetition of the Christ. did not limit the number of secondary liberal studies to seven in fact.D. IV. T. accepts Ritschl's conclusions that these were the subjects of the nine treatises. Vol.C 2-A. p.. curriculum of the day was grammar in its narrow secondary sense. Instit. arithmetic and astronomy. 2 Seneca.D. geometry. op. pp.. p. Dialectic.The Seven Liberal Arts secondary schools. Chaps. ' geometry and music a Greek curriculum of the third century before Seneca (B. 337-363. Vol. music. pp. West. . Alcuin etc. and also literature. again he plainly considers rhetoric and dialectic as higher studies and hence a part of philosophy.. 70-80. an authority for his age on matters pertaining to our subject. All authorities agree that Varro did write treatises on Boissier. Watson's translation. VIII-X. Now it is grammar. 3 Quintilian. thinks Ritschl has not proved his point in regard to the other three subjects. 89. 7. very indefinite. which conclusion Davidson (op. Leipzig edition. His failure to establish in Rome a modified Greek curriculum was due to the fact that soon after his time rhetoric and dialectic came to be considered advanced liberal arts period. a little music. geometry and astronomy and even these. with the exception of grammar. Geometry. Book i. But the cycle of preparatory his model student of oratory was to master congrammar. To be sure he speaks of the preparatory training given by the grammaticus as affording the Greek syKVKkiot iraidsia. i . 88. 1 Cf. arithmetic. Ep. we are even further removed from the seven than we were at the end of our survey of the Greek Apparently the influence of Varro had been of no make permanent the curriculum which he had closely modelled after the Greeks. cit.

and the grammaticus encroached upon the work of the rhetor. Excepting in Gaul and Spain. Bk. the curriculum of the average Roman school contracted. II. not till the twenty-first as in Then again. the Romans' character made them reject Greece. lasting till the sixteenth year of a boy's age. pp. As the spirit of superficiality crept in. was reduced to a minimum in the Roman course of study. secondary education in Rome was shorter. It is only as practical studies that Quintilian advised the study of geometry.! In this way. rhetoric. music and astronomy. in the order given would seem to have represented the accepted . Ch. The cur- riculum of the of a superficial dialectic. could hardly have been a formulator of a curriculum hence his work which describes the content of the seven liberal arts grammar. geometry. music. arithmetic and astronomy. pp. everything was sacrificed to the immediate practical needs of the time. then.6 The Seven Liberal Arts The Roman secondary course as compared with the Greek. I. study of the elements of grammar. 96-99. partially Hellenized. arithmetic.. 1 Quintilian. Instit. where the racial characteristics of the Gallic mind en- couraged the study of rhetoric and eloquence as the highest form of cultivation. This arithmetic. the work in the secondary school was enriched by the addition of the elements of rhetoric and dialectics. vide Parker.. judging from the very little that is known of his life. which the Romans were plainly attempting to In the first place the period of follow. a result which Quintilian had foreseen. was the accepted standard in the pagan schools at undoubtedly the beginning of the fourth century. while there was a decline in the field of higher education. studies. geometry. and practical character for some generations after Quinbut a decline set in after the third century. The Roman schools. dialectic. 444-446. rhetoric. from the curriculum anything not of a practical nature. English Historical Review V. maintained their efficient tilian. was thus much briefer. Therefore the study of mathematics. Parker establishes beyond doubt the date of this epoch making book as before 330. 2 . The evidence on this point becomes very convincing when we consider the latest researches as to the date of the work of Martianus Capella De Nuptiis Philologice et Mercurii. Roman school of this period consisted. in which the contemplative AXGreek delighted.* Capella. i. Watson's trans. astronomy.

the two other subjects included in Varro 's treatise. a form of literature which gained currency through Varro." was certainly a sufficient authority to follow in matters of both style and content.The Seven Liberal Arts j standards of his time. 2 period The fourth century then. 2 Vide Capella's De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. This century of social and political transformation marked the final stages in the evolution of a course of study. Indeed. only in order to keep within the mythological setting of his allegorical framework. Vide A. 332. Throughout the second. 459 et seq. Tertullian. is divided into nine books. Capella omitted medicine and architecture. the work of like that of Varro. Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlande. . it was viewed with rooted suspicion by the Christian leaders. he followed Varro absolutely in treating the content is thus supported by the similarity in form of presentation. since the first according to his own statement. The assumption that the subjects treated are only seven. although Capella two books form the allegorical introduction. cial of Africa like Capella. when one considers opponents of the new religion. how much was at stake in the contest. Eyssenhardt 's edition 1866. Bd. he most naturally turned to the work of Varro To a provinthe Dtsciplinarum Libri Novem as a model. p. Wishing to write a poetic account of the liberal arts. 1 His book is a medley of prose and verse. means But during the three centuries in which this pagan curriculum was thus crystallizing. "vir Romanorum eruditissimus. third and fourth centuries men of the type of Origen. Ebert. the vehement denunciations of the pagan education by these men become intelligible enough. loc. I. may be taken to represent the when the curriculum of the Pagan schools in the Empire assumed the fixed character of a course in the seven liberal arts. The whole subject of the relation of Capella's work to that of Varro is exhaustively treated by Parker. which through the medium of the public school a characteristic institution of the later empire proved perhaps the most effective of preserving the classical culture of the ancient world. and Jerome felt that these very schools were the most formidable And. where the author expressly states that medicine and architecture are omitted because such purely material subjects have no place in a work treating of super-mundane interests..' Again. cit. passim. p. Varro.

Even in the respective of Origen. col. c. La Fin du Paganisme I. Denk. Such in fact was the prevailing opinion among the devotees of the new religion even in the earlier period of strife with paganism. however. made possible 1 For a full Pagan and Christian treatment of the subject of the period of the conflict between ideals. Geschichte der Erziehung etc. more than any one else. c. 2 Augustine. Now that these schools no longer menaced the supremacy of the rising church. p. vide Schmid. Migne XXXII. . His influence was potent in comChristian The tendency to use the elements of the education mitting the church to a recognition of the arts as suitable subjects for Christian study. For a full discussion of Augustine's relation to the curriculum of the seven liberal arts vide Parker. O. Retractationes I. Empire was as marked as the decline of paganism." Although not the originator of the curriculum of the seven liberal arts. ibid. rhetoric. 704. Geschichte des Gallo-Frankischen Unterrichts und Bildungrwesens pp. 48-83. literature. 6. and while a good Christian could not conscientiously become a teacher of rhetoric. * pagan curriculum in was encouraged by Augustine himself (354-430). p. It would seem reasonable then. 140-163. pp . 1 6. 427 et seq. six of the seven subjects of arithmetic. II. 591: Confessiones IV. that later in the fifth century Christians would not offer objections to the introduction of the seven liberal arts of Capella as a part of a curriculum which was to be a preparation for the study of theology.S The Seven Liberal Arts The close of the fourth century. rhetoric and dialectic was of real value to the Christians as an aid to the study of theology. He sought to prove his contention by recalling the biblical sanction which justified "despoiling the Egyptians. discernment to see that while the rhetorical pagan schools of Gaul as they existed in the fourth and fifth centuries in their decadent form were worse than useless from the Christian point of view. col. Tertullian and Jerome the Christians generations had frequented these schools to a limited extent. loc. . the merits of the old curriculum could be considered It did not require much dispassionately by Christian leaders. who wrote treatises on grammar. cit. geometry and music the mediaeval curriculum. dialectic. saw a decisive change the triumph of Christian ideals was complete and the decadence of the old education in nearly every part of the . 233 et seq. Boissier.. he. it was not considered improper for him to study in the pagan institutions. the subject matter of their instruction.

De Institutis Literarutn Sacrarum. 2 first As far as is known Cassiodorus (480-575) was the Christian to use the term "seven liberal arts" in his De et Artibus Discipliniis Liberalium Literarum. XX. With Cassiodorus. Lat. 63. De Doctrina Christiana. a work in which are expressed his matured views on 2 His final Christian training. I. 40. the seven liberal arts were not interms frequently i made De the subjects of poems Migne. Etymologiae Lib. a work designed to supplement his earlier work. c. Migne. subjects of the mediaeval cur- riculum become definitely that of Augustine before that rigid character which years. and quotes biblical proof to show that the number of these studies He she has must be seven. III. the number and the fixed. Doctrina Christiana II. and paintings. 4 col.' it With the support eminent authority was but natural that the position of the secular liberal arts as a part of Christian education in the mediaeval curriculum should become secure. This quotation is of significance. cit. 40-42. supports Augustine's contention as to the necessity of the study of the liberal arts as a preparation for sacred studies. Pat. 18. reasons were to be found from a Christian standpoint explaining scripturally that their number seven was divinely sanctioned. time of Cassiodorus the term "seven liberal the regular expression for the round of preparatory the Isidore of Seville secular studies. It means that at this time Christian leaders admitted the necessity of incorporating secular studies into the Christian curriculum.. was all sufficient to give to it it maintained for some nine hundred the final transition of the pagan cur- From arts" is world of letters. i. 73. The text "Wisdom builded her house. hewn out her seven pillars" (Proverbs ix. judgment on the subject is found in one of his last productions. and since these secular studies had been definitely seven in number for over a century and a half. Augustine. Their work marks riculum into the mediaeval His authority. artibus in LXXXIpic- 4 Theodulfi "Carmen de septem liberalibus quadam . especially II.The Seven Liberal Arts its g of general adoption by the Christian world of such the west. Rabanus Maurus and the scholastic writers. cols. together with him. 3 Vide Isidore. c. uses it as well as the "trivium" and "quadrivium. i) gives him conclusive scriptural authority for his views. 2. so definite did this term become. Vide loc. 153. Later. XXXIV."^ So do Alcuin.

Seneca used the term Isidore Cassiodorius used the adjective. Cf. The term liberal as Plato and Aristotle. 88). the Christian leaders followed the line of least resistance. triumphant. The spirit of tradition. and its form and content were definitely fixed about the close of the third century of our era. Fora copy of a typical artistic illustration. (Epist. 235). The entire content of this curriculum was preserved for Rome in the Latin language by Varro. The Romans did not use the term till after their adoption of Greek ideas of education. the following gener- J In some five centuries of educational development the (1) Greeks evolved a curriculum of seven liberal arts.jo The Seven Liberal Arts alizations Summing up the results may be made: of this inquiry. (6) was strong enough to maintain throughout the middle ages. (4) propriate to (5) Christianity. VII. of Seville introduces his brief treatise on the arts thus: "Disciplinae lib- "Liberalia Studia" eralium artium septem sunt" (Etymologiae i. and adopting in toto the pagan cur- riculum then in existence. Ebert. so characteristic of the period. 77. This curriculum was adopted by Rome in part only (2) during the period of the later Republic and the early Empire.) . (Polit. II. Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini. In the declining days of the Empire a marked reversion (3) to the entire Greek curriculum took place. op.) eywAia waiSa. II. 2. It applied to the arts was used as early as the days of was to distinguish studies fit for freemen. vide Cubberley. hallowed their choice by scriptural sanction. found it necessary to apits own use the content of this curriculum as a its preparatory discipline for higher study of theology. this curriculum in its rigidity tura depictis". 544-7. which do not vulgarize and are not a preparation for gainful occupations. Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education. Later on the general preparatory course came to be known often as the 2. (Grasberger. Migne LXXXII. in Duemmler. cit. of Having settled upon the fundamental proposition the value of secular studies. p.

(4) discovery of etymologies. I. Quintilian. which the noblest part of the grammatical art. * the study of literature. 166 B. This broad definition of the scope of grammar by the famous Greek grammarian was adopted almost word for word by the Roman writers. with due regard to prosody. (2) exposition. Bd." Quoted in Davidson's Aristotle etc. (5) accurate account of anais logies. the oldest book extant on the subject. "Varronis Fragmenta. I." p. p. Watson's translation. p. Vol. the grammarian of the fourth century. Varro. C. parts: (i) trained reading. Grammar arts as taught in the curriculum of the seven liberal far wider scope in the middle ages than the term at Introduced into Rome from Greece during present implies. the Hellenistic period. Eckstein's " Lateinischer Unterricht" in Schmid's Encyclopaedia des gesammten Erziehungs und Unterricktswesens. (2) lectio accurate enarratio exposition. defines the subject thus: "Grammar is an experimental knowledge of the usages of language as It is divided into six generally current among poets and prose writers. Watson's translation. assigns the following functions to the subject: "(i) emendatio the correction of the text. 29. IV. 2 Thus in Cassiodorus: "Grammatica est peritia pulchre loquendi ex Diomedes. 210 et seq. 42. Vide Cicero. 426.The Seven Liberal Arts n CHAPTER Grammar. where the history word "grammaticus" is briefly traced. (6) criticism of poetical productions. the word "grammar" came to have the had a same meaning in Rome which it had by that time acquired i in the Greek world Naturally this view of the scope of the subject was adopted by the text book writers in the early middle ages. p. 6-10. Vide reading. and the of the basis of grammatical texts for at least thirteen centuries. De Artibus ac . defines grammar "Tota autem grammatica consistit praecipue intellectu poetarum et scriptorum et historiarum prompta expositione et in recte loquendi scribendique ratione. thus: poetis illustribus orationibusque collecta. Grammatici Latini.. 1 Vide Sandys. 4." Wilmanns. (as quoted in F. 198. I. i. p. 214. (3) (4) judicium criticism. (3) ready statement of dialectical peculiarities and allusions. according to poetic figures.) The definitions of Cicero and Quintilian are no less comprehensive." Vide Cassiodorus. one of the earliest Latin grammarians. 208.)." Vide Keil. A. The wide scope given to the term is plainly seen from the definitions of the grammarians. Vol. p. II. pp. Institutes etc. History of Classical Scholarship. THE PRACTICAL STUDY OF LATIN. De Oratore. The grammar of Dionysius Thrax (c. i.

Lib. years he in was able to make it a scholar's environment. Migne. Etymologiae Libri XX. estimate of the value of But after all. content and method of the instruction. so that after three or four rather on the actual aims What .12 The Seven Liberal Arts arts This fundamental subject of the curriculum of the seven liberal aimed therefore at a mastery of the universal language of the day. col. Geschichte des gelehrien Unterrichts. in the ninth century. This fact lends additional interest to the problem. c. then were the aims? They were. a practical mastery of the Latin language as the highroad to all knowledge and second. De Clericorum Institulione III. vol. 5. the language of the church and state. Haec et origo et fundamentum est artium liberalium. defines the subject as: "scientia recte loquendi et origo et fundamentum liberalium literarum" Vide Rabanus Maurus Isidore. Paulsen. col. I. the bond of union of all the cultured classes of Western Europe. 1152. LXX. for whatever method of teaching Latin grammar might have been in vogue in ancient Rome." Vide Rabanus. in Migne. 81. col. the acquisition of the language for purposes of intercourse was always realized. such a method was plainly of no value when Latin was to be taught to the mediaeval boy as a foreign language. From these definitions it is clear that "grammar" in the middle ages was equivalent to our expression "language and literature. writing in the sixth century. but and the results of the instruction. There the writer will endeavor to give a satisfactory answer to the mooted question: "To what extent did the instruction in grammar ulum develop a capacity for literary appreciation? " the practical aim in the curric- There can be no doubt that in the teaching of grammar. CVII. In other words. our final grammar in the mediaeval curriculum will not depend on the breadth which the grammarians gave to the definition of the subject. I.." i F. says: "Grammatica est scientia interpretendi poetas atque historicos et recte scribendi loquendique ratio. an appreciation of its literary forms. . 40-48. * But in this work the mediaeval teacher was thrown on his own resources. The present chapter will be devoted to an examination of the actual scope. 395. a language not his mother's tongue. Migne LXXXII. pp. first. an attempt will be made to find out how and in what ways a boy in a mediaeval school was taught Latin. 18. Bd. Isidore of Seville. the language of daily intercourse In the next chapter a more difficult task will be attempted. Disciplines Liberalium Literarum.

6th ed. one in which the elementary rules of Latin grammar should be illustrated in The difficulties which the teacher words. it is still possible to reconstruct to some extent the school life of has been established the study of grammar was already able to pronounce and write Latin words and to recite prayers in Latin. copy of the text. This he would carefully explain. Giinther. p. note I. Simple sentences 1 The "autobiography" of Walafrid Strabo as printed in Karl Schmidt.. 279. I. note-where copious citations of original sources covering every point of each assertion by Specht in this paragraph will be found. pp. 792. Day by day he would read a selected portion of the book. the parts of speech. II.lt des Maria Einsiedeln 1856-1857 entitled "Wie man vor tausend Jahren lehrte Unterrichts und lernte. 63. simple encountered in this work would in our day be considered insurmountable. of course. often imperfect. note 2.* grammaticus began the task of introducing the boy to Latin grammar. is neither an authentic account of that poet's school days written by himself. Pt. Books were scarce and frequently not even one preparation. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesens in Deutschland pp. p. Geschichte der Paedagogik.The Seven Liberal Arts While a complete authentic record of the method of 13 in- struction in Latin during the middle ages is not in existence.) a forgery of the twelfth century." vide S. 68-80. 2 Vide Specht. Bd. Geschichte des Mathematischen im Deutschen Mittelalter. 1893. This evidence as gathered based mainly on a collation of incidental references found in the Vitae of eminent mediaeval personages. nor. Cantor. How much progress would a modern teacher make in teaching a foreign language With this the mediaeval " " unaided by plentiful manuals? But undaunted. is made . 197-212. It is simply an imaginative Darstellung composed by Father Martin Marty and published anonymously by him Benedictinerstijts as supplement to the Jahresberichl iiber die Erziehungsansta. and M. For this an elementary text book was required. Bd.. Three years' practice in singing Latin verse and in reciting psalms had already strengthened his memory and had taught him the elements of Latin quantity though he had as yet no knowledge of the meaning of any of that period. as Wattenbach has erron- eously claimed (Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter. when he began the words. Vorles- ungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik. pupil in the class possessed a copy of the text. The starting point was. I. translating every difficult word into the mother tongue. p. the mediaeval schoolmaster made the most of his own worn.' various sources it From that the mediaeval boy.

would gradually substitute explanations in Latin for those given in the mother tongue. To provide such a book was. Nevertheless the way in which the mediaeval schoolmaster solved it challenges our admiration. huntsman. would have memorized a limited number of rules. others enjoyed a wider celebrity and were often in use in widely scattered a few were known throughout Christendom. in the same manner. a conversation etc. In our day. for then there arose the need of a suitable reading book for a child of eleven years of age. they all used similar material. cook one giving the names of objects used by him. and acquired a knowledge of the meaning of many Latin words in daily use. They seemed to have had a common appreciation of a pedagogical situation which they all met in approximately the same fashion. To make the acquisition of words in daily use more easy. constantly suffering from a plethora of text books. noticing that the pupils were rapidly learning the meaning of new words.14 The Seven Liberal Arts wax would be copied by the pupils on their This daily lesson the pupils would memorize. ably help him to compile one of his own. teacher was practically compelled to compile Although every his own reading book. brought to light a vast number of these productions. simply a question of practical pedagogics. * The task of the teacher only increased after his pupil had mastered this elementary knowledge. after reciting the lesson of the previous day. 49). the importance of this problem to the mediaeval teacher can hardly be appreciated. the boys were required to master another portion of the text illustrating the rules tablets. peasant. and no places. though representing the labor of a teacher 's lifetime. modern historians have In their and kulturgeschichtliche Thus on in the Colloquium of Aelfric (cf. Some. is perplexed about the conflicting claims of the different ones from which he is to choose. infra p. carried in turn each .. Meanwhile the teacher. his ingenuity would probconversation. probably never obtained popularity outside of the school in which the author taught. school could claim distinction unless such books were studied i philological. Day after day the process would continue. he would introduce some convenient "colloquium" a sort of manual of If none was at hand. antiquarian investigations. fisherman. varied only by frequent reviews. of course. until after a time the pupi. when the teacher. The next time. is by a monk.

of every day interest. Thus the story of the Wolf of the classical period became the story of the Wolf. In fact all these text books are uniformly based on two ideas: the teaching of elementary Latin the ethico-religious and ples. Some used material of an abstract character it i The fable and the proverb of the middle ages dealt with incidents . For instances showing this But adaptation. the books used show a striking dependence on Roman methods. the Pastor and the Monk. Thus in the period immediately following the dissolution of the Roman Empire. In our day we think the content of the host of these similar use of material it historic New England Primer of the century should give way to a reading book more eighteenth interesting to the schoolboy of the twentieth century. look for such changes in the middle ages. characteristic national proverbs. 19 et seq. vide infra pp. In modern educational terms we would say that the mediaeval schoolmaster under- stood the " principle of apperception. We scarcely. skill. biblical proverbs. the inculcation of religious and ethical princi- appears. Far more significant are the progressive changes and adaptations made by the authors in the material used and in the methods of presentation to suit the spirit and temper of their respective generations. on the other hand." i As one would naturally suppose. but with the progress of time. Hence purpose is always manifest in the choice of reading matter. folkthem. the spirit of the age required that in the teaching of elementary Latin the subject matter should in no way overshadow the whole aim of education right living didactic. according to Christian standards. most natural that the And yet they were as marked as those in our time. incidentally. facts all these particularly to a schoolboy is make up But little mediaeval readers. 1 7. Fables. however.The Seven Liberal Arts in 15 These little books are real monuments of pedagogical Coming from so many different parts of Western Europe with the chances for plagiarism reduced to a minimum they all show in a remarkable degree evidence of the same use of material and similar treatment of the subject. .of a mediaeval character. that the authors varied in their method. material and methods of presentation suitable to the succeeding centuries appearuntil in the later middle ages the peculiar classical characteristics of the manuals disappear almost entirely. lore. not the only remarkable fact about these text books.

"Beitrage zur Lateinischen Cato-Literatur. XV. character did not in the least diminish the popularity of the Distichia. A fifth version is edited " Zeitschrift fur by R. makes uncer- the period of transition was in general use. XVII. 1002-1003. Deutsche Philologie. There is nothing in the text to justify this assertion. and a combination of the two was not infrequently employed in the same book. . Bd. XXXV. relatively small portion of purely religious didactic matter probably accounts for the supposition that the author was a pagan. when the book The abundance of material of a Stoical classical heritage to dispense with such an emiuseful schoolbook. 181-192. Geschichte der Romischen Literatur. 165-186. The fourth version is the text of the famous Cato manuscript in Cambridge University. pp. Spirit of religion Self-control 1 7 35 3. Class. pp.. Duties to others Prudential 35 35 2 1 1 4. XXII. andBd. dating as far back as the fourth century. Gesel. Schwabe. maxims 5 . a . pp. 138 For full bibliographical notes on the Cato literature vide Teuffelet seq. The wide use made of these verses unique give a peculiar interest to an analysis of the contents of this little work. p. The which is practically the same as the four versions of Cato edited by Zarncke and published in Berichte uber die V erhandlungen der Konigl. 54-103. der Wissenschajten. Phil. 23-78 (2 versions).1 6 The Seven Liberal Arts while others preferred the concrete. 205 et seq. Hist. The one hundred and forty-three couplets of the version analyzed can be classified as follows: i . XXXVI p. Vol. pp. And so this age of faith put in the nently hands of its schoolboys the budding churchmen a reading need of the book which so studiously avoided questions of orthodox church doctrine that the zealous suspected its author was a pagan. The typical text representing the tendency to present the reading matter so as to impart ethical instruction in abstract form was the so-called Distichia Catonis. Western Europe was in this period still too much in representing the early middle ages. Peiper. Bd. There is nothing in the text to indicate such a division. The analysis is based on the text in the English-Latin edition published in London in 1663. pp. II. as is generally supposed. Miscellaneous information This analysis shows plainly that the work was not. C. Antiquary. V. and Vol.. i The classification is the writer's own. an assumption which a perusal of the couplets breathing the spirit of Christian ideals The text book may be considered as tain. Hazlitt. Bd. Sack. For lists of English versions vide W. of pagan origin.

the first a writer in the times of Tiberius. 211-246. pp. 483-536. Huemer ed. Flavius. but collections. and "Prov- The Liber Proverborum century to supplant in a ' erbs" in particular. Fez. . Romanische Forschungen. III. His work is based almost entirely on the Bible in general. In the tenth century the fables of served as the basis of Phaedrus were worked over by one Romulus. LXIII- LXV. F. 2. For a source critique of Arnulf vide ibid. Though passing under the different names of Phaedrus. The books which supplanted it were really more up-to-date. including criticisms and texts. 461 et seq.. Kunde d. seems to have been the watchword of his mediaeval prototype. }. Thesaurus Anecdotorum. that for children the concrete is better than the abstract. was the one in which fable literature abounded. 5 vols. II. Fecundia Ratis. 4 The latest complete investigations on the subject are given in Hervieux.The Seven Liberal Arts 17 of Othlo was composed in the tenth measure the Distichia Catonis.. It is not to be supposed that there was a ecclesiastical III. 3 The reading book which. and on Avianus. Note 4. pp. Vorzeit. the second of the second century. 217-220.* The Proverbia Wiponis the so-called Scheftlarer Proverbia and the Proverbia Heinrici represent a still later stage in the evolution of the text books of this character. Novus Avianus and Romulus. however.. On no other assumption can we account for the astonishing number of these In them the material tian authors. vide Voigt. is derived neither from classical nor Chrisfrom national characteristics. Othlo's generation would naturally find more interest in a reading book based on biblical and patristic sources than on profane authors. and Bd. XX. desire on the part of the Church to suppress the supposedly pagan Distichia. appealed most both to the mediaeval teacher and pupil. Deutsch.. A boy studying in a monastery under Christian influences would surely be more interested in a reader based on the scriptures than in the Distichia. Of the Proverbia Heinrici four manuscripts have been found. 2 3 For text and critique of the Scheftlarer Proverbia vide Am. The doctrine of the modern schoolmaster. The Deliciae Cleri of Arnulf. cols. all these collections were based mainly on the five books of Phaedrus. Les Fabulistes Latins etc. Text and introduction by J. Bd. 383-390. pp. 4 1 Among the Text. N. and as such all subsequent mediaeval compilations in Latin as well as in the different vernaculars. Avian. mark another step from the Roman towards the purely mediaeval point of view. pp.

Vide Hervieux. cit. two unique . pp. 1200). the Novus Aesopus and the Novus Avianus of Alexander Neck- No less than as being widely used. I. Though there are not many manuscripts of these in existence. op.jg Tlie Seven Liberal Arts notable collections which were current in the later middle ages. Potsies inedites du Moyen Age. 2 Vide Hervieux. teachers from the eleventh century on who aimed to combine the abstract and the concrete and to adapt the material to the tastes of their particular generation or nationality. An analysis of the printed editions of the fables was likewise omitted since that topic also properly belongs to the later period of humanism. p. There were. passim. I. Italy and Switzer- The number of manuscripts of various books of fables which have been shown to be directly derived from Phaedrus reaches two hundred and sixteen. Austria. op. 461-602. The subjects of the fables of Avian. pp. cit. seven manuscripts in verse of Neckham's work have been found by Hervieux. 628 et seq. both written by monks j who were teachers. One is Fabultz et Parabola of Odo of The work. 38-239. is the "Riddle Literature. North Germany. Ill. which spread rapidly throughout Europe.. The most successful attempts to construct a reading book that should be distinctively written in the spirit of its time. Written in verse these riddles not only formed interesting reading matter. Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte. they are undoubtedly typical of other works of the same character. 262-276. of Aesop's Fables by Du Meril. pp. 169-259. 3 Of some importance as showing the methods of instruction in introductory Latin in the earlier stages. 650. are represented by collections.i The Phaedrus was paraphrased and put into prose by monks to be used for teaching purposes. cit. 608-683. England. 3 1 Text. a Cistercian monk (c. as exhaustively treated by Hervieux.. while of ham may be mentioned the versified manuscripts one hundred and twelve have been discovered and traced to France. however. On this subject vide Ebert. and no less than forty-seven such prose manuscripts have been found in France. 599-632." originally a British product. The kinds of text books described indicate the general tendency in the method and manner of teaching elementary land. reveal another vast source of didactic material for elementary Latin school purposes. Belgium and Italy. 436-445. but also afforded easy exercises in Latin scansion. op. Holland. Latin. Bd. The computation does not include the translations in the vernacular. vol. pp. England. like the Phaedro-Avian Cirrington. South Germany. the consideration of which is not relevant to our subject. South Germany. 334-347. whose books were used as readers by them and by others. Spain. Belgium. XXVI. edited with an historical introduction. Cf.

There are in existence some seventy-five of these more or less Internal evidence proves conclusively that the book was original stories. Cf. XII-XXXIX. beginning with thoughts expressed in one line sentences. vol. Bd.. Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach-und Kultur-Geschichte der Germanischen Volker Vol. 173-248. In form the work is so ar- ranged as to be progressively difficult. XXV. op. Anzeiger fur deutsches Alterthum und deutsche Literatur. pp. Vol. and reaching towards the end paragraphs occupying more than twenty lines. 2 Voigt has identified the writers cited in this work the following: . p. u. Text among edited by E. To accomplish this purpose. The hundred and ninety-five lines (1-595) are single line and epigrams. pp. and proverbs were placed side by side with the best writings of the Church fathers. vide "Kleine Latein" in ische Denkmaler der Thiersage. XXV.1 In his exhaustive investigation of the subject. Voigt demonstrates that the object of the author was to create an ideal school reader. XII-XXXIX. Kultur Geschichte der Germanischen Volker. pp.The Seven Liberal Arts 19 All these efforts find their best expression in the wonderfour fully skillful Fecundia Ratis. finished the work between 1022 and 1024. 1 Fecundia Ratis. where he Egbert. a book of two thousand hundred and seventy-three lines of verse composed by a priest and ''submagister scholae" at Liege. 2 first five productions. 16 et seq. designed to be used as a text book. Cf. sacred and fables profane. 47 et seq. The book contains a vast amount of information concerning student life and similar matters. 99-125. concrete and abstract material was used. . V. p. tit. For complete text vide Hervieux. one that would embody what was best in literature and still present the same in a form not above the under- standing of a boy. The second is the collection of fables edited by Ernest Voigt. Voigt. while the remaining six hundred are devoted to theological and biblical topics. That Egbert bestowed sufficient thought upon his subject is seen from the large number of writers he quotes directly or indirectly. The next four hundred lines (596-1008) proverbs are distiches containing more involved thoughts. Forschungen zur Sprach. was widely used both in the original and modified forms. IV. Voigt in Quellen u. ibid. In content the two thousand four hundred and seventy-three lines of the Fecundia Ratis is likewise progressively difficult. The next hundred and sixty (1008-1768) include fables of seven varying length. The fables are full of allusions and references to incidents in the life and manners of the times. .

LIII-LXV. cit. Voigt. . The gradual modification and adaptation of the materials at hand to suit the varying needs of the changing times and also to enhance the pupil's interest. was compelled to be the author of the reading book that his pupils were .to study.20 The Seven Liberal Arts . likewise show great skill on the part of the mediaeval teacher. LATIN PROSE AUTHORS: Varro Cicero Cornificius Curtius Capella Boethius Isidore Sallust Seneca 2. Latin Grammarians LATIN POETS: Ovid Phaedrus Persius Plautus Terence Lucilius Publius Virgil Lucanus Juvenal Avianus and others 3. The material examined in this chapter certainly bespeaks an intelligent appreciation on the part of the mediaeval schoolmaster of the pedagogical difficulties involved in the problem of teaching the elements of a foreign language which was to become for the pupil the language of daily intercourse. in many instances. who. op. Horace THE BIBLE: Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Genesis Exodus Deuteronomy Kings Esther Prophets Acts of Apostles Epistles 4- Job THEOLOGICAL WRITERS: Prosper Petrus Lactantius Ambrosius Jerome Chrysostomus Augustine Sedulius Gregory the Great Isidore Beda Rabanus Ratherius Cassian Cf.

a battle p. H. Chap. and was consequently ready for the more serious reading of Latin authors.-(Continued. as we have seen. THE STUDY OF LATIN LITERATURE. acquired an introductory knowledge of Latin through the study of collections of proverbs and fables in prose mastered to a certain extent the rules of and verse.) SCOPE. Comparetti. Grammar. the student. 2 Moreover this general subject of mediaeval education has not unnaturally 1 become cit. i But granting that Latin authors were read by the mediaeval pupils in their advanced study of grammer. p. Religious bias had much less to do with the selection than has been supposed. At bottom they involve the all- embracing problem of the use of the classics in the middle ages. Virgil in the Middle Ages. Taylor. Introduction. a number of inTo what extent teresting questions still remain unanswered: were the classics studied? In what spirit were they studied? Which were the favorite authors ? Did the study of the classics after the manner and method of the age really cultivate an appreciation of literary form in general and of Roman literature in particular? It is not possible in this study to suggest definite answers to these questions which have been a source of controversy from the day of the Humanists. The between the study of the classics in the middle ages and in the Renaissance would then simply be the difference of the end in view. the poets were read first. ground 594 et seq. In his introductory studies. XXXII. (A.) II. . op. The choice of authors to be read always depended on the teacher's taste and the accessibility of copies of the authors. He also Latin composition and prosody. O. 2 Cf. of Protestants difference and Sandys. a subject of which an adequate history has still to be written. poetry affording a better means for correct mastery of words and being more easily memorized. 363.The Seven Liberal Arts 21 CHAPTER III. As in the days of Greece and Rome. Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages.

tricts before the Revolution.141 171-187. Lucretius. * The attitude of recent writers on indicates this mediaeval culture partisan positions. Ch.22 Tlte Seven Liberal Arts believe Catholics. Compayre. passim. Terence. . Laurie. Vide the chapter entitled. it seems to me. 122. History o} Pedagogy p. p. not only vehemently assert that but the classics were studied most assiduously during this period. polemical attitude on the subject has surely reached its absurd climax when the same shred of evidence is used by both sides to prove opposite con2 tentions. 73. . The primary education afforded in the middle ages down to the fifteenth century at least. p. 39) cites Rather of Verona's refusal to admit to holy orders those who had not studied at an episcopal school or with some teacher. mutilated quotations from the writings of a few prominent mediaeval personages are cited and it is naively assumed that Others again.' defense of the old faith. It could not have been other- we influence are told. of general ignorance. One party would have us that the age was one wise. 20) as a sure indication of the ignorance of the clergy of the time. since the church exercised such a baneful Isolated cases of barbarisms and on learning. investigators a reaction from vexed subject of these extreme This new point of view has led modern to compile lists of allusions to From these compilations classical authors by mediaeval writers. 68. Facts which are true of the later middle ages are attributed to the whole period. pp. Horace." in Brother Azarias' Educational Essays. we are assured that mediaeval writers were acquainted in a greater or lesser degree with at least the following laboriously authors: Plautus. Robertson. Introduction to Literature of the Middle Ages Vol. Catullus. 14. i. 514-516. esp. as proof that a preliminary education was considered essential for a priest even Temps in the ninth century. The same fact is taken by Giideman (Geschichte des Erziehungswesens der Juden in Italien wahrend des Mittelalters p. Virgil. Cf. land. 9-52. 1 Vide Hallam. History of Charles V etc. These traditional Protestant contentions are controverted by MaitThe Dark Ages. in their enthusiasm they claim that in the middle ages there was almost an approach to universal elementary education. . Thus Oznam (Des Ecoles et de I' Instruction Publique en Italic aux Barbares. I. The rosy view there presented is based on recent investigations into the educational conditions of a number of French disThe fallacy in the arguments. "The Primary School in the Middle Ages. in their zealous a case has been made out. 15. lies in the fact that the middle ages are treated as one period. was only preparatory work for the advanced study of the liberal The arts and was not popular education in our sense of the term. Rise and Constitution of the Universities.

the facts point to an opposite conclusion. bristles with such evidence. for fair portion it has not as yet been proved that even a of these quotations are from first hand sources. 50. vide Ebert. cit. Cicero. Now. The classic Latin authors were studied to an extent (2) surpassing even the expectations of the most sympathetic student of mediaeval culture. 51. Seneca. 3 1 For bibliography on the various classical authors and their use in the middle ages vide Taylor. 49. 2 Cf. pp. while this generalization is certainly tonius. 52. 490-616. Thus in the ages of Gregory the Great and Gregory 3 of Tours. 23 Martial. cit. pp. pp. op. pp. Persius. "Beitrage zur Geschichte Romischer Dichter im Mittelalter" in Philologus-Zeitschrift fur das Classische Alterthum. I. we find the excellent productions of Arator Fortunatus and Aldhelm . The record of mediaeval literary productions as enumerated in Ebert's exhaustive Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlande. pp. It is well Indeed. 37 et seq. proof: Nevertheless the following points are susceptible of There was a general interest in literary culture in the (1) schools of the middle ages. in accord with the spirit of the modern historical standpoint. For an example of such studies showing the extent of the use of the various authors vide the series of articles by Manitius. the Cornelius Nepos.The Seven Liberal Arts Ovid. Bde. the evidence on which this assertion rests is far from more being conclusive. i Lucan.* How many of these learned citations really represent more than an acquaintance with the work of Priscian ? From the foregoing paragraphs it is clear that a complete answer to the questions raised cannot be given in this brief study. cit. Livy. known that the mediaeval scholar had at hand a vast collection all of quotations from Priscian's elaborate of the above of enumerated authors in manual grammar. . op. 606-638 gives a brief and inadequate summary of the subject with some detailed references. That there was literary culture in the schools of the middle ages may be inferred from the following facts: A mass of good Latin writing prose and poetry was produced even in the same periods in which the stock specimens of wretched writings were composed. Caesar. 47. op. For bibliography of manuscripts of the several authors extant vide TeuffelSchwabe's Geschichte der Rdmischen Literatur under the several names. II. Infra. 56. Sandys. and supplement Bd. SuePlinys. 363-365. 144 et seq. Quintilian. Sallust.. Tacitus. Statius. For a sympathetic . 7.

