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Noam Chomsky visiting Vancouver, British Columbia in 2004 Other names Born Avram Noam Chomsky December 7, 1928 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 20th / 21st-century philosophy Western philosophy Generative linguistics, Analytic philosophy
Era Region School
Main interests Linguistics · Psychology Philosophy of language Philosophy of mind Politics · Ethics Notable ideas Generative grammar, universal grammar, transformational grammar, government and binding, X-bar theory, Chomsky hierarchy, context-free grammar, principles and parameters, Minimalist program, language acquisition device, poverty of the stimulus,  Chomsky–Schützenberger theorem, Chomsky Normal Form, propaganda model
Avram Noam Chomsky (/ˈnoʊmˈtʃɒmski/; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, and activist. He is an Institute Professor and Professor (Emeritus) in the Department of Linguistics & Philosophy at MIT, where he has worked for over 50 years. Chomsky has been described as the "father of modern linguistics" and a major figure of analytic philosophy. His work has influenced fields such as computer science, mathematics, and psychology. Ideologically identifying with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism, Chomsky is known for his critiques of U.S. foreign policy and contemporary capitalism, and he has been described as a prominent cultural figure. His media criticism has included Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988), co-written with Edward S. Herman, an analysis articulating the propaganda model theory for examining the media. According to the Arts and Humanities Citation Index in 1992, Chomsky was cited as a source more often than any other living scholar from 1980 to 1992, and was the eighth most cited source overall. Chomsky is the author of over 100 books. He is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy, the universal grammar theory, and the Chomsky–Schützenberger theorem.
Life and career
Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, to Jewish parents in the affluent East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the elder son of noted professor of Hebrew at Gratz College and IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) member William Chomsky (1896–1977), a native of Ukraine. His mother, Elsie Chomsky (née Simonofsky)—a native of what is present-day Belarus—grew up in the United States and, unlike her husband, spoke "ordinary New York English". Chomsky's parents' first language was Yiddish, but Chomsky said it was "taboo" in his family to speak it. Although Chomsky's mother was part of the radical activism in the 1930s, he was influenced largely by his uncle who, having never passed 4th grade, owned a newsstand that acted as an "intellectual center [where] professors of this and that argu[ed] all night". Chomsky was influenced also by being a part of a Hebrew-based, Zionist organization, as well as by hanging around anarchist bookstores. He describes his family as living in a sort of "Jewish ghetto", split into a "Yiddish side" and "Hebrew side", with his family aligning with the latter and bringing him up "immersed in Hebrew culture and literature", though he means more a "cultural ghetto than a physical one". Chomsky also describes tensions he experienced with Irish Catholics and German Catholics and anti-semitism in the mid-1930s. He recalls "beer parties" celebrating the fall of Paris to the Nazis. In a discussion of the irony of his staying in the 1980s in a Jesuit House in Central America, Chomsky explained that during his childhood, "We were the only Jewish family around. I grew up with a visceral fear of Catholics. They're the people who beat you up on your way to school. So I knew when they came out of that building down the street, which was the Jesuit school, they were raving anti-Semites. So childhood memories took a long time to overcome." Chomsky remembers the first article he wrote was at age 10 while a student at Oak Lane Country Day School about the threat of the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona in the Spanish Civil War. From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics. A graduate of Central High School of Philadelphia, Chomsky began studying philosophy and linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945, taking classes with philosophers such as C. West Churchman and Nelson Goodman and linguist Zellig Harris. Harris's teaching included his discovery of transformations as a mathematical analysis of language structure (mappings from one subset to another in the set of sentences). Chomsky referred to the morphophonemic rules in his 1951 master's thesis—The Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew—as transformations in the sense of Carnap's 1938 notion of rules of transformation (vs. rules of formation), and subsequently reinterpreted the notion of grammatical transformations in a very different way from Harris, as operations on the productions of a context-free grammar (derived from Post production systems). Harris's political views were instrumental in shaping those of Chomsky. Chomsky earned a BA in 1949 and an MA in 1951. In 1949, he married linguist Carol Schatz. They remained married for 59 years until her death from cancer in December 2008. The couple had two daughters, Aviva (b. 1957) and Diane (b. 1960), and a son, Harry (b. 1967). With his wife Carol, Chomsky spent time in 1953 living in HaZore'a, a kibbutz in Israel. Asked in an interview whether the stay was "a disappointment" Chomsky replied, "No, I loved it"; however, he "couldn't stand the ideological atmosphere" and "fervent nationalism" in the early 1950s at the kibbutz, with Stalin being defended by many of the left-leaning kibbutz members who chose to paint a rosy image of future possibilities and contemporary realities in the USSR. Chomsky notes seeing many positive elements in the commune-like living of the kibbutz, in which parents and children lived together in separate houses, and when asked whether there were "lessons that we have learned from the history of the kibbutz", responded, that in "some respects, the kibbutzim came closer to the anarchist ideal than any other attempt that lasted for more than a very brief moment before destruction, or that was on anything like a similar scale. In these respects, I think they were extremely attractive and successful; apart from personal accident, I probably would have lived there myself – for how long, it's hard to guess." Chomsky received his PhD in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1955. He conducted part of his doctoral research during four years at Harvard University as a Harvard Junior Fellow. In his doctoral thesis, he began to develop some of his linguistic ideas, elaborating on them in his 1957 book Syntactic Structures, one of his
Massachusetts. and he is frequently sought out for his views by publications and news outlets internationally. (Hence the term principles and parameters. which are often likened to switches. and that he discovered a "universal grammar" (UG). In fact. In 1977 he delivered the Huizinga Lecture in Leiden. This was followed by his 1969 book. under the title: Intellectuals and the State. As of 2010. the Netherlands. This approach takes utterances (sequences of words) to have a syntax characterized by a formal grammar. during the period that Kaczynski was at large. including novel ones. a child learning a language need only acquire the necessary lexical items (words. foreign policy. and in 1976 he was appointed Institute Professor.S. Chomsky had all of his mail checked for explosives. with a limited set of grammatical rules and a finite set of terms. while the kitten will never acquire either ability. challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar. Perhaps his most influential and time-tested contribution to the field is the claim that modeling knowledge of language using a formal grammar accounts for the "productivity" or "creativity" of language. beginning with his Syntactic Structures. later published as Lectures on Government and Binding (LGB)—makes strong claims regarding universal grammar: that the grammatical principles underlying languages are innate and fixed. if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data. From 1966 to 1976 he held the Ferrari P. Chomsky simply observed that while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning. a formal grammar of a language can explain the ability of a hearer-speaker to produce and interpret an infinite number of utterances. in particular while on the MIT campus. Chomsky joined the staff of MIT in 1955 and in 1961 was appointed full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics (now the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy). He states that he often receives undercover police protection. and travels often. although it is also related to rationalist ideas of a priori knowledge. Chomsky has received death threats because of his criticisms of U. 3 Thought Linguistics Chomskyan linguistics. grammatical morphemes. as in Spanish). Chomsky labeled whatever the relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks the "language acquisition device" (LAD) and suggested that one of the tasks for linguistics should be to figure out what the LAD is and what constraints it puts on the range of possible human languages. foreign policy and the legitimacy of U. the human child will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language. and . a context-free grammar