663. Des Ecoles et de I' Instruction Publique en Italie aux Temps Barbares in Docutnents Intdits pour servir a I'histoire literaire de I' Italie. Vide Poole. 874-876. Salisbury . John of VII. cit. op. pp. 662. . in regard to educational conditions of his own time 109-124. i If the reading of the classics was common before the advent of we look into the educational conditions of the middle ages as they obtained. evidence to show that the soCharlemagne did not mean a renaissance but simply a transference of the learning day from Britain and Italy through Alcuin and Paulus Diaconus into Frankland. c. 866869. in the traditional "period of darkness" (the sixth to the was eighth centuries) we find indisputable evidence that Italy at that very period full of schools. monastic. 9-76. 12. I. public and private. Pat. 200-208. VII. I. "Excursus on the Interpretation of a Place in John of " Salisbury's Metaldgicus. II. a change which was not This culture remained in the temporary but permanent. App. torn. secular. 317-378. 853-856. 359 et seq. belongs to the university period when scholasticism had changed the entire spirit of the pre-university education. Vide Bursian. 10. pp. restored Empire and is found at the court of the Ottos. CXCIX cols. Lot. the scholastics. Poole/ Illustrations of the History of Mediaeval Thought. c. II. ticus. pp. Oznam. and the church's influence on education was by far The comless potent than it had been in the earlier period. plaints of John of Salisbury as to the neglect of the classics cannot be set down as characteristic of the entire period. Geschichte der Glassischen Philologie in Deutschland. it can be easily demonstrated that at no time were the classics Even neglected to any such extent as has been supposed.%Myfh nlngietts. in the many schools which were directly and indirectly inthe fluenced by the followers of Alcuin. PolycraMigne.24 The Seven Liberal Arts Moreover part of the evidence of ignorance of the classics and indifference to them. Ewn the strictures of John of Salisbury are not as severe as has been generally supposed. The continuity of appreciation of the worth of mediaeval literary productions vide Guizot. 2 pp. 9. History 1 0} Civilization.. Cf. not in one country but in Western Europe. In fact his remarks when read in their entirety show that the study of grammar in its widest sense in reality the old-fashioned idea. cathedral. 24. c. 2 sufficient There of of is called restoration of literature. 17.

F. Bde. renaissance ries 112 et seq. the ordaining the copying of manuscripts as a part of the monastic routine inevitably made for a study of the classics. Geschichte des Schulwesens im Basel. E. Geschichte des Schulwesens im alien Herzogthum Geldern.Tlte Seven Liberal Arts 25 i throughout the period. I pp. u. Corvey. Krabbe. as given in Wattenbach's Deutschlands Geschicktsquellen im Mittelalter. CXXXII. Engel. de Beaurepaire de Robellard. Geschichtliche Nachrichten iiber die hoheren Lehranstalten in Munster. XXIII (treating of conditions in the diocese of Utrecht. Ch. * The attitude of the mediaeval studies has been misconstrued. Intensive studies of particular districts wherever they have been made. F. Ch. Geschichte. . Nettesheim. p. Geschichte des Hochstijts Osnabruck. Geschichte des Schulwesens zu Braunschweig. Das Schulwesen Strassburgs bis 1538. J. the Pious can no longer be accepted. D. H. Recherches sur ^Instruction publique dans le Diocese de : Rouen avant 1789. show a persistent interest in the study of grammar and literature in monastic as well as in cathedral classical interest was not broken and other schools. p. Fayet.). Reichenau. 241-487. 2 Among the typical studies of this character the following may be cited M. A. I. op. Stallaret. The isolated instances of saints monks erasing classical texts to write legends of on the parchment certainly dwindle into insignificance when we consider that there are in existence today over one 1 By tabulating into an educational genealogy the mass of material relating to the histories of the famous schools from which historical records have come down to us.. Cf. Gall. C. Geschichte des Hani- burgischen Schul-und-Unterrichtswesens des Mittelalters. and numerous other famous schools throughout Western Europe. Meyer. Kirch. 201 et seq. In the first literary study whatsoever. Baring. "Geschichte der Ehemaligen Schule zu Kloster Berge" in Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie und Paedagogik. Academie Royale au Brussels torn. CXXXIII. cit. Les Ecoles de la Bourgogne sons L'Ancien Regime. Schul. K. church towards secular Some have argued that because the official view of the church was against secular learning as an end in itself that therefore its influence was against any The error is evident. Holstein. rule which obtained in so many of the monastic orders place. 164-179) and Gaskoin (Alcuin etc. Cambray and Tourney). De VInstruction publique au Moyen Age in Memoires Couronnees. Sack. I have traced the influence of Charlemagne's as far as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries two centubeyond the date reached by the investigations of West (Alcuin etc. Wattenbach. Beitrage zur Han. Fechter. It may be remarked here that the accepted view as to the decline of learning under Louis. The evidence shows the spread and persistence of the traditions of St. pp. Struve.

Paris. Cf. 481-500. Wattenbach. On libraries in monMontalembert. 853-856. I 7~ 2 73 passim. this subject has received attention from the defenders of 4 From the middle ages. A. Western Christendom not only was there an abundance of schools of minor importance but that there were also scores of centres of culture where the literature of the classical world of Instances was assiduously studied. Migne. 4 modern standards have even been found approximations to in the brilliant classical teaching of Bernard of Chartres. 133 et seq. The Monks fa the West. " 2 Such lists are mentioned in F. V. Ueber Mittelalterliche Bibliotheken pp. pp. V. is found in Montalembert's Monks of the West. II. p.XXXVIII.. Schrijtwesen im M. praef. c. i. I. vol. 2. Ch. set forth for the first time the great extent of secular studies among the Benedictines. cols. XIII. 24. IV. 136-156. O. 123. Eckstein's article Lateinischer Unter" in Schmid's richt Encyclopaedia des gesammten Erziehungs-und-Unterrichtswesens Bd. CXCIX.. pp." and "John of Salisbury. For an admirable brief study based on sources of the educational work of . Historia Rei lit. supra p. cit. 201-225. * Furthermore. I. 231 et seq. Vol. 1691. the very accounts of the lives of the supposedly opponents of classical learning they had all received a good training in the classics. ly summary of the topic admirable scholarB. A. especially Pars. 109-135. Vol. Ill. Specht. p. passim. p. pp. where a long but incomplete list of the famous schools is given pp. An pp. 3 Vide summaries of the host of Vitce in Ebert's work. Tableau des Institutions et des Moeurs de I'Eglise au Moyen Age. asteries vide . Cf. p. 108. Vol. Cf. Lat. and the exhaustive treatment of the subject by Ziegelbauer. Pat. XXXVI. " tudine Bernard! Carnotensis. . 296-394. * The catalogues of monastic libraries of the middle ages such as have come down to us show that invariably nearly half of the books contained therein were grammars and paganclassical authors.26 The Seven Liberal Arts thousand copies of that important manual for teachers and advanced students Priscian's Grammar. Geschickte des Unterrichtswesens in Deutschland. chapters on the "School of Chartres. whose Traite des Etudes Monastiques. i the days of Mabillon. 109. Books and their Makers during the Middle Ages. Among them may be mentioned. 1 Keil. has a lengthy account of the educational famous schools in Germany. 24 note i. passim. 102-169. the istence of which can be definitely established. S. Metalogicus Lib. Hurter. 3 official show that ex- The number of centres of secular education. Gottlieb.. Poole. Chaps. is constantly inThere is evidence to prove that in every land of creasing. 124. Putnam." op.s Grammatici Latini. I. ' ' work of the most De usu legend! et praelegendi et consue5 Vide John of Salisbury.

de Studio. pp. whose interest in the trathat he is unquestioned. as we know. p. transduxit. Lib. Bishop of Orleans. id sibi suspectum erat. see Barach's introduction to edition of Bernard's De Mundi Uni-versitate. Ovid. who was educated at Speier at the end of the tenth century. 47. Horace ductory to the study of rhetoric. Boethius and Constantius. 3 In the next century we find Othlo expressly mentioning Horace." Quibus assuefactos locutionumque modis compositos ad rhetoricam Richer. . p. Virgil. Scriptores. 442. Gerbert's interests were more mathematical than literary. successor to Alcuin as the educational adviser of Charlemagne. I. Juvencus. afterwards Pope Sylvester II. Statius. Ill. 1 Theodulfii Carmen de Libris quos legere solebam. Maronem et Statium Terentiumque poetas. op. Poetas igitur adhibuit. Horace. For his general interest in the classics and for an estimate of his character vide Ebert. studied as part of his instruction in grammar. the Latin Homer. Fortunatus. Terence. (Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Lucanum etiam historioveniri graphum. Juvenalem quoque ac Persium Horatiumque satiricos.i Walther von Speier. Arator. c. Pez. 617. Sedulius. Christoph. Pompeius. Thesaurus Anecdotorum Novissimus T. vv. II. Ill. 39. de Doctrina Spirit. Statius. Duemmler. Lactantius. hence his judgment as to the necessity of studying the above named classical authors as a part of the subject of grammar would seem to indicate and reflect the average view of the teacher of his time. 96-109 in Fez. quibus assuescendos arbitrabatur. Anecdot. III. Hist Libri IV. col. Juvenal. Now. Tomus III. 3 Cum ad rhetoricam suos provehere vellet. II. teaching among the grammatical subjects at Rheims. shows the following named classic and Christian authors actually taught in the eighth century: Virgil.The Seven Liberal Arts 27 That the classics were much studied can be proved by an abundance of fragmentary evidence which indisputably establishes the fact that the standard Roman writers were taught by teachers of grammar in the mediaeval curriculum. Poette Latini Medii Aevt. 543 et seq. Legit itaque ac docuit. Terence and Juvenal amongst his school books. 2. Juvenal. Persius. 2 Walter Spirensis. Ruditional seven liberal arts tilius. All these he considered as introPersius. Pt. Theodulfus. cit. Prudentius. quod sine locutionum modis. qui in poetis discendi sunt ad oratoriam artem per- non queat. we find Gerbert. Acta St. 70 et seq. Liber Metr. Thes. 2 In the same century. and the historian Lucan.) 4 Othlo. Virgil. Terence. 4 Bernard.

Pt. well as a master of style. Tertius Tractatus" in P. Prosper and Prudentius. Virgil. as ages. Poematum Medii p. seem to prove the wide use of these authors. Cf. Juvencus. Akad. Carmen satiricum vv 35-45. vide Gottlieb. 825 et seq. Saintsbury. Horace. 119-134. pp. The vast number of glosses on Virgil and other authors which could hardly have been used except for instruction in the classroom. 528 note 5. Plautus. 439-449 6 Comparetti. Fisher in Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen I. 1-86.. Hist. pp. cit. berg. XXVII. History oj Criticism 408 et seq. Persius. Terence and Horace among the general books for the study of grammar. i Early in the thirteenth century we find that Eberhard of Bethune.28 The Seven Liberal Arts Hugo von Trimberg. n. hence the careful study of the Aeneid. 5 Nicolai de Bibera. Virgil. Arator. 1243. gives an explicit list of the authors one should read in each one of the subjects of the seven liberal arts. Vide "Laborinthus. p. 4 of A satirical poem following books were studied: the thirteenth century shows that the Ovid. Ovid. Juvenal. These 1030 verses critically edited by Huemer form a sourcebook of great significance for the facts as to the extent of the study of classical literature in the middle ages. s In the twelfth century we find a schoolmaster mentioning Lucan. Juvenal. col. Sandys. 3 Johannes de Garlandia. CLXXII. 6 Class. Horace. For more cumulative evidence of this character. Sallust. Terence.s The study of Virgil was continued throughout the middle He was considered the chief authority on grammar. p. CXVI. Notices op. cf. Boethius. Martial. the Latin Homer. alias de Artibus. Kaiser. Libellus de animae exsilio Migne. Ueber \littclaltcrliche Biblio- iheken pp. Statius. Sedulius. Statius. der Wiss. the Laborinthus) as models of style the authors which Hugo von Trimberg taught. Maximianus. Livy. et 4 Honorius of Autun. "Registrum Multorum Auctorum" in Sitzungsberichte der Philol. For texts and criticisms of Virgilian glosses . patria. Seneca. Wien Bd. Extraits etc. Juvenal. p. Ovid. Persius. Lucan. in the learned schoolmaster of Bam- 1280. Historia Poetarum Aevi. Text critically edited by Th. 145-190. 1 2 et I. Horace. gives the names of the books he taught and mentions Virgil. mentions (in the third part of his reference book. Leyser. mentioning among the works on grammar. 38. Persius. et 3 Haureau. a teacher of grammar and rhetoric.

the author of the metric Historia Evangelica. Persius. cit. . La Bataille des Sept Arts. pp.. f. pp. The vast number of glossaries as well as manuscripts extant shows the wide use of this author 2 for school purposes. Virgil in popularity as a mediaeval text book. Bd. Siever's Althochdeutsche Glossen. Arator. Virgil. Even the most famous of the Christian authors barely rivalled. Horace. "Die Deutschen Virgilglossen" in Zeit. Meier. in old German. Its pure style and fluent diction pressed the teachers with its value as a text book was much must have imbook from which to teach grammar. But even this fact supports the thesis. 330. Bde. 2. should put among those fighting under the banner of Orleans the side contending for the study of grammar the following authors: Donatus. Among such Christian authors may be mentioned: Juvencus. but never surpassed. Alterthum. representing the "new "-logic.The Seven Liberal Arts It is 29 Henri D'Andeli.. Terence. Sedulius. The used. The spirit of the age demanded that Christian writers be read also. Juvenal. pp. As between literature of Christian content and literature of Pagan content the schoolmaster not unnaturally chose the former. this combat are Paris. Text in Notices et This famous poem is generally taken as an etc. Steinmeyer. indication of the contest which was waged in the thirteenth century in France Extraits. 503-510. 652 et seq. Lucan. 115 et seq. p.. 2 The protagonists in and Orleans. To be sure the classics were not the sole material used by the mediaeval teacher to train the significant that of the humorous Combat students in literary form and appreciation. c. the author of the Seven Liberal Arts. repre- Ebert. vide E. are included in Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum IV. 20. * The foregoing data. sufficiently exemplify the scope and the spirit of the instruction given in Latin literature as a part of the study of grammar. V. pp. op. a gospel in Latin verse. I. 1 Steinmeyer and Vide Henri D'Andeli. Priscian. Statius. Pt. Moreover its content was most satisfactory from a Christian point of view. A. but by no means to the exclusion of the latter. Prudentius. 1-96. Die Sieben Freien Kunste im M. Deut. to supplant the study of the classics by scholastic logic. 427-470. for on examining closely the evidence on this point we find that only those Christian authors were read whose literary excellence was beyond question. then. Ill. " senting the old "-classical studies. pp. dating back to the 8th and Qth centuries. V. 2 and 3. Some Virgilian glosses and some on Juneval.

whose claim to distinction was the fact that he treated gospel themes according to the strict classic tradition of poetic composition. T. 2 Cf. 430). especially the Psychomachia. XCVI. His works. Hist. English metrical translation by F. Akad.30 The Seven Liberal Arts Of great fame as a text book was the Carmen Paschale The book was based on the Old and Sedulius (fl. It shows that even in the days of Remigius of Auxerre when the literary enthusiasm of the Carolingian revival is supposed to have waned. represent the highest expression of Christian thought in His influence most naturally was great. Life and Letters in the Fourth Century p. employed was to bring out the etymological meaning. This fact can be taken as a link in the chain of our argument. and biblical history. Wiss. Ebert. iHe was called the The extent to which he atque ChristiamSsimus" poeta. Texts: Psychomachia. Hence dictionaries were used in abundance. ed. and mythological and historical explanations were given to enable the student to understand the text.) METHODS. Praise of it in the middle ages was very general. 2 (B. 251-288. Cathemerinon. G. give a fairly adequate idea of the method employed. 373 et seq. But the most widely used Christian author. Smith. R. 249-277. 3 The following few introductory lines from Priscian's Partition's duodecim rersuum Aeneidos principalium. Latin. metre. London & New York. d. 505-551. and classic form. I. Bergmann. der Konigl. 2 Aufl. pp. pp. better known as Prudentius (fl. Ed. a work designed to be used in teaching grammar from Virgil. was Aurelius of i Prudentius Clemens. them Turning to the methods of teaching the the advanced fully as elaborate in as in we of find study the classics now being a elementary study of mastery of literary forms the The object the method mainly. I. Ebert.. op. Huemer has traced to Remigius of Auxerre the authorship of a glossary on Sedulius. op. edition of Th. cit. there still was interest in the purely literary form of a Christian poet. The author takes the first line of each book of the Aeneid and asks the pupil to . Obbarius. " dissertissimus praise of him \fulsome. Vide Sitz." was used can be judged by the twenty-one different manuscripts of German glossaries of his works which are still extant. Class. J. Glover. 400). 3 1 Cf. cit. 1898. Tubingen 1845. and the Cathemerinon. Philol. especially 280-288. p. It became at once a standard for the teaching of Latin grammar. New Testament. whose popularity almost equalled the fame of Virgil.. classics.

(a) The most famous of these was that of Marius Servius Honoratus. Cur singulare ejus in usu non est? Quia multas varias res hoc nomen significat. As a type of this class the two works of Fulgentius may be mentioned the De Continentia Virgiliana and the Mythologicon. commentaries on the author became a necessity. there can be no . 459-528. They can be classed into four groups: Those giving a litergpjy commentary on the author. sine dubio neutri sunt generis. i (b) is absolutely necessary to of Tiberius Claudius of this Those dealing with Virgil as a rhetorician. 400 A. * explain every word.D. Text by Thilo and Hagen. which was used as the source and the type of subsequent works. Of these there was a vast number. Cur Neutri? Quia omnia nomina quae in plurali numero in a desinunt." Text in Keil. Of these four methods of interpreting Virgil as represented in the commentaries. pp. semermis. In (c) this class of commentaries Virgil is exhibited as the universal mind. where copious notes are given. The existence of a large number of glossaries on commentaries of the first class supports this assertion. show an amusing ignorance of etymology. armipotens. the first was really the one used in the schools in the study of grammar. 2 The topic is exhaustively treated in Comparetti. To from the mystical and allethese commentators Virgil is the book from which hidden things are to be revealed. cit. Cujus generis? Neutri.) is the best known class. An examination of the subject matter of the other commentaries shows conclusively that they were unsuitable for school use and could only have been read by adult students of the classics. 1 Lot. may be mentioned as Those treating of Virgil gorical point of view.The Seven Liberal Arts 31 As the study of grammar at this stage invariably meant a study of Virgil. Servius only gives such information as explain the text literally. In this way by going through the twelve introductory lines of the twelve books of the Aeneid he covers most of the rules of grammar and prosody: " Arma quae pars orationis est? Nomen. Gramm. Cujus est figurae? Simplicis. Ill. He comments on the Aeneid only as a masterpiece of rhetorical composition. like the vocabularies of the middle ages. Armiger. 50-119. Those treating of Virgil as a subject for eulogy. Fac ab eo compositum. pp. op. inermis et inermus. (d) fifth century author. Quale? Appellativum. Cujus est casus in hoc loco? Accusativi. Cujus est speciei? Generalis. a the most typical. Macrobius. and to analyze it grammatically and metrically. While all these commentaries. Leipzig 1878. The work Donatus (fl.

made them memorize passages and write original exercises in prose and verse. Interpretes Veteres Virgilii Maronis in Classici Auctores e Vaticanis codicibus editi T. op. Specht. * quality of such appreciative teaching depended mainly Bernard of Chartres. of p.. cit. IX. p. 4 Specht has collected a number of references in the Vitae of eminent persons relating to their original dictamina. I. p. structions.853 et seq. pp. Donatus' larger work. 114 note 9. Keil. op. In fact the last of the three years devoted to the study of grammar was expressly given up to work of that character. This work cites Virgil about one hundred times. praef. CXCIX col. for instance. who taught John of Salisbury. not only read the authors with his pupils but also explained con- The on the character of the teacher.. VIII. 112. selected portions were memorized and the pupil was often tested as to his under. Cf. practice by the pupils in prose and in metrical composition was very common indeed in the schools of the middle ages. op."i While the literal explanation of the text was the minimum aim of instruction. cit. vide Poole. 135-155. of Verona. p. The forms and idiomatic expressions were emphasized. much more than that was very often accomplished. 367-402. has been published in Mai. 3 While this work represents of course the best of grammatical teaching of the time. op. pp. An interesting anonymous commentary on Virgil. Migne. in the twelfth century. standing of the text by being required to reproduce the thought of the author in correct prose without barbarisms or solecisms. Comparetti. elucidated matters of antiquity. . has found some such manuscripts dating as far back as the twelfth century. op. 3 Metalogicus. 2 cit. c. 9. from Ms. the Ars Grammatica major. 129. asked pupils to judge and to criticize. cit. 1 ibid. For proofs Bernard of Chartres identity with Bernard Sylvester. cit. VII. Text. For the numerous biographies of Virgil and other poets vide Comparetti. 838.32 TJte Seven Liberal Arts authors accounts of their lives and In the study of classical the times in which they lived were often given to the pupils. antedating the work of Servius. The material for such instruction was found in little books which were known as "accessus ad poetas. pointed out mistakes and beauties of the text. IV. 4 tamen metricum" was a sort of testamentum maturitatis in The exercise was naturally based on some classical For a few of these vide question of their utility for class-room purposes. 14. 103. was used for that purpose to bring out the niceties of Latin diction. Such instruction had its technical name "dictare" and the ability to make a "dic- grammar.

* In this change in the method of teaching the whole subject of grammar. and occupied two months in the writing. For "Floretus" vide Hist. cols. II. cit. style in the thirteenth and foursituation is in marked contrast to the prevalence of classical taste which even Hallam admits existed in the tenth. seen meaning merely a logical treatment Instead of the originals and com- Floret-us mentaries on authors we shall find brief anthologies. the first book of the exercise is the "Liber de Studio poetae " quoted in this monoof his age . p. 3 which was unmistakably due to the great amount of instruction in the classics given in the schools of that period. A. In rare instances an especially gifted youth would write an elaborate poetical production as his "dictamen. II. 973) though written in German was also a dictamen exercise modelled after Virgil and Prudentius. Pt. XXVII. op. 7. pp. pp. containing some nine hundred hexameters. Lat. 92-94. 688-731. Christophori. and written in the eighteenth year col. Antike Kunstprosa II. cf. is to be found the explanation of the decline of classical classics in the taste and Latin This teenth centuries. notice on mss. 643-650. pp. and more particularly in the eleventh centuries. Sandys. and Migne CXIV The famous Waltherius of Ekkehardt I (c. 303 et seq. (3) Walther von Speier's Ada St. Notices et Extraites etc. In the period of scholasticism there is a shrinking of the 1 Three most noted instances are. II. of these two works. Ill. 3 Hallam.The Seven Liberal Arts 33 author or some biblical incident. p. France VIII. The and the Facetus (the latter erroneously attributed to prolific Johannes de Garlandia) are but typical of the kind of reading matter that was beginning to replace the the study of grammar. cit. H. 265 et seq. III. 2 cit. 15-20. . For a op. cit." i The foregoing statements as to the study of the classics as a part of the course in grammar apply only to the period before the opening of the university era. Vide Ebert. 25-27. Of this change the text books of that period will give ample proof. vide Haurdau. Poet. (i) the Visio Wettini by Strabo. Norden. op. Text. op.. Pt. M. (2) graph. 1063. G. for then the character of the instruction both in the study of the elements of Latin gramin the advanced study of Latin literature changed and took on a more dialectical aspect. This period is the time of the contest of the "arts" against the "authors. Fez. was composed by him at the close of his grammatical studies when he was eighteen years old. Lit." the mar and "arts "as of all we have the seven liberal arts. Text in M. p. de la 30-94.

. Christian in the subject matter of grammar. consequently a detailed examination of this period of decline is foreign to our inquiry and forms more properly a part of the study of humanism. of the present investigation is to review the typical instruc- tion of the middle ages proper. however. pagan and The decline of the interest its own reaction and made possible the humanistic movement.34 The Seven Liberal Arts mere elements and Aristotle. classics in time brought In this neglect of Latin literature. After a most cursory study of the of Latin the pupil was hurried to the university authors alike suffered. The main purpose.

Alcuin. Boethius. An a task examination of the mediaeval text books. in' the middle ages the general text book was almost the sum total of the instruction given. Passing on to the consideration of the text books on grammar. Grammar-(Continued) III. affords a true insight into the character of mediaeval teaching. The mediaeval text book represented not only what the pupil studied. words "legere" and "docere" were synonymous and interof a given subject. (i) encyclopaedic. Rabanus Maurus and Remigius of Auxerre. Nowadays if we wish to form a tentative opinion as to the character of instruction in an educational institution. the Venerable Bede. TEXT BOOKS.The Seven Liberal Arts 35 CHAPTER IV. Among the standard encyclopaedias were those of Capella. but also what in many cases the teacher 'knew. we find them all based mainly on the works of Donatus and i Priscian. turn based on that of Capella. all latter class were nearly always either abbreviated or elaborated adaptations from the standard encyclopaedic works. Capella's was based on the earlier work of Those of Cassiodorus and Isidore of Seville were in Varro. and were almost always the work of some teacher. His teaching consisted largely of dictation So general was this method that the from the text book. The treating of specific subjects only. Such adaptations not infrequently became in turn the basis for subsequent texts. including of the subjects of the curriculum. i They may be divided of space occupied into two classes. we look at the curriculum and at the text books used in the various But while in our day these give only a clue to the character of the instruction. changeable terms. Augustine. dry though such may be. Cassiodorus. The works of Boethius and Bede included only the subjects of the Quadrivium. The texts were of two kinds: treatises on all or nearly and (2) individual. Isidore of Seville. subjects. in the belonging to The amount by each subject above mentioned .

Lateinische Grammatik. Alcuin . 3 Little is known of him except that he was a teacher of St.Astron.36 The Seven Liberal Arts distinct periods. . more elab- 4 Cf . Rabanus 1 60 p. THE FIRST PERIOD. F. ..Geom. 3 brief outline of the eight parts of speech The most widely known printed pages. 2 Fr. a orate treatise on the subject. TeufTel-Schwabe. The period are: Priscian. p. 30 i 67 12 Pages reduced to 1 Isidore. . A. text books of this period are almost all from Italy.. current during the middle ages. and (3) a It is the general dry and deadening method of treatment. oric lectic metic etry omy 9 15 3 u 25 14 5^18 14 25 n n 2 15 2 n 2 . Haase. 46. characteristics of the grammatical works of the early strict adherence to the plan of Donatus and (i) A The first (2) disposition to reason about the facts of grammar. . On the fantastic accounts of his life.. 4 encyclopaedias is of interest as showing the quantity of knowledge imparted DiaArith. Ge- schichte des gelehrten Unterrichts. R.. as is sometimes asserted. 14 26 2 23 6 mo. 12. but a natus. Die Sieben Freien Kunste im M. Stolz. Ge- . (2) A paucity of illustrative material. p. not in the Socratic manner. with the two end of the twelfth century as the time of transition. DC Medii Aevi Studiis Philologicis quoted in Paulsen. characteristics of the works of the later period are: (i) An A exaggeration of the disposition to reason observable in the period. 638 et seq.. Sandys. The author's source occupying some eight was the now lost Ars first Grammatica of Palaemon.Music Author Gram. period of scholasticism in grammar. but rather in the form of question and answer. 40 50 54 55 cit. an author of the century. p. . Jerome. 4.. op.' them are in the form of a dialogue. The Ars Grammatica Minor is so called to distinguish it from Donatus's Ars Grammatica Major. As to the intrinsic value of these grammars it may be said that while The Many of worthless when treating of derivations. . they are very scientific in the portions dealing with syntax.Rhet- mar Capella Cassiodorus Boethius. see Meier. 2 text book on grammar throughout middle ages was the Ars Grammatica Minor of Aelius Dothe It is not a reading book.

indefinite.. A. infinitive. conjunctive. 6. 1. pp. Gender. and schichte der 37 all- Romiscken Literatur Bd. Rules for genitive plural and dative and ablative. Vol. impersonal. Common. Conjugations. Quality. Attributes. Definition. 4. Grammatici Latini. B. incohative. meditative. p. Nominative. 5. 3. Singular and plural. accusative. Quality. 6. 2. Pronoun. Gender. dative. ablative. Indicative. Attributes. Definition. Feminine.The Seven Liberal Arts Altogether different from the book of Donatus. III. . Definition. B. optative. imperative. 1. genitive. illustrating the six attributes given. 1035.. Masculine. 1. 355~367Because of the great part which this work played in the education of the middle ages. Perfect. Case. Verb. Person. 2. Positive. Quality. 2. Forms. 5. an analysis of the book is herewith given as the best means of conveying an idea of its contents: I: The Noun. Illustrations all pronouns declined. Number. common. Illustrations. 4. Modes. Figure. IV. Gender. Nouns II. appellative. A. Definite. B. superlative. Number. Figure. collective. frequentative. proper. comparative. Case. Text in Keil. Attributes. 3. 3. neuter. vocative. Comparison. A. Simple and compound. II.

future. List of prepositions taking each case. Interjection. C. Copulative. B. number. Signification. B. disjunctive. A. 4. Definition. Attributes. G. Illustrations. expletive. subjunctive. Illustrations. C. A. D. common. Definition. passive. Place. E. V. Number. 5. Time. IV. past. Number. Simple. neuter. B. Illustrations. C. VII. Illustrations. Accusative and ablative. Simple and compound. F. Case. Illustrations. Illustrations. Participle. D. deponent. Order. compound Time. . VIII. All participal forms of lego given. Prepositions. Conjunction. Figure. D. Definition. B. Illustrations. 6. All forms of lego given. VI. Adverb. causal. Figure. Relation. denominative. optative. Praepositive. common. Simple. A. negative. Figure. Definition. Comparison. Attributes. affirmative. compound.38 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts embracing in its scope was the Institutio de Arte Grammatica by Active. Present. Illustrations. Cases. rational. A. Figure. time. Gender. hortative. A.

" Cf. contain- These numerous quotations must have made it also a valuable anthology. Attributes. scripts tophanes. II. Praefatio. thoroughly scientific. Meaning. much 2 F. Demosthenes.. Aristotle. tific method of Apollonius Dyscolus. parts. the first sixteen dealing with accidence. Terence (225 times). of the work. Herodotus. showing that the syntax of Priscian was not as much studied as his gram- mar. cit. Cicero. to whom he is indebted The book is divided into eighteen for much of his material. praeceptor". among which the one by Rabanus Maurus be mentioned as an example. op. it character and form made books based upon 1 it were composed. Cato. XII. X. The aim of the his dedicatory letter. the last two The portion on syntax. "Communis hominis cit. and ing III. Originally. Text in Keil. grief. vols. II. admiration. i 39 work as indicated by the author in put the study of Latin on the same His work follows the scienscientific basis as the study of Greek. work as elaborate. 4. a made may for school use. Keil.The Seven Liberal Arts Priscian. fear. of the author's life Little is known His fame was great . are the learned quotations in which mediaeval writers abound copied from Priscian instead of from the originals? To what extent 3 Keil. the Aeneid (721 times). Naturally therefore it had to be modified to suit the needs of the Germanic nations. p. "Latini eloquentiae Vol. op. was to in existence contain only the first sixteen books. Joy. among them. characterizes the material but of no originality. of the midtoday in existence one thousand manuThe text covers about five hundred and octavo pages. cit. op. his title in the middle ages was decus. however. Virgil's other Many abstracts of Priscian' dworks were poems (146 times). p. Aris- The book formed the most advanced grammar There are dle ages. Its elementary a good outline for teachers to amplify and comment upon. Sallust (80 times). II. Stolz. hundred and fifty-five different authors. Ovid (73 times)... Homer (78 times). . Lucretius (25 times). 3 B. Most of the manuscripts often found as a separate volume. the book was written for boys whose mother tongue was Latin. Vol. is with syntax. Praefatio. Horace (158 times). Juvenal (121 times). of which one hundred and sixty-two eighty-four The author quotes no less than two are devoted to syntax. Julius Caesar. In this way a large number of grammatical text Such in brief is the content of this famous text book.

729 et seq. Haase. Keil I. as of importi The Instituta Artium and the Catholica of M. 363- 365. 3-184. cit. Vorlesungen et seq. "Versus de Sanctis Eboracensis Ecclesias" vv. for Glosses. 1535-1561.. II. p. 90. II.. 5 Text. His material is taken mainly from Varro and from Seutonius's lost work De Poetis 4 (4) Arsde Nomine century. pp. Sandys. Cf. who did much to preserve the grammatical teaching of an earlier age. in their chronological order. see Steinmeyer and Siever. one of the foremost grammarians of the latter half of the first century. 91. p. of Consentius. p. Sandys. Valerius (1) Probus. 4 Teuffel-Schwabe. IV. Keil. Vol. 1033 et seq. p. a fourth (2) century grammarian. 2 Cf. 6 De Nomine et Verbo. Alcuin. 217. VI. Keil. cit. p. . It served as a basis for many mediaeval grammatical text books.. ibid. Specht. op. Teuffel-Schwabe. a contemporary of Diomedes. Text in Keil. and shows no individual characteristics. His treatise in four books devoted especially to the study of metre is mentioned by Notker. 35. Specht. op. 7 cit. But for the fact that it formed a part of his encyclopaedic work it would have been used but little. 300 et seq. 1057 et seq. pp. pp. p.. s Ars Grammatica. Keil. 3 (3) grammar. of Diomedes. a grammarian (5) and rhetorician of the fourth century. There are no separate texts of it in existence. 7 De Differentiis et Societatibus Gr&ci Latinique Verbi of (7) 1 The grammar of Isidore of Seville is a mere compilation from Donatus and Priscian. the following may be mentioned ance for this period. p. pp. et Verbo of Phocas. Marius Victorinus. n. Gall in the ninth century. who is responsible for the main outlines of traditional Latin III. op. 235.. Althochdeutsche Glossen. p. Bd. Teuffel-Schwabe. 3-192. * Artis Grammatica Libri Institutionum Grammaticarum Libri V of Flavius Sosipater Charisius. Keil V. 3 Teuffel-Schwabe. I. p. 329 et seq. 91. Text in Keil V. p. His book was used at St. p.40 The Seven Liberal Arts Besides the grammars of Donatus and Priscian. a contemporary of (6) the famous Sidonius Apollinaris. op. . II. cit. pp. 7 Cf. . quoted in West. itber Lateinische Sprachwissenschaft. The book is mentioned Alcuin as being in the famous library of York in the eighth by Glosses on the work have been found. XVII Text. 6 Specht. Text I. 410-441. p. II. of C. . Text. p.

91 Text. p. op. His work is an adaptation of the grammar of Donatus. cit. p. i Commentarius in Artem Donati.. Augustine. 6 Text. 442-489. p. IV. 14 et seq. II. p. 161 . 4 (u) Ars (Grammatica) Breviata of St. in 41 This treatise on the difference between the verb Latin and the verb in Greek. . VII. 7 Grammatica of St. 3 Cf. The (12) work is the author's brief treatise on grammar.The Seven Liberal Arts Macrobius. 214.. Boniface. which forms a portion of his encyclopaedia of the seven liberal arts. Bursian. 4 Teuffel-Schwabe. 3 Ars de Verbo. parts of speech etc. I. a con(9) temporary of Sidonius Apollinaris. 218. There (10) are in existence a number of glosses on this grammar. p. Gall in the ninth century. pp. The name of the author gave the work great prominence. Sandys. 599-6552 Sandys. s Institutio de Arte Grammatica of Cassiodorus. p. Mai. Sandys. Siever. 453. VII. 475-598. Donati of Servius Marus. p. Keil.8 (15) Dialogus de Arte Grammatica of Alcuin is based on Donatus. cit. Sandys. West. 525 et seq. in Commentarius in Artem. text in Keil. of Marius Servius Honthe The author was a famous commentator on His grammar. pp. n. 35. op.. pp. 405-448. und 5 Specht. For this period Marus is unquestionably the great commentator of Donatus. the apostle to the (14) Ars Germans. p. 2 oratus.. T. p. Virgil. 653-659. syllables. IV.. I. p. p. The treatise gives a brief (13) treatment of letters. 224 et seq. V. was a Latin adaptation of the Greek syntax of Apollinaris of Alexandria. The author living at the was a famous scholar ginning of the (8) fifth end of the fourth and the be- century. of Eutyches. Text. 6 Ars Grammatica of Asper. in Keil. 7 Cf. p. Geschichte der Glassischen Philologie in Deutschland. 405-448. Keil. . It was found in the library of St. Cod. Notker of 1 Cf. a pupil of Priscian. Classic ouctores e Vat. extracts only. pp. 8 Cf. p. a brief excerpt from his encyclopaedia on the liberal arts. Text.. V. Charisius. 1245. Diomedes. Ebert. was also famous library of York in Alcuin's school days. . Haase. 462. Text in Keil. op. Specht. p. 91 Text in Keil. cit. whom he avowedly follows. Vol. a commentary on Donatus. p. Alcuin. 490 et seq. Steinmeyer text in Keil V.

830). 4 of Capella. c. 94. The avowed object of his innovations was that "the reader might be able to get the spirit of grammar and the thought of the holy scriptures at the same time. in his etc. pp. CXI. in 5 Text and Introduction by Th. Migne. Lit. first period was later usurped by the Doctrinale of Alexander de Villedieu. der Konigl. Michael (ob. Cf. Capella's Basel in cit. ' ' Notices et Extraits 3 For manuscripts extant and extracts vide Thurot. op. ibid. cols. p. de la France T.5 From the mediaeval point of view there were important text The important place which book on grammar in the Priscian occupied as an advanced considerations to explain the phenomenal popularity of this 1 Cf. (d. d. 65. 613-678. 2. Text. cols. Huemer in Sitz. Cf. the ab(17) bot of St. Extracts. Class. IV. His grammatical work on Donatus was printed at 1499 under the name Remigii fundamentum scholarum. 14. 14. p 445 et seq. 848-901. composed in 1 199. Hist. Priscian. The Seven Liberal Arts Gall thought it even better than Donatus and Priscian. "3 Expositio super Donatum." in Notices et Extraits etc. Pt. Migne. XXII. and in Notices et XXII. Thurot. with numerous illustrations and some observations on prosody. 81. Philol. XCVI. 1885. cit. Reichling. His work is a commentary on Donatus. 2 Text. The former THE SECOND PERIOD. 908). 68. de divers manuscripts Latins pour servir a 1'histoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen age. Meier. op. For a description of his grammatical works. But the exhaustive work of Reichling has superseded all previous studies.42 St. Wien Bd. 2 Tractatus in Partibus Donati of Smaragdus. Extraits . More recently K. A had. Paedogogica. CI. Meier. XII.. p. 538. vide Thurot. Vol. ap- parently culled from the Ars Grammatica Major of Donatus. Pt. Bd. note 2. Tom. passim. p. and De Nuptiis etc. a famous commentary on Donatus by a famous teacher of sacred and profane literature. Julius Neudeker has introduced new material on the subject in his Das Doctrinale. 2. Hist. 1850. 4 Remigius was the author of commentaries on Donatus. 4. is a brief compendium of the elements of grammar. i (16) Excerptio de Arte Grammatici Prisciani by Rabanus Maurus. of Remigius of Auxerre.. who also wrote a (18) commentary on the encyclopaedia was used till the Renaissance. p. The Doctrinale has received elaborate treatment Monumenta Germaniae by De Alexandra de Villa Dei Doctrinale. Wiss. but the illustrations are from the Vulgate and not as was the case with most of these commentators from Virgil and Cicero.

pp. 1 For a complete critical bibliography of these vide Reichling. sixtyfour of the fourteenth. 3 Reichling. manuscripts actually in existence at present reaches two hundred and fifty.) while the total number of printed no less than two hundred and ninety-five. the versified form was certainly a teacher. 3 and furnished much new In spite of these innovations. The book was used in the schools of Germany. the work. * (4) commended His treatment of prosody and figures was likewise an of Priscian improvement on the work material. In his treatment of the subject the author took into (2) account the changes which the Latin language had undergone in the seven centuries since Priscian wrote his famous grammar. and nine of the sixteenth. Italy and Poland. . a grammar meeting the practical requirements of the living language of the day. The reasons for its wide use are the following: The entire grammar was in verse. which had undisputed sway in most of the schools of The number of Western Europe for over three centuries. CXXI-CCCIX. 2 Vide Haase. cit. also Latinized Teutonic words. (thirty-three of the thirteenth century. as well as in the universities. pp. his clearness in the treatment of that part of his subject has been even by modern students of philology.. one hundred and fifty -four of the fifteenth. 13. etc. England. Spain. Alexander's book was very thorough in the syntax. VII-XX. op. This innovation was the original feature of the text book. op. the computus and canon law. 15. which is an excerpt of the author's larger work on grammar. France. (3) The Syntax of Priscian was no longer adequate to the requirements of an age when the logical aspects of grammar were to be emphasized rather than the literary. whom he closely follows in his treatment of the etymological questions. In an age when (1) editions is i memorizing was so prominent a feature of of instruction because the boon to the scarcity of books.The Seven Liberal Arts 43 book. He incorporated in his book many words from the It therefore was scriptures. Vorlesungen cit. was after all merely a commentary on the older grammars. especially Priscian.

Some of these Reichling describes. In its usual form it appeared with accent and figure (1095 lines) " a prologue and twelve capitalia. the teacher was expected to explain the text and to illustrate it in "lay language. nisi syncopa fiat. In the syntax. Atque secundum habet arum. prepositions. LX-LXXI. Primo plurali decet ae quintoque locari. post es tamen e reperitur. Accusativis pluralibus as sociabis Versibus his nota fit declinatio prima. Quintus in a dabitur. conjunctions. op. pp. adverbs. and after twenty years of vehement campaigning they succeeded (c. 9. naturally omits in its etymological portion the treatment of numerals. 2 Reichling. 2 1 The following verses which treat in full of the idea of the character of the entire book: first declension give a fair Rectis as es a dat declinatio prima. LXXXIII-CX. The trinale general use and authoritative character of the Docgained for its author the title. (3) on quantity. tamen excipiemus. accents. 1510) in discarding it. as the author explicitly states in his prologue. In fact. and gives only a most cursory treatment of pronouns. Tertius aut sextus habet is. regular verbs.. vel cum dat a Graecus. tenses and moods are omitted. Atque per am propria quaedam ponuntur Hebraea Dans ae diphthongon genitivis atque dativis." The Humanists quite naturally therefore directed their first attack on the old order against this book. 8. in a femineum sine neutro. Rectus in o Graeci facit an quarto breviari. as Reichling has shown. while the treat- ment is of quantity. Quando mas fit in us. op. (2) on syntax (476 lines). cit. "x\ristotle of Grammar. i grammatical and rhetorical figures very thorough. tamen es quandoque per e dare debes Cum rectus fit in es vel in as. . likewise. Reichling. verses It is evident from the foregoing typical Text. Femineis abus sociabitur ut dominabus Sexum discernens istis animas auperaddes. op cit. Nevertheless." cit. Am recti repetes quinto. tamen en aut an reperimus. "Der Kampf urn das Doctrinale." Of such commentaries there were many. . A sextus.44 The Seven Liberal Arts The treatise comprises three main divisions: (i) On etymology (1073 lines). Am servat quartus. the Humanists themselves in the succeeding generation incorporated much of the work of Alexander in their own text books." Being an advanced grammar for those who had already studied the Donatus Minor the book . that a commentary to the Doctrinale was not unnecessary. sextum sociando.

solecisms. 3 Meier. op. Geschichte der Erz. p. where extracts are given. Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.. Grcecismus (c. tropes. cit. Mari. op. LXXIX-LXXXIII. 453 et seq.. Cf. et Extraits. XX. The book is a commentary on Priscian. Critique by M. Another popular work by Eberhard was his Laborinthus. was an work on prosody with complete poems for illustraThe author was a teacher of grammar at the University from 1229-1232. del Reale Institute 4 Text ed. in M. Cf. Notices 2. etc. of the Gracismus has been fixed by Reichling. Thurot in Comptes rendus. A p. p. I.. Luther considered it one "of the foolish. Reichling. "Trattati medievali di Ritmica Latina" in Memorie del Reale Institute Lombardo. 95 et seq. cit. Grammaticorum Medii Aevi. composed about 1142. 239-269. deque octo partibus orationibus GrcEcismus sive liber carmine hexametro scriptus de figuris Text in Edition of J. Grammat. of Toulouse He also wrote a commentary on the Doctrinale. 1212).5 i Full title. G. useless and harmful monkish books introduced by the devil. Sandys." in Memorie Lombardo. Mari.. 2. Beitrage zur einer Geschickte der Lat. . also Schmid. a didactic poem on grammar and style. LV. VI.Tlie Seven Liberal Arts 45 is Second only to the Doctrinale in importance for this period Eberhard of Bethune's. 796-854. The date . Corpus . The main topics which he treats are etymology. it is in verse and explains Latin grammar without any reference to classical authors. pp. Typical of its time. Wrobel. pp. barbarisms.. op. Thurot. cit. Cf. LIV. p." * Among the text books of lesser importance may be mentioned (1) : The Swntna of Petrus Helias. Babler.! Like the work of Alexander it is in verse. XXII. 641. and is among those quoted in Duns Scotus' work on grammar. II. pp. "Trattati Medievali di Ritmica Latina. The Ars Rhythmica of Johannes de Garlandia. Pt. a subject quite unknown to the author. torn. 298 et seq. 15. Partly in G. 5 Exists in the Cambridge University Library. 383 et seq. Its name is derived from the fact that the book has a chapter on Greek derivatives. torn. p. 2 Text in Polycarp Leyser. etc. Archbishop of Canterbury from 1272 to 1279. It was much used in the fourteenth century and helped further to displace Priscian. 2nd Series. XX. 4 A commentary on the first fifteen books of Priscian by (3) Robert Kilwardy. T. 3 (2) elaborate tion. Helias' commentary forms a part of Vincent de Beauvais' Speculum Doctrinale. Cf.

Scheler. It is typical of the philosophical treatment given to later grammar in the middle ages. Added to it was a brief vocabulary. 439." It was widely used in Germany. I. and Juvenal. in Virgil. p. Netherlands and France. commonly a known v/riter as of the Modista. op. etc. XXII." "diction"glossas" and "commentarii. Pt. 1886. cit. A. a grammar well known (6) . p. Flemish the thirteenth century. Supplementary to the text books on grammar proper were the "vocabularies" which occupied a prominent place in the instruction in grammar in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts.. note. The work. vide Le Catholicon de Lille. as quoted supra p. 1-58. was so named because the first line " read Flores grammaticas propono scribere. extracts. Catholicon. the famous scholastic writer. II. II. A. et in Notices Extraits etc. R. p. 4 Schmid. ed.46 The Seven Liberal Arts (4) De Modis i Significandis of . pp. passim. of the Distichia Catonis. For extracts of portions of the dictionary. (4) De Orthographia Figuris." 1 " These were variously known as vocabularii. 2 Haase.. Cf. So. Hallam. cit. day. of is The work was much used and was M. 2 Artis Grammatical Institutio. 15. Sandys. 16. Lucan. GENERAL CHARACTER. (3) De Etymologia. by (5) Michael Marbais. Ludolf Lit. another thirteenth century writer. op. Ovid. Peiper. For some of the other grammars of the period vide Thurot. Januensis.) (8) The author was a teacher at the famous school of Hildesheim. arii. by Gutenberg. was (7) composed by Duns Scotus. (c. 584." (2) De Accentu. 4 Florista was written by Ludolf of Liichow. 15. Fierville. 14. 1236. a syntax in verse. the author of the Ethica Ludolfi an adaptation op." Only with their aid could Meier. 3 its Grammatica Speculativa de Modis Significandis. \lemoires Cmtronees de I' Academic royale de Belgique T. printed 5 Meier. Cf. Horace. Vorlesungen 3 Text in edition of C. (5) De Prosodia. XXXVII. . T. Cf. I. composed in 1286 by Johannes Balbus The book was so named "quod sit liber communis The work comprised five books: (i) De et universalis. s VOCABULARIES. in which the examples were based on Sallust. cit. p. 4th ed. was the work of Caesar of Lombardy.

It contains four different "glosses" on Capella. or Anglo-Saxon. and fifteen on Virgil. we find an alphabetical dictionary of some fifty-two hundred biblical words of the Vulgate. some on Donatus. 3 1 The subject of mediaeval lexicography has received treatment at the hands of a number of scholars. compiled by Rabanus Maurus. 3 vols. two on Ovid. "Biblical Glosses". The characteristic "vocabularies" of the middle ages were more than mere working dictionaries for particular classical authors. op. pp. used at St. glossaries for nearly every book of the Old and New Testament. The numerous collections of these mediaeval dictionaries will be referred to in the text of this chapter. or some particularly widely used author. others partook etc. 584. Corpus Glossariorum Latinarum IV. Praefatio XV et seq. subjects (heavenly bodies. French. "Church Fathers. a number on Cicero five on Horace. II. Gall. note. The number of "glosses" on . 2 Besides these formal dictionaries there were special glossaries designed to translate the difficult words of a standard text book on grammar. Sandys. ." Though Steinmeyer and Sievers' work covers only the territory of the German Empire the character of the "glosses" which it contains is so typical of the general character of such books as to deserve a more careful examination. nine on Sallust. some in the vernacular. I. Grammarians. glossaries for Capella. Priscian and the other authors studied in the schools. p. 497 et seq. Donatus." III "Miscellaneous. animals Some were dictionaries pure and simple. though all of these studies are more or less fragmentary. Cf. Handbuch der Klass- ischen Alterthumsu'issenschaft II. p. no less than ten large "glosses" on Priscian. 2 Thus the famous codex of glossaries of St. Heerdegen "Lateinische Lexicographic" in I. op. They were of different kinds. On extant mss. Gall contains no less than twenty-five hundred words in alphabetical order. in the vast collection of glosIn that saries which Steinmeyer and Sievers have published. Cf. Pt. a sort of a vade mecum. German alphabetically. Althochdeutsche Glosscn. Miiller. had at one of these dictionareis. 2. cit. The latest and most scientific monograph on the subject is by F. The extent to which these special vocabularies were used can be seen.. 3 Steinmeyer and Sievers. some explaining the Latin words in easier Latin. cit. to cite but one example. Vide text.The Seven Liberal Arts 47 the mastery of the Latin language both for practical and literary i purposes be accomplished. Some were arranged others were classified by The evidence and least as to their number school. 201-298. in so far as we have indicates that every library records of the schools.) of the character of an encyclopaedia.

significance are those on Aldhelm's " Principal Vices. Bishop of Constance (ob. be cited one on Bede's De Temporum Ratione Cf. Die Sieben Freien Kunste im M. Other portions of his glossary. Of equal "Saxon Riddles" and on the "Eight Among other interesting "glosses" may p." Juvencusby eight. Thus Sedulius' Carmen Paschale.48 The Seven Liberal Arts 2. work likewise include material partaking of the character of a 2 The work of Paulus has been published three times. 16. 97. Migne. much used throughout literary Christian authors is if number on pagan authors. 919). an author of the second century. not exceptionally large as compared with the we exclude Prudentius. as The many formal vocabularies in vogue we would naturally expect. in existence. Thewrewk de Poner. p. cit. while Prudentius has no less than forty-seven. It was a compilation by an unknown monk of St. There are some forty "glosses" on names of animals. passim. is represented in the collection by fourteen "glosses. as we have seen. Video/). The work was in reality what we should call an encyclopaedia. is the famous was dedicated to It was an abstract of the work of Pompeius Charlemagne. It represents perhaps the most useful portion of his encycloi paedia. German were added and in this modified form the book was the middle ages. being based directly on the authors of the later Empire. Lib. seemed to have enjoyed exceptional popularity. LXXXII cols. Gall. whose work in turn was an abridgement of the De Verborum Significatu one of The next important work of of this character dictionary Paulus Diaconus. fishes etc. birds. the latest edition by A. The earliest dictionary of the middle ages is the one of Isidore of Seville. Festus. and forms a part of his famous Etymologies. X. It was first printed in 1470. Sexti Pompei Festi de -verborum significatu cum Pauli epitome. SCHOOL DICTIONARIES. in the were. 3 Maier. . covering some two hundred quarto pages. showing again the extent to which the fable was used. who. 3 There are many manugiven. 2 Next in order of time may be mentioned the so-called Glossarium of Salomo III. A. 367-398. numerous extracts from famous authors were As originally glossaries work composed the text was in Latin but later. The words were scripts of the alphabetically arranged.. revised middle ages editions of diction- aries of classical times. which the earliest Latin lexicons. Etymologiae XX. infra 1 Text.

of Gloucester. between classical and barbarous forms. second. vide Lowe. Cf. (632 octavo pages) with the Panormia. For analysis and criticism of the work. 3 Hugutio. pp. Prodromus corporis glossariorum Latinorum p. On the popularity of his works as text books as judged by number of manuscripts and his educational activity. cit. or Hugo of Pisa (Bishop of Ferrera. 235. the Lombard (c. * One hundred years after Papias. 49 Archbishop of Canterbury. In the glossary proper it is interesting to notice that the author apparently makes no distinction in quantity. * Perhaps the most famous dictionary of the middle ages was the Vocabulista of Papias. a glossary. Haase. Meier. The p. 18-36. Aelfric ' composed a Latin grammar in Anglo-Saxon. 240 et seq. 639 note 3. r 19-124. Sammlung Englischer Denkmdler. vide 2 White. composed at this period. principal source of Papias it is supposed was the anonymous dictionary of the eighth and ninth centuries. Heerdegen. p. England. Tomus VIII. Osborn. (ob. 1016). The work though very popu1 Full title of the work. gender and inThe second flection. pp. It is the famous Panormia which has been considered a worthy attempt to make a dictionary explaining etymologically the meaning of words. 498. information of value to the student of the seven liberal arts. The writer and arranged his material to explain cleverly grouped the meaning of many Latin words. is lost. in A. portion of the book accounts in a large measure for its popuThis may be judged from the large number of imilarity. 15. " Text in Thorpe. With this little book the acquisition of a Latin vocabulary must have been an easy task author of a to the Anglo-Saxon boy. Classici Actores e vaticanis codicibus For proof of the identity of this elaborate dictionary editi. 1053-1063). tations of that portion by other authors. which in its turn was partly derived from the work Text contemporary of Sidonius. 501. 3 For text vide "Thesaurus novus Latinitatis sive lexicon vetus e membranis nunc primum erutum". cit. 13. Vide Sandys. vide in edition 1491. we find another important work by a monk. 235 et seq. Aelfric. Lowe. It consisted of two kinds of material: first. Vorlesungen etc. Analecta Anglo-Saxonica. Aelfric is probably the author of the vocabulary which is ascribed to him in Wright's A Volume of Vocabularies. . op. Venice. 1210). . p. Mai. is the author of the Liber Derivationum. 'Colloquium ad pueros linguae Latinae locutione exercendos. is the famous Anglo-Saxon Glossarium. p.The Seven Liberal Arts Aelfric. Cf Sandys. pp. Vide text in Zupitza. The full title of the work is Elementarium doctrinae erudimentum. G. A of a dictionary by Petrus Helias. op. p.

The last one treats of the names of articles by means of a connected narrative. op. 2. cit. For a critique on the many manuscripts of dictionaries extant vide Haureau. and derives its name from the author's attempt to arrange words according to their derivation. Cf. and the third of "things in general. the book of Hugutio. op. . was as famous as a as it was as a text book on grammar. Heerdegen. The work contains grammatical. p. pp. 121-138. c. vide Lowe.. is the author of the much abused Mamotrectus. with interlinear (c. 243 et For desseq. 3 Text printed 499- sometime between 1460-1483. p. op. XXVII.50 lar is The Seven Liberal Arts In content it in its time has never been printed in full. based on Papias." still in use in the boyhood of Erasmus. a biblical glossary. one of obscure i words. Of similar importance were the three Dictionarii of Johannes De Garlandia. cit. p. 18-83. The mistakes in Greek derivations proved excellent material for satirical attacks by the Humanists. 38-48. pretentiously of " This work was among the vocabulary prosodia. (2) a RepertorDe Utensilibus.. Cf. "Expositio in Singulis Libris Bibliae authore Marchisino. 1300). The first Latin books printed. II. 2 Text in Wright's. A Volume of Vocabularies. pp. orthographical and exigetical glossaries of the glossaries in French. For an extended account of "glosses" of the late middle ages vide Lowe. the author used Papias as his source. orthographia. cit. s 1 For analysis and critique vide Lowe. p. 1578-1590. cit. 299. dictiones significatio. 4 Text in Cf. a Vocabulanum Biblicum. 4 Marchesini of Regio Scriptures. op. "Ceschichte der Erziekung. Scheler. /. Sandy's. cols. quae frequenter inveniuntur in biblia et in dictis sanctorum et poetarum." Alexander Neckham is the author of no less than three elabetymologia. For the meandictionary ing of words. 247-259. op.." . The author also composed anOpusSynonymorum and an Opus Aequi-vocomm. treated rather origo. Eckstein. cit. and for his The Caiholicon etymology. 5 Full title: ed. Pt. For the text of the former vide Migne. p. * The work was alluded to before. which may also in a sense be classed as vocabularies. one of common words. 527. pp. pp. Of these the first two have never been published. of Scheler. criptions of many derivatives of Papias' and Hugutio's texts in ms. Cf. " Schmid. CL.? orate vocabularies: (i) (3) ium Vocdbulorum . 222 et seq. Notices et Extraits etc.

. (6) Summarium Heinrici. the so- Optitnus. Lucidarius." op. Meier. p. "Babler. of (2) The vocabulary of Papias. an abstract called (4) 51 lesser of (i) importance. (5) Vocabularies Gemma Gemmarum. All of these were based more or less on the elaborate works (3) Vocabidarius Theabonicius. 17. 170-188. i i Vide brief For a Haase. 13 et seq. Vorlesungen etc. cit. pp. study on glosses in the middle ages with illustrative extracts vide cit. p.. previously mentioned. op.The Seven Liberal Arts There were numerous vocabularies Of such only a few may be mentioned: Martinus de Arenis (1307).

one insignificant phase of classical rhetoric On the other hand. pp. the study of the was overemphasized and developed Epistle and "Dictamen" to such an extent as to displace in the curriculum the study of rhetoric proper. But same as in the Such an artificial and lifeless system of education could not but be debasing in its influence. Taschenbuch 1869. schulen" Histor. pp. the methods and ideals of the later Empire were largely followed. being modified only to meet the changing requirements of new conditions. Geschichte des GalloFrankischen Unterrichts und Bildungswesens. i Now. On the one hand the old practical rhetorical training of the Roman period was almost entirely discarded or was reduced to a mere mastery of the technical rules of the science. Since its noblest use was then the defense of liberty. In the days of Cicero the training in oratory was in harmony with the spirit of the age. period of Cicero. GENERAL CONDITIONS. A. While in the other branches. O. 321-376. i The decadent character of the rhetorical instruction of the later Empire " Rhetorenschulen und Klosterhas been fully treated by George Kauffman. this formal in the later empire. the changed as we have seen conditions. Dill. V. 1-94. in spite of training in oratory remained. TECHNICAL STUDY. . The decadence caused by the deadening formalism which resulted from perpetuating the ideal of training orators at a time when the world had no use for orators. as was also shown in a former chapter. it was not in a preceding chapter. 40-163. Rhetoric shows the distinctive characteristics of the age. Denk. Roman Society in the last century of the Western Empire. More than any other of the subjects of the mediaeval curriculum.52 The Seven Liberal Arts CHAPTER Rhetoric. of the rhetorical schools of reason. especially 140-163. grammar especially. the study of rhetoric assumed an entirely new character. while the Christianized Roman world permitted the pagan schools to die. pp. his seven works on eloquence were This change was not made without Rome was timely treatises indeed.

3 1 Raban. of manuscripts The relative of text number amount of . for panegyrics in stiff Latin and apostrophes to mythological heroes. 397. 3 By calculating the number of codices which K. Even then not all who expect to enter the priest"hood. as rhetoric was most generally defined. the basis of education in the Empire. De Clericor. Lat. 2 Ibid. Maurus. But it could not. 396. c. fairly maniae" can be said "It is to "praeceptor Gerthe mediaeval estirepresent the mate of the value of the study sufficient if of rhetoric. Institutione. books on grammar one thousand of time devoted to these two studies in the schools of the middle ages can easily be judged from these facts." 2 This representative view adequately accounts for the small amount of time given to the technical study of rhetoric as compared with that given to grammar. accept the educational ideal of the ancient world the training of the orator. Migne. 1863 the writer estimates that there are extant to-day about one hundred manuscripts of the text books on rhetoric used in the middle ages. from the nature of things. F. Compare this with the Priscian alone. Therefore rhetoric. but excellence in field of use- The opinion of Rabanus Maurus. "eloquence can so do more advantageously by reading and " hearing great orators than by studying the rules of rhetoric. CVII. Col. The ability to speak might be of some value to a priest fulness who would preach that direction could certainly not be his greatest occasionally. lost importance in the middle ages and could no longer be the keystone of the educational arch. He says: youths give some attention to the study "of rhetoric. Halm used in his collection of the text books on rhetoric Rhetores Latini Minores. How natural that the " Christian schools should refuse to place much value on the Ars For bene dicendi". Vol. col. Pat. III. they of course could have no use. The lesser number of manuscripts of rhetoric which have been found and their elementary character indicate the relative indifference to this branch of the curriculum.The Seven Liberal Arts averse 53 to appropriating for its own purposes the essential elements of the culture which these various schools imparted. i its the puerilities of youthful declamations. 19. but only those who are not as yet obliged to devote "their time to pursuits of greater usefulness should study the At any rate one who wishes to acquire the art of "subject.

54

,

The Seven Liberal Arts

TEXT BOOKS.
While in the technical study of rhetoric, Cicero and Quinwere throughout the middle ages looked upon as models of style, their own works were rarely used as text books, possibly enough on account of their considerable size For school purposes, at any rate, the principles of these masters were transmitted to the middle ages through a number of manuals, all of which were composed in the latter half of the fourth century, and through the elementary treatises on the subject in the encyclopaedic works of Capella, Augustine,
tilian
i
.

Cassiodorus, as well as through the special work of Alcuin. These treatises range from a mere catalogue of the figures treated by Cicero and Quintilian to elaborate summaries of the essentials of their works. They are small in bulk and number.

The most elementary of these treatises, forming as it were, a connecting link between grammar and rhetoric, is the De Schematis Lexeos of Julius Rufianus. The author, (1) who lived in the latter half of the fourth century, made a
collection of forty-four figures of speech by copious citations from Cicero and Virgil.
(2)

and
2

illustrated

them
de
It

Figuris, of

Of similar character which a number

is

the

anonymous Carmen
each
illustrated

of

manuscripts are extant. 3
figures,

contains

sixty-three three lines taken from
including,
Institutis.
(3)

rhetorical

by

different ancient sources

on

rhetoric,

of course, Cicero's

De

Orators
in

and Quintilian's De
treatment of the

Less

formal

and

briefer

the

figures of rhetoric are the Schemata Dianeos. the sixty-three figures in this work are merely
1

Some

fifteen of

named, and the

The small number

of manuscripts of the rhetorical

of Quintilian's Institutes

works of Cicero and which have come down to us at once create this

presumption. Compare also M. T. Ciceronis opera ed. Orelii I., praefatio. According to the, editor there are extant of his rhetorical works four Mss. of the de Inventjfne and three of the de Oratore, antedating the thirteenth
century.

Text in K. F. Halm, Rhetores Latini Minores, pp. 48-58. Virgil, as we was considered an authority on rhetoric in the narrower sense of the Cf. Comparetti, Virgil in tiie term, namely the use and choice of words. Middle Ages, p. 133. Cf. supra pp. 31, 32.
2

have

seen,

3 Text, Halm, op.

cit.,

pp. 63-70.

The Seven Liberal Arts

55

reference to that portion of Quintilian which treats of the figure is indicated.
(4)

Schematibus

Similar in content and of unique interest is the Liber de et Tropis by the Venerable Bede. In this work the

figures are explained

and copiously

illustrated

from

the. Vulgate.

The author
those

justifies his choice of illustrations

by arguing that

since the figures constitute the most important part of rhetoric, of the most important of books the Scriptures

are of greatest value,
others.
(5)
2

and should be used

in preference to

any

The

typical text
is

book

of technical rhetoric as studied

in the

the Libri III Artis Rhetorics by Chirius Fortunatianus, composed in the latter half of the fourth century. Based as it was on the works of Cicero and Quintilian,

middle ages

and written
used and

the catechetical form, the book was widely manuscripts of the text, some dating even as far back as the eighth century, are extant today. 3 Forin

many

tunatianus's

work as a school text book

of technical

rhetoric

was

of great value in spite of its defects
1

from the broader stand-

Text, Halm, pp. 71-77.

Halm, pp. 608-618. Cf. Saintsbury, History of Criticism I, p. 374 et seq. His statement that this work of Bede's is of "critical importance" is based on the erroneous assumption that Bede illustrates his figures with quotations now from the classics, now from the Scriptures, thus suggesting comparisons. The most authoritative text, that of Halm, does ndt show a
2 Text,

single classical illustration.

The The

3 Its representative character makes an analysis of its contents of interest. forty quarto pages of actual text are about evenly divided into three parts. first is devoted exclusively to a treatment of figures and other technical

terms, some eighty different kinds in all. His definition of rhetoric is"bene " The orator is "Vir bonus dicendi peritus." His function dicendi scientia. " His aim is " Persuadere. " The is "bene dicere in civilibus quaestionibus. Genera civilium quaestionum are: "Demonstrativum, deliberativum, judicale."

The remaining
position of the

portions of the book are devoted to the technical ex"partium orationis officium;" (i) "Invention;" (2) "Ex-

planation;" second book
Cicero's

(3)
is

"Confirmation;" (4) "Excitation;" (5) "Persuasion." The devoted to a detailed treatment of invention and is based on

De In-ventione and the third book of Quintilian's Institutes (especially Chapters 5 and 6). The definitions are simple and the examples brief. The third book treats briefly in a traditional manner of "explanation,"
"confirmation," "excitation" and "persuasion," the examples again chosen being from Cicero and Quintilian. Text, Halm, op. cit. pp. 81-134.

56

The Seven Liberal Arts

That it met all requirements of the age can point of the art. be seen from the fact that succeeding writers, notably Cassiodorus, largely based their work on it. Based on the works of Cicero (6)
of
is

and

Cicero's

own

teacher

Rhodes, Augustine's fragmentary work De Hermagoras Rheiorica. It need hardly be said that the fame author o|ihe made the book very popular. Its adaptability as a text book may be judged from the fact that the author himself had been
a teacher of rhetoric.*
(7)

Similarly

incomplete

is

the Institutiones Oratories of

The fragSulpitius Victor, of the end of the fourth century. ment extant indicates an elaborate and well arranged commentary on the elements of rhetoric. The author being a practical jurist, his work naturally emphasizes the aspect of the art most closely connected with the work of the pleader. It was printed at Basle in 1521.3 The most elaborate technical treatise on the subject^ (8) based on Hermagoras, Cicero, Quintilian and others, is the Ars Rhetorica by C. Julius Victor, a contemporary of his above mentioned namesake. Under twenty-seven main
headings the author exhaustively treats all the essentials of the "ars." Logical subdivision and relative subordination are the marked characteristics of the work. It is replete with illustrations
treat of the
torica."
It is

from Cicero and Quintilian. His work is the first to Epistola as a component part of the "Ars RheThe "Epistle" was later emphasized to such an exargued that the minute treatment of the figures and the over
classi-

1

fication of Fortunatianus's

rhetoricians than of such over refinement.
et
seq.
Cf.

work is suggestive more of the spirit of the Greek Cicero and Quintilian, both of whom protest against

et seq.
Orelii, I,

Vide Saintsbury, op. cit. i, pp. 87-89, 107, 108, 346 Quintilian, Institutes Bks. VIII-IX, Watson's tr. II, p. 71 Also Cicero's brief classification of figures in his Topica, Opera ed.
45-479in

2

Text

belief that the

ious

is

Halm, 137,151. Migne, XXXII, c. 1439 et seq. The current works on dialectic and rhetoric ascribed to Augustine are spurbased on the statements of his Benedictine editors in the edition of

I. app. 152. This opinion is accepted by Saintsbury, op. cit. I., 377. The view has been disproved by W. Crecilinus, Jahresbericht uber das Gymnasium zu Elberjeld, 1857. Cf. August Reuter, "Augustine's Rhetoric" in Kirch-

1679, T.

cngeschichtliche Studien, 324-351

3 Text in

Halm, 318-352.

507-522. It can however not claim any special die- tinction as a text book. Cf. i Briefer in treatment (9) 57 came to embrace the entire arranged is but equally well the Liber De Arte Rhetorica in is The treatment the Encyclopaedia of Capella. which are briefly defined and often illustrated by ex- amples from standard classical authors. technical and clear except for the introduc- It is illustrated in parts by examples from tory portions. Cicero's orations. Eyssenhardt's edition. 3 Text in Migne. It is little more than a brief treatment of Isidore is the paries orationis." is as significant as are the remarks of Victor on the "Epistola. 4 a diaet De Virtutibus of Alcuin is (12) logue between him and Charlemagne. pp. handy text book and one even more popular than work was the brief abstract from Fortunatianus by His De Institutions Liberalium Literarum. Arte Rhetorica forms a part of the De Brief as it is. 451-492. . the work contains a number all of the different terms. 4 Text. to a discussion of addition of the latter The "rhetorical syllogisms" and "law. of diagrams to bring out the logical relations The six pages of Cassiodorus on rhetoric are probably memorized. Liber V. 2 Text. 138-193. Its use was due to the fact that it formed a part of a complete encyclopaedia on the seven liberal arts. Halm. He gives a considerable portion of his treatise (4) conclusion. Saintsbury.. based almost entirely on Cicero's De Inventione and on Isidore's excerpt. 349 et seq. LXX." One third of his work is devoted to figures. (3) argumentation. (2) narration. Halm. 373-448. which in his own work have somehow shrunk to four: (i) exordium. I. 2 (10) A Capella's Cassiodorus. 495-504. Lacking the good qualities of both it is not wrongly characterized many De Rhetorica 1 Text in Halm. 1157-1167. Halm.The Seven Liberal Arts tent that the study of this theme subject of rhetoric. who considers it "one of the best of the Latin " rhetorics. c. 3 that the average mediaeval student of rhetoric (n) liberal Rhetorica of Seville is another author whose De a part of an encyclopaedic work on the seven arts.

58

Tlie

Seven Liberal Arts

Neveras devoid of originality, ill-digested, dull and puerile, i theless it is of considerable importance from our point of view.
It is

ancient technical treatment of rhetoric,

one of the works which mark the transition from the as we have seen it

expressed in the preceding treatises, to the later mediaeval treatment of the subject, typified in the text books of

"Dictamen".2

The later treatises on rhetoric such as those of Notker, Remigius of Auxerre, of Boncompagno, and of Bernard of Chartres follow closely the models which have been described. 3 Besides these texts in which rhetoric is treated as a component part of the seven liberal arts, there exist remains of fragmentary
1

Cf.

West's Alcuin,

p. 104;

Saintsbury,

I,
.

375, 376.

2

This can be seen from the following fact

The work,

as

its title indicates,

subjects, rhetoric and virtue. Written especially for the King, its object is not oratorical but judicial, as can be seen from the following introductory verses:
links

two

Qui rogo

civiles cupiat

cognoscere mores
liber iste tenet.

Haec praecepta legat quae

thus changed. In Cicero the object of rhetorical study is to train the orator, the pleader in civil causes, who of course should be virtuous. In Alcuin the purpose of the treatise is to teach the king rhetoric so that
is

The emphasis

he may be able to judge and decide. Virtue for Alcuin too, is necessary for the trained orator but for a different purpose. Hence he included a discussion of the four cardinal virtues prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance,

avowedly a text book on rhetoric. The genera causarum of the old demonstrativum, deliberativum, judicabile, become honestum, admirabile, humile, etc. The change is rather curious, but easily explained, when the purpose of the work is considered. Text, Halm, pp. 520-550; Migne,
in
is

what

rhetoricians,

vol. CI, col. 101 et seq.

alters,

3 For text of Notker's Rhetoric, vide H. Hattemer, Denkmdler des MittelOn the Rhetoric of Remigius of Auxerre, vide, Hist. III, 560-585. Lit. de la France, VI, p. 119. The text of Bernard of Chartres is lost. Cf.

Barach, op. cit. XIII. The text of of Munich, Cod. Lat. ZZ., 499 fols.

is found in the library Sitzungsberichte der Konigl. An Antiqua Rhetorica Bayerisch. Akad. zu Miinchen, 1861 p. 134, et seq. of Boncompagno, who was a teacher of rhetoric at Bologna, was read before the

Boncompagno
1-58;
cf.

professors

and students of canon and civil law on April 26, 1215, and the author was crowned for the work. It is strictly a rhetorical work. His other work, the Nomssima Rhetorica, of some thirteen parts, has much legal matter
in addition to the traditional material of technical rhetoric,
his

day rhetoric and the study of law were being mixed. Dictamen will be spoken of later.

showing how in His other works on

The Seven Liberal Arts

59

treatments of portions of the rhetorical art. i All these, however, may be considered in the nature of commentaries rather than text books. The reading of the text books on rhetoric was ordinarily all that was attempted in the technical study of this subject. Sometimes, however, certain schools, either because of the special interest of the teacher or because of the accessibility of books, or because of certain traditions, devoted some time to the read-

De

ing of Cicero's works on rhetoric, particularly his De Inventione, Oratore, Topica, and the pseudo Ciceronian Ad Herennium. *

In some instances the works of historians and

classical

and

Christian prose writers, notably the Consolation of Philosophy of Boethius, were also read as a part of the study of rhetoric. Such a practice, however, cannot be said to have existed as a general
rule.
3

In general

it

may be

asserted that wherever conditions were

favorable, Cicero's and Quintilian's works were read after the technical study of rhetoric, as excellent illustrations of Latin rhetorical style. 4
1

E.

g.

De Ethopoeia

of Emporius,

Halm, 561-574; De Statibus

of Clodian-

us, ibid.,

590-592.

2 The catalogues of libraries of the eighth and ninth centuries often show the existence of a copy of the Topica and De Inventione Rhetorica. Of frequent

occurrence
p. 84.

is

the

Ad Herennium.

t

Cf. Mullinger, Schools of Charles the Great etc.

3"Huic
atorie
c. 3,

urbi (sc. Rhetorici) subjacent historiae fabulae libri orethice conscripti." Honorii Augustod. Libell. de animae exsilio, Fez, Thesaurus Anecdotorum, II, i, p. 229, quoted in Specht, op. cit. p.
et

116.

4 Johannes de Garlandia, in the thirteenth century, for instance, in enumerating the authors which a student should read, in his study of rhetoric, mentions Cicero's De Inventione, De Oratore and the Ad Herennium; also
Quintilian's Declamations and Institutes. Cf. Leyser, op. That Cicero's rhetorical works, particularly the p. 525.
cit.

p. 339;

Sandys,

considerably used is amply proven by which that of Q. Fabius Laurentius is an example. (Vide text, Halm, pp. 155-310). For other manuscripts of commentaries, some even dating back to the seventh century, cf. Halm, op. cit. p. 593 et seq. Quintilian was probably used only in excerpts. Only in this way can the existence of many such selections be explained. These generally consisted of passages taken seriatim

Inventione, were the elaborate commentaries on them, of

De

from the Institutes. They are often found as appendices to texts on For an example of one vide Halm, op. cit., pp. 501-504.

rhetoric.

60
B.

The Seven Liberal Arts

THE STUDY OF THE DICTAMEN.
GENERAL CHARACTER.

While the subject of the theoretical and logical form of rhetoric received comparatively little consideration in the study of the seven liberal arts, two practical forms of rhetoric were assiduously cultivated.
lay or ecclesiastic.

These were the

epistle

and the document,

We have seen how, even in the early rhetorical text books, the Epistola was considered one form of rhetorical expression, i In the course of time the demands of the age forced the writers
to lay more stress on the mastery of the practical side of rhetoric than on the theoretical conceptions of invention, excitation, etc. In an age when ability to read and write was the accomplishment of the few, it was surely a great achievement to be the master of a fair prose style. TJhe ability to write a letter to a lay or ecclesiastical official, to make a contract, a will, or to reduce to writing any other formal act of every day life, of which a record had to be kept, was surely of greater importance to laymen and priests alike than the skill to prepare a well balanced oration or a literary composition. Hence in the very beginning of the middle ages, letter

writing and the preparation of ordinary documents began to occupy the attention of the student of rhetoric in his course
of the seven liberal arts.

Indeed these studies came gradually

to comprise substantially the whole of the rhetoric of the middle ages. Charlemagne's laws on the education of the clergy ordered that they should be able to write "cartas et
It can be asserted with a fair degree of accuracy epistolas."* that from the Carolingian period the study of rhetoric actually became the study of prose composition. The art was called "Ars Dictandi", "Ars Prosandi", or "Dictamen;" the teacher was the
"

Dictator

"

and

"

dictare

"

meant the

ability to write

private

and

official prose.

Now
1

But the ancient
Cf.

such a study naturally presupposes the use of models. literature could not afford illustrative maof C. Julius Victor;

The Ars Rhetorica

Halm,

p.

447 et seq.

Cf.

supra, p. 56.
2

"Capitula deDoctrina Clericorum," Man. Germ. Hist. Leges,

I,

pp. 107-

108.

" Archiv etc. besides showing the manner and method of instruction. who gathered data going as far back as the age of Gregory of Tours. Ueber Briefsteller. 29-67. 21 Savigny.. Otto Stobbe. op. but not for prose composition. and were compelled to look for new models. pp. These are often described in the periodicals devoted to mediaeval history. 152 et seq. Rechts. III. "Uber die Alteren frankischen Formelsamm. p. "Ueber Briefsteller des Mittelalters introduction and texts Archiv etc. und Formelbucher in Deutschland wahrend des M. The material in these has attracted the attention so-called dictamen treatises of the history of Roman law. "Ein Formelbuch aus der Zeit Konig Rudolfs I und Albrecht's I. c. formularii exist in the various libraries of Europe. as in the teaching of grammar. Geschichte des Romischen Rechtes. who part of rhetoric. 1-185. Therefore in teaching this mediaeval form of rhetoric the schoolmasters. 1859-1871. Many special investigators: . investigators of this subject have been carefully Many a document here found serves sifting these formularies. Many such codices have been published in the Archiv jur Kunde Oesterreichischen Geschichtsquellen. "Das Urkundliche Formelbuch des Konglichen Notars aus der Zeit der Konige Ottokar II und Wenzel II von Bohmen. i Vide Savigny. The intimate Cap. relation of the study of rhetoric with the study of the elements of law has been established by the original investigations of Specht. g. vide Specht. which the teacher of the middle ages form of instruction is vast indeed. 121. " ibid. 3 vols. in the Neues Archiv fur Altere Deutsche Geschichskunde and in the Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Biblio" theque Nationale. Thus many important texts have been edited and published because of the historical value of the illustrative material. . A. pp. Rockinger. e.The Seven Liberal Arts terial for this 61 new subject. Following traced the origin of the study of the Roman law in Western Europe to the study of the dictamen in Italy as a of students Savigny. Karl Zeumer. were largely thrown on their own resources. Incidentally. XXIX. tit. Cf. Wattenbach. Cicero and Quintilian could only serve as models for oratory. Bd. to cast light i upon the Kulturgeschichte of Europe. im Mittelalter Eugene de Rozidre. Geschichte des Rom. pp. Recueil General des Formules usittes dans VEmpire des Francs du Vme au Xme siecle. these collections give us a comprehensive view of mediaeval life and institutions which very few other sources afford. Bd. XIV. The subject of Dictamen has been treated by the following 120. the gradual introduction Roman law. 305-378 Johannes Voigt. We find there of material The amount gathered for this glimpses of the growth of national law. In short many imof the portant phases of the life of the people are revealed to us through these modest school books. XXI. L.. the all-embracing relations in which the church came in contact with the affairs of life.

Notices et Extraits etc. Vol. VII. Pt. 2. however. VIII.. p." which was assiduously cultivated in northern Italy. zu Munchen. lungen. pp. Vide Rashdall. I. Neues Archiv etc. For some bibliographical notes on this topic vide Langlois. The most complete of all the general of epistolary Extraits etc. . 311-358. is in the opinion of the writer of more value to the student of the history of law than to the investigator of The formulae.. his collection Pt. 87 et that of Ludwig Rockinger in Quellen zur Bayerischen und Deutschen GescMchte. offers to the student a A valuable concordance of the whole subject. in spite of the fact that it contains the largest single collection of epistles (190. XI. op. Universities in the Middle Ages. "Formulaires de lettres du xii au xiii et du xiv siecles. Bd. dictamina is contains about twelve hundred separate pieces of formulae and letters covering from the Carolingian period to the fourteenth century. Vol. Tom. Pt. by M. VII. pp. Pt. 409-434.. Various collections of formulae are described in Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte. " "Zu den Caro- frankische Formelsammlungen" Neues Archiv etc.. Parts i and 2. Bde. VI. " Neues Archiv etc. 98-151. 213-238. pp. cit. containing a series of excellent tables. of which Rockinger has included only 78). " Sitzungsbericht der Kdn- Bayer. constituting a series of articles in Notices et extraits etc. IX. 401-403 Karl lingischen Formelsammlungen.. i Ch.. " by Ch. Id. I. generalizations. Paris. 1-312. I. evidence sifted with that object in view leads to four important As space does not permit an elaborate exami- nation and analysis of the sources on which the conclusions are based the succeeding paragraphs will contain only the typical data supporting the theses. V. pp. Langlois.. XXXV.\o\. This "ars dictaminis. Diimmler. XXXIV. are well classified. 642-653. X XV pp. gradually developed into a special study of the prepara- and eventually into the study of law. which soon became an independent subject of study. pp. 1-115. 327-366. In the study of rhetoric the preparation of formal (i) documents was introduced in the early middle ages. der Wiss. 1-29. Bd. formulae are described XXVII. Leopold Deslisle. 1861. third of the work. others are described pp. pp.62 It The Seven Liberal Arts is from this standpoint of Kulturgeschichte that these doc- uments which have yielded so rich a harvest to the student of The jurisprudence will be examined anew in this chapter. "Neue Erorterungen tiber altere . notes i i and 2. general social conditions. collections of p. VIII. 1-32. 7. Tom. " Zeumer. . Mss. iv. 601 et seq. and more especially "Ars dictandi in Italien. pp. Documents inedits pour sermr a V histoire litteraire de Vltalie. pp. E. De Roziere's collection. 90-1 27 Oznam. The history of the rise of the University of Bologna and the history of literary conditions in Italy in the middle ages fully support this thesis.. pp. Notices et seq. * tion of documents. "Ueber Fragmente eines Formel-handschrift des IX Jahrhunderts Neues Archiv etc. pp. XXXIV. pp. Akad. igl. 1850. In all.. .

have been used as text books as Meier (Sieben Freien Kunste etc. " based on the Epistolarum libri sex de rebus gestis Frederici" by Petrus de Vinea. p. 849-924. 4 Text of Bernold's summula dictaminis. of Lastly the the dictamen of Arnold Protzan are taken models from the archives of the 1 Bishopric of Breslau. Rockinger. steller 2 Text in Rockinger. VII. The manifold relations of church and state. I the Dictamen of Petrus in the Collectio Historica of have been unable to find J. Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae. op. 201-346. 26) asserts.* The Summa Prosarum Dictaminis of Saxony contains actual documents from the chancellery of the Archbishop of Magdeburg. Rockinger. xxxviii et seq. Georg.. pp. The Breviarum de Dictaecclesiastical mine of Alberich of ment of the controversy of Monte-Cassino contains the original docuHenry IV and Gregory VII. cit. p. representing the two sides of the controversy between the Emperor and the not. Quellen etc. sometimes by quoting actual letters written by famous personages of the time. similarly owes its Salomon material in to the archives of Kaiserheim.4 " "breviarum. made the study of the "ars dictaminis" inevitable in the schools of the middle ages. * Of of the ninth the same character though belonging to an earlier age the end century is the so-called Yormularius of Bishop III of Constanz. and the collection of the Summa Dictaminis of Thomas of Capua. Quellen etc. VII. A few instances may be cited in illustration.. Habnius. Cf. IX. Later on Alcuin's The collection of the Dictamina as Epistolae were also very popular. . This need the meddictamen was called upon to supply.The Seven Liberal Arts (2) 63 The need which the secular official world and the chancelleries had for a knowledge of the art of drawing up documents. sometimes by writing imaginary replies composed by teachers or able students. pp. 189-256. The text of Arnold of Protzan's Formularius is printed in Wattenbach. 2. In the earlier centuries of the middle ages the Variae of Cassiodorus were used for such purposes. In iaeval teacher of these formal model letters and documents the affairs of state and church were discussed. Brief in Quellen For a brief description of this und Formelbiicher des elf ten bis vierzehnten Jahrhunderts" zur Bayerischen und Dcutschen Geschichte Bd. Vol. 5 et seq. 3 Text and Introduction. Vol. Rockinger. pp. VII. Breslau. Their controversial charac- Pope could ter would have barred them from the school room. V. in the judgment of the writer. op." vide Rockinger. p.. the complex interrelations of the feudal society and the prelates required standards and models of prose composition. IX. cit. 1862. 3 The Summula Dictaminis of the Cistercian monk Bernold of Kaiserheim. Vol.

All the collections of the dictamena have models of procurations. especially 214-259. 385-398. p. as a notable lection. immunities. p. commis stones. confirmations. may be mentioned. LII."' (3) The every day affairs of life requiring official records wills. 1 relate to matters ecclesiastical. petitiones. op. IX. Vol. By far the largest portion of the material examined does not relate to haute politique. emanciIf the larger portion pationes. 749-758.64 The Seven Liberal Arts When such contemporaneous material was not at hand. etc. and Pope Hadrian are mere dictamen exercises of schoolboys. passim. privilegia. vide. executoriae. formulariis excerptas. testamenta. sententia. example. . the Formularius of Baumgartenburg. 347-402. etc. This collection takes more than half of its illustrative material from a previous work of Ludolf of Of his indebtedness due acknowledgment is made author in the following terms: "Multas elegantis styli by the praesenti operi inserui epistolas quae de magnorum dictatorum Hildesheim. were incorporated in the colOf such interpolated texts we have many. famous documents of former days. citationes. visitationes inquisiformatae. of these documents because the church collection. pp. written in 1302. 2 Vide Rockinger. cit. contracts. The following question naturally suggests cit. pp. obligatoriae. XLI. . where many instances in the texts given are referred to. How many spurious documents. commendations. Rockinger. I Rockinger op. vide ibid. manumissions of called for a knowledge of the preparation of docuslaves. but to every day exigencies of private life at their point of contact with public affairs. permutationes adaptiones. For the Baumgartenburger Formularius. 60-65. temporal or spiritual. Pt. IX. 3 dispensations. VII. appelationes . indulgentiae. often with appropriate imaginary replies by schoolboys. donatoriae. were itself: originally the innocent work of the imaginative schoolboy? Frederick Cf. 2. it is only touched the average man of the middle There are extracts of the Summa of Thomas of Capua in the above named Ouellen For text of Ludolf of Hildesheim's Summa Dictaminis see Rockinger etc. ments of a less formal character. Jaffe und Wattenbach in the Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae V. later branded as pious frauds. this the schools of the seven liberal arts supplied in the teaching of rhetoric. VII. testimonials. . exemptions. have proven that a number of important Lombard letters of the reign of Lothar and some bearing on the controversy between lections. tiones. On the introduction of school exercises in the col- Vol. 713-838. Quellen etc.

"de the whole of the first Formularius. IX. Rockinger." "petitio" and "conclusio. composed in 1302. "salutatio. 4 1 E. and much of the instruction was in this art of letter writing. 209-346. Quellen etc. which of course developed with all the minute distinctions of which the mediaeval mind was capable. the Epistola. " 2 Two other parts of the Epistola. This didactic introductory portion is as characteristic a part of the collections dealing with great affairs of church and state as more modest collections treating of subjects of humbler life. as these are variously called. The schools of the middle ages evolved a special form (4) of composition.The Seven Liberal Arts 65 The part played by the mediaeval ages at so many points. as might be supposed. That the instruction in letter writing was made an important part in the study of rhetoric can be seen from the fact of the i that all of these collections in their didactic portions lay great stress on teaching the "partes epistolae. Ibid. cus. IX. Quellen etc." are carefully explained. and 525-592. IX. X 3 Text 4 in Rockinger. schoolroom in the transmission of more or less technical legal knowledge through instruction and written practice is apparent. defined and illustrated. pp. 103 et seq. ." "ex- ordium" or "captatio benevolentiae " "narratio. tatio" takes up more than four and a half pages." devotes nearly of the six parts of the work to the Dictaminis and that of Domini- treatment of the salutatio. Cf. pp. the superscriptio and the sub" note. the treatment of the "saluable to all are given. 725-748. in which the didactic portion of the book occupies seven printed pages. 2 Much attention is given to the "salutatio" in the treatment of which examples of forms of address suitis conceivable grades of ecclesiastical and lay officials Thus in the brief Summa Dictaminis of Orleans. mere reference books of the chancelleries of prelates and princes but were also used as books of instruction is found in the fact that all of them have prefixed to the models brief treatises on the "ars prosandi" or "ars dictaminis" or "summa dictaminis" or "summa prosarum dic" " taminis" or summa dictaminum. Vol. were rarely treated." . g. More direct proof that these collections of dictamina were not. modo prosandi. the Sdchsische Summa Prosarum Rockinger. The relation of the "epistola" to the entire "ars dictaminis" duly emphasized. Quellen etc. composed about 1180. p. scriptio. 3 In the elaborate Baumgartenburger the didactic portion. p.

Those whose content was text books in entirely legal. in the narrow sense.i peramens (5) glosses which many of these manuscripts exhibit show again that they were used as text books.. 47-168. however. of this chapter have established the which the study of the "ars dictandi. 2 The numerous quiquid patri ditus servulus.66 The Seven Liberal Arts No less significant are the variations in the examples which many dictamina furnish. IX. Vol. of the use of which as a school book there can be no doubt. TEXT BOOKS. "Einleitung" pp. It remains to name the leading the subject." As the collection will is the earliest of 3 its kind. incidental references and glossaries prove conclusively that it was designed as a school text of model letters. p. ibid. 64. While the "ars dictandi" was studied in Italy as (i) The foregoing portions early as the sixth century. is the so-called Salsburg Formularius." important position a modified form of rhetoric. pp. Such a deduction is inevitable in spite of the fact that the volume does not contain the didactic introductions on the "ars dictandi.. a brief description of it be of 1 interest. a genitori dulcissimo (4) eius films perennem cum filius. written not later than 821. be omitted. Thus in the models for a "salutatio ad patrem. for the evidence of its use as a school book vide. 65. Rationes Dictandi Hugutionis Hononii-nsis. Onellcn efr. quiquid domino subStill more significant is the form of salutatio given by the same author in the model "ad amicum" in which no less than sixteen variations are given. content. briefs and similar documents. . A form is given with two or three others as alternatives showing again that the models which we have before us were used for purposes of instruction. 64. Its arrangement. fidelitati seruitium. the earliest collection of formulae. pp. Rockinger. (3) reverendo ac diligendo patri." the (2) Hugo of Bologna following dilectus variations: gives in his Rationes Dictandi et delecto (i) venerabile patri. since it is not likely that the routine worker of a chancellery would care to vary his formulae. This latest critically edited text is in Quellen und Forschungen etc. occupied in the mediaeval curriculum of the seven liberal arts. will. 24 and 43 et see. 3 Drei Formelsammlungen aus der Zeit der Karolingcr. 2 Ibid.

The volume consists of some twenty octavo pages of actual text it is divided into thirteen unequal parts. (4) we have In the Rationes Dictandi of Alberic of Monte Cassino. (2) collection of minor importance which is Similar in character in all particulars the collection 900. thirty others are on official relations between king and king. 189-256. pp. Alcuin to his pupil. consisting as ecclesiastics previously mentioned does of documents on the relations than the between high (3) The use are the kings. the first text book in which the theory of letter is composition laid down. consists of one The book transactions of every day life. pp. 171-185. VII. the author and the place of composition cannot be ascertained. "Einleitung" pp. op. the Flores Rhetorici sive Dictaminum Radii and the Breviarutn de Dictamine both of which are unpublished. was the author two other more extended works on dictamen. ibid. 2 Text. 21-29. Archbishop Arno. it is of much greater importance it collection. ments form a miscellaneous cannot be classified. and the like only about ten are of a distinctly ecclesiastical The collection contains eight authentic letters of character. This contains seven letters.The Seven Liberal Arts 67 hundred and twenty-six separate compositions occupying together about seventy pages of actual It contains about twenty-five formulae relating to lay text. The five parts of 3 his Rationes Dictandi As may . cit. a teacher of the eleventh century. occupying some material written between 864 and 884. s 1 Text. king and vassal. of Alberic. Cf. forty-eight fifty pages of actual text. In content.. About ten are of a strictly legal character. i earliest collection of "Epistolae" proper for school Epistolaz Alati. be considered epoch-making in the teaching of rhetoric in the middle ages. 2 imaginary correspondence work give adequate proof. After a brief introduction the author proceeds to define the Dictamen and its parts leading up to the Epistola which is also denned as a form of the Oratio. its distinctive characteristic is the fact that one-half of the collection consists of contemporaneous composed about the year documents. of It Formula contains Salomonis III. Rockinger. but of its use as a text book in a monastic school the contents of the The letters are mainly an between a teacher and a pupil. ibid. such as wills. sales. archbishop and king. etc. The rest of the docu. Vol. . composed in the second half of and The name of the ninth century. an extended analysis of the work will be given here.

a teacher of Bologna. (7) composed about 1225. i The Summa Dictaminis of Orleans composed in the (6) last decade of the twelfth century. 53-94. From on the "issue of letters. Vol. the author proceeds to the consideration of the question as to the possible diminution of these parts when occasion requires. was composed between 1119 (5) and 1124 by Hugo scripts of this text book are number of of Bologna. pope to the world. Having discussed the five of From the formal parts of the Epistola. reading of the ancient rhetoricians and historians. friend to friend." then the "narratio.68 The Seven Liberal Arts Rationes Dictandi Prosaici. as forms of salutato pope. 3 The work has been printed and many manuscripts are still in existence.. follows Alberic in every detail and adds four chapters on as many different kinds of privilegia. pt. 1 vol.. the emperor to the world. comes to the question gives various minor considerations of a rhetorical character the consideration of the possible omissions he of interchanging the different parts of the letters and After some arrangements of interchangeable combinations. 103-114. A complete manu- The work is in every respect based on that of Alberic. Rockinger. * Siimma Dictandi of Guido Faba. pp. Rockinger. Pt. e. 9-28. is a theoretical treatment of the "ars" with special reference to the Epistola. subordinate to prelate. i. "Quellen etc". This brief treatment of the practical side of mediaeval rhetoric is typical of all the dictamina which cit. His Dictamina Rhetorica is a practical companion volume with excerpts from many writers. op. noble to noble. bishops to their charges." the "petitio" and the "conclusio" are treated very briefly. op. than. Rockinger." he takes up the discussion of the varieties of letters. the Epistola are then named. concluding with some observations on the use of connectives for rhetorical effect. to the mediaeval study dictamen and epistles. Text. It is the briefest text book on dictamen extant. Text. tion possible forms are given by illustration. IX. pp. and reaches the obvious conclusion that the "salutatio" and "narratio" cannot be omitted. impersonal and other forms. treating of the personal. Indeed more than one third of the entire work is devoted to the consideration of the nature of portant part is the address. I. The "Salutatio" as the first and most im- explained and illustrated at great length. in existence today. XI. pp. IX. all by king the treatment of the salutatio the author proceeds to the consideration " benevolentiae captatio. Its brevity is remarkable when we consider the fact that Orleans at this time was the best known centre of classical literary culture. 2 Vol. I have examined. i. cit. acter of the text seems to indicate that at Orleans The cursory charmore attention was paid of to the classical idea of rhetoric. is an anonymous compoIt sition. Text. .

at Zurich. Rockinger. It is a thorough treatise on the "ars" with illustrations of high official "privilegia" or "litteras special missiles." The author is unknown. 973-984. text book of this kind is the The first and funda- Summa Prosarum the "Sachsisches Dictaminis which goes under the name of Formelwerk. p. p. It contains. 206. cit. and by the that at least two other famous German collections are based on this work. For the comparison of the illustrative letters of the two works vide. Vol.." Its contents begin with an exhaustive treatment of no less than twenty kinds of privilegia. Here again the content volume shows unmistakable evidence that it was designed as a text book. IX. pp. 178. pp. This is moreover strengthened by the existence of commentaries on the text. a " rector (10) is but one of his many other school avowedly a compilation arranged in 1275. we find even more elab- mental orate collections compiled on German soil. puerorum" treatises. The characteristic of this treatise is its thoroughgoing dialectical character. ibid. Rockinger. For text of commentaries on Ludolf by Master Simo vide ibid. pp. who in 1222 became bishop of Brandenburg.The Seven Liberal Arts (8) 69 While the last four text books on dictamen owe their origin to Italy. VII. the "ars dictandi" was fully developed in the eleventh century. i (9) is The Summa Dictaminum of Ludolf of is of special interest. that the date of the composition is not later than The models are based on the illustrative material 1230." and almost the entire set of illustrative letters of the Saxon of the collection described above. 207. Cf.. a traditional brief treatment of the Epistola prefixed to an extended discourse on "litterse missiles. Following this is a collection of one hundred and nine authentic documents to illustrate the principles enunciated. is attested by the number of manuscripts still in fact by the marginal notes found on them. is It Munich alone has seven mss. Pt. Rockinger. * Summa de Arte Prosandi by Conrad of Mure. op. Quellen etc. evident from even a cursory examination of the text. II. Distinction upon distinction is drawn. 359-398. Its use as a text book existence. Ouellen etc. We are certain though. as we have seen. Text. used by a teacher named Gernard. IX. 1 of each one of his texts. 2 . Text. Vol. 209-346. as Hildesheim.. where.

" "To whom. Rockinger." etc.7 The Seven Liberal Arts and subdivisions are made. though not entirely dialectical treatment. Not the least interesting portion of this book is the brief summary of the legal principles added as a " sexta pars" to the work. Bd. His second book has classified The Summula Dictaminis for tells insertion us. as the author from the Liber Decretalis. Text edited by G. Pt. 3 Text. 1 2 Introduction and text. Likewise one given. hackneyed "proverbia and sententia" These are culled." divisions "When." "For whom. "De Arte Prosaica" contains the material 1270. 405-482. the author devotes a brief chapter to the salutatio of which copious examples are given. in Romanische Forschungen. elaborate and exhaustive. was written about The portion. XIII. are Of these he mentions the titles of ninety. Conrad's book may be said to typify the scholastic character which at this time pervaded even such an avowedly practical study as the "ars dictandi. the wealth of its illustrative material (much of it borrowed from the Saxon collection) stamps the work as more of a book of reference in the schools than as a manual which teacher and pupil used in the study of the dictamen."i (n) Poetria de Arte Prosaica Metrica et Rithmica by Johannes de Garlandia. of the instruction in rhetoric and dictamen. Solomon. and collections in of the letter. is a compilation dating as late as 1302. hundred and thirty-eight secular and fifty ecclesiastical titles are named and recombined under different headings. including even the ancient imperial Roman officials. 1902. Seneca. It anticipates the form which these treatises came to have in the latter years of the fourteenth century.: (12) The so-called Baumgartenburg Formularius de Modo Prosandi. Endless lists of all possible persons who could be addressed. Yet there is hardly an illustration in the entire work. pp. 183 et seq. IX. 2." "How. Ouellen etc. pp. Mari. Ouellen etc. Vol. 3 collected by Bernold of (13) Kaiserheim in 1312 may similarly be classed as a teacher's reference book. . Rockinger. 725-838. the Englishman. Omitting the elementary treatise on dictamen. Thus the author treats under different headings "Who sends the letter. pp. until all possible cases are exhausted. Its size. dialectically treated in fantastic fashion. IX.

442. 956-966. p. With the spread of the universities in the fourteenth century. Univ. pp. Cf. Pt. note i. Prantl. pp. 2 3 At some universities lectures on a libellus de arte epistolandi II. and the students flocking to them to take up the study of logic. op.The Seven Liberal Arts various other sources. 3 1 Ibid. Ingolstadt. . For examples of such "Tabulae."* The other portions part were taken up in connection with the study of law. Rockinger. Very few universities offered lectures on the dictamen. I. IX. 76. Geschichte der cit. op. 845-948. scribed. Vol. as were prequoted in Rashdall. cit. 71 of The other portion the i work is devoted to illustrative models of different kinds. the attention to dictamen naturally decreased. p. 2." vide the Practica usus Dictaminis of Johannes Bondi of Aquilaia where schematic arrangements of tables of different kinds are given. The technical became stereotyped into "tabulae.

Such a volume is truly an introduction to the study of philosophy. in spite of their discriminating distinctions. often conWhile admitting that logic was fused logic with philosophy. 3 In connection with this inquiry it may be necessary to state that logic were synonymous throughout the middle ages. II c. A. Logic in a modern college curriculum definitely connotes the mastery of a propaedeutic to philosophy. Vide "De Praedica- 3 "It is a difficult task. Examining a modern text book on logic. I. Historical Sketch of Logic. scholasticism ciplinarum. p. a few definitions of terms and propositions. Albertus Magnus inveighs against this confusion. From this it would appear a simple matter to determine But such is the scope of logic in the mediaeval curriculum." and the formal treatment of the syllogism. a foundation stone on which mighty edifices of thought only were as built. Tract. VI.) . where 1 and dialectic the point 2 is established. Abelard."z manifold treatment of the problems of philosophy was so logical in its nature as well as its method that even modern scholars have found it all but impossible to differentiate between the logical philosophy and the purely didactic formal logic. speculations of the middle ages. PRE-UNIVERSITY PERIOD. Chap. not the case." "scientia rationalis." "disciplina di- in its Secondly. To this are added some chapters on the modern scientific method of induction. SCOPE AND TEXT BOOKS. bili." says Blakey. the mediaeval schoolmen themi selves." Liber I. a few remarks on the difficulties concerning the relation of general names to thought and to reality. E. "to keep always in view the radical distinction between the science (logical philosophy) and the purely dialectic forms or systems which are ever obtruded on our notice in the abstract (R. Blakey. We find this idea in Isidore of Seville vide D." "scientia scientiarum." p. 300 et seq. I. Remusat. 104 Opera. we find therein some theory of knowledge.12 The Seven Liberal Arts CHAPTER Logic. some "laws of thought. 121 et seq. In the first place.. the almost in the same breath they glorified the subject "ars artium.

I. (2) The problem of realism versus idealism.) We have here the scholastical problem in its threefold aspects: (i) The ontological problem. pp." (Text. it will be shown indirectly that those logical questions which touched the field of philosophic speculation were invariably treated by these writers in their metaphysical works. altissimum enim negotium est "hujus modi. and not in the logical text books. . App. Commentarius in Porphyrium a se translatus. Migne.The Seven Liberal Arts 73 From confusion inquiry it the standpoint of the historian of philosophy this But for the purposes of the present is not serious.) 2 On the subject of the limits of logic in its relation to philosophy vide Baldwin. I. pp. 13-16. Grote. Dictionary of Psychology and Philosophy. In the succeeding paragraphs these propositions will be supported in two ways: First. (3) The epistomolog cal problem. i the That the only point of contact between philosophy and (2) logical teaching of the middle ages lay in the fact that the the first of Aristotle's categories question of the term" substance" has a mixed character. sive subsistentia corporalia sint an " incorporalia. Boethius. Cf (Haureau. Our point of departure will be an inventory of the exact will for the formal teaching of logic. technical study of logic. partly ontological and partly logical. I. col. An appeal to the text books for a solution of this vexed problem produces abundant proof to support the following theses: That the metaphysical problems were not a part of the (1) study of logic proper in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts during the entire period of the middle ages. De la Philosophic Scolastique. 82. 1 The whole round of philosophical problems with which the scholastics busied themselves cannot be better summarized than in the historic words of Porphyry: "Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem sive subsistant sive "in solis nudis intellectibus posita sint. by an analysis of other logico-philosophical treatises. These in one form or another were of sufficient importance to occupy the attention of mediaeval thinkers for some six hundred years. et utrum separata a sensibilibus an insensibilibus posita et "circa haec consistentia dicere recusabo. 84-96. 2 That logic as taught in tJte curricuhim of the seven liberal (3) arts was nothing more than what we would call today the formal. 44-46. seems essential to clear up this misconception. Grote. LXIV. pp. . Braniss's Die Logik in ihrem Verhaltniss zur Philosophic geschichtlich betrachtet. a direct analysis of the text books be made to show that these actually contain only material secondly. 30-46. et majoris egens inquisitionis. Aristotle. II. Vol. Aristotle.

On the hypothetical syllogism. 1861. I. 3.4 and Prantl. "Introduction aux Ouvrages inedits d'Abelard" in ColDocuments In&dits sur I'Histoire de France. 5 Prantl. C 1 2 . On the categorical syllogism. On Aristotle's De Interpretation (2 editions) . An introduction to the categorical syllo. 2 De Re"musat. The numerous fied as follows: logical works of Boethius. classi- A. Recherches Critiques sur Latines d'Aristote.i Cousin. 4. ' . B Commentaries. De De Divisione. 5 On Cicero's To pic a. 3 . gism. 5. Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande. s Isagogi^e Aristotle's Categories. Age et I'Origine des Traductions 2 lection des Victor Cousin. 1850. Vol. Paris. III. 3. 4 On his own translation of the Isagogue.3 Haureau. On Aristotle's Categories. were known and used in Western Europe until the end of the twelfth century. 1845. II. Vol. Augustine's. Porphyry . Cassiodorus's section De Dialectica. 2. 1845. 1 Translations. Original works. 1. from which others were derived. Aristotle's De Interpretation.74 The Seven Liberal Arts quantum of knowledge of logic which was possessed during the period. . Capella's section on Logic in his Encyclopaedia. De la Philosophic Scolastique. Principia Dialectics and the pseudo decent ex Aristotele Augustinian Categories decrepta. I' 1 Jourdain. On Victorinus's translation of Porphyry's Isagogue. IV. Definitione. 2 .s According to these investigators only the following logical treatises. XXIV. 1836. 2. 2 Vols. Abdard. De Remusat. 3 4 Haureau. The exact limits of this have been definitely established by the exhaustive researches of Jourdain.

though they may appear schoolboyish to one who is looking for a theory of logic as Prantl does. Migne LXIII. it appears that while the philosophical problems of logic were of more importance Turning first him. op. Boethius's plan aimed at more than the mere writing of a text book on logic. una quae theore" Dialogue in quae practice id est speculativa et activa. Its very bulk. I. I. vide also Cousin. and (2) the group containing the purely formal matter of logical instruction. Mf / to the worpfs of Boethius. col. e. some nine hundred columns of original matter. the investigations of earlier philosophers. either view. division and the syllogism. which he defines as that philosophy whose object is to logic. 92-99. 75 De Differentiis Topicis. pp. and theoto retical Formal philosophy. the and the Sophistichi Elenchi though translated and comTopics mented upon by Boethius in the fifth century were absolutely clusively that Aristotle's unknown before the end of the twelfth. cit. tions of Haureau have failed to disclose any leaning or partiality towards i tice dicitur. It was to hand down to posterity. p. Vol. cit. 354. e. The material enumerated can be reclassified into for our purpose two groups: (i) A group consisting of those works of Boethius in which the subject of logic is treated with due regard to its philosophical relations. Haureau. His original works on definition. altera . . i.) It does not appear that Boethius had any decided view on the The keenest investigaphilosophical disagreements of Plato and Aristotle. For exposition of the Boeth(Cf. physics and metaphysics. discern true from false reasoning. Isidore of De Arte Dialectica in his Etymologies.. are thorough from the didactic standpoint. i. Seville's section V. Capella.) ian position on the philosophical problem. logic. It is evident Porphyrium Dialogia Victorino translatus. 67-75. His work did in fact become so to speak. and Isidore of Seville. Geschichte der Philosophie. Yet even this hostile critic admits that his treatment of the hypothetical i "Est enim philosophia genus. pp. (Cf. species vero ejus duae. he nevertheless clearly distinguished between what he called formal practical philosophy. the store-house for logical and philosophical material to be worked up into text books. he really considers an aid to theoretical philosophy. in a form accessible and intelligible. op.. Cassiodorus. 1 1 that his writings on logic were not for mere formal logical instruction. would have made that impossible. comprising the works of Boethius. Jourdain and the other investigators have also proved conown Prior and Posterior Analytics.The Seven Liberal Arts 6. Ueberweg. Augustine.

did Porphyry treat the question of the philosophical problems in his work dealing with formal logic? He distinctly dismisses them as being beyond the scope of his introduction to the categories of Aristotle. an "organon. involving as it does the ontological problem.7 6 T}ie Seven Liberal Arts "* It seems clear then syllogisms is "remarkably thorough. 98. pp. the extended consideration of the categories and their implications seems to be entirely omitted. 2 Prantl. pp. * Unfortunately the Analytics. in no way implies from the standpoint of logic proper. made on How we naturally ask. 1 the acceptance of this anti-Platonic position on cit. as Sophistici Elenchi. and it. remained mediaeval school room in the twelfth century through other sources. as philosophers have seen. Topics. While gathering material for logical instruction. that in the treatment of the first category substance the position of "universalia in re" is assumed. Examining what we the purely didactic works on "school logic" we shall find that the metaphysical element. Glosses upon were glosses. 3 com- commentaries. namely. Prantl. 3 Boethius. op. 99. Again if we turn to the logical works of himself we look in vain for a "The Philosopher" statement of his position on problem. are among the noted commentators. Introduction. II. cit. formal logic of the school that he distinguishes between the logico-philosophical conceptions which form the point of departure for the study of metaphysical subjects.. what logic later became the scholastic The science of which he created was to him only an instrument. op." not a system of philosophy. but his consideration of this category. he also collected room and the and made available a portion of that from which schoThis material lasticism was to build its monumental system. The text book of prime importance was undoubtedly Porphyry's mentaries upon then. and unknown and only reached the of is This distinction which Boethius makes between the scope shall 'call "school logic" and "logical metaphysics" carried out by other writers who followed him. It is true. (super Porphyrium) and . I. the pseudo Rabanus Maurus Abelard. he presented not as logic but as philosophy. some of his didactic material. 682-700.

1 Trendelenberg. divided (i) predicables . II. are naturally more fully explained and Our first typical illustrated than the other seven categories. Liber IV. to the treatment of the categories is relatively large. 243-268. De Rmusat. 47-73. Abflard. (2) de nomine et verbo. although substance. pp. They speak of first and second substance apparently without realizing the metaphysical implications. App. op. Grote." It is absolutely silent on the questions which the schoolmen later deemed so vital. 250. Rabanus Maurus and others all avoid the issue. touch upon the problems alluded to in Porphyry's introductory paragraph is characteristic of all the formal text books on logic. i Turning to the text books of the mediaeval period proper we find that the oldest of these is the De Arte Dialectica of Capella. . the categories . Alcuin. of ontology and of epistomology were plainly not logical questions to Aristotle. (3) the quantity and quality of the propositions and conversion (5 pages) (4) the categorical and the hypothetical We have thus before us the essential syllogisms (6 pages). positions which has its echo in the first category. it is wholly formal. and the proposition (3 P a g es ). Geschichie der This omission to Kategorienlehre p. I pp. into four parts: definitions. to one-third of the treatise.The Seven Liberal Arts the subject 77 of universals. Cassiodorus Isidore of Sevilla. paronyms.) 2 Text in Eyssenhardt's edition. 2 The Pnncipia Dialectics of Augustine logic (sometimes "scientia called Tractatus de Dialectica). 98-137. quantity and relation. defines as the bene disputandi. vide Haureau. clusion. Capella. This much used fragment on logic does not even discuss the categories. 275-367. None of them take any position on these philosophical subjects in these treatises. I. and the doctrine of contradiction (12 pages). The problems of realism versus nominalism. In fact they do not even seem to realize the im- portance of the question. While the proportion of space devoted synonyms. Not counting the fantastic introduction and conwe have some thirty duodecimo pages of text. mediaeval text book then does not reveal a philosophical bias in the treatment of these portions of the logic which touch the borderland of metaphysics. homonyms. pp. (For a summary of the problem of universals and the antithesis Chap. elements of the logical text books of the middle ages anterior to the university period. of the Platonist and Aristotelian cit. amounting No philo- sophical implications are to be found. Aristotle. 3. division.

does not in any way touch decent ex Aristotele the philosophical implications of the categories. All the intricate relations of proprium in which Porphyry genus. "not an elementary treatise For this reason he barely mentions the predion philosophy. Migne. paraphrase and compartakes mentary on Aristotle's categories. and supra 2 p. p. about probable reasoning (taken from Boethius's topics. XXXII. The De Dialectica of Cassiodorus. LXX. cables of Porphyry. cit. Examining these fifteen folio pages. Vide Prantl. op. apparently. I. its spurious character. Opera For the /. 4 was beyond doubt one of the most popular and influential text books for the study of logic. no matter => how much evidence it may give of being "a crude and senseless compilation. 3 whatever may be its defects from the standpoint of historical criticism." as Prantl characterizes it. 1167-1203. the boy who would study logic need know little more about the predicables than their logical distinctions. 4 Prantl. 1/22. 3 Text. a great deal . explaining them in a few lines. vide Prantl. p. I. cil. XXXII. note 2. cols. text in Migne. question of the authenticity of the first named work. Augustine. Migne. the verb and the preposition. There is no doubt however was composed towards the end of the fourth century and that it was used as a text book in the middle ages. op. 56. XXXII. Prantl goes so far as to think that it formed the basis of Isidore's and Alcuin's treatises on logic. Categories of the character of a translation.. Why? The inference is clear logic to him also was simply a " means a means ad disserendas res. Prantl establishes that it op. 6. col. 665 et seq. Cf. and fairly revels are entirely omitted. Migne. The categories themselves fare no better than the predicables. "Retract. . 669 et seq. species. differentia. 1419-1439. 1409-1419. 591. even matter relating to rhetorical argumentation is introduced). what Much about terms and definitions (seven of does one find? much Boethius's fifteen attributes of definition are given) about the moods and figures of the syllogism. Text. accidentia. The p. but of subjects discussed by the schoolmen hardly a word. a fact to which the large number of copies and glosses bear ample proof. relation of these categories to the 1 Prantl. cols.7 8 The Seven Liberal Arts the author confining himself mainly to the elucidation of the Likewise the pseudo noun. c. In Cassiodorus's mind." I. cit. i decreptcz which Augustinian.

Vol. 4 So far the analysis of the text books of the early middle ages has shown that the writers who defined the scope of logic in the curriculum. rationalis definiendi. 146. of the overshadowing importance of that portion of logic ' ' : ad syllogisticas species formulasque veniamus in quibus nobilium philosophor- um col."3 rerum causas inventa. 140. the physical or theological problems. Id est species philosophiae To him. while half of the elaborate apparatus which Boethius preserved for the world was soon lost sight of not to be recovered till the end of the twelfth century. That is why Cassiodorus's section was so much used. 140-154.The Seven Liberal Arts eternal verities the student 79 was to study later when he began theology. II. the same conception of the scope. that theology embraces logic as well as everything else. 2 Text. in introducing the subject of the Nunc syllogism. There is nothing to indicate that he intreatment of formal logic any philosophical. II. LXXXII. limits and functions of the study of logics He defines it as the art secernis a falsis" "quae disputationibus subtilissimis vera and again as "disciplina ad discernendas " . XXIV. 128. De Dialectica. section. these questions belong to another Evidently to his mind also field. c. Etymologiae. . He says. same attitude towards the scope of the subject is maintained by succeeding text book writers whose works were entirely based on the labors of these predecessors. It was the practical elements of logic that his and the succeeding generations wanted. 73. and these not in the exhaustive form in LXX which Aristotle left them.) He builded jugiter exercetur ingenium. Lib. we find in of Seville. ." (Migne. metatreatise. 1174. In De Dialectica of Alcuin we have an example of what the teaching of logic was in the period of the so called 1 Cassiodorus takes pains to tell us. 4 Ibid. Liber Etymologiae etc. quaerendi et discernendi potens. Isidore i Turning to the other great encyclopaedists. it is the syllogism "ubi totius eius artis utilitas et virtus ostenditur. cols. cols. Migne. have one and all limited the formal instruction to a mere mastery of the rudiments of the science and have This carefully omitted anything of a metaphysical character. 3 Ibid. in fact." as to Cassiodorus." In Isidore's treated more Cassiodorus' s cludes in his Isagoguc and the Categories are but hardly more thoroughly than in diffusely work. col. better than he knew.

cit. we again look in vain for any statements on the philosophical problems involved in the categories. tenth and eleventh centuries which can properly be said to have been influenced by the traditions of Alcuin. Though the works on logic passing under his name in the succeeding generations were not his own. an assumption not unreasonable when one considers the far-reaching educational importance of Alcuin and of his pupils. cit. 114-147. it is true. CI. II 14 et seq. Gaul and 1 study of logic spread rapidly through Germany. . p. and indirectly on We cannot therefore expect anything more than Boethius. He does devote. with the amount we find in Alcuin's book... giving us precisely the clue we are seeking. for critique Cf. as the greatest pupil of Alcuin and as the leader of the educational of Fulda makes his utterance on the subject of great value to our inquiry. op. Liber 24. but as his text on the categories is but an excerpt from the pseudo Augustinian treatise. and how vast was the number of schools in the eighth. on Isidore's work. 40 et seq. op.. 2 what we found in his sources. cit. II. but the relative importance he assigns to different portions of the subject can be seen from i his compilation. De Studio. so much so in logic Thus the education tallies I. his colleague. Vol. The opinion of Rabanus Maurus on the subject is of importance. col. The work is of course not original.So The Seven Liberal Arts Carolingian Renaissance. It is based in its plan and subject matter almost entirely on the pseudo Augustinian work on the categories. and the Flanders. cit. op. some believe that it was greater even than that of all the other text books. Ohristophoris. That he should assign so much space to these purely verbal distinctions of be explained by the literary and subtle bent of Apparently then he also holds that metaphysical problems are to be treated in a work on formal logic. 3 Prantl. ninth. Migne. Acta St. a relatively large space (about one-half of the text) to the discussion of the categories. his influence his source can Alcuin' s mind. Specht. 2 Text. which Walther von Speier received in the Cf. The teachings of logic at Fulda exerted a most work favorable influence on the cultivation of that branch of the seven liberal arts. 949-975. p. The influence of that work was great. tenth century of>. edition Fez. Cf. 3 Through Rabanus and through Hainion of Halber- stadt. vv. the Brittany. Prantl. p.

For an edited text of his commentaries on the categories. CVII. while the large 1 . and requiring no philosophical conceptions or predilections. i eleventh Rabanus Maurus's views on treatise. 257-559. Aristotle had considered logic only as a means of clear and consistent thinking. Bernwardi. 125. quae praeter ecclesiam sunt. sed etiam falsarum sententiarum. and an appreciation of all that a proposition implies and all that may be deduced from it. SS. p. of formal logic to theology." Up to the time of Erigena no direct connection between the study of logic. Vita St. he syllogism of syllogisms. In the same Boethius. Thaugmari. cols. . These views of Rabanus sanctis libris ecclesiasticis investigandae sunt. C. as well as of his original work on the syllogism. as it was taught in the schools. pp. Othlonis. can Maurus. 397. Rabanus Maurus marked the departure by calling logic itself " the "disciplina disciplinarum. and dwelt on its great importance in the study spirit. By illustrating might. 4 E. 398."3 "disciplina rationalis etiam vera et a falsis His enthusiasm for that subject of the curriculum of the seven liberal arts was due to the fact that to his mind logic enabled one to penetrate with subtlety into the craftiness of the heretics and to confute their opinions by magical conclusions fallacious rection. Bd. Ill. Vita S. Denkmmler des Mittelalters.Tfie Seven Liberal Arts 81 that in the teaching of theology in the schools of the tenth and centuries logical disputations and theological discussions were often carried on. and Isidore of Seville had considered logic merely an insignificant part of philosophy. as to the transcendent importance be considered epoch-making in the history of the mediaeval curriculum. sententiarum autem veritates in " /. a power to detect identity of meaning under different expressions. M. quoted in Specht. The works on Logic by Notker Labeo give an indication of the character of instruction in logic which was given at St. 3 Ibid. facile est veritatum connexionum etiam in scholis illis discere. non solum verarum. C. for instance. Cassiodorus. especially in disputation. on De Inter pretatione and on Capella. number of mss. g. 4 "Cum ergo sint verae connexiones. 538-578. Wolfgang. c. quaerendi. 28. extant afford evidence of the popularity of the subject. Gall. which knowledge was "to be applied to find the truth in the scriptures. vide Hattemer. 2 Migne?vol. XX. in the tenth century. which they considered the "disciplina disciplinarum. III. IV.. and theology or metaphysics. can be found. requiring a knowledge of the ambiguities of language. G. He defines in words which we have met before disserendi.* as. c. disprove the how a resur- showed the necessity of studying the true modes of the syllogism in the school. pp. logic are given in his famous it De Clericorum et Institution*. I. definiendi discernendi potens.

dissenting from the supposition of Haureau. the increased study of logic prepared the way for the intellectual renaissance In fact. appreciated the significance of Rabanus Maurus's dictum on the value of logic. this fervid pursuit of was unproductive of new scientific results. so successfully attacked the mediaeval philosophical problems. it is nevertheless true that of Abelard's age. Dia vera docet. the Isagogue. For his text books he employed portions of the works of Boethius. Rhetoric and Dialectic. Roscellinus. 32. But while the latter's ideas on the subject stimulated its formal study they in no way affected the scope of the subject in the curriculum. The average mediaeval educator. and cannot be taken to indicate the order of studies of the trivium before the beginning of the scholastic period. in and about the schools of Paris. It was just about this time the beginning of the twelfth century that logic became the second subject of the trivium. the teaching of logic became identical. What did metaphysics seems clear as far as the formal study of logic as one of the seven liberal arts is concerned. Ast colit astra. The oft quoted couplet "Gramm loquitur. an institution acknowledged to have been one of the best of its generation. dialectique. dialectic If. The well known satire of the combat of the seven liberal arts. as is often asserted. is a later indication of changes which began about the opening of the twelfth century in France. I. Grammar. The great use which these schoolmen made of the dialectical method of reasoning in their metaphysical and theological discussions has led to the impression that at this period when scholasticism blossomed out.82 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts Passing on to the tenth century.) It was not so. Abilard etc. the Categories. cit. devint la ("Ainsi la dialectique " Haureau. I. Whether in the scholastic writings or in the text books of the period. happen was that the study of logic usurped the important place hitherto occupied by The proof grammar in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts. Rhet verba colorat. 303. we have an exact account of the great Gerbert's extensive teaching of logic in the cathedral school at Rheims. " does not date earlier than the tenth century. for this statement. . the order of the other writers of text books is invariably. op. it was with the instruments of the schoolroom logic that the early schoolmen. controlled as he was by the conceptions of the church. Mus canit. this compare the following: "La scolastique n' a done pas et la philosophic " De mais aux formes de la reduite a la and metaphysics Remusat. p. can be found in the writings of these very schoolmen. With philosophic premiere ou la mfetaphysique. Anselm and Abelard. It needed but the experience of the heresy charges against Erigena and Berenger of Tours to show what dangers to dogma lurked in the use of the syllogism. William of Champeaux. where the influence of Abelard was so potent. of the scriptures. Ar numeral. the De Interpretation and the Topics of Cicero. the idea of the separation of logic from dialectique. Ceo ponderat. This is furthermore proven by the fact that with the exception of Capella.

a voluminous text book on formal logic The same view of the scope written in his old age. The very problems which belonged and metaphysics were books on logic. simply defines logic as "discretio veritatis seu falsitatis." and on this basis the whole subject of formal logic is developed in his little treatise. Prantl. 2 Anselm. H. Weddingen. the aim is didactic formal logic. Ill. SS. 392. 83 as has been shown. 617). As has been shown. 3 The examination of the pre-university text books on logic may be fitly concluded with the mention of Abelard 's treatise. . these texts one and all from Capella to Abelard prove that the teaching logic of the mediaeval curriculum up to the thirteenth century in no way involved instruction in metaphysics. Ouvrages d' Abelard p._Anselm. I. Migne. 163-204. text. nullus grammaticus potest grammatica. pp. 561-581. AnselmV' in Memoires Couronnees de I' Academic Royale etc. Libri etc. cit. De Re'musat. practical side. "Essai Critique sur la philosophic de S. Retracing our steps and examining over again the works of the same authors we shall find additional indirect proof supporting this view. p. 47 (M.. theologian and philosopher. ergo nullus grammaticus est homo. Text in Cousin. T. wrote a didactic logical work. cols. Ill. p. that is. op. pp. logic. In the next century. Ueberweg. Evidently he also thought such questions did not form a part of a treatise on formal logic. . 267. c. Dialogus de Cf..286. CLVIII. We look in vain for metaphysical distinctions in the Dialogus de Grammatico. no. but in the other philosophical and metaphysical works of these same authors. dealing with the formal technical side of * logic. 2 of formal logic is found in Abelard. His De Dialectica. The book in short is merely an introduction to logic. Abelard I. Grammatico. I. pp. 46. (2) 1 to the borderland of logic elaborately treated not in the text Richer. "Omnis homo intelligi sine potest intelligi sine grammatica. Haureau. II. 173 et seq. de Belgique. G. Beginning with Boethius we find that philosophy with him had two sides: (i) the formal. 361 et seq.The Seven Liberal Arts all. as well as teacher of the Trivium. Histor. The categories is the text." His failure to state in that work his position with reference to the problem of nominalism and realism is most significant when we consider the character of the man. 3. 3 Cf. 18 Anselm undertakes to solve the logical paradox of the syllogism et seq. XXV.

as terms for school use the importance of the categories hence their scant consideration in the De Dialectica. De Dialectica. 9 et seq. and two on the De 2 etc. 949 et seq. hence his elaborate treatment of the subject slight. itself with of philosophy physics. De Fide Sanctae col. one on the Categories. the De this In ideas that were worth preserving standpoint of the mediaeval ages were here brought together in the consideration of the problems raised and not solved by Porphyry in the discussion as to the nature way those philosophical from the of genus and substance. The Seven Liberal Arts speculative its side. that physics and meta- The theological and metaphysical problems being formal logic to one of Boethius's greater importance it is of course natural that even in his discussion temperament. i Alcuin is the next writer from whose pen we have both a parison of these treatise A comformal treatise on logic and metaphysical writings. Aristotle's and Isagogue. Categories. but rather as logico-metaphysical material worthy of transmission for later generations. I. Interpretation. 2 If we pass on to Erigena. 76. the philosophical implications of He could these questions should always come to the front. supra pp. . shows that while in his De Dialectica the on logic the categories received but brief treatment. Migne CI. They were not introduced as parts of a text book on logic. In metaphysics the categories have a direct bearing on the very essence of faith. emphasize Porphyry's all this practical these easily in the treatment of those portions of subject which touch the philosophical problem. Lib. logical is as a part of his theological writings. afforded this point of contact. Vide Alcuin. ibid. He writes two commentaries on Porphyry's Isagogue. than of purely logical problems. although using the syllogistic form in arguments maintaining the identity of religion reasoning and If we are to judge the relative interest which i Cf. they are analyzed most exhaustively in his great work on theology De Fide Sanctce Trinitatis. The reason is obvious. Interpretatione. we find this of acknowledged founder of scholasticism. cols. " " Boethius showed in the two aspects of his Philosophia by the amount of he produced on each of the two kinds of logic the formal and commentary the speculative we find that two-thirds of his writings under consideration are devoted to those portions of logic which verge on metaphysics. in broader sense.84 the theoretical.. which concerns is. 75.

Migne. c. Pt. but metaphysics simple. He clearly rejected the idea that logic or dialectic was an introduction to philosophy. SS. These brief references to the philosophical problem are stated simply as accepted facts and foreshadow the coming nominalistic position. p. 617. 3 Vide Richer. XX. 367388. i But in spite of his low estimate of dialectics. and Notices et Extraits etc. Lit. Histor. the treatment is metaphysical. II. pp. 20. T. apparently a treatise on logic. Ill. the categories. see Notices et Extraits etc. 2 Gerbert. III. Haureau. introduction and criticism of Capella. I. dis- cit. Lib. Divisione Naturae. Ueberweg. p. Haureau has shown this to be the case in Erigena's and Remigius of Auxerre's commentaries on Capella. Prom Erigena's time we see the same questions cussed apparently under the name of logic. 870 et seq. himself despised formal logic as an unfit subject to engage the attention of thinkers. XXII. op. Here again we see that the theme of the author was metaphysics and not formal logic. As such they are important only as tracing the history of scholasticism. 8-39. but when viewed in connection with the text. the Aristotelian ontological implications of the categories are exhaustively analyzed and criticised. I. I. 144 et seq. 358-366. 118-119. cit. Cf 2 of>. II. he gave an extended discussion of the and metaphysical categories in connection with his theological In his very first book of the De inquiries. XX. But even a cursory examination of these works shows that they were not the logic books of the school room and that pure and was not the formal logic of which they treated. pp. pp. ibid. H. Haureau. I. Divisione Natures. 46. op. 47. was of course interested in the philali et His De Rationosophical implications of the logical problems. Pt. cit. Erigena's commentary. 3 1 De De cit. CXXII. . col. It is true that among the commentators on logical treatises in the latter half of the ninth century. the nominalistic position shows itself it first slightly and then gradually more distinctly. where realistic implications are shown in contrast with the Aristotelian view was For Remigius's commentary. whose eminence as a teacher and writer on formal logic is well established. That he did not use this work in his teaching of logic in the school The text room (and of this we have proof) is again evidence that to him form also the philosophical implications of the categories did not a part of formal logic. pp. 120.) . 12. c. Divisione Naturae. (M. cols. Cf. 469.The Seven Liberal Arts 85 philosophy. text. p. Libri etc. they do not prove that the philosophical question For in any way a part of the formal elementary logical instruction. is in fact a is metaphysical work a contribution to the ontological problem. G. p. de la France VI. also Ueberweg. op. Ratione Uti. vide Hist. Cf.

or to indicate how finally the church united Philosopher" when it became evident that Aristotle could very well aid it in its endeavor to prove theism by reason.. CLVIII col. p. cit. The work treats of the metaphysical aspects of the categories. 141 et seq. op. The generations following that of Abelard and Gilbert de la Poree witnessed the advent in Western Europe of all of Aristotle's works. it The was not a text book on formal logic. op. Haureau. p.. . Topics and Elenchi since * been so Aristotle's Sophistichi it is known that he possessed a knowledge of these works.86 The Seven Liberal Arts Again the great Anselm. I. I. UNIVERSITY PERIOD.. 430. as we have seen. p. 2 Prantl. cit. I. B.. II. Cf. vide Migne CXXXIX cols. 74. 1 For text of the Monologium and Prosologium vide Migne. Cf. 399.. 298 et seq. supra. that there was an absolute separation of philosophy from logic as it was taught in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts during the pre-uni- The foregoing versity period. composed about 1150. 157 et seq. op. 75. It forms no part of the present inquiry to write the history of this important epoch in the intellectual history of Europe. and the author endeavors to reduce Aristotle's treatise classification Prosologium. p. especially in Jourdain. we have an entire work devoted to the logicometaphysical problem. analysis of the logical and philosophical works of the authors that influenced the course of teaching in logic in this period tend to but one conclusion. p. 215 et seq. Equally foreign to our subject would it be to trace the hostile attitude of the church towards this "new" philosophical material. i In Gilbert of the ten to six categories. cit. 3 For our purpose it is sufficient with "The For text of De Rationali etc. 223 et seq. discussed the categories at great length not. For some notes on the literature of this topic. Had he surely would have incorporated the material of "Nova Logica" the two Analytics. in the Dialagues de Grammatico. but in his famous philosophical works the Monologium and justly de la Poree's De Sex Principiis. 3 The subject is treated fully in the works of the authorities referred to in notes 1-5 p. of whose logical treatise mention has been made. Ueber- weg. vide Ueberweg.

. . was greatly in increased. op. Ill. the text clearly show it. History of Philosophy. scientiarum. Again he defines it as "sapientia contemplativa docens qualitcr et per quae devenitur per notum ad ignoti notitiam. "2 The era of the universities broadened the scope of the Seven Liberal Arts to include the Grammar. Tractatus I. 9. Cf Ueberweg.The Seven Liberal Arts 87 to state the established fact. Opera. pp. was negphilosophy of Aristotle. Chaps. fortunes. 1 2.. 3. IV. Albertus Magnus." Logic to him is not a part of metaphysics or philosophia prima. Cf. But while the quantum of the instruction in the Arts lected. "De Predicab.e. II. p. What was the content of this "complete logic?" It consisted of the "Vetus Logica. vii. Cf. the Topics The whole body of this knowledge Sophistical Refutations. III. System o} Logic and History o} Logical Doctrines. Indeed while his philosophical works were condemned no less than thirty-seven times. 3 That this was the view taken of the subject even during the period of the widest and most complete extension of scholasticism may be seen from the opinion of Albertus Magnus: "Logica. "una est specialium " sicut in fabrili in quae specialis est ars fabricandi maleum." Lib. that his complete logic was welcomed into the university curriculum even before his philosophy was accepted as orthodox." he says. The teaching it of logic in this period in the earlier period." and thus comprised i The posthat is known today as the Aristotelian Logic. The change was rather in As Vide Launois. i. no more included metaphysics than did books in this epoch another direction: all teaching became infected with the spirit of the formal logical methods. 33. session of the complete Organon together with the other metaphysical works of Aristotle made clear to the schoolmen the all exact relation logic which logic philosophy tory study to be was to be of to the whole occupied an instrument and introduc- taken up before the study of what was termed "The First Philosophy. De variis Aristotelis in Academia Parisiensis . cit.s 1 in the pre-university period. literature. 10. Ueberweg. was known as the "Antiqua Logica. But logic as one of the seven liberal arts still occupied its former position of a propadeutic. I. quoted in Prantl. to which was added and the "Nova Logica" the two Analytics. p. I. the general character of the instruction its Logic did not change formal aspect." the material used by the text book writers of the pre-university period. the study of his works on logic was never forbidden. 435. 2 This idea is expressed in his Metaphysics. I.

i The number of these up-to-date text books was very large. as in the teaching of the other subjects of the curriculum. the work The logic of the commentator and adapter came into play. They represented the attempt of the practical teacher to utilize the increased knowledge of a subject that for some two centuries had been gradually growing in importance and was encroaching upon the traditional claims of Grammar in the Trivium. Lambert of Auxerre. 2 Among more famous writers the following II. 454. who. by Petrus Hispanus. p. Abschnitt. and III. 50 et seq. cit. Johannus Italus. For our purposes his discussions are of no value. II. died in 1277. I. op 3 cit. William Shyreswood. therefore." As time went on and subject after subject of the curriculum became enmeshed in the maze of logical distinctions. Absch. 2 Only the and most typical of them all need detain us. Ueberweg." text books which formerly contained only the Aristotelian logic. cit. because Prantl is ever in quest of logical theories. III. But when we bear in mind iaeval student at the time he began the study of logic barely fourteen years it becomes evident that the Organon was too difficult a text to begin the subject. The spirit of the age demanded more To meet subtle verbal distinctions than Aristotle afforded. Here. I. Vol. op. to which the student was introduced by means of these derivative text books was hardly more than a simplified treatment of the mere elements of logic a brief survey of the "Logica Antiqua. there arose a "logica moderna" or "parva logiThis "modern" material consisted of chapters on the " This characteristic subject "de terminorum proprietatibus. Anm. as Pope John XXI. the far- famed Summulae Logicales. may be mentioned: Michael Psellus. Vide Prantl. The point of view of a modest text book he frankly considers of no interest to him. in this field cit. Anm. mediaeval logical material soon became a regular addition to this logic in use at the age of the med- demand calia. Because of this similarity it will serve no useful purpose to enter upon a earliest careful examination of these different texts. the op. pp. enters into a discussion and analysis of the texts of these and other authors. even Aristotle's elaborate treatise was no longer a sufficient source for the text book writers. I. XIII. Prantl.88 The Seven Liberal Arts One would suppose that treatises in this period Aristotle's own would have formed the only text book on the universities. XIX. The writer has been unable to secure a copy of the texts and was there- . 453. op.3 1 Cf. Prantl. But in character they were all similar. Ill.

To the elucidation of this point all The prevailing confusion subordinated. Hist. it was The book is divided into seven parts. scholasticism on on the analysis of the work by Prantl. p. Cf. 404. Logic had nothing whatever to do with the metaphysical questions which both Porphyry and Boethius had set aside as being outside of the domain of logic. Ill. Ueberweg.The Seven Liberal Arts 89 The treatise was used almost exclusively as a text book of formal logic throughout Western Europe for some three hundred years. 33-74. 326. same text of Petrus. 38. Synopsis attributed to Psellus is really a translation of Petrus Hispanus's work. Universities in the Middle Ages. throughout this period. the six of which treat of the material contained in the Organon and Porphyry's Isagogue. I. That this position was consistently maintained throughout this period has been amply proved in the foregoing pages. History of Philosophy 1 I. 2 p. 41. Ueberweg leans towards the latter view. etc. Prantl alone has used no less than forty-eight printed editions. pp. to the scope of logic in the curriculum of the seven regard liberal arts and the relation of the subject to mediaeval other matters were in From philosophy seemed to call for this special treatment. cit. Lit. Rashdall. Though often appearing under different names. the material presented here it certainly seems incorrect to assert. p. op. de la France XIX. System oj Logic For a full bibliographical note on the controversy. which is exceptionalVide Prantl. p. 2 that it was a morsel of logic that started its career. vide Ueberweg. but Thurot and others hold that the so-called fore obliged to rely ly full. The priority for the content of the Summulae is claimed by Prantl for a Synopsis of Michael Psellus. The last part is devoted to an elaborate treatment of grammatical and logical distinctions " the vague De terminorum proprietatibus." In the present chapter the aim has been mainly to determine i the exact limits of the subject taught under the name of logic. . as Rashdall does.

THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE QUADRIVIUM. Both hold this traditional H. correct. Christopher. cit. i is far from being historically Such a statement could not be made with an approach to accuracy even in speaking of the university era when logic and philosophy were admittedly the essential studies. g. Othlo's St. WolfBruno's St. Laurie. op. . it is While rhetoric undoubtedly true that the Trivium grammar. 334 and 358. Historians of the mathematical interest. Rise oj the Early Universities. This misconception as to the scope of the mathe- matical subjects of the curriculum is. gang. logic and subjects were hardly pursued. Adalbert. Arithmetic. pp. however. 2 Rashdall. Walther von Speier's life of St. The actual amount of mathematical knowledge dur ng the period before the twelfth century was so small that until recently it had been sciences almost overlooked. Specht. 304-359. natural enough. Hankel. or mathematical. the evidence seems to point to but one conclusion an extensive pursuit of the subjects of the Quadrivium throughout the middle ages. Looking at the question from all points of view. Cf. p. the traditional opinion that "the real secular education of the dark ages was the trivium. I. 1 the study of the seven of the Quadif we examine and Constitution opinion. Geschichte der Mathematik. occupied the greater portion of the time devoted to the study of the seven liberal arts. especially pp. especially p. * But the absence of creative work in mathematics during the greater portion of our epoch does not of itself argue a lack of instruction in the subject. Vol. pp." and that the quadrivial. 3 E. A. Quite the contrary is the case." have considered the age "barren of It is even claimed that the mediaeval mind had no aptitude whatever for mathematical science. 89-149. those personal experiences which give accurate liberal arts.90 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts CHAPTER VII. 61 et seq. 35. 3 Again. In the first place. Universities in the Middle Ages. illustrations of invariably include the subjects rivium as well as of the Trivium.

Reichenau. Odo Heiric of Auxerre.The Seven Liberal Arts 91 of the facts bearing on the position of the church on the question mathematical instruction we find that from the days of Charlemagne synod after synod enforced upon the clergy both a knowledge of the methods of Easter computation and of music. Mainz. Passau. Wessobrunn. we may mention. A. Cologne. Ranshofen. Metten. Lobach and others. and many other educational Holy Roman Empire. op. Hildesheim. Reichersburg. Europe.i Beyond doubt the church was interested directly in at least three of the studies of the Quadrivium arithmetic. Tatto. Vide Ziegelbauer. 1 Giinther. 7 Aufl. Heresfeld. B. Rabanus ject. Pars passim. the three Ermenrich. Still greater was shown by many institutions of France and the Netherlands. Emmeran. Munster. Wattenbach. Lit. passim. Ratisbon. Hermannus Ratpert. It is certain that in England. O. im M. Historia Rei. Florian. Niederaltaich Kremsmunster.. Benedictbeuern. Remigius of Auxerre. Augsburg. St. from the eighth century to the days of the Norman conquest. Corvey. the general condition of the schools Moreover. William of Hirschau. for references to original sources containing fragmentary data relating to the education of eminent mediaeval persons. 127 et seq. . Admont.. Gall. . pp. S. 14. such as those of Rheims. to cite but a single example. Deutscklands Geschichtsquellen 241-487. St. 2 Specht. no one was ordained to the priesthood who could not compute the date of Easter and teach it after manner of the writings of the Venerable Bede. astronomy and music. We should therefore expect no hostility to the inthe struction in the if - Quadrivium in mediaeval schools. we can easily trace an unbroken record of continued interest in mathematical" studies in all the famous monastic and cathedral schools of find this existing at the schools of Fulda. 297-394. Verdun. Heilpric. pp. Liege. Contractus. centres of the for these subjects Maurus. 2 We furthermore find that the great teachers of this period were nearly all famous both for their teaching of mathematics and for contributions to the science of that subTo cite but a few examples. St. i. of Europe in the Carolingian period and later. down to the intellectual we examine revival of the thirteenth century. Herard of Landsberg. We Speier. Polling. cit. Notkers. Stable. Klosterburg. Geschichte des Mathetnatischen Unterrichts im Deidschen Mittelalter p.

there was a great is generally made of the fact that up to the twelfth the knowledge of the subject matter of mathematics century. Bd. Cantor. (brother of Researches have the famous Anselm. op. Vorlesungen ilber Geschichte dcr Mathcmatik. 334. Odo of Tournay. Abbo of Fleury. This does not mean that the mediaeval knew much mathematics. be on our guard against estimating the achievements of the middle ages from the standpoint of our own time. where specific references to the mathematical activity of each one of the schools works. Hucbald. i treatises on the Quadrivium accounts for the neglect to these publish the large number of them found in the libraries of Europe. cf. In the succeeding chapters. For lists of such 2 Thus Codex Vaticanus 3896 contains no less than 26 treatises on Arithmetic in manuscript. Bishop Gilbert of Lisieux. I. and in most cases even produced original works of merit on some of the established The lack of scientific value in most of quadrivial studies.. cit. op. op. Engebertl of Liege.. 39-61. and persons are given. IV. 3 As claimed by Hankel. Giinther. but that the schools ful- Giinther. 304-411. 771-797. cit. 2 But even the incomplete records of text books of the Quadrivium sufficiently indicate that deal of teaching done in these subjects. p. ability.92 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts of Clugny. cit. the calculus and theories of the composition of sound are the commonplaces of mathematical studies. op. pp. cit. the fact that all these possessed mathematical were active in teaching mathematics. vide Ziegelbauer. But even a most cursory examination of the Much contents of the text books in actual use during the period proves the incorrectness of the assertion that only the most elementary propositions in geometry. 67. Conrad of Nurnberg. . which are to deal with the several subjects of the Quadrivium. pp. were the sole themes occupy- We must ing the attention of the mathematicians of the age. p.) Siegfried and Reginbald. was very slight. the method of calculating Easter and the use of the abacus. when projections. Othlo. Gerbert (afterwards Pope Sylvester II). the writer will endeavor to maintain the following theses: The amount of knowledge imparted to the student Quadrivium was large in proportion to the amount of knowledge which Europe possessed of mathematical subjects (i) of the at that teachers 1 time.

pp. . Gunther.The Seven Liberal Arts filled 93 their mission and transmitted all the mathematical knowledge they possessed to future generations. Even after the thirteenth century. Rashdall. op. s During this time the study 1 Gunther. 81-121. 207 et seq. 3 It Cf. For analysis of Nicomachus. The standard of mathematical teaching in the middle (2) ages in the well known schools was very high. and that the student was obliged to master this knowledge before he took up the advanced study of philosophy. mathematical studies were Even then when scholasticism held far from being neglected. Europe possessed a very small amount of knowledge of the kind of arithmetic which was cultivated so much by the Greeks in the so-called Alexandrian age. extremes Paris and Vienna taken by most of the universities of the middle ages. I. traditional view as to the neglect of these studies before the Renais- sance based on an erroneous assumption. ending with the tenth century. 440-443. Paris. the later centuries show advance in assimilation of new material. op. the amount of instruction in mathematics kept pace with the gradual advance of the sciences. EXTENT OF KNOWLEDGE. Boethian arithmetic. composed about the close of the first century. 2 The is cit. when in the university (4) the mathematical pari passu with period the Quadrivium was merged in the general course of philosophy in the school of arts. pp. In opposition to this belief it might be universities. Hoche Leipzig. 89-95. arithmetic of the Neo-Pythagorean Nichomachus. cit. vide edition of R. p. knowledge of the middle ages can be During the first. urged that the University of Vienna made much of the teaching of these very As a matter of fact there was a mean position between the two subjects. vide Gow. 146-207. These afforded a reasonable and ample amount of instruction in mathematics. being the mother of the it is supposed that its special neglect of the mathematical studies was characteristic of the entire period. Although there is no evidence of creative mathematical ability in the early periods. cit. Short History oj Greek Mathematics. pp. The quantity and (3) i character of the instruction age improved throughout the advance of mathematical knowledge in the several subjects. 1866. sway. op. What was known comprised chiefly the contents of the text books on The arithmetical classified into three periods. was through Boethius who translated and adapted this text that this peculiar form of arithmetic came to be known as. 2 B. For text of Nicomachus.

and Roman numerals are used. pp. from this practical phase. 4 THE FIRST PERIOD. Arabic numerals and the zero came into use while much of the old Greek mathematics was reclaimed through Arabian translations. embracing the years to the end of the middle ages.i During the second period. 137. Ball. GENERAL CHARACTER. p. It is in the interesting collection of mediaeval text books on arithmetic. 797-809. p. a theoretical treatment of properties and relations of numbers was not absolutely wanting. I. still greater progress can be noted. quantum of knowledge and range not to be supposed that any definite lines these stages could be traced. the so-called algoristic epoch. 2 H. of>. the first and most important writer on Arabian mathematics known to Europe. Bd. The use of the abacus as modified by Gerbert was extended. the Roman abacus.Beitrage zur Kentniss Berlin 1888. History of Mathematics. continued in use to some extent in the succeeding age. were common. * During arithmetic was confined on Easter. 14 et seq. 1 208-251. embracing the age from the end of the tenth century to the end of the twelfth. and that text books characteristic of an earlier age of instruction. 3 Although each period had its characteristic arithmetical it is method. the third. instrument. We shall find in our separating examination of the text books that these overlapped one another. In the 1 Cf. and complementary division and columnal computation. I. Gerbert. 4 There is in existence a Computus composed in 1395. a considerable advance can be noted. Cajori. 3 Giinther. pp.94 The Seven Liberal Arts its practical side to the computation of and on its theoretical side to a study of the properties In the operations. It is in this essentially the art of compu- almost exclusively devoted to the work of comEaster so that during this age the terms "computing aside putus" and "arithmetic" became synonymous. stage is Arithmetic tation. History of Mathetnatics. methods which obviated much of the digital computation of the earlier age. George Plimpton of New York. der Mathematik des Mittelalters. . Weissenborn. cit. belonging to Mr. a crude of numbers. The word Algorithm is derived from Alchwarizmi. Still.

is nothing of the arithmetic of Nicomachus. Roman fractions where- very prominent. vol. p. cit. Alcuin. tit. Giinther. col. of course. the total amount of arithmetical knowledge possessed by Western Europe during fact as to make this period was small indeed. pp. et 2 Cf. seem. Rabanus and the Christians others made much of such speculations. beyond three figures have been found. XC col.. 3 The following are (i) among the typical texts in use: Capella's chapter Philologiae et Mercurii. the abacus was rarely used.The Seven Liberal Arts theoretic arithmetic the this 95 mystical and symbolic elements are was due. the text books of the period do not The few instances in which operations are incidentally given show plainly that a laborious mental process and the digital method were employed. 309 et seq. on Arithmetic in his De Nuptiis more than the briefest abstract Besides the allegorical intro- duction. The method of reckoning was crude. Migne Vol. so small in the later re-discoveries and translations of the like of the Alexandrian school of mathematics seem an addition of entirely new material to the stock of knowledge on this subject. while the cumbersome Roman notation made computation with large numbers In fact no records of actual computations well nigh impossible. " based on the half system." If the text books in use afford any test. whose book was the source of Boethius and Isidore of Seville. 719. Strange as treat of it may methods of operation. * arithmetic 2. the chapter consists of material on the properties and the mystic significance of number according to Pythagorean 1 Hankel. 3 Thus : in Alcuin's work on the computus. i ever used necessitated the aid of special multiplication tables. CCXXXV is multiplied by IV in this manner CC XXX V x IV DCCC x IV CXX x IV XX DCCCCXL For a similar example of the method of division (6144-^15) see the pseudo-Bedan De Arguments Lunae. 64-78. 979 et seq. De Oursu Saltu Lunae ac Bissexto. Migne. . CI. TEXT BOOKS. to the fact that Nicomachus. op. op.

400. cols. Text. 254-296. 3Cf. Vol. et seq. is at best a conis In four diagrams the properties of numbers are fied and each kind is defined and One illustrated. 3. 10. numberless times. 3 (3) Cassiodorus's brief section of De Arithmetical. n. De Institutione Clecicor. perfect. account of the mystical interpretations on Capella. 82. It also formed an adequate introduction to the study of the mystical interpretation of scriptural numbers from which moral lessons were not infre- quently deduced. proportion and progression are not overlooked. Migne. defective. even after the introduction of the Hindu system of notation and computation. 4. The contents of the work would seem to indicate that It formed a Boethius's text was not for the use of pupils. (2) Boethius's De Institutione Arithmetica Libri Duo was used as the source of arithmetical knowledge in the middle ages for some thousand years. The i treatise owed its popularity to the fact that it formed a chapter of a convenient general text book on the seven liberal arts. the latest date of an edition being 1521. amicable. cols. special edition by Friedlein. 13. tury. For a fuller Eyssenhardt's edition. commented and edited in the sixteenth cenof this remarkable What. Of these there are triangular. where the mystical meaning of the number 40 is explained. p. 4 Text in De Artibus etc. 1867. cit. pp.96 The Seven Liberal Arts notions. For an amusing example of mystical interpretation of numbers vide Rabanus Maurus. Text in Migne. op. CVII. then. 2 it was still worth printing folio Abridged. only an almost endless classification of the properties of numbers.. cols. 1079-1166. There is a variety of kinds of even and of odd numbers. Lat. cit.. 69 et seq. Arithmetical Books. pp. p. 1204-1208 . 2 Vide A. It also bore the simpler name De Arithmetica Libri Duo. op. where references to books on Boethian arithmetic printed in Paris and Vienna are given. excessive.. the work of Boethius. col. were the contents eighty Looking through the columns work? and the one hundred diagrams. Migne LXX. Pat. De Morgan. etc. Giinther.. Nothing new classi- finds nothing in the work in the methods. The book was a standard text book. densed added. LXIII. 1079-1168. LXIII. 4 way of information on practical 1 Text. vide Gow. one is surprised not to find a single rule of operation. Migne vol. Liber VII. teacher's guide on the subject.

Text of entire work. making a moderate sized text book. The Venerable Bede's of De Temporum Ratione. is the period to touch upon the subject of practical method It is therefore not surprising that this work computation. 579-606. facts names of Greek and Roman months. cols. c. 294-578. vol. is perhaps the (8) most complete and the most typical book of the period under The ninety-six chapters of the work treat fully discussion. Migne. Minge. 3. is astronomical rather than arithmetical. indications. cols. 3 Ibid.The Seven Liberal Arts (4) 97 the same Isidore of Seville's brief chapter on Arithmetic follows lines as that of Cassiodorus. 1 "Tolle numerum computum et 2 Text in Migne. of classification the divisions of time. vol. Deducting glosses and scholiae. The lunar cycles and the method of finding Easter are explained after the plan of Adime saeculo rebus omnibus et omnia pereunt. The rest of the text is devoted to the Greek system of notation. LXXXII. and similar astronomical phenomena involved in the study of the computus. there remain XC. cuncta ignorantia caeca complectitur nee differi potest a ceteris animalibus qui calculi nesciunt rationem. however. Its content. Lib. the names of planets. 679-1002. an elaborate text on the first book of this computing Easter. but less than one column is given to the subject. the solstice. should have become a standard for many centuries to come.. CI. IV. Vol.' In this work also we look in vain for any single sentence about methods and (5) rules of operations. . 4 Rabanus Maurus's Liber de Compute. 4 Text. Liber III.* The same author's Liber de Ratione Computi is of (6) similar character but more condensed in form. the equi- nox. and concisely of all that is necessary for a complete knowledge To be sure the inevitable multiform Easter reckoning. of the properties and relations of numbers is there. cols. It is a mere fourfold of numbers in regard to their properties and The author adds some absurd remarks on the derithe Latin arithmetical nomenclature and some rap- classification relations. epacts. " Etymol. vation of turous expressions about the importance of numbers. some eighty folio columns of actual text. 154-163. 3 Alcuin's De Cursu et Saltu Lunce ac Bissexto is likewise (7) a work on the computus. cols. XX. about the moon.

Isidore of Seville and Beda. Easter day is easily determined. op. significant that in the introduction to the work. The rules were: (Rule i) To find the golden number. p. "Die Christliche Otaterrechnung.525) the astronomical problems involved were solved and successive tables were constructed by Dionysius. p. The demands upon the arithmetical knowledge of the pupils true. 669-727. CVII. 53-83. significant is the omission of the rules for the four operations. those of the full named going as far as 1063. Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. J. .gg The Seven Liberal Arts expect. the remainder is the golden number. determine the place of the Dominical Letter in the table. From this it would seem. the text books of this period. Vide Smith and Chietham. Cantor. cit. if there be no remainder nineteen is of the year (Rule 2) "To find the Dominical Letter. (3) the correction of the error involved in the metonic cycle. Mathematical Recreations and Problems. perhaps with the aid of an elaborate system of finger reckoning. With the aid of two rules involving simple operations and the use of the tables named. In all respects the work of Maurus may stand as typical of the arithmetical knowledge and teaching all of this period. and that a knowledge of the four elementary operations with whole numbers was assumed in the study of the computus. a chapter Bede. The problem was solved by finding the so-called "golden number" and "Dominical Letters. 238. The computation was for the purpose on which the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox would fall.. p. pp. Abbot Felix of Cyrilla. As one would work It is is on digital Still more reckoning and practical Roman symbols is given. add one last to the numeral of the year (in the table) and divide the sum by nineteen. 780. The great influence of the "prae- As this was the essential part of the contents of i Migne." thereby determining their relative positions in the tables of the metonic cycles. who aimed simply to solve this problem were not very great. that the computation was done mainly in the head. it is but from what has been said before it is safe to assume that after the Carolingian revival every priest who had studied the liberal arts actually understood not only the method but the principles involved. (2) the day of the following moon. divide this sum by seven and subtract the remainder from seven. add also four." By referring the two answers obtained by the operations of the two rules to the tables. 532 et seq. vide Ball." Systeme der Chronologic. a brief statement of the problem involved in is appropriate. this implied not a little arithmetical and astronomical knowledge in addition to clear mathematical thinking. the principal portion of the whole the part devoted to the method of Easter reckoning. To be able to do so implied the Easter reckoning of finding the date a knowledge of (i) the vernal equinox of the sun. I. As early as in the days of Abbot Dionysius Exiguus (. F. Brockman. Easter day could be readily determined. to the numeral add its quotient on dividing by four. the remainder will the golden number. For a modern simplified rule for calculating the date of Easter. article "Easter". then.

2. p. since Gerbert was the mathematical genius of his age. were based on his treatise. Among the mediaeval teachers who based their works on the computus entirely on the works of Rabanus. . although composed after the age of Gerbert. vol. It did not mean. as showing both the wide extent of its influence as late even as the thirteenth century. p. Vide Cantor. 1875. 66. all of i which show the characterBesides these text books. 5. " 2 Thus the propositiones (arithmeticae) Alcuini ad acuendos juvenes. who Hankel. op. as quoted in Giinther. can in no way be taken to imply that such deep problems were usually studied under the head of arithmetic during this period.The Seven Liberal Arts 99 ceptor Germaniae" of itself argues for a widespread use of his work. I. op. thus apparently belonging to the second period of our classification. CI. cit. cols. * Of unique interest as showing methods of division fractional and some work are the following short works. William of Hirschau. et Temporum 3. and numerous text books on the computus. mistakenly at1. the study of Arithmetic. De Unciarum Ratione. It should be noted. as in the days of Rabanus Maurus. For full references on these games in the middle cit. 1143. XC. p. 682-709. Cf. Hermannus Contractus. anonymous and otherwise. note. can in no way be taken as an index of the methods used in teaching arithmetic in their day. in Migne. there are some exceptional works on istics ascribed arithmetic composed in this epoch. 784. but their existence and use in no way weaken the conclusions which have been formulated as to the general character of the instruction in arithmetic in this early period of the middle ages. Wien. op. Notker Labeo and Johannes de Garlandia. For critique vide Karl Werner. 88. Gall. 310. p. to this period. a monk of St. 107 et seq. op. De Loquela per Gestum Digitorum Ratione Libellus. note 3 Texts. while of a special interest from other points of view. Such problems belong to the same class with mathematical games which were known to the select few. tributed to Bede: De Numerorum Divisione Libellus. is equally inconclusive proof as to their use in school work. p. ages vide Giinther. that the works on the computus by the authors named. rightly ascribed to that famous teacher. cit. Marianus Scotus. the following are noteworthy. col. establishes the authenticity." a collection of difficult problems with appended solutions. 3 1 Giinther. cit. Vol. The fact that they were known by Gerbert at the end of the tenth century. When these were composed the study of the computus had come to mean simply the technical study of Easter reckoning. such are Heilpric. i. Beda der Ehrwurdige und seine Zeit p. however. Text in Migne.

op. 797 et seq. I. Bd. points: improved the abacus and extended its use by the introduction of special kinds of apices place symbols at the top of each column of the abacus. in this controversy are 4 Cantor. THE SECOND PERIOD. Akad. 233. cit. 3 H. The point of departure for tracing the progress of the study and teaching of arithmetic during this period can be found in the epoch-making mathematical achievements of Gerbert. he is to be credited only with the introduction of columnal computation into Western Europe. where the historical points . (4) that Gerbert.ioo The Seven Liberal Arts The than origin of these little treatises cannot be traced back later It can therefore be assumed that they the tenth century. notably Bernelinus. * Others go so far as to attribute to him the introduction of the On the other hand Cantor. 209-239. Class. "Gerbert und die Rechenkunst des 10 ten Jahrhunderts " in Sitzungsberichte der Hist. esp. For the purposes of of our inquiry one other fact in regard to Gerbert is pertinent: he taught the Quadrivium with marked success at the school of 1 Hankel. maintains that Gerbert was absolutely unfamiliar with the Arabic system. 3 of the historians of mathematics. p. Vorlesungen etc. 4 There is. i This maindicate a slow advance in arithmetical knowledge.. Gerbert-Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Mathematik des Mittelalters. esp. I. CXVI.(3) that in Gerbert's book we have the first work on the method of computing with the abacus. terial was to serve as a foundation for Gerbert's achievements in the field of arithmetic. 307-310. The question as to the precise value of Gerbert's contributions to the development of the science of arithmetic is still an open one. (2) that he and his disciples did not employ the zero. first to use the method sible all the four complementary division. Friedlein. substantial unanimity on the following (i) that Gerbert and his disciples. the Nestor Arabic system. summarized. GENERAL CHARACTER.. pp. Nagl. u. Phys. 297-330. According to some. der Kais. Bd. 320 et seq. Bd. der Wiss. IX. A. "Das Rechnen mit Colutnnen vor dem 10 ten 2 Jahrhundert" in Zeitschrift fur Math. Weissenborn." Wien. pp. pp. 861-922. however. made posoperations on the abacus. Philol.

4 The better methods of the next period 1 of the algoristic school. pp. Compared with the Arabian system.. 109-134." This opinion is confirmed by the name"divisio ferrea" given to his method after the introduction of the " Hindu system. SS. Berlin. all Vide Hankel.. Its mechanical character is 3 Cajori. 319 et seq. did were etc. namely. i Gerbert's two works." Ill. op. as the writers not necessarily supplant the Richer. G. 117. where concrete examples of division by this method are given. Hist. Bubnov. Examining these treatises. . the Regulae de Abaci Numerorum Rationibus and the fragment De Numerorum Abaci Rationibus. H. 119. (2) Roman notation. can thus be taken as typical of arithmetical text books from the tenth to the beginning of the thirteenth century. while the process of division (the subject matter of his second and lesser work) is entirely different from the modern method. cit. Gerbert's methods of division have been considered not improperly "about as complicated as human ingenuity could make them. 618 et seq. subtraction and multiplication are much like those used in modern times. 4 Cajori. cit. duodecimal (3) Roman fractions. cit."3 In the days of Gerbert writers on arithmetic were generally called "abacists. (3) The of operations were trials. The most complicated illustrative example is given in Friedlein. still in existence. 2 we find that the processes employed in addition. (4) the absence of zero in the calculation. History of Mathematics p. 1899.The Seven Liberal Arts 101 Rheims from 972 is to 982 and an extended account of his methods in existence. of these works can be inferred These the editor enumerates. to proceed in a purely mechanical way without requiring op. Subtraction (2) was to be avoided as far as possible and be replaced by addition. op. Gerberti opera Mathema- The extent of the influence from the vast number of mss. this term came to be restricted to those who clung to the older methods.) 2 Latest critically edited texts tica. which was called the divisio aurea. revealed by some of the rules which Gerbert laid down thus: The use (i) multiplication was to be restricted as far as possible and was never to require the multiplication of two digits by two others. Die Zahlzeichen und das elementar Rechenen der Griechen und Romer und des Christlichen Abendlandes nom 7 ten bis 13 ten Jahrhundert. p.." With the introduction of the Hindu methods through Arabian influence. pp. (i) the use of the abacus. XVII-CXI passim. ("Pertz M. Lib. by N. (5) the failure to deal with the method of extracting the square root. called.

Turning to a consideration of the text books of the period. X. I. The intrinsic superiority of the newer system did not necessarily cause the immediate disappearance of text books based on the older. XXXIV. such texts on the abacus. Boncompagni. pp. Lit. Mathematische pp. 595-647. cit. 89 et. As text books of Boethian arithmetic were printed even as late as the sixteenth century. cit. . also composed a text book on the abacus. Kulturleben der Volker. a monk teaching at Reichenau (1) in the first half of the eleventh century. pp. vide Cantor. XV. op. vol. Cantor. There was indeed a contest waged between the abacistic school. Text and critique by A. VII. sometimes erroneously known as the Boethian school. 129-146. * TEXT BOOKS. pp. 135-162. cit. It shows that in his day the of arithmetic had widened and that there was a scope complete separation of the computus from the arithmetic (3) the proper. Only the typical ones. pp. 4 1 For others Beitrage 2 zum Cf. 161-170. u. op. Phys. Text in matematiche e fisiche. Two similar texts of the twelfth century are printed op. cit. pp. The preparation of these two separate texts by the same writer is significant. a briefer treatise than either of Gerbert's works. Bulletino di Bibliografia e di storia delle scienze X. in the twelfth century composed a similar work. fiir Math. those which in their day were considered famous. cit. 831-836. 99-110. 843-848 For other abacists of the twelfth and Giinther op. is the author of a Liber de Abaco. op. de la France. Cf. 643-647. find many printed editions of these. For other abacists of the period pp.io2 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts works of the abacists. 4 Text Boncompagni. the author of the treatise computus. 3 on Johannes De Garlandia. seq. Giinther. It forms one of a collection of seven /. century. 2. so editions of works on the old abacal system continued in use long after the triumph of the Algorists. and the new Arabian school. 593-607. but avowedly based upon them. c. p. 92-106. need however be mentioned here. Nagl in Supplement to Zeit. 3 Hist. 2 we (2) Rudolph of Laon. 330-340. Hermannus Contractus. Cantor.

. Algorithm de Numero Indorum. brings us almost into the midst of the later univerAlthough the Quadrivium was merged into the gensity era. (5) the combined use of symbols and numbers (in reality a combination of algebra and arithmetic. The transition between the period of the only gradually. i translated literature of the the following : well-known Hindu-Arabian arithmetic of mathematicians of the twelfth century (i) Adelhard of Bath. 119. cit. Beitrage etc. both theoretical and practical. who wrote Regula Abaci about To him also is ascribed the Cambridge anonymous ms. yet arithmetic. (4) the entire discarding of the abacus.Arabic system of notation. 132-139. quantum of knowledge of the The characteristics of the subject. p. fur. as these terms and (6) the introduction into Western are understood today) Europe of a vast amount of arithmetical material from the East . The fantastic treatment of the properties of numbers is still common in this age. XXV. by means of Latin translations from Arabian sources. I. Math. p. Thus the beginning of the thirteenth century marks the introduction of the Arabian system of notation and its adoption in place of both the Roman notation and This fundamental revolution was brought about the abacus. Trattati di Aritmetica pp. 1-23. For a fragment of his work on multiplication and division vide Zeit. op. 2 Texts. (3) the use of the zero. consideration of The the third. of course. While the general tendency of this period was to approach the study of arithmetic from its practical and scientific sides. (2) the system of local value. 91-134 and Boncom- pagni. Boncompagni. u. pp. GENERAL CHARACTER OF MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE. Cajori.The Seven Liberal Arts 103 THE THIRD PERIOD. was studied more than in the This was. XIV. 1130. and that of the algorism can be traced in the abacus. the algoristic period arithmetic. Supplementhef t pp. 2 1 Cantor. due to the increase in the earlier period. Bullettino etc. 338. Phys. . algoristic arithmetic are: (i) the use of the Hindu. the mystical aspects of the subject so popular in the earlier periods are by no means neglected. eral course offered under the faculty of arts.

Supplementheft. who. 853. A similar text of an algorismus from a monastery near Regensberg. Konig. Zeitsch. composed (5) about the year 1 200 in South Germany. that in the history of arithmetical all mathematical studies. XLIII. H. 1-16. 25-136. the early years of the there thirteenth century are truly epoch making. Text. pp. zu Gottingen. pp." XXI. however. composed before the rise of the universities and during the period of the decline of the monastic and cathedral schools.io4 (2) The Seven Liberal Arts Abraham Ibn Ezra. X. prepared anAlgorismus. Trattati d'Aritmetica pp. 4 These transitional works. Phys. pp. Curtze in Zeitsch. as well as of It is true. 5 seit dem n ten J. cannot be taken as Their consideration theretypical text books of our period. of this work vide M. Wustenfeld "Die Ubersetzungen Arabischer Werke in das Lateinische Abhand. u. in the latter part of the twelfth century. composed in the same century is edited by M. the introduction into lations Europe of this new knowledge produced two different effects: and extension as applied to commerce. d.* (4) Gerard of Cremona. Gesel. who. fore need not detain us. The first resulted in an extraordiin the practical aspects of arithmetic and of nary development (i) its utilization 1 For a critique Bd. whose treatise on arithmetic his was written (3) i early in the twelfth century. cit. while establishing the historical sequence in this particular study. f. s In the field of arithmetic. . fur. op. Boncompagni. Math. They only served one admirable purpose they introduced the Hindu-Arabian system among the mathematicians of Europe. Math. Steinschneider in Zeit. 50-96. Bd 20-38." 2 XXV. 3 Cantor. for after that time was a constant stream throughout the century of trans- and adaptations of both Arabian and Greek mathematical books. 4 For text and critique vide Cantor. etc. John 1140 composed Algorismus. I. 59-128. nevertheless. and thus paved the way for the later works. passim. supplementheft pp. IViss. and (2) the adoption of the Arabian system of notation in the academical study of mathematics. 1-23. about of Seville. esp. etc. The existence of these manuscripts shows that even in the declining days of the monastic schools some of them at least kept pace with the advance in arithmetical knowledge..s The brief anonymous work on algorism. p.

. of Europe. Oxford. 3 general history of mathematics. popular and traders us here treatise are. Paris. a work on the theory of numbers. Cantor. p. Venice.* sentative of this tendency merchant. 3 Ibid. cit. cit. }iir. II. The introduction into the universities was obviously of the study of arithmetic as a science of the greatest importance. cit. 86.The Seven Liberal Arts 105 portions of algebra in the commercial centres of Italy. Math. i The chief repre- was Leonard of Pisa. Dresden. pp. Thorn. op. Vienna. /. a brief elementary on practical computations. u. the son of a His voluminous Liber Abaci composed in 1202. of . All business methods being rigidly excluded. Vorlesungen etc.. op. 6 Printed in 1514. Munich. in Zeit. A. Erfurt. no. we have in these works the material exactly suited for the academic study of the subjects 1 Giinther. p. has found manuscripts of Jordanus at Basle. presented to the world an amount of practical and theoretical knowledge of arithmetic and algebra which may be considered remarkable. 2 Cantor. Best text edited by Treutlein. 5 Printed in 1534. 4 Cantor. Here also a great representative writer can be named. 49-61. 16. Cantor. op. it need not be considered here. Phys. cit. Rome. pp. 4 (i) among the merchants Nemorarius's treatises which concern Algorithmus Demonstrates. Cf. a treatise on algebra. In spite of its importance from the standpoint of the Italy. 3-35. Unger. 127-166. Jordanus Nemorarius. Supplementheft. 8 The first work mentioned is a brief treatise on practical arithmetic. Bd. cit. England and Germany during the next three centuries. 10. op This work was for a long time wrongly ascribed to A. 167. c. Cantor. But the influence of his book on the study of arithmetic in the universities was not perceptible even in his own country. 6 (3) De Numeris Their abstract and scientific Datis. Die Methodik der practischen Arithmetik pp. op. s (2) Arithmetica Demonstrata. and many places in Southern Germany. p.. cit. 205. II. De Morgan. did as much to make the science of arithmetic acceptable within the tradition-worshipping mediaeval schools as did Leonardo of Pisa to make that convenient accomplishment. Cf. a Dominican monk. De Morgan. Bd.? character is fully established by the fact that general symbols are used. 7 p. even from the standpoint of our modern age. 131-141. p. op. Cambridge. Regiomantus. 216 et seq. XXXVI. pp. II. F. II. 1-33.

The representative character of this book helped to fix this classification. numbers. degree in 1366 mention vaguely "that the student attend lectures on some mathematical of Nevertheless. radicum extractio. polysolids. of prime and perfect numbers. cit. some fifty-seven pages. duplicatio. Here. there was in the faculty of arts a chair in arithA course on the "algorism de minutiis et integris. A. Turning then to these records we find the following typical At Paris. then. likely taught before 1366. . is devoted to a consideration of the two kinds of the "minutiae philosophicae " or "minutiae physicae" i. third work solutions involving simple quantities. I. as Cantor (op. There are in addition a few pages on proportion." or common fractions. explaining the Arabic system of notation. mediatio.io6 The Seven Liberal Arts 2. II. Considerable space. which we find so often in the popular arithmetical books both in Europe and England. The second work is of an altogether different character. In its treatment of the former the book is especially full." metic. and the "minutiae vulgares. about divisio. conditions: The requirements for the M. where mathematics was cultivated much more than at Paris. proportions and similar overrefined as in the work of Boethius. and the methods of operation. relations of numbers. from the fact that Sacrobosco. it may be assumed that books. SCOPE.. subtractio. the author an algorism based on Jordanus.. redundant numbers. however. p. numbers are treated very much in the same way There is. i consists of four books of problems in algebra and arithmetic with and quadratic equations of one or more unknown Proportion is also involved in the problems. mathematics was very much neglected. classifications." i at least the material contained in the was most ferred to. note i. two-fifths of the entire work. The ten books treat successively of the properties of gonal numbers. of>. the astronomical fractions. which Western Europe possessed at suggests itself: After this survey of the field of arithmetical knowledge this time. 61 et seq. the question How much of this material was actually An examination of used in the teaching of arithmetic? the records of arithmetical instruction in the universities should give the answer. Rashdall. the date arithmetic of Jordanus of record re- In Bologna. 437. a distinctive scientific value to the work: It is tht The first book to use letters as general symbols instead of concrete numbers. e.) has pointed out. Among the latter the author includes the following nine: numeratio. cit. lectured on mathematics at the University of Paris before 1256. multiplicatio. additio. fractions. p. progressio.

the elements of arithmetic. Even disputations on mathematical subjects were held there. "Algorismode minutiis"." which. pp 137-168 passim. op.'U When we consider the care that was taken to avoid competition by the duplication of courses we may assume that courses were given on elementary and theoretical arithmetic and algebra the subject matter of Jordanus's work. i. p. p. cit. 209. A. 3 The University of Vienna was throughout its career in the middle ages as renowned in mathematics as was Paris in philosophy. 140. While data relating to the study of arithmetic at Vienna could therefore not be taken as typical of the conditions obtaining at other universities. 77 as quoted in Rashdall. 56 and p. (2) there " . II. A. I. 249. 2 Cantor. 442 note 3. The statutes of the University of Prague for the year 1367 " require for the M.The Seven Liberal Arts the material of 107 Dentonstratus. It appears that there were then grades of compensation paid to the lecturer for different kinds 1 The same Rashdall. Evidently this provision refers to the study of some such book as Sacrobosco's. Geschichte der Wiener Universitat im Ersten Jahrhundert ihres Bestehens. Jordanus's i Algorithmus was definitely prescribed. . and Arithmetica. that is. the information connection with the The lecture schedule for the 1391-1399 shows that (i) different sets of lectures on: were given at Vienna "Algorismus de Integris". * At the same the elements of practical university. . cit. Prag. is further emphasized in the records of the conditions in the fifteenth century. nevertheless in we possess on the subject when taken is other evidence years illuminating. according to a schedule of lectures for that year could be learned in three weeks. degree the study of some arithmetic. from J. Univ. the "Algorismus" and the "Arithmetica Accurata" were studied. arithmetic. op. 3 Mon. the theoretical. (4) "Astronomical fractions" (5) "arithmetica et proportiones" (6) "arithmetica. . op. " (3) Computus physicus practical distinction between the Algorismus. I. Other records show that at this university. Aschbach. p. p. we find among the rethat is. quirements for the M. degree the Algorismus. Obviously the distinction here is between the elements of practical and of theoretical arithmetic. Vide ibid. 4 Compiled by Giinther. cit..

cf. II. of the contents of arith- Having determined the character metical text books of this period. we may proceed to an examination of the texts used at the universities. 438-443. Vol. Cf. Oxford. which was founded in 1389 on the Paris plan. op. 357. This fact re-enforces the argument that the algorismus instruction was only an introductory subject. op. cit. degree. Padua and Pisa. 210. is that of the English. cit. Most significant perhaps is the fact that in the University of Cologne. Gesell. II. Again it seems significant that the honorarium for lectures on arithmetic was equal to the compensation for the same number on a kindred theoretical mathematical study music. II. Hankel. the requirements for the M. op. Giinther. ' ' Anlage II. Bd. 174 et seq. (i) First among all widely used of 1 for these in importance since it was the most some three centuries. 2 Giinther. the same conditions prevailed. 211 p. p. p. cit. Sachs. degree in 1398 are identical with those of Vienna 3 Conditions substantially similar to those described existed at Erfurt. op. 215. all of it was prescribed for TEXT BOOKS. Koln. op. p. Class. the daughter of Prague. 3. 442. we are justified in inferring that the scientific knowledge of arithmetic at that time was fully represented in the university instruction and nearly graduation in the M. cit. Cantor. cit. and even in the Italian universities. Hist.. der Wiss. Hankel." Die Alte Univ. The evidence produced indicates pretty clearly the scope of the instruction in arithmetic in the European universities. " Statua Facultatis Artium. der Kon. At Leipzig the Algorism. Vide " Tabula pro gradu Baccalauriatus" in Zarncke "Die Urkiindlichen Quellen zur Geschichte der Univ. Arithmetica lectures were the amount of the lectures on the "Algorism. Heidelberg.. Leipzig. Freiburg." worth twice though the number of lectures required in both courses was the same. Cantor. 357. A. could be "heard" from a Bachelor. 862. etc. pp. p. op. A. cit. p. 3 Vide De Bianco. 140. Phil. where the work of Leonardo had no influence even in the fifteenth century. 2 i The " " At Leipzig. Since the material of this instruction was apparently identical of Pisa with the contents of the three described books of Jordanus Nemorarius. Abhandl.io8 of lectures The Seven Liberal Arts on arithmetic. but no other mathematical subject. .

Cf. New York. The character of the work readily determines It was simply used as a guide its place in the curriculum. a text from which the elements of arithmetic were taught of theoretical before the beginning of the arithmetic. Phys. 13. other writers did for his other gorismus two theoretical works. critically edited and annotated. De Morgan. the work of Jordanus being too hard because of its symbolic notation. cit. 442. cit. cit. same way Nicolas Oresmus. known as Sacrobosco. Venice 1523. 4 Text. A. 3 Sacrobosco and Bradwardinus. Supplementheft pp. in Zeitsch. and 1502 p. Cf. 176 et seq. cit. 1 made His Algorismus Proportionum* was unmistakably First printed in Paris 1496. 211-222. pp. p. Manuscript Copy XSIQ H74. pp. Al- gorismus domini Joannes de Sacrobosco. p. Among other titles which this work bore are Opusculum de praxi numerorum quod algorismum -vacant.The Seven Liberal Arts 109 De man. a student. p. cit. n. op. A. one of which by Petrus Philomen de Dacia is described by Cantor. in 1495 p. 90 and Giinther op. 3 Printed at Paris II. John Holy wood. of available Jordanus's arithmetical and algebraic material. 2 (2) more pretentious study Sacrobosco did to introduce Jordanus's Althe universities. II. The respectively. contains the rules of arithmetic without fractions the demonstrations or illustrations. Cf. Rashdall. whose A riihmetica Speculativa covered the ground advanced arithmetic of Jordanus. note 3. It was the text book of the lectures on proportion at most of the Universities.. The work is in fact barely than an explanation ~of the nine operations of arithmetic as laid down by Jordanus. Die Mathematischen . XIII. Curtze. p. F r a brief summary of Oresmus's didactic and other mathematical works. were the adapters In the Jordanus's practical and theoretical arithmetic.. a teacher at the University of Paris. op. The rules of multiplication are given in verse. and Vienna op. u. in the middle of the fourteenth century. treatise on proportion was abridged by Albert of Saxony towards the close of the fourteenth century. 14. Giinther. vide M. 167. Library of Columbia University. I. op. 2 This is evident from the existence of commentaries on Sacrobosco's work. then. One of these is Thomas Bradwardinus into of the (3) What (1290-1349). 113. De Morgan. and more are omitted altogether. especially the portions dealing with fractions and the syncopated algebra. Cantor. note 2. Paris 1511. fur Math. whose Tractatus Arte Numerandi or Algorismus was reprinted a number of It is but an excerpt from Jortimes under various names. and later. 65-73. cit. op. i It danus's Algorismus Demonstrates.

3. it was undoubtedly the text book on the subject of proportion at the 1 German universities. 183. work are logically arranged. op. still extant show its wide use. another French mathematician of the century. op. p. A. Cantor. Gunther. by the large number of editions in existence was a standard work on theoretical arithmetic. The numerous mss.i io The Seven Liberal Arts based on the work of Jordanus. Vorlesungne 177. the second gives concrete illustrations and problems applying the rules. II. De Morgan. The first treats of the definitions of fractions in which all the rules are given in symbolic terms. p.? (6) Johann von was widely used in activity of Johann book was due to Peuerbach's Algonsmus "for the student" Germany in the generation following the von Gmunden. op. Gunther. The essential similarity of this work to that of Bradwardinus Tractatus de Proportionibus may be noticed as showing the identical use by these two contemporaries of the same original three books of the The source 2 Jordanus. had been turn on the Johann von taught at Vienna from 1412 to 1417. i . p.* (5) Johann von Gmunden's Tractatus De Minutiis is the typical text book used in the German univerPhysicis The author. while the third book deals with geometrical proportions. specialty. labored to simplify Boethius and Jordanus. and on astronomical fractions his Gmunden own "Tractatus de Minutiis Phisicis. That treatise is more than a mere work on fractions and proportions. Cf. tit. The popularity of this the fact that its author was famous Johann von Gmunden at the University as the successor of Schriften des Nicolas Oresmus. was the first is attested It teacher in Europe who lectured on mathematics it as a Before his time. was based on these authors. cit." In his On integral lectures he used the texts popular in his day. p. both the "Algorismus de Integris" and the "De Minutiis. u. (4) i John De Muris. 232 et seq. the custom to have the professors lecture in different subjects in their respective faculties. n. as is well known. note Cf. Its wide use now.". 137. His Arithmetica Speculative. cit. Like the work of Bradwardinus. Cantor. . II. A. on fractions some current commentator on Jordanus. arithmetic he read Sacrobosco. famous professor at the University of Vienna. cit. p. in his day a sities during the fifteenth century. De Morgan. op. etc. Cf. 3 Printed in 1515. In fact in the use of fractional exponents Oresmus marks an advance on his source.

4 In the present chapter the aim has been not only to present a brief account of the character and scope of the instruction in arithmetic as one of the studies in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts. pp."3 These lectures. cit. p. Apparently at this time they still followed the special path of what may be called academic i arithmetic. degree. p. 4 In the beginning of the sixteenth century it was customary to publish For a arithmetical treatises containing all these separate treatises in one. . Boncompagni. op. were evidently given as an extra course or to help students to "brush up. This tendency explains the significance of a notice relating to Heidelberg for the year 1443. Vide Favaro in Bulletins etc.. but also to give the reader an insight into the nature of the evidence on which the writer has based the views stated in the introductory paragraphs. for which fees were charged. 60. 3 Quoted in Rashdall. whose work it aimed to supplant. op. u. in all respects similar to that of Sacrobosco. I. 2 For the other Printed in 1492 as Opus Algorithms Jucundissimum.n. 1 the inquiry has clearly established editions vide Giinther. description of some of these vide A. cit. T. As a text book the treatise was an improvement on Sacrobosco. 440 note 3. in 1410. This text. De Morgan.The Seven Liberal Arts 1 1 1 of Vienna. lectured on the subject at Padua. Although at times the varied and elusive character of the data gathered still almost defied analysis. cit. 2 With the advance in the knowledge of universal arithmetic the term applied to algebra there was a tendency. shows that even by the middle of the fifteenth century the universities of Italy had not been influenced by the work of Leonardo of Pisa. We may close our examination of the text books of (7) this period with the mention of the Algorismus de Integris of Prosdocimo de Beldemandi. 237 and A. to put the elementary arithmetic and proportion outside of the course of requirements for the M. XII. op. towards the end of the fifteenth century. cit. p. Published in 1483 and 1540 at Padua. op. The study "Algorism" and "De Proportionibus is there put in a class of electives "quos non oportet scholares formaliter in scolis ratione alicuius gradus audivisse. who." Thus the requirements in arithmetic at the universities had appreciably risen since the days of " of the fourteenth century. De Morgan. A. 10.

that this teaching. since it kept pace with the increase in the knowledge of the subject. . when the scholastic education had outlived its usefulness. was progressive in character. did arithmetic cease to be a subject of study in the arts faculties of the mediaeval universities.12 the historical continuity of the study of arithmetic in the scheme of mediaeval higher education. that the teachers of arithmetic in the schools were often the famous mathematicians of their day. There can be no doubt that their at all times mediaeval schools taught all that respective generations knew of arithmetic. and that at no time. not even in the barren generations at the close of the middle ages.

Neglected by the Romans. it can hardly be wondered that no geometry worthy of the name of a science was transmitted to the early middle ages. the location of historical places.The Seven Liberal Arts 113 CHAPTER VIII. Cassiodorus and Isidore of Seville. Leipzig 1875. (3) rise of (2) The era between Gerbert and the thirThe era from the thirteenth century to the Humanism. I. . In the preceding chapter a detailed analysis was given of the general character of the instruction in the Quadrivium. Vorlesungen ischen Agrimensoren und etc. to the end of the tenth century. Capella's text is for the most part a brief statement of geography. In this chapter then it only remains for us to indicate the approximate amount of knowledge of the subject at the various periods. As in the case of arithmetic. and some kindred facts. p. But the same general conespecially as regards arithmetic. who cared only for its practical application. Geometry. Only at the end of the work do we find a few definitions i Cantor. and that the scope of the instruction expanded pari passu with every increase of geometrical knowledge. tion. a knowledge of geometry in our sense of the term hardly existed Up In fact the term seems to have been used meaning and not in the sense the Greeks understood it. Vol. teenth century. three periods of geometrical teaching in the middle ages may be distinguished: (i) The era before Gerbert. FIRST PERIOD. books in use till the time of Gerbert proves this asserThese were those of Capella. We may assume that geometry was very generally taught in both the pre-university and the university periods. and to give a brief description of the text books used. clusions there reached apply also to geometry. 522. surveying. the age of Gerbert. More in detail Cantor Die Romihre Stellung in der Geschichte der Feldmesskunst. i The character of the geometin in its etymological rical text Western Europe.

ii4
of lines,

The Seven Liberal Arts

triangles, quadrangles, the circle, the pyramid, the There is nothing in his work of geometry properly so i Cassiodorus's chapter is no called, or even of surveying, Isidore of Seville's treatment is similar. 3 better. 2 Though these were apparently the only text books on geometry in use up to the time of Gerbert, it is undoubtedly

cone.

true that a knowledge of the method of approximately computing the area of a triangle, quadrilateral and circle had come down to the middle ages through the works of the "Gromatici"

the surveyors, of the later Roman empire. 4 But if the mathematical science of geometry was neglected, geography and cosmography were introduced to supply the As available material for these subjects was abundeficiency.

books

Most of the twenty were devoted to Natur-kunde.s Rabanus Maurus's De Universo was another compilation of similar character. 6 Compendia based on the geographical works of Pliny and others were used in large numbers during this
dant, they were assiduously cultivated.
of

Isidore's Etymologiae

period and references to the study of these works as a part of the quadrivium are very common. 7

SECOND PERIOD.
Passing to the time of Gerbert
paratively speaking,

we

through Gerbert's books on geometry and through his discovery of the "codex arcerius," a morsel of Euclidian geometry and some fragments of the works of eminent surveyors of the later Roman Empire came to be used in the schools of Christendom. But neither in quantity nor in quality was this newly discovered geometrical knowledge
geometrical knowledge. "find" of the copy of
Boethius's
1

very important In this period,

find a small, but comincrease in the stock of

De Nuptiis

etc.,

Eyssenhardt ed. pp. 194-254.

2

Text, Migne, Vol.

3 Text, Migne, Vol.

LXX, c. 1212-1216. LXXXII, c. 161-163.
312 et seq.

4

Cf.

Hankel, op.
/.

cit.

Gunther, op.

cit.

1

14.

5 Gunther,

c.

6

De
E.

Uni-verso Libri Vigintiduo, Migne,

CXI,

c.

9-612 passim esp. Libri

VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
7
g.

Fez, Tkcs. Ill,
/.

3,

630.

For similar references vide Specht, 143-149.
cit.

8 Cf. Specht,

c.;

Gunther, op.

73 et seq., 115 et seq.

The Seven Liberal Arts

115

The alleged Boethian work which Gerbert very valuable. The first is based entirely on of two books. found consists of the "enunciations" of Books I and Euclid and consists III, including definitions, axioms and scholiae; of some of the propositions of Books III and IV, and of the complete proofs
i

of the first three propositions of

Book

1.

These, in the words

ad enodatioris inaccessum quasi quibusdam graditus perducatur." telligentiae The second book consists of calculations of areas of geometrical figures. These, Chasles thinks, are based almost entirely on the works of the Roman gromaticus, Frontinus. * Comparing this amount of geometrical knowledge with the
of the author, are given
lectoris

"ut animus

traditional text of Euclid as transmitted

by Theon, we

find

that Boethius's geometry consists of the Euclidian definitions, the theory of triangles and quadrilaterals, and of some theories In addition to this we find his own of the circles and polygons.
original demonstrations

To of the following problems: (i) construct an equilateral triangle on a given length; (2) To draw from a given point a straight line of a given length; (3) To cut off a smaller line from a larger one.
Gerbert
it

appears came into possession of
of Boethius

all

the available

scraps of geometrical knowledge,
1

both theoretical and practical,
have
for years formed a"StreitThe fact that between the

frage"
first

The geometrical works among the historians

of mathematics.

and the second book in the oldest Boethian manuscript in existence dating from the tenth century, the use of "apices," the abacus and columnal multiplication and division are explained, has started the controversy as to
the origin of the abacus and the introduction of what we call the Hindu- Arabian notation. In this controversy, the foremost historians of mathematics,
of others of less renown,
of

Kastner, Chasles, Martin, Friedlein, Weissenborn and Cantor, to say nothing have taken sides, some of them going to the extreme

denying Boethius's authorship of the two books in geometry. The weight of authority (Cantor, Vorlesungen etc, I., 540-551) seems to confirm Boethius as the author of the geometrical portion of the manuscript. On the point, however, with which we are concerned, all are agreed. For whether the original works attributed to Boethius are his own or the works of some anonymous author, certain it is that these two books on geometry were not
used
till

Gerbert's time.
cols.

Text of the Boethian geometry

in Migne, Pat. Lat.

LXIII,

1307-1364.

The latest 2 Chasles, Geschichte der Geometric, Sohncke's trans, p. 524. comparison of the sources of Boethius is made by Weissenborn, Zeit. f. Math, u. Phys. Vol. 24, 1879, and supports the opinion that Boethius used an excerpt
from Euclid and not the
original.

n6
and

The Seven Liberal Arts
t

this material formed the basis of his own work on geometry, His text book has not impressed scholars as being of any originality, and may be taken to represent the sum total of geometrical instruction in the schools before the end of the

thirteenth century. Gerbert's book and works of a similar character soon replaced in a large measure the geography and cosmography, which for the want of any real knowledge of geometry,

had passed under that name up

to Gerbert's time.

*

THIRD PERIOD.

As
turies

in the case of arithmetic, the twelfth

and thirteenth cen-

form the transition period in the development of the study As one would expect, the complete geometry of of geometry. Euclid was one of the many mathematical works which, in the form of translations from Arabian sources, reached Western Europe during this period. As a matter of course this increase of geometrical knowledge was very soon appropriated by the universities and made a part of the amplified course in geometry.

who

the Englishman, Adelhart of Bath, 20 translated Euclid from the Arabian text, and of Gerhard of Cremona who in 1188 made another translation, 3

After the labors of
in
1 1

a knowledge of Euclidian geometry may be said to have been It was then that the fairly introduced in Western Europe.

geometrical works of Boethius and Gerbert were entirely discarded in the universities. This left the purely theoretical side of the science as a subject of the curriculum. We have sufficient evidence that Euclid, as adapted in such

works

as

the

De

Triangulis

of

Jordanus Nemorarius, was
till

taught throughout the university period
1

the Renaissance. 4

Text

in

Bubnov,

Gerberti opera
cit.

Mathematica pp. 48-97.
Cantor, op.
cit. I,

2 Cf. Giinther, op.

p.

115 et seq;

809-824; Gow,
ist.

op.

cit.

pp. 205-206.

3 Cf.
ed. Paris,

Jourdain, Recherches sur
1819, p. 100.

les

Traductions Latines D'Aristote,

Hankel, op. cit. p. 335. Cf. Weissenborn, in Zeit. This work passed u. Phys. vol. XXV, supplementheft pp. 141-166. f. Math. throughout the next century as an original translation of Euclid by Giovani

Campani, and was the first of the Latin editions of Euclid to be published, in 1482. For reference to Gerhard, vide Ball, op. cit. p. 172. 4 For text of Nemorarius vide Curtze's ed., Thorn, 1887. Cf. Cantor, op. cit. I, pp. 670, 852 notes i and 2.

237. Bologna. op. 4 The same statement may be made in regard to the study of perspective. the lists clude five or six i later its lack of interest in mathematics. to which the author refers and quotes. 182. Add to this the numbers (the contents of the seventh. Geschichte der Mathematik I. 4 Cf. 2 Kastner. Rashdall. not the first three as is generally assumed. eighth. p. Vide Kollar Statiia Universitatis. s centuries. the theorems of the circle. Geschichte der Elementar-Mathematik Gunther.The Seven Liberal Arts Nearly all 117 of requirements for the M. the Origin and Early History o} Universities. Additional courses on the theory given in of coordinates were the universities in the fourteenth and fifteenth way This advanced geometrical teaching prepared the development of the analytical geometry of Descartes in the sixteenth century. as quoted in Mullinger. cit. 210. op. 351. 211. The University 0} Cambridge. Padua. of similarity of figures. 442. 356 et seq. I. Hankel. Tropfke. 199. 3 for the 1 Cf. p. Vieniensis I. op.. p. Vienna. proportion exlowing of geometrical minimum The theory of plained geometrically. and we are forced to the conclusion that a fairly complete knowledge of plane Geometry was imparted as a part of the Quadrivium. pp.. Pisa and Cologne invariably demanded that Even the university of Paris.. 209 et seq. required in the middle ages the full six books of Euclid. which was rather examount. expressly say "five . II. op. which was studied as a part of the theoretical arithmetic. Prague. cit. 281. I. cit. et seq. (Abelard and the Euclid of Boethius was taught at the universities is erroneous the statutes of Vienna for 1389. 217. and Tractatus de Uniformitate et Deformitate Inten- sionum. pp. cit.) that only books of Euclid." Obviously then this cannot mean the Boethian geometry which consisted of only two books. 3 This subject was developed by Nicholas Oresmus in his Tractatus de Latitudinibus Formarum. 5 Gunther. 215. 181. Leipzig. A. ther. a It is therefore certain that the university candidate for the degree in arts mastered the fol- ceptional in knowledge of the Euclidian text: and quadrilaterals. the various triangles applications of the Pythagorean theory to a large number of constructions. theory ninth and tenth books of Euclid).e. GtinThe statement of Compayre 199. the theorems of the inscribed and circumscribed polygons. . . 260. 407. degree inbooks of Euclid. on which at some universities lectures were given as a part of the Quadrivium. 250.

cit. p. cit. 3 into the mediaeval ideas curriculum. 2 Giinther.1 1 8 The Seven Liberal Arts Western even in geometry can be seen from the works original speculation of Leonardo of Pisa. op. p. 1 Cantor. E. pp. Cajori. 3 This is charged by Hankel. p. op. probably. D. Phys. 4 it would seem unreasonable to expect that the mediaeval universities institutions in an age worshipping tradition should have been in their age more ready to discard Euclid than are our schools today. op. not find their way But this neglect to to incorporate them into the curriculum can hardly be cited as a proof of the perfunctory interest of the time in the mathematical teaching. Curtze in Zeitsch. 182. 56-64. cit. 162. Ball. and Thomas Bradwardinus's Geometria Speculative. notes . and Compayre. 1237). Practica Geometria (1220). 229. Jordanus Nemorarius's De Triangulis (c. 35-40. 79-104. "Teaching of Elementary Mathematics" R. marking did as they do a departure from Greek modes. 73-86. f. 2 assimilate the new and Since even in our time. W. Cf. (^1327). and 2. II. All of these productions are acknowledged to merit high scientific standing even today. "History of Mathematics". 134. p. XIII. 349. and of Oresmus' Tractatus De Latitudine Forarum. after five centuries of phenomenal development in geometrical studies. 128-137. Math. u. Vorlesungen etc. Bd..' That the old Greek mathematics introduced through the into Europe Arabian influences stimulated It is true. Smith. supplementheft pp. op. the question as to the value of Euclid as a text book is still an open one. pp. 113-118. p. 4 Cf i . that these last named works. cit.

Throughout the middle ages astronomy was perhaps the most popular subject of the Quadrivium. Astronomy. CVII. A. cols. characterized astrology as the "foolish daughter of astronomy. the every day life of man was more affected 1 ' by the practical side of the subject than it is today. it was deeper astronomical problems involved should also be studied. Popular interest in celestial motions was obviously greater in the epoch of the sun dial than it is in the age of the watch and the com- Besides. "i The importance of the problem of calculating Easter was likewise a factor^" stimulating an interest in astronomy. 82. In the first place. p. degree in most of the universities. "The Philosopher. where in the ninety-six chapters we find fully forty-two chapters containing purely astronomical material in no way related to the Easter problem. again. While the computation itself could have been made in a purely mechanical way." had the written a work on the^ schoolmen the fact that Aristotle himself was the author of a work on astronomy must have appeared for the retention of the subject in a cogent reason the curriculum of the arts faculty. aise helped to promote the study of astronomy. It is therefore no wonder that Aristotle's De Ccelo should have formed a part of the. . is 2 A striking instance the Liber de Compute. Again. vol. The reasons are not far to seek. in the beginning of the seventeenth century. it was intimately connected with at least two other subjects of the Quadrivium arithmetic and geometry. of Rabanus Maurus. the peculiar mediaeval attachment to astrology Brpass. 669-726. as a matter of fact in the operation material but remotely connected with computus proper found its way into these books. The great Keppler himself. The potency of this influence can hardly be over-estimated. Geschichte der Astronomic. the harmony of the geocentric doctrine with 1 To Quoted in Wolf.^ regular requirements for the M. 2 inevitable that the Then heavens." and he added that "but for the existence of the daughter the mother would have perished of hunger. Vide text in Migne.The Seven Liberal Arts 119 CHAPTER IX. Lastly.

215. 64. op. The general conclusions as to the instruction in arithmetic and geometry apply with greater force to astronomy. that in order to keep up with the advance of the subject improved astronomical tables were continually produced. Thomas Aquinas. Suter. cit.. Summa Vol. H. 73. I. made to the mind of the mediaeval student. 146 et seq. Part III. Wolf. cit. p. 65-95. IV. op. 3 H. Erfurt. 210. There is abundant evidence to show that in the pre-university period the teaching was fully up to the standard of the actual astronomical knowledge of the age. 77. i. 3 1 E. especially pp. and Theology.120 The Seven Liberal Arts the theological dogmas of the agei must have powerfully stimuIn an age lated the study of astronomy in the middle ages. that the number of eminent astronomical teachers and writers was large. Vienna. 7. pp. and Ingolstadt. even though the science was still in the stage of infancy. Qu. during the thirteenth. table of lists of lectures in the Faculty of Arts at Prague. 117. in Barnard.. 197-218. 159. 70 quoted in White's Warfare of Science I. A. cit. the idea of universality in Church and State dominated man's mind. fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. Cf. Die Mathematik auf den Universitdten des M. 184-190. 89.. pp. passim.* that during the university period amount of advanced teaching in astronomy was very great. I. II. 113-146 treats of the advanced astronomical work at the . gives an extended account of the teaching activity in elementary astronomy in all the important universities. how enticing must have been the study of a subThe fascination which the ject so universal in its character. 67. Sent. 199. and that original ideas in this field were not rare. that in the university period both elementary and advanced astronomy were required in nearly all the universities. 2 Pars. 79. 8. One would have to discard the traditional ideas of the culture of the middle ages before he could fully appreciate the importance of the fact that the manufacture and sale of astronomical instruments became no insignificant a trade towards the end of the fifteenth century. Giinther. op. g. Cf. cit. 6. Superior Instruction p. 217. Suter.. Giinther. With these causes at work we are not surprised to find a continued attention to the study of astronomy throughout the middle ages. Geschichte der Himmelskunde. op. 160. when marvels of modern science exercise over our age can hardly be compared in its influence with the appeal which the wonders of astronomy then. pp. Maedler. that all the Arabian material was assimilated. Peter Lombard.

1216-1218 3 It supposed that Isidore of Seville was the one whose ideas influenced the mediaeval world to adopt the Greek view of the sphericity of the earth. "* Cassiodorus's compendium of astronomy defines the (2) "lex astrorum" as the "disciplina quae cursus coelestium siderum et figuras omnes contemplatur et altitudines stellarum circa se et circa terramindagabili ratione however does not go beyond the mere nomical terms... 88-99. Migne. of the fifteenth centuries. pp. 3 of the space to a mere enumeration of the But he devotes one-third names of stars. of the fourteenth cit. His definitions are fuller and clearer. Cf. Hankel. 1 and the beginning etc. 296-330. the thirteenth to the FIRST PERIOD. pp. 2 (3) He percurrit." definition of a few astro- Isidore of Seville's treatment of the subject is more adequate than that of Cassiodorus. This chapter contains besides the obvious facts of elementary astronomy. we can again divide our period into three divisions: ist. I. the period ending with the twelfth censessed tury. . end op. notwithstanding the fact that such an opinion was contrary to the views held by the patristic theologians. century. In this period. the twelfth sixteenth century. 3rd. LXX cols. cit. White. is 2 vol. as we might expect.The Seven Liberal Arts 121 In respect to the quantity of astronomical knowledge posby the middle ages. Cf. Among the most noted of these text books. Defining astronomy in substantially the same terms. and a superstitious side. much allegorical material on the constellations. From a study is more than of this text a schoolboy would learn little contained in our school geographies under the pretentious title of "Mathematical Geography. Text De Nuptiis Text. that the amount of knowledge of mathematical astron- omy was meagre indeed. astrol- ogy he considers a part of astronomy. and the text books in use show. geocentric theory is significant. the following may be mentioned: (1) Capella's section in De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. op. 349. His enunciation of the. Eyssenhardt ed. having its scientific side(observation and study of the stars). zd. p. he widens its scope to include the study of the effect of the heavenly bodies on the earth.

. 979-1001. Lib. IX. s The effect of the works of Bede. X. 169-184. vol. vol. 293-578. LXXXII.. . Lib. cit. technical This of astronomical teaching in the schools minimum far exceeded the mere knowledge required included among many of the study 1 the to calculate Easter day. 403. partaking of the (6) twofold character of a treatise on the Computus and on astronomy. 114. V.* Isidore's text book on astronomy does not exhaust the material on the subject known to him. Cleric. De Cursu et Saltu Lunae ac (5) Bissexto was. the moon. note i. 4 Migne. Ch. text in Migne. VI. hist. XIII. cols. fully sustained the traditional interest in astronomy which the Venerable Bede and Alcuin had fostered. They contain in ample form all the material required for a complete mastery methods of Easter reckoning and of chronology. His De Universe has supra p. cols. 17. De Cf. Lib. These works are of intrinsic value even from the standpoint of modern criticism. Ch. XC. especially Lib. CVII. op. the belief that the course of the stars has an influence on the fortunes of man. Rabanus Maurus. 187-277. By adding to this considerable matter from the works of Pliny. XXVIII-XXXIX. Alcuin and Rabanus was to establish a minimum during this period. astronomical material. in convenient form abstracts 2 of Roman works on natural history. Other portions of the Etymologiae contain matter of cosIn these he preserved mological and cosmographical character. cols. CI. as its name shows. the stars Text. 8.122 The Seven Liberal Arts namely.4 Rabanus Maurus's Liber de Compute. 5 col. much text in Migne vol. limited in scope. (4) The Venerable Bede's De Natura Renim and De Temporum Ratione were the most important astronomical text books of the period. fame of the author account for its widespread use during many of the centuries. Ill. Migne. vol. It other kinds of astronomical information. 25. 3 Alcuin's popular treatise. and dealt only with the astronomy of the computtts. p. course of the sun. the Venera ble Bede really prepared a most useful treatise on astronomy and The timeliness of the book as well as the physical geography. p. 2 Ibid. and fully reflect the great erudition of this remarkable mediaeval scholar. 3Gunther.

The fact that astronomical instruments were not infrequently used. pp. op. Astronomicon of were much used in the schools of the pre-university period. the author Astronomicarum . it true nevertheless in that within a spirit these of limits there was a in wide interest its learning. 138. i To be sure much of this astronomical Lehrstoff betrayed the fantastic reasoning of an age in which tradition and the "littera not necessarily ecclesiastic was of more authority scrip ta" than individual observation. Books on astronomy Empire. cit. The Gerbert tradition is no one of the commonplace historical anecdotes. 201. acquisition which compared with some phases of the modern scientific spirit. Thesaurus Anecdotorum novissimus III. Hermannus Contractus wrote De Eclipsis and De Computo. The existence of such a text book at that time seems more significant of the temper of persistency can be fairly the age than the tradition so often cited to prove the ignorance of the middle ages that Gerbert's use of terrestrial and celestial spheres was in his day taken as a sure proof of his alliance with the 1 devil. schools went far this But the more prominent minimum. 75-78. cols. p. and that even in the be ginning of the eleventh century a text book was composed on the use of the astralobe. 93-100. Hermanni Cont racti nwnachi Augiensis de utilitatibus astrolobii libri II in Pez. Giinther. II. pp. 6 et seq. and the Catasterismi of Eratostenes. The work is: B. sufficiently indicate the character of the instruction in this subject. " fore the schools. Specht. such as the works et later the Phenomena Pr&gnostica of Aratus. 2 material. period three others of Among the minor astronomical text book writers of this may be mentioned: William of Hirschau. op. writings of the period vide Peschel. 192. Didaktik der Mathematischen Geographic. For other specific references to cosmological schichte der Erdkunde pp. and that therethe Pceticon Astronomicon of Manlius. cit. is no adequate theory of the planets was then taught in Granting the narrow limitations of the age. and Gunther. the Hyginus.The Seven Liberal Arts 123 and the changes of the season. Ge- 2 Cf. These text books contain a great deal of the varied Greek astronomical Several editions of each of the works mentioned were issued after the invention of printing. et seq. 202. It must be granted also that fragments only of the body of knowledge on which the Ptolemaic theory rested were known in Western Europe. viz: also a few other text books on astronomy. Pt. Vide Wolf. beyond famous in the days of the of the elder Seneca. p.

124 The Seven Liberal Arts SECOND PERIOD. nor could he use of astronomical tables without some preliminary instruction. p. 76-85. zu i Berry. Aristotle's De Coelo. the author (Vide Maedler. who wrote a De Camputation e of the De Orbibus Coelestibus. History of Astronomy. The needs of the hour from the standpoint of the mediaeval teacher were then. I. 193-200. and Clemens Langton. 146-149. Ball. Hirschau's work vide Prantl. Munchen. der Konigl. cit. a brief treatise introducing the pupil to the elements of astronomy. The need for such treatises was fully met. On William of Sitzungs. op. be made available for the young had to be worked over. 172. Temporum. which under the name of Almagest had found its way into Arabian schools of the east and west in the ninth and the succeeding centuries. the immature pupil could not be plunged into the study of But this material to Arabian or Aristotelian astronomy. is lation of Al Battani's version of Italy and Spain volumes upon volumes the Almagest. which the universities this time. for obviously university student. The demand for an elementary treatise on astronomy. In the field of astronomy the twelfth century was one of progress. op. I. Bd. Wolf. a succinct account for school use of the Ptolemaic theory. second. der Wissen. one that while suitable either the make much Institutiones (1080). was one of the first books translated from Arabic As early as 1116 Plato of Tivoli made a transinto Latin. i" From both of astronomical material found their way to other intellectual centres of Europe so that -''by the middle of the thirteenth century. some treatise on the use of the many astronomical instruments. op. Akad. Sibertus Gemblacensis. cit. 1-21. 203-208. cit.. op. cit. Bay. third. summarizing the astronomical knowledge of the Greeks. The elaborate treatise of Ptolemy. THIRD PERIOD. Giinther. 106). pp. the Arabic knowledge of astronomy was fully in the possession of Europe. The gradual assimilation during this period of what for a long time had been the lost knowledge of the world _x more marked in the case of astronomy than in the fields of arithmetic and geometry. . Such an increase sources of in astronomical material from Arabian made it supplemented by Europe possessed by possible to take up the study scientifically. first.

1578." the subject treated in Sacrobosco's book. it well fulfilled its function. Melanchthon's edition of 1531. p. quid axis sphaerae. edition annotated 2 by John De Muris. Paris 1500. Two Italian writers. quid sit polis mundi. et occasu signorum et de diversitate dierum et noctium et de divisione climatum. Wolf." as historic Libellus de Sphaera character of duction. Melanchthon. . be remembered that its use was only as an elementary introductory volume.The Seven Liberal Arts for school use should also 125 scholarship of the day. In quarto. was filled by the/ of Sacrobosco. Gerardo de Cremona. 1537. de circulis ex quibus sphaera materialis compositur et ilia super In tertio. The book fully illustrated. The Library of Columbia University. 3 As an introductory universities. has also the following printed editions of the work. a fact of which his laudatory introduction to an edition of the book in 1531 gives treatise of ample proof. The elementary indicated in the author's own intro~ - of this elementary book and wide use for over four centuries (some sixty different editions of the work have been found). Their works entitled Theorica Planetarum became standing require1 "Tractatum de sphaera quatuor capitulis distinguimus. 1 3 Vide note 2 p. Dicturi primo compositionem sphaerae. New York. 1564. It also possesses an interesting ms. and that in all the universities a course on the "sphaera. quid sit eius centrum. Venice 1490. and Giovanni Compani de Novarro. could not improve upon it. In secundo. . * its contents is embody the results of the "latest we would say. Wurtemberg. 20. de circulis et motibus planetarum et de causis eclipsium. 4 Vide Sacrobosco. quid sit sphaera. was invariably followed by an advanced course on theoretical astronomy. 1545. Even long after the triumph Humanism. J558." Libellus de Sphaera p. 4 In the thirteenth century the need also for an advanced text book on astronomy embodying the scientific claims of the Ptolemaic theory was fully met. * have often been cited to its The immense popularity disparage the It amount of astronomical teaching at the must.. quot sint sphaerae et quae sit forma mundi. 1550. however. Praefatio Melanchtonis. op. was composed about 1250 and was also known as De Sphaera Mundi and Sphaera Materialis. the prince of teachers of the Reformation. succeeded in compiling improved adaptations of the large number of existing imperfect Arabian editions of the Almagest. 209. i. op. cit. de ortu coelestis (quae peristam imaginatur) componi intelligitur. cit.

3 Summarizing the results of the investigation concerning the scope and character of the teaching of astronomy in the mediaeval curriculum. cit. When. readily the requirements in astronomy. pp. century. the use of the astrolobe and pp. where the history of planosphere is briefly traced. 3 Berry. an Oxford teacher of mathematics who died in 1253. 211. op. cit. Sacrobosco was the author of a popular De Astrolobio. Suter. op. 67. Vide Suter. cit. that is. cit. another author. and courses on astrology were generally given especially in Italy. also wrote a treatise. 2 The three different kinds of books on astronomy con- tinued in use in the universities throughout the fourteenth During this time. Wolf. cit. op. p. the mediaeval graduate in arts was required to have mastered texts treating of elementary and advanced astron- omy and of the use of astronomical instruments. 207-264. 76. the universities.126 Tlie Seven Liberal Arts ments universities and represented the advanced course for the M. degrees astronomical The third need. then. the demand for a text book on in- at the struments. Robert Capito. . astronomers famous in their generation. there existed the same desire to assimilate into the curriculum the new knowledge. op. 160-166. the following general conclusions may be stated: (i) The instruction in the subject continued throughout 1 Rashdall. 77. cit. while Pietro D'Abano was the author of an Astrolobium Planum. The Theorica Planetarum and the various epitomes of astronomy. 76. pp. op. pp. op. pp. 442. 87. De Astrolobio. had advanced the science by their perfected translation of the Almagest and by their improved astronomical tables. cit. 86. 250. 2 Suter. op. These books became texts of lecturers on the astrolobe or the planosphere in the universities. 77) 79i Giinther. as in the other subjects of the Quadrivium. pp. as we would say. evidently to meet the practical demand of ecclesiastics who formed such a large number of the student body. Wolf. therefore. which these writers composed were soon made the standard texts on the raised subject. I. A. 94. and eight decades of the fifteenth. In astronomy. Besides this theoretical treatment of astronomy two practical phases of the subject were taught: Lectures were given on the computus. towards the end of the fifteenth century Peuerbach and Regiomantanus. where the subject actually formed a part of the curriculum. was met by a number of writers. op. cit.

gave a the men of the time were acquainted. and actually supplied a good working hypothesis to account for all the phenomena with which was then unknown. The mediaeval student at gradua(4) tion possessed a knowledge not only of the elements of astronomy but also of the scientific basis of the astronomical theories then in vogue. .The Seven Liberal Arts 127 the period. (3) With every increase in the knowledge of astronomy the curriculum was broadened. since the use of the telescope satisfactory explanation of all the astronomical problems of the day. (5} These theories. and the newly acquired material was incorporated in the text books in use. (2V During the early middle ages the amount of instruction was not large and was confined chiefly to the teaching of methods of Easter reckoning.

I. Dissertation 1899. quantum inter grammaticum et simplicem lectorem . 25) was made in sarcasm. such as Hucbald. p. . The tendency of 1 Cf. is enauer Sangerschule untenable. William of Hirschau.. Studied as a purely speculative The science it was entirely mathematical in its character mastery of the subject did not require any special aptitude In fact throughout the middle ages the for the art of music. The music taught as one of the subjects of the Quadrivium was exclusively theoretical. the middle ages to class music as a theoretical science. The assertion of Williams (Story of Notation. I. pp.. Vide Brambach. op. has been carefully traced to Roman writers as Vide Schmidt. Ambros. (Gerbert. Scriptores de Musica. Regino of Prum. This idea as to what constituted a musician was not merely based on the dicta of the theoreticians like Boethius. Cf. took this same view. 38. 2 Among the of the influence of mooted questions in this field are the following: the extent Pope Gregory the Great on the development of the sothe extent of the original services of called traditional Gregorian music. 119 et seq. accept Aurelian's views as to the scope of music.* mediaeval conception of the function of music greatly simplifies the scope of our investigation. himself had no knowledge of the art of music. "Verhaltniss zwischen Musik theorie und Praxis im Mittelalter" in Die Reichetc. 73. Is vero "est musicus qui ratione per pensa scientiam canendi non servitio operis sed Vide Gerbert.. those who had labored to improve the methods of the needs of church service. "imperio assumpsit speculationis. or the performer on an instrument was not a musician singer This characteristic within the strict meaning of the term." Sacra. and Guido of Arezzo. As it was only with the Renaissance that the term "musician" began to mean one who possessed a knowledge both of the science and of the art. Geschichte der Musik II. it is not necessary for the purposes of this inquiry to touch upon the many controversial problems in the general history of the * art of music in the middle ages. whose work admittedly marks a step in the development of the system of notation. Thus Aurelian of Rome (IX century) says: "Tantum inter musica distat et can- "torum.i2& The Seven Liberal Arts CHAPTER Music. who. Berno. 74) that Guido of Arezzo's often quoted stanza on what a musician is. p. imprimis de Cassiodoro et Isidore. Qutestiones de Musicis Scriptoribus Romanis far back as Cicero. Other practical teachers. cit. X. Hermannus Contractus. to be studied after arithmetic. a part of mathematics. Ambros. the practical teachers of instruction for music. 39. 40 et seq. II. p.

or the ability to play an instrument. cit. W. Oddo. 50-96. Williams. In tracing the history of the first three subjects of the Quadrivium arithmetic. whether there was any harmony in our modern sense in the middle ages. op. the other hand the influence which the theoretical study of music mere comparison of the names that had on the art cannot be overlooked. This may be taken as an index of the influence which the theorist had on the art. Ambros. nevertheless equally true that in the pre-university period the science of music as a part of the quadrivium was taught best in those schools which had a reputation for good musical teaching in the elementary grades. Brambach. the facts relating to the history of the teaching of the art of singing will be considered for the light they throw on the general position which the subject occupied in the curriculum of the seven liberal arts. F. Berno of Reichenau. A. Literature of Music. Cf. 92-216. . Guido of Arezzo and Johannes Cotton. In the succeeding paragraphs. 21. 1903. J. Cf. Rieman. were famous theorists at the same time. that there were in the middle ages a science and an art of music. pp. it is in the mediaeval sense. the development of musical notation. Cf. The Story of Notation. i GENERAL CHARACTER. of Franchinus Gaforius. and that many of the practical teachers of music like Hucbald. Thericum opus armonicae disciplinae seems to be the first text book to represent the new tendency of the Renaissance. and throw much light on the scientific side of the subject. This fact possibly accounts for its being the next oldest printed work on music. pp. While it is true that those who had been taught the art of singing were not thereby made musicians and that a knowledge of the theory of numbers was considered of more value to the student of music than a good voice. i Mathews. On A are considered of epochal significance in the development of the art of music with the names of those who are famous as theorizers shows the presence of the same names in both categories. B. The work sckrift. Geschichte der Musiktheorie.. II. The treatises embodying the latest researches on these subjects are Hugo Rieman's Geschichte der Musiktheorie and Studien zur Geschichte der NotenVide also C. therefore. It would seem. geometry and astronomy we found that Hucbald and of Guido of Arezzo. p.The Seven Liberal Arts 129 is But although the present investigation unrelated to the general history of the art of music in the middle ages. facts as to the extent of the practical musical instruction during this period are pertinent. Hermannus Contractus. then. the former forming a component part of the Quadrivium. Das Tonsystem und die Tonarten des Christlicheu Abendlandes im Mittelalter passim.

41. i. which should make progress possible in the succeeding period. 24. CVII. op. each had a period in which the chief concern of the age was to assimilate the new knowledge of the subject which was coming into Western Europe from beyond the Pyrenees. studied only in the schools of the church monastic and cathedral. The historians of musical theory seem to agree that the incubus of Boethian music greatly hampered partially its Advance was only possible and in some instances after the development throughout the middle etc. ages. Naumann. Music. 401 et seq.Musik Geschichte pp. p. all agree. was entirely original and was of value only to the extent to which traditions were ignored. 168 et seq. Ambros. 13-24. be distinguished in the history of the periods may subject: one ending roughly with the eleventh century. the advance made in the subject was conditioned only upon the abandonment of the theories In this field the work of the middle ages of the previous age. 3 The patronage which art was not without its influence. made for improvements in both the theory and practice of the of the classical period i Two subject. music was cultivated essentially to serve the purposes of Christian The inherent conditions and necessities of the church worship. . Literatur des Mittelalters 2 pp. was nevertheless sacredly guarded and transmitted to the succeed- ing generations by means of the instruction in the schools. There was no period of assimilation. Die Musik II.. \V. It elements essential for the education Charlemagne gave to the is therefore not surprising to find that in the ninth. 11-17.130 The Seven Liberal Arts three characteristic periods were common to all of them. Vol. vol. Ill. Die . Langhans. 3Cf. tenth 1 and eleventh centuries an excepGreek theories which had been incorrectly transmitted through Boethius were gradually discarded in the eleventh century. History of Music. The age of pop- ular secular music had not yet come. Each had an early period in which the knowledge of the subject. Nay. 2 The importance which the study of music had for the church made a knowledge of its of a priest. each had a period during which the assimilated knowledge was made a part of the curriculum and assiduously cultivated. But in the case of music the situation was different. Rabanus Maurus cols. the In the earlier period other with the end of the fifteenth. De Clericorum hist. cit. though small in amount and intrinsically almost insignificant. Migne. Cf. Brambach. c. p. was at that time.

Cf. 140. 1883 p. Ambros. i The evidence of the activity in the teaching of music in this period can be seen in many ways. 3 In the second epoch. etc. 86 et seq. de musica medii Aevi Paris. cit. which roughly corresponds to the university period. op. Die Musik Literatur des M. increasing amount of great influence of these teaching mediaeval indifferent. Die Sdngerschule zu Reichenau im M.. 1864-1867 IV . passim. in in the subject schools on the theoretical theoretical The vast number books. vols. if not of its quality. St. Reichenau. Brambach. musica sacra etc. A. These two collections by no means exhaust the field.The Seven Liberal Arts 131 many of of tionally great interest in the subject should have shown itself in of the monasteries in Western Europe. 3 Vide. Treves. While the schools Metz and St. The number of intensive studies relating to musical instruction in particular schools of the early middle ages shows abundantly an ever * and the writers. op. 96 et seq. A number of theoretical treatises of the early middle ages have since been found. Amand and many of the other schools mentioned in connection with the teaching of the Quadrivium their teaching of were likewise famous for their instruction in theoretical and practical music. Specht. Fulda. (500-1050). Scriptores ecclesiastici de III. good. Gall shine out as the most famous for the extent music. De Coussemaker. Gerbert. p. The facts 1 Cf. Schubiger. those of Soissons. St. In all the references to the require- and the master's degree music is more than warrant the cautious of Rashdall that "Oxford and the German generalization universities seem to have agreed also in requiring Boethius' De Re Musica or some other musical work so as to keep up ments for the licentiate always mentioned. The numerous incidental references in the scattered accounts of the study of the Quadrivium cited before all show that music was studied along with the other subjects of the course in the seven liberal arts. St. cit. Mainz. passim. W. p. 1784. A. esp. and which Gerbert and Coussemaker have gathered their monumental col- lections covering the ground up to the fifteenth century are eloquent proof of the extent of theoretical musical teaching. Schubiger. Gallische 2 Sdngerschule passim. cit. II. Scriptorum vols. bad. Brambach. . Blais.. 5 et seq. o{>. the speculative side of the study of music was still more emphasized. of text books. E.

LXIII cols. Cassiodorus. 1872. Schmidt cit. which enabled me to utilize the elaborate commentary. without which even Giinther rponounced the text unintelligible. cols. cit.ometry and astronomy were grouped. The treatises text books on which a considerable of this first periods number of the are based comprise the works of Capella. Leipzig. In the first may be put all those written by authors who followed implicitly the standard of Greek musical theory and the distinctive tetrachordal scale. Because of the unique development of. vol.the study of music Quadrivium. 76. Die Musik Literatur etc. 79. the compilations of ages became heir. Vide also Suter. cit. pp. op. in op. and Coussemaker. p. 1166-1300. Indeed the work remained a standard authority throughout the middle ages 1 Rashdall. 4 But the all pervading influence in this period was the elaborate compendium of Boethius. cit. cit. 331-375. for detailed references to unicit. op. Cf. The second will include all books which to a greater or lesser extent are emancipated from the Greek influence. 211. Isidore. op. 210. I versity requirements in music. in Eyssenhardt ed. translation by O. Cassiodorus. the text books in use cannot be classified in the way the text books on arithmetic. ge. p. op. op. 163-169. and Isidore. 4 See the tables of Brambach. 9. . 91 and Giinther. and Isidore of Seville 3 must have been Capella. Cassiodorus. since traces of their works have been found all the subsequent writers on music during this period. in Migne. It will be more to our purpose to divide them into two classes. op. pp. I have used the German 5 Text in Migne. Giinther. in Migne cols. larger in volume than the text. in nearly of great influence. vol. s His five books De Musica formed the absolute basis of all theoretical music. 199. LXXXII. I. II. since these combine all the vestiges of Greek musical theory to which the middle Although very brief. 17-20 records the existence of 27 manuscripts of Isidore. pp. 443. LXX Capella. cit."i TEXT BOOKS. 112. 1208-1212. in which are included the consideration of the elements of "organon" (harmony in our modern sense) and in which the scales are used from which our modern system of notation has gradually dein the veloped. 3 Texts: vol. 215. pp. Boethius.132 The Seven Liberal Arts the theory that the arts course consisted of the complete Trivium and Quadrivium. 77. Paul. pp. 7. 2 Partially collected in Gerbert. 80.

canendi scientiam..The Seven Liberal Arts the great representative text of the 133 "ars musica antiqua. The text occupies one hundred and thirty-two closely printed pages. etc. The mystical Pythagorean the of Aristoxenus are criticized at length. The They supposition is supported by the fact that it is mainly the subject matter of these two books which appears to have been fit Book proportion. The theory of con- sonance is set forth and the numerical proportions which form consonance and dissonance are given at great length with their appropriate elaborate Greek names.. were probably the only portions of the text used. 2 I. theories of numbers are set forth." Boethius. 1596. non sed imperio speculationis assumit" operis. it deals with the history. Book IV is devoted to an exposition of the division and the use of the monochord in the theory of music. diagrams. Ch. character wherein the theories of of arithmetical III is of a controversial for school purposes are the basis for the many derivative treatises. It is divided into five books: Book I comprises about one-fifth of the work. XXXIV." which special subject in the opinion of Boethius forms one of the different kinds include clusively of arithmetical quantities. Lat. LXIII col. the book concludes with a chapter on "what a musician is. Following many classifications and definitions in which analogies to the harmony of the planetary motions are emphasized. though not in any regular systematic order. with numerous illustrations. Book V is again given over to an examination of those points of musical theory on which writers on music have differed." The importance of the book warrants an analysis of its contents. Lib. This brief analysis shows that the only portions of the treatise the second and the fourth books. 2 "servitio "Is vero est musicus qui ratione perpensa. "Isque "musicus est cui ad est facultas secundum speculationem rationemque pro"positam ac musicae convenientem de modis ac rythmis de que generibus "cantilenarura ac de permixtionibus ac de omnibus de quibus posterius explicandum est ac de poetarum carminibus judicand'. It also treats of the system of notation in which letters of the alphabet are used. Migne. Pat. tables. and schematic arrangements." and the definition which was long to remain classical is enunciated. * Book II treats exProportion is amplified to "musical proportion.. Vide tables of Brambach on the Boethian origin of the early mediaeva' . character and the divisions of the science. De Musica 1 .

(3) which represents an attempt to build up a musical system out of the church music based on the theories of Boethius. H74. 235 et seq. Library of Columbia University. Cf. Most competent critics believe that the book approaches the mathematical From aspects of musical theory in an essentially original spirit. cit. I. cited in p. pp. ibid. ms. p.. The Cita et Vera Divisio Monochordi of Bernelinus. note i show the requirements to have been either "aliquis musica" or "musica de Muris. 4 Vide Brambach. 313-330. i Remigius of Auxerre's Commentary on Capella's De Musica which was written in the next century. 3 Text in Gerbert. I. The references 5 Rieman. passim. Scriptores etc.134 The Seven Liberal Arts Among (1) these derivitive texts the following may be noted: Aurelian of Reome's Musica Disciplina. I. a professor of mathematics at the University of Paris. Musik Litteratur etc. which was com- posed (2) in the ninth century. 122 et seq. pp. Text of Bern- pp. pp. The increased knowledge was gradually incorporated in the text books in use. Scriptores etc. Die Musik Litteratur elinus in Gerbert. etc." Text of DeMuris's work on music. II. I. 104-152. composed in the tenth century. vide. passim. and text fifteenth centuries. Gerbert. 15 et seq. 4 the days of Bernelinus the advance along the lines of distinctive mediaeval musical theory was steady but sure. op. II.3 The advance caused by the emancipation from Boethius was so gradual that it is most difficult to name the first text book in which this change is clearly seen. Scriptoris etc. 63-94. . showing from what book the portions are taken. 27-63. By the fourteenth century this improved material was epitomized by John De Muris. s in Die 1 book writers on music. Ambros. may however be considered the epoch making production. Text Gerbert's Scriptoris etc. New York. Geschichte der Musik-theorie p. 2 Text. pp. His book was the standard text in use in the universities during the fourteenth. For the treatises of Notker and of other music teachers of the period. 2 Hucbald's (880-930) Liber de Harmonica Institutions. 132.

maintained this curriculum in its entirety throughout the middle ages. the quantity and quality of instruction in the various subjects did not remain the same throughout the period. Thus. / later. The results of this study may be summarized as follows: The curriculum of the seven liberal arts was fully developed in the schools of the Roman Empire in the fourth century. In accordance with the needs of the times certain subjects were emphasized at certain times at the expense. of the other subjects. the study of Latin literature was assiduously cultivated. and partly because the other subjects of the curriculum logic and the mathematical studies had not yet sufficiently developed to make the instruction in them of any cultural value. the characteristic spirit of the age. the formative period of the middle ages. amount of instruction in the subjects given the period invariably approximated closely to the throughout The actual . partly because a knowledge of the Latin \s language and literature was essential to this time. a preparation for the higher study of theology. though not to the entire neglect.Tlie Seven Liberal Arts 135 CHAPTER XL Conclusion. geometry and astronomy came to be emphasized in the cur-< riculum. namely. since secular studies would have a value if the liberal education obtained through them made only a means towards an end. in the period before the twelfth century. Although tradition. when with the advance of mathematical knowledge this subject began to v occupy the minds of thoughtful men. when correct thinking was the pre-requisite for a consideration of questions which occupied the minds of the thoughtful people questions of the- ology and to hold a Still metaphysics the study of logic came gradually commanding position in the scheme of education. towards the close of the middle ages. Later. Christianity triumphant over paganism found it necessary to appropriate to its own use the content of this curriculum and adopted could be it in its for the Christian entirety. the study of arithmetic.

were all trained in the traditional way. The evidence shows that whatever niceties of metaphysical liberal arts distinctions occupied the minds of mediaeval philosophers. Eminent churchmen. The abatement of the interest in classical studies of the later university period was a reaction from. The text books on the different subjects of the seven liberal arts. a general understanding of under- marked individuality.136 The Seven Liberal Arts of amount knowledge of the particular subjects possessed in the different periods of the middle ages. the instruction given in the liberal arts was largely free from them." form unmistakable evidence of the quantity and quality of instruction afforded. any more than the average man of affairs today always retains an abiding enthusiasm in the subjects which form the staples of education in the modern college. In spite of the dialectical tendencies of the later middle ages. . The attitude of the mediaeval church and of the leaders of thought was not hostile to secular culture. and developed these studies along original lines in harmony with the spirit of the age. the instruction in logic as a part of the curriculum of the seven was surprisingly free from what we generally assume to have been the dialectical puerilities in the study of philosophy. an age of deference to authority and the " litter a scrip ta. and an eager desire to incorporate every advance in the knowledge of the subject. These subtleties formed part of the intellectual interests of the specialist and not of the man seeking liberal culture. an age without the printing press. even those who took the distinctly ascetic view on the question of the study of the liberal arts. pre-university conditions. Naturally not all of them retained an interest during their busy lives in these secular studies. There was a general interest in classical studies in the schools of the middle ages. In at least two subjects of the curriculum rhetoric and music the mediaeval schoolmasters forsook the traditional paths lying conditions. and not a continuation of. They show rare pedagogical skill. This was never stronger than at the time when the church controlled all the educational institutions. The detailed examination of these text books has shown an amazing activity and desire to adapt the material of instruction to the requirements of the time. in an age worshipping tradition.

De Dialectica. Migne. For this reason critical notes will only be given on such of the books quoted as require farther notice. London. Grammatici Latini. St. Migne. St. Migne. CI. Tom. Ouvrages in6dites (edited by V. CI. Romanische Forschungen. Augustine. F. J. Huemer. St. 1893. Cleris. F. Rhetores Latini Minores. Contains elaborate critical introduction. (Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica. Thorpe. Berlin. Alcuin. Patrologia Latina. H. P. De Natura Rerum. others more fully. Patrologia Latina. CLVIII. Th. De Fide Sanctae et Individualis Trinitatis libri tres. De Rhetorica et de Virtutibus. XXXII. Latinae locutione exercendos. Augustine. Alexander de Villa-Dei. Tom. Patrologia Latina. Principia Dialecticae. both in the text and in the foot-notes. Keil. H. St. Migne.CRITICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Patrologia Latina. Migne. 137 . I. Reichling. Tom. F. Tom. Tom. Patrologia Latina. St. I. XII). CI. Tom. Politics. Alcuin. De De Doctrina Christiana. i The following named works were consulted in the preparation of this monograph. F. Patrologia Latina. V. Augustine. Edition of 1651. Introduction. Migne. Alcuin. Dialogus de Grammatico. (Pseudo). St. Translation by B. Deliciae II. Anselm. ORIGINAL SOURCES. Bede. Albertus Magnus. CI. 1836. Bd. CI. Migne. Migne. Rhetorica. Prosologium. Migne. Jowett. Patrologia Latina. Anselm. Patrologia Latina. Colloquium ad pueros linguae editor. Tom. Anselm. Doctrinale. H. Aristotle. Oxford. Patrologia Latina. St. 1846. Halm. Monologium. Analecta Anglo-Saxonica. XXXIV. Abelard. The Venerable. Augustine. CLVIII. 1885. Ars (Grammatica) Breviata. Migne. (in Collection de Documents Ine"dits sur 1'Histoire de France. De Cursu et Saltu lunae ac Bissexto.) Paris. Migne. Tom. Tom. XC. Tom. CLVIII. F. editor. H. Opera. Tom. Tom. H. Aelfric. Liber de Ratione Computi. Arnulf. Tom. Alcuin. Patrologia Latina. Cousin). Alcuin. Some of these have already been criticized briefly. editor. Patrologia Latina.

Partly also in Mari Giovani's I Trattati Medisevali de Ritmica Latina. pp. F. S. LXIII. 1889. Rhetores De Numerorum Divisione Libellus. editor. Migne. Extracts. M. De Oratore. editor. 1854. translator. Polycarp Leyser. The Seven Liberal Arts The Venerable. De De M. Cicero. Paris. De Arithmetica Libri Duo. Tom. Tom. A. Andeli. D collection of Latin dictionaries. Leipzig. Halm. Halle. C.) Loquella Per Gestum Digitorum et Temporum Ratione Libellus. Berlin. Du Meril. Halm. Migne> Patrologia Latina. Tom. Bede. Hermannus Contractus. De Temporum Ratione. 1663. III. Boethius. Liber de Schematibus et Tropis. Eberard Bethune. M. Has superseded all previous attempts in that direction. Tom. Bubnov. Gerbert. Pt. Cicero. A. Paul. T. A monumental Donatus. XXXVII. T. IV. J. P. (Memorie del Reale of Poetarum Instituto Egbert of Liege. Thesaurus . A. Orellus). Halle. Fiction Critique et Satirique. 5. editor. 3. II). A. Unciarum Ratione. Bede. A. 1721. De Utilitatibus Astrolobii Anecdotorum Novissimus. Patrologia Latina. Migne. Patrologia Latina. J. Patrologia Latina. (Pez. Henri. Boethius. editor. Lowe. M. La Bataille des Sept Arts. Migne. L' Academic Royale de Belgique. XC. M. Turin. Donatus. 1886. Opera. In scholarship it is fully as good as Keil's collection of grammars. Scheler (in Mmoires Couronne'es de Catholicon. De Divisione Naturae.. Keil. Translated into German. S. Catonis Distichia De Moribus. T. Contains most of the texts on technical rhetoric quoted in the work. The Venerable. A. M. 1892. M. (Notices et Extraits des Manuscripts de la Bibliotheque Nationale. S. London. Tom. The Venerable. Patrologia Latina Tom. F. 1863.) Fecundia Ratis. T. by O. Edited by A. 496-510). De Artibus et de Disciplinis Liberalium Literarum.138 Bede. (Edited by I. 1866.. Leipzig. Latini Minores.) Liber. 1845. 1896. Rhetores Latini Minores. Poesies Inedites du Moyen Age. 1872. II. Migne. Interpretatio Euclidis Geometriae Libri Duo. Erigena. LXIV. T. Ars Grammatica Minor. Scotus. LXX. Patrologia Latina. vols. B. XX. Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum. Leipzig. C. M. Paris. Voigt. XC. Watson. M. S. E. Patrologia Latina. London. Tom. The only full collection of Latin rhetorical text books. Cassiodorus. LXIII. (Pope Sylvester Opera Mathematica. English and Latin Texts (in James Wright's Sales Epigrammatum). Latini. F. Leipzig. Still incomplete. T. A. Keil. Ars Grammatica Major. Grammatici Grammatici Latini. Milan. M. E. Eyssenhardt. Capella. Migne. CXXII. 1899. Laborinthus. Lombardo.) Bruxelles. V. Boethius. Migne. 4. Edited by G. S. De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. and edited Boethius. An essay on the history of the Aesopic fables and a collection of fables and similar poetic popular literature. In Historia et Poematum Medii Aevi. De Musica Libri V. IV. (Pseudo. Opera Philosophica.

Grammatici Kleine Lateinische Denkmaler der Thiersage. Patrologia Latina. Eine Algorismusschrift des XII Jahrhunderts. 1835. containing most of the grammatical texts described in the study. V. T. John of Salisbury. Classici Auctores e Vaticanibus Interpretes Veteres Virgil ii Maronis. 1893-1899. Geometria vel de Triangulis Libri IV. The most comprehensive investigation. H. The work of an eminent philologian. VII) Romae. Huemer. 71 propositions demonstrated. in full. The only complete collection of standard Latin grammars. Supplementheft. E. Jordanus Nemorarius. Source book of the History of Education for the Greek and Roman Periods. Bd. (Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits de la Bibliothe'que NationaleParis T. pp. Supplementheft. De Anitnae Exsilio et Patria alias De Artibus. XXXVI.) A collection of a few but important sources. 139 la fin Les Fabulistes Latins depuis le Sicle d'Auguste jusqu' du Moyen Age. CXCIX. Monroe. 35. editor. (In Sitzungsberichte der Philologisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaft. Voigt. Leipzig. Poetria de Arte Prosaica Metrica et Rithmica. G. XIII). CXCIX. T. (In Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach und Kultur Geschichte der Germanischen Volker. besides the critical investigation.The Seven Liberal Arts Hervieux. Patrologia Latina.) II. collection of sources with full introductions and running commentary. The Leipzig. 34. New York. schrift fiir Mathematik und Physik. Arranged to show evolution of educational theories. Hoche. "Einleitung" gives an extended account of all Nemorarius's works. Migne. Isidore of Seville. A. XXXIV. One of the Jew authentic sources giving a detailed account of the scope of the mediaeval curriculum by an eminent churchman of the twelfth century. 1866. (Romanische Forschungen. 108. John of Salisbury. Polycraticus. T. A A Nagl. CLXXII. (in Zeit- Algorismus Proportionum. 107. Patrologia Latina. (Monumenta Germaniae Keil. pp. Curtze Mathematik und Physik. Bd. XIII. Edited by M. LXXXII. . Codicibus editi. Metalogicus Migne. P. the best texts Honorius of Autun. 129-146. of Trimberg. P. Formulaires des Lettres du xii. Leges. schrift fur editor. L. Patrologia Latina. editor. Nicole Orestne.) collection of sources of Formulae chiefly. First annotated text of the work published. Wien. only available text (Greek) of this epoch-making book. editor. 7 vols. critically edited. Migne. Bd. De Numeris Datis. 1887. Registrum Multorum Auctorum. Nicomachi Geraseni Pythagorei Introductionis Arithmeticae Libri R. T.) Karolus Magnus. Ch. J. Etymologiae Libri XX. (Mitheilungen des Copernicus-Vereins fur Wissenschaft und Kunst) Thorn. Treutlein. Contains. superseding previous works on the subject. Johannes De Garlandia. Capitula De Doctrina Clericorum. Diagrams in Appendix. Migne. 5 vols. du xiii et du xiv sidcleLanglois. (ZeitJordanus Nemorarius. 1902. 161-170). Hugo (Mai. (Zeitschrift fiir Mathematik und Physik. editor. Historica. CXVI). Tomus I. 1857-1880. Mari.) Latini. T.

Hattemer. IX.) Paulus Diaconus. (Monumenta Germaniae Historica. ces et Extraits des Manuscripts de la Bibliothdque Nationale. 2). Halle. Thesaurus Othlo of Emmeran. don. Bergman. The most complete collection of its kind. III. Galliae et Germaniae codicibus manuscriptis collecti. Migne. Anzeiger fur Kunde der Deutschen Vorzeit Neue Sacrobosco. Drei Formelsammlungen aus der Zeit der Karolinger (Quellen zur Bayerischen und Deutschen Geschichte. VII) Miinchen. Priscianus. Priscianus.) Rbckinger. E. I. Notk^r. Migne. quellen der Provinz Sachsen). J. Grammatici Latini. Briefsteller und Formelbucher des Elf ten bis Vierzehnten (Quellen zur Bayerischen und Deutschen Geschichte. 3 vols. S. L.) St. Tom. Thewrevvk. Thurot. III. vol. Th. Script- Tom. Gallem. CXI. New York. Rabanus Maurus. XX. Rockinger. 1859-1871. Pt. Ms. (in NotiParis. E. translator. Plato. Institutio vols. Lon- Rabanus Maurus. D.1 40 The Seven Liberal A rts (Geschichts- Nicolai De Bibera. In this collection some of the earliest sources on the subject are reedited and others are published for the first time. Budapest. editor. Liber Proverborum. de Arte Grammatica. 2. Migne. 1870. Smith. Partitiones duodecim versuum Aeneidos principalium. Blaise. Rabanus Maurus.) Miinchen. Carmen Satiricum. ores. CVII. Bd. Jahrhunderts. Upsala. Martin Gerbert. New York. don and Prudentius. edited by M. Lon- Psychomachia. De Clericorum Tom. Bd. 1784. France du Vme au Xme sidcle. Libri Vigintiduo. (Fez. CVII. 1882. Keil Grammatici Prudentius. Keil. A. Oxford. B. II. 1889. Republic. 1875. Jowett. III. CXI. Liber de Compute. T. 2) Valuable annotated original material. III. St. Watson. Columbia University. T. Pat- Excerptio de Arte Grammatici Pnsciani. . H. Bd. English metrical translation. translator. Scriptores Ecclesiastic! De Musica ex Variis Italiae. 2 vols. Sacrobosco. Folge. editor. Holy wood). Quintilian. Dialogues of Plato. 1531. 1897. (J. Institutes of Oratory. Pt. II. Richer. Opera (in Denkmaler des Mittelalters. patrologia Latina. Cathemerinon. editor. Fisher. De Doctrina Spiritual! Liber Metricus Anecdotorum Novissimus. rologia Latina. Patrologia Latina. Libellus de Sphaera cum Praefatione Melanch(J. G. 1858. Recueil Generel des Formules Usitees dans L'Empire de Rozi6re. 1844-1849. XXII. De Universe Migne. Tom. Pt. Wurtemberg. Latini. L. Sexti Pompei Festi de verborum significatu quae super sant cum Pauli epitome. III. D. Othlo of Emmeran. 1863. Thesaurus Anecdotorum Novissimus. (Pez. editor. Institutioae. III. Tom. Scheftlarer Proverbia. Algorismus. J. Historiarum Libri IV. Holy wood). tonis. 1898. editor. Notices et Extraits de divers Manuscripts Latins Pour Servir A' L'Histoire des Doctrines Grammaticales au Moyen Age. Patrologia Latina. Rabanus Maurus.

series of disconnected studies treating in general of the subject chosen as the title of the book. London. 1878. Ball. Continued for the i7th. Bd. (Pez.The Seven Liberal Arts 141 Scriptorum De Musica Medii Aevi Nova Series. F. One of the best detailed histories of mediaeval universities. seine Schriften. sein Leben. E. Roma. Thesaurus Anecdotorum Novissimus. books on the subject in any language. Useful bibliographical references. Libellus de Studio Poetae." is especially lucid on the subject. Die Urkundlichen Quellen zur Geschichte der Universitat Leipzig in den ersten 150 Jahren ihres Bestehens. SECONDARY WORKS. II. G. Neue Folge. (loth to 1 2th centuries). i8th and igth centuries by W. Ill Berlin. Paris. 3 vols. 2 vols. 1872. II. Duemmler. 5 vols. Joseph. A "Festschrift" written for the five hundredth anniversary of the University. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. seine Lehrwirksamkeit. London. 1862-1881. Zarncke. III. Geschichte der Wiener Universitat im ersten Jahrhundert ihres Bestehens. Full of information for one interested in this phase of mathematics.) Berlin. Has half of the space devoted to the life and works of the famous teachers at the University. editors. 5 vols. Halle. S. E. Spirensis. and Sievers. Aschbach. W. (Abhandlungen der K6niglichen Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Servius. 1864-1867. The only D 'Aritmetica. E. E. Breslau. Babler. Brief sketch of the educational activity Based on original sources. Barach. 1895- Theodulfus. 1882. Langhans. 1879Steinmeyer. Mathematical Recreations and Problems of Past and Present Times. Geschichte der Musik. editor. Beitrage zur einer Geschichte der Lateinischen Grammatik im Mittelalter. Commentarii in Virgilii Carmina. (Monumenta Germaniae Historica. The best short general account in English for the advanced student. J. (In Poetae Latini Medii Aevi.) Steinmeyer. Bernard von Chartres. 1901. L. . E. on "Studien. Hagen. 1857. Carmina. (Barach and Wrobel's edition of Bernardi Sylvestris de Universitate). A Ball. Opera Omnia. 3rd edition. Leipzig. 1865. Covers the period through the Middle Ages to Palestrina's times. J. R. Wright. Die Alterthum. Thilo and H. editor. C. Final W. 4 vols. 2. The fifth volume consists of musical compositions to illustrate the text of the third volume. Scriptores). Die Althochdeutschen Glossen. Accurate. 3rd edition. 1885. Pt. based on original sources. A Volume of Vocabularies. R. editor. De Coussenaker. R. Trattati large collection of its kind in existence. A. A. R. One of the best general authority. Acta Santi Christophori. Leipzig.) critically edited collection of A Boncompagno. Very full. Walther. 1857. important mediaeval arithmetical texts. Wien. 3 vols. 1881-1884. Mundi and influence of Bernard. Ambros. Seneca. A collection of famous mathematical puzzles and quaint problems. Philologisch Historische Classe. Chapter III. 1896. Thomas.) 1857. Deutschen Virgilglossen (Zeitschrift fur Deutsches Bd. W.

142

The Seven Liberal Arts

Barnard, H. An account of Universities and other Institutions of Superior Instruction in Different Countries. (Comprising Part III of National Education.) Mainly reprints of articles and chapters from standard European works on the history of higher education.

Recherches sur 1'Instruction Beaurepaire, Charles Marie de Robiliard de. publique dans le Diocese de Rouen avant 1789. 3 vols. Evreux, 1872. An intensive study. The only one in its field.

Bergmann,

Geschichte der Philosophic. 2 vols. Berlin, 1892. history of philosophy with emphasis on the development of philosophical systems. Readable.

A general
A A

J.

Berry, A.

Short History of Astronomy. York, 1899. brief general history of astronomy. Popular and accurate. trated. Probably the most useful general treatise in English.

New

Illus-

Bianco, Fr.

Versuch einer Geschichte der ehemaligen Universitat und der J. Gymnasien der Stadt Koln. Cologne, 1833. A general account. The value of the book at present lies chiefly in its collection of documents printed as "Beilagen," which comprises nearly
half of the book.

Blakey, R.

Of

little

Historical Sketch of Logic. value.

London, 1851.
Paris, 1861.

Boissier, G.

Etude sur

la

Vie et

les

Ouvrages de M. T. Varron.

The most authoritative treatise on the whole life and work of Varro. The chapter on Varro's " Disciplinarum Libri" (the one quoted in
this study) is

very

brief. 2 vols.

Boissier, G.

La Fin du Paganisme.

Paris, 1891.

General account of the obvious causes of the decline of paganism. The second part of the first book contains some suggestive chapters on the interaction of Roman education and Christian ideals.
Bosanquet, B.

The Education

of the

Young

in the

Republic of Plato.

Cam-

bridge, 1900.

Introduction and selections from the first four books of the Republic. Brambach, W. Das Tonsystem und die Tonarten des Christliche Abendlandes im Mittelalter. Liepzig, 1881. A valuable investigation on the subject. Brambach, W. Die Musik Literatur des Mittelalters bis zur Bliithe der

Reichenauer Sangerschule. Karlsruhe, 1883. A comparative study of standard books of the period to determine the

Brambach, W.

extent of Boethius's influence on these text books. Die Reichenauer Sangerschule, Beitrage zur Geschichte des Gelehrsamkeit und zur Kenntniss Mittelalterlicher Musikhandschriften. (In Beihefte zum Centralblatt fur Bibliothekenwesen I.) Excellent monograph. Treats admirably of the difficult subject of the relation of mediaeval musical theory to practice. Die Logik in Ihrem Verhaltniss zur Philosophic geschichtlich Braniss, J.
betrachtet. Berlin, 1823. An old brief "Preisschrift." its kind.

Logical and clear;

the only treatise of

Brockman,

F. J.

System der Chronologic.

Stuttgart, 1883.

Contains in small volume the essential maand more voluminous work on the subject. Burnet, John. Aristotle on Education. Cambridge, 1903. An excellent discussion of Aristotle's views on education, based on abstracts from Aristotle's "Ethics" and "Politics."

Convenient handbook.

terial of Ideler's older

The Seven Liberal Arts

143

2 vols Bursian, C. Geschichte der Classischen Philologie in Deutschland. Miinchen, 1883. A general history of classical scholarship in Germany. The chapter on the period before Humanism is brief and inadequate.

Cajori, F.

History of Elementary Mathematics. New York, 1896. survey of the history of elementary mathematics. Accurate. Very readable; based on results of modern researches on the subject. Mathematische Beitrage zum Kulturleben der Volker. Halle, Cantor, M.

A

A

brief

1863.

Chapters on the history of mathematics, readable and scholarly. One works of this famous historian of mathematics. Cantor, M. Die Romischen Agrimensoren und ihre Stellung in der Geschichte der Feldmesserkunst. Liepzig, 1875. The latest investigation on the subject. The book covers a broader field than its title indicates. It treats of the Greek forerunners of the Roman Grommatici and of the latter's influence on the Middle Ages. Cantor, M. Vorlesungen iiber Gescbichte der Mathematik. 3 vols. 2 Auflage. Liepzig, 1894-1900. A final authority on subjects relating to the history of mathematics. Volume I to the year 1200; Volume II to 1668; Volume III from 1668 to 1758. An inexhaustible mine of information Chasles, M. Geschichte der Geometric. Translated by L. A. Sohnke. Halle,
of the early
.

A general survey of the history of the science before the nineteenth century by the famous French mathematician. Two-thirds of the book consists of appended notes. Erudite. Comparetti, D. Virgil in the Middle Ages. Translated by E. F. M. Benecke.
London, 1895. The best book on the subject. Comprehensive. Compayre", G. History of Pedagogy. A general popular account. The author's antipathy to the Middle Ages is a marked characteristic of the work. Partisan. Compayre", G. Abelard and the Origin and Early History of Universities. New York, 1902. A brief popular sketch of the subject, based entirely on secondary
sources.

1839-

Curtze,

Die Mathematischen Schriften des Nicole Oresme. Berlin, 1870. pamphlet giving a bibliographical account of the author's complete mathematical works. Davidson, Thomas. Aristotle and Ancient Educational Ideals. New York,

M.

A

brief

1892. scholarly

A

De Morgan,

A.

and suggestive treatment of the subject. Arithmetical Books. From the Invention of Printing to the

Present Time. London, 1847. A unique compilation. Each book is fully described. Geschichte des Gallo-Frankischen Unterrichts und Denk, V, M. Otto. Bildungswesens von den altesten Zeiten bis auf Karl den Grossen. Mainz, 1892. The only complete scientific work on the early period of Prankish education. Very scholarly; based entirely on original sources.
Dill, S.

Roman

Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire.

London,
judicious;

1898.

A

general

account

of

the

period

treated.

Accurate;

scholarly.

Ebert, Ad. lande.

Allgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters im Abend3 vols. Leipzig, 1874-1887.

144

The Seven Liberal Arts

A classic on the subject. covering so large a field.
Eckstein,
F.

A

remarkably complete and thorough book
(in

A.

Lateinischer Unterricht

Schmid's Encyklopadie des

gesammten Erziehungs und Unterrichtswesens, Bd. IV, pp. 204-405). Full of information. It has been re-printed in book form.
Friedlein, G. Das Rechnen mit Columnen vor dem 10 Jahrhundert, (in Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, Bd. IX.) An article relating to the columnal computation controversy about

Boethius.

Die Zahlzeichen und das Elementare Rechnen der Griechen Christlichen Abendlandes vom 7 ten bis 13 ten Jahrhundert. Erlangen, 1869. A general treatise full of information on the history of notation and computation. Gaskoin, C. J. C. Alcuin, His Life and His Work. London, 1904. The latest and best biography of Alcuin. Thorough in its treatment of the many-sided activity of Alcuin. Based on all available sources. Gottlieb, Th. Ueber Mittelalterliche Bibliotheken. Leipzig, 1890. An excellent book on the subject. The book contains a large number of titles of mediaeval library catalogues. Under each heading the most important books mentioned in those catalogues are given. Glover, T. R. Life and Letters in the Fourth Century. Cambridge, 1901. Emphasizes Prudentius's importance in the development of Christianity in the West.
Friedlein, G.

und Romer und des

Gow,

Cambridge, 1884. misleading. The book is really a history of elementary mathematics; scholarly; bibliographical notes very full. One of the few thorough, original works on mathematics in English. Erziehung und Unterricnt im Klassischen Alterthum. Grasberger, Lorinz.
J.

A

Short History of Greek Mathematics.
title is

The

Wiir tern berg, 1864-1881. very full treatment of the subject. Grote, G. Aristotle. Bain & Robertson, editors.
3 vols.

A

2 vols.

unfinished work on Aristotle, chiefly Keen erudite. historian of Greece.
;

An

"The Organon" by

London, 1872. the famous

GUdeman, M.

Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Kultur der Juden in Italien wahrend des Mittelalters. Wien, 1884. One of a work of three volumes on Jewish education and culture in the Middle Ages in Spain, Italy and France. Final authority in its special

field.

History of Civilization. W. Hazlitt, translator. New York, 1850. i6th, iyth and i8th lectures of this book give an interesting account of the general character of literary activity in the 6th to the 8th centuries. Suggestive. In sympathy with the spirit of the Middle Ages. Geschichte des Mathematischen Unterrichts im Deutschen Giinther, S. Mittelalter bis zum Jahre 1525. Berlin, 1887. (In Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica III.) A remarkably thorough work on the subject. Includes material The author is a master of all the aspects of strictly foreign to its title. his theme. Didaktik und Methodik des GeographieGiinther, S. u. Kirchoff Alfred. 2 vols. unterrichts. Miinchen, 1895. Giinther's contribution (the portion quoted in the text) is a brief history of geography as an introduction to the subject.
Guizot, F.

The

Haase, Fr.

Vorlesungen uber Lateinische Sprachwissenschaft. Leipzig, 1874. of this eminent philologian's lectures. Fragmentary.

The published notes

This work of the famous mathematician of the eighteenth century is old and superseded. (In Antiquary. A Liepzig. His work was epoch making. B. well written book. Hurter. A. CXVIII. Rhetorenschulen und Klosterschulen oder Heidnische und G. Heerdegen. A brief survey by an authority. Contains analysis of most important French works. scholarly. Of the same character as this author's above mentioned work. A monograph embodying the latest researches. The chapter quoted shows the inaccurate character of the work for modern students Hankel. General account. 5th edition London. Nouvelle edition. (In SitzungsJ. but full of information. S. The first Kaufman. Statecraft. Die Musik -Geschichte in Zwolf Vorlesungen. 1903. Zur Geschichte der Mathematik im Alterthum und Liepzig. 35. Mittelalter. The series of which this monograph forms a part is the latest comprehensive collection of works on classical antiquity collaborated by most eminent classical scholars. pioneer investigation in the field of Latin lexicography. Christliche Cultur in Gallien wahrend des 5 und 6 Jahrhunderts. Emphasis on classical period. sous le Rgne du Pope Innocent III. Full of bibliographical references. Still authoritative. Fullest literary history of France. 2 vols. W. S. Lowe.) Ammann. Pt. Very brief on the later Middle Ages (the 1 2th to the 1 5th centuries). 36. Recherches Critiques sur 1'age et Porigine des Traductions Jourdain. Laurie. A popular treatise. 4te Folge 1869. 1296-1800. A. 1850. C. Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education. E. and covers the whole range of the subject Language.) An annotated bibliography of books of all kinds bearing on the subject. Rise and Early Constitution of Universities. (Historisches Taschenbuch. 1843. a pioneer research work in a neglected field of the history of philosophy. 1876. 1733-1895. Belittles the mathematical knowledge of A the middle ages. Ueber ein Glossenwerk zum Dichter Sedulius. 1890. 1895. (Translated from the German. 1873. Liepzig. Kirchen Geschichtliche Studien. Religion. G.The Seven Liberal Arts 145 . 1878. F. printed in England. London. Langhans. G. Culture. I. 1843. A general survey emphasizing the brighter side of the church's manifold activities and relations to mediaeval life. Kastner. H. Hazlitt. F. Klassischen Alterthums-Wissenschaft. Based on secondary sources. 2. The book .) 3 vols. Tableau des Institutions et des Moeurs de L'Eglise au Moyen Age. De La Philosophic Scolastique. scholar to cover this all important subject. Vols. W. i vol. S. When first published. Liepzig. of mediaeval culture.) An interesting study based on original sources. S. 1888. Huemer. H. Histoire Litt^raire de la France. Haurlau. Prodromus Glossariorum Latinorum. New York. Geschichte der Mathematik. 1874. Contributions toward a History of Earlier Education in Great Britain. Gottingen. Haiiam. II. Still standard. Art. Paris. berichte der Philologisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Bd. Muller's Handbuch der Lateinische Lexicographic. Paris. latines d'Aristote. Introduction to the Literature of Europe. The article quoted from this volume is characterized in the text. Literature. Wien. Laurie. Particulierement au treizieme seicle.

The author argues for original mathematical achievements of Gerbert. Schools of Charles the Great and the restoration of education in the ninth century. XLVII. LVI. VII. A The Dark Ages. The first Maitland. Meier. sound in its conclusions. 5. Die Sieben Freien Kunste im Mittelalter. 1873. Paris. London. Scholarly defense of monasticism and of its services to Western civilization. Beitrage zur Geschichte Romischer Dichter (Philologus-Zeitschrift fur das Classische Alterthum. Beilage-Jahresbericht iiber die Erziehungsanstalt des Benedictinerstifts Maria Einsiedelen. B.) An investigation into the history of mathematics. J. translator. 1691. J. The author certainly shows historic imagination. New York. Cambridge. A. The facts of Strabo's life are skillfully woven into the narrative. Madler. Vol. nth and isth centuries. An authority in its field. Educational Essays. A series Mullinger. work written especially to combat the narrow-minded view Middle Ages. The sketch is not an original contribution to the subject. London. The Seven Liberal Arts whole subject of sources of the numerous dictionaries. P. Covering the earliest period to 1535. M. 1856-1857. Supplement Bd. Mattew. 2 vols. 3rd edition. Apologetic in tone. LII. An J. Rhetoric and Dialectic. CXVI. Chicago. Mullany. richte der Philologisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Chapters on Grammar.146 treats fully of the scripts. (Jahresbericht der Benedictinerstifts Maria Einsiedelen. Based on sources. 1877. of collected essays. 1896. Marty. An imaginative diary of Walafrid Strabo in which the poet's schooldays are vividly described. H. Manitius. R. The Literature of Music. XLIX. E. G. full of information. i . Bd. L. XLVIII. The Monks of the West. so common of the in the early part of the nineteenth century. LI. on the period before Copernicus. well classified. University of Cambridge from the Earliest Times. dictionaries describes the best The chapter on mediaeval Mabillon. (Brother Azarias). accurate.) 1885-1886. The first two chapters deal with general educational conditions in the Middle Ages. London. Wien. J. A eulogistic account of the methods of mediaeval education on Grammar. C. by a Catholic scholar. The author's name is associated with the work of the modern Benedictines. Gerbert und die Rechenkunst des 10 ten Jahrhundert (SitzungsbeNagl. but well written and eminently fair. Casquet. scholarly defense in modern times of the culture of the middle ages. A student's text book. Geschichte der Himmelskunde von der altesten bis auf die neueste Zeit. J. The author finds no difficulty in disproving the glaring exaggerations and misstatements as to the "state of learning" in the loth.) im Mittelalter- Bde. 1896. Martin (anonymous author). apologetic in tone. though it contains interesting facts. F. Montalembert. Traite" des known manu- Etudes Monastiques. Mullinger. Wie man vor tausend Jahren lehrte und lernte. 1853. F. excellent annotated bibliography of the subject. B. very brief ist volume to Herschel. mainly controversial in character. S. readable. 1873. 1896. Rhetoric and Dialectic. Braunschweig.

A A A Prantl. . contains an abundance of interesting material on libraries and manuscripts in the Middle Ages. full of erudition. V. R. Still unsurpassed in its comprehensive treatment of the logico-metaphysical problems of the Middle Ages. ) 1861. comprehensive work by an eminent philologian. C. (Zeitschrift fur Deutsche Philologie. Leipzig. July 1890. Carl Ritter. An excellent book. Putnam. The topics taken up are treated in a remarkably thorough fashion. . Die Antike Kunst-prosa vom 6 ten Jahrhundert vor Christus bis It is authoritative in die Zeit der Renaissance. L. 2 vols. 5. Poole. 2 Auflage. universities. H. Treats of the history of higher education in modern times. Illustrations of the History of Mediaeval Thought. The author establishes his contentions with much force. monumental work. Volume Oxford. Friedrich. Des Ecoles et de 1'Instruction Publique en Italic aux Temps Barbares (In Documents Inddites pour Servir a 1'Histoire Literaire de 1'Italie. E." The work is the final authority on the subject. discussion of the contents and importance of Hirschau's work. 1893. The Seven Liberal Arts. but the author is too polemical and at times even abusive of brilliant his opponents. Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande. Numerous references. F. Based on full investigations. 1855-1870. 2 vols. 1877. Munchen. Bd. Oznam. A and Leipzig. The best study on the evolution of the mediaeval curriculum. Leipzig. Strong on the early development of Reichling. series of suggestive studies.) Leipzig and Paris. 2 vols. 1894. 1885. A. Books and I their Makers during the Middle Ages. collection of sources to illustrate the state of literary culture in Italy from the 8th to the 1 3th centuries. 1874. New York. Universities in Europe in the Middle Ages. Very full bibliographical notes. Hastings. C. 2 vols. Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica) Berlin. (Sitzungsberichte der Koniglichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen. R. To the collection is prefixed a scholarly essay on public education in Italy in the Dark Ages. 1897. Germany.Tlie Seven Liberal Arts of Music. An admirable example of "German thoroughness. Paulsen. Institutiones.) Halle. 2 vols.Dei. Vol. Norden. (Introduction to Volume XII. A critcal study of a Berlin manuscript of Ludolf von Liichow's version of the Distichia Catonis. Geschichte des Gelehrten Unterrichts auf den Deutschen Schulen und Universitaten.H. Emil. G. 1895. Geschichte der Erdkunde bis auf Alexander von Humboldt und Peschel. A standard work in an official series covering the History of Sciences in Peiper. The first chapter is a remarkable statement of the significance of the mediaeval university. 0. 1898. Perhaps the best general account of the history of mediaeval universities. Das Doctrinale des Alexander de Villa. in which the author has made good use of the original sources to defend his thesis. Abt Wilhelm von Hirschau's Philosophicae et Astronomicae Prantl. A general popular account The History The period of the middle ages treated fully. Th. A Parker. 1896. Rashdall. fully illustrated. 147 Nauman. Beitrage zur Lateinischen Cato-Literatur. London. English Historical Review. full of bibliographical references.

Hugo. Geschichte der Erziehung vom Anfang an bis auf unsere Zeit. Die Ars Dictandi in Italien. 1845. lichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mtinchen. 5 vols. The authority on the Rieman. J. 3 vols. New York. the work of the pages. Geschichte des Romischen Rechts. The work. Die Geschichte der Paedagogik. Stuttgart. zig. F. 1829. extended investigation into the life and influence its field. P. scholarly. pages sums up the "fatal effects" of that "state of society on sciences. Contains much up-to-date accurate material on the history of the mathematical subjects. (Opuscula Philologica. . Paris. 1884-1902." On the subject relating to this investigation. Originally a dissertation printed in 1845. Geschichte der Musiktheorie subject. Rlmusat. Argument based on keenest Robertson. textual criticism. Anselm. General survey. Die Sangerschule St. III) 1877. Lange's edition. E. different Popular. 2 vols. Quaestiones de Musicis Scriptoribus Romanis. Doctor's dissertation. It is still an authority in its field. A comprehensive history of education containing a connected series of monographs by eminent specialists. The first M. critical investigation into the sources the position of music in the scheme of liberal studies. F. History of Classical Scholarship. 1858. Smith. Robertson may represent the typical biased view of the Middle Ages so commonly accepted before the advent of the modern historical school. History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V. The determining theses are wy ell proven. 7 vols. 1834- epoch making work in its day. Schmidt. 1900. Teaching of Elementary Mathematics. The only book not accurate. with a view of the Progress of Society in Europe. D. (Sitzungsberichte der KonigRockinger. A New York. Ch. so popular in its day. De M. E. History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe. Leipzig. Rev. Heidelberg. . W. Harpers. 1899. of its kind in English. Karl. A critical investigation of the topic based on general sources. Jahrhundert. A. C. A thorough investigation of the subject. 1903. imprimis de Cassiodoro et Isidore. Fragmentary in treatment and It is inferior to the foreign treatises on classical literature. C. Gallens Schubiger. full. Studien zur Geschichte der Notenschrift. Darmstadt. Saintsbury. De. vom Achten bis Zwolften New York. G. 1903. Cambridge. Even in its thoroughness. The "proofs and illustrations" cover 2 more letters and religion. delightfully readable but not very accurate. Sandys. 1861). The first volume devoted to classical and mediaeval criticism. IX-XIX Jahrhundert. authoritative. 1878. Hugo. but not scholarly nor accurate. Terentii Varronis Disciplinarum Libris Commentarius Ritschl. Scope very general. strikingly illustrates the advance made in historical investigations in The author makes sweeping generalizations and in two recent times. Savigny. Abelard. An much A A Schmid. W. Schmidt. L. Einsiedeln. Authoritative in Rieman. the end of the eighteenth century. bearbeitet in Gemeinschaft mit einer Anzahl von Gelehrten und Schul- mannern. Replete with information and original material.1 48 F. The Seven Liberal A rts of Abelard. K. Leip- 1898.

A remarkable book. Bruxelles. New York. The middle ages are treated in full. A Schwabe. London. J. translator. 1853. Gerbert Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Mathematik der Mittelalters. Mtiller's Handbuch der Klassischen Alterthumswissenschaft. the only work on the subject. A good book. Full bibliographical notes. Mitte des 13 Jahrhunderts. Leipzig. Romae. alegebra etc. making and preservation in the middle ages. altesten Zeiten bis zur Mitte des 13 Jahrhunderts. Translated by T. 2. 5th Auflage). A scholarly general account of the manners and methods of book writing. S. based on the best secondary sources. Tropfke. VIII. M. thorough. Invaluable as a reference work for the student of mediaeval history. New und Berlin. Geschichte der Kategorienlehre. F. A good account of Anselm's life and work forms part of the study. 1885. Royale de Belgique). 2. 1871. A. 1875- Berlin. edition. Leipzig. Full of information and biographical material. (Classici Auctores e Vaticanis Codicibus T. G. W. 1900. Leipzig. charming work. 1846. Stuttgart. H. Arranged to show separately the historical development of each subject-arithmetic. Trendelenberg. schrift der Kantonsschule zu Zurich) Zurich. F. History of Philosophy. Teuffel. Stallaret. 1904. Unger. Ch. Geschichte der Elementar-Mathematik. H. The best in its field. Ueberweg. De 1'Instruction Publique au Moyen Age In (Memoires Couronnles de 1' Academic (viime au xvime Siecle). Altogether an important contribution. 1901. A standard book for the student. 0. Berlin. The work is a standard. 2 Auflage. and criticism of most important sources. Chapter on the period of the middle ages is very brief and inadequate. 4th German York. editor). F. 1888. 1888. A. . Leipzig. S. (FestSuter. Die Methodik der Praktischen Arithmetik in Historischer Entwickelung. Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter bis zur Bd. Deals especially with conditions in the Netherlands. Thesaurus Novus Latinitatis. H. References very complete. Weddingen.) Mtinchen. Essai Critique sur la Philosophic de S. W. Good account of the development of the subject in modern times. 1885. Das Schriftwesen im Mittelalter. 23. 7th Auflage. The historical chapters are the best on the subject. Morris. Stuttgart 2 vols. editi. Stolz. Very full in its notes and bibliography. System of Logic and History of Logical Doctrines. 1875. Authoritative. based on sources. 1836. A. Bd. Bd. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesens in Deutschland von den Specht. Wattenbach. Anselme (In Memoires Couronnees de 1' Academic Royale de Belgique). Mai. I. 1903. Geschichte der Romischen Literatur (bearbeitet von L. Vol. Authoritative. based entirely on original sources. Pt. Van. II. A. A valuable contribution based entirely on original sources. Weissenborn. Lindsay. Wattenbach. Unexcelled for its bibliography. The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages. 1887. Bruxelles. Taylor. et Vanderhaegen. The notes of important songs associated with the names of teachers of the school are reproduced. F. Die Mathematik auf den Universitaten des Mittelalter. F. Ueberweg. 1890. up-to-date in its scholarship.The Seven Liberal Arts 149 An exhaustive treatment of its limited field. W. Lateinische Grammatik (in I.

New York. Contains four similar critically edited versions of Cato. Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools. Bde. 1877.) Leipzig. An (Yale Studies in English. Die Ubersetzungen Arabischer Werke in das Lateinische seit dem 1 1 ten Jahrhundert (In Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. Mtinchen. Volume I on Benedictine schools and libraries .) The work is a descriptive catalogue of all Arabian books translated into Latin and includes lists of manuscripts and printed works extant. 1901. Ziegelbauer. C. Comprehensive. 1754- A unique contribution II . C. 1903. . White. . Benedict!. interesting book. popular yet scholarly. . Volume Volume different writers in all lines. F. M. Philologisch-Historische Classe. Beitrage zur Mittel-Lateinischen Spruchpoesie (In Berichte iiber die Verhandlungen der Koniglichen Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. A very readable brief account up to date. in Christendom. Williams. a Cato Rhythmicus a Cato Interpolatus and a Cato Leoninus. R. Aelfric. Zarncke. Bibliographical notes and references very full. 1862-1868. The final . XV. P. 1898. XXII. 4 vols. F. IV. Geschichte der Astronomic. Polemical in tone. An authoritative work. F. F. D. 1892.150 The Seven Liberal Arts An original investigation on the controverted questions relating to Gerbert's arithmetical and astronomical works. XXII. 2 vols.) Boston. A. Wustenfeld. History of the Warfare of Science with Theology. XVII. West. The Story of Notation. full notes and references. A. Bibliographical. R. Best on the subject. Wolf. very valuable for bibliography. White. L. New York. on Volume III. Historia Rei Literariae Ordinis S. Bd. a Cato Novus. London and New York. authority on the subject. A. Biographical.

after age insert 1. line 18. read throughout the line 25. line 31. P. line of notes. not dash. 92. read mediaeval P. after Punic War. read with the spirit of tradition of the middle ages. 91. P. 3 P. note 4. 103. VI.ERRATA. line 8. P. appear there should be a middle ages. 15. 133. . 138. read still greater interest etc. comma. 4. 134. P. line 25. P. last read period of. Line 25. 73. etc. P. P. read scriptores. read first line 22. read Orelli. line 21. read understood. line P.

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/ KKET RY 3iuc.H A Abels on. Paul The seven liberal arts 3 .

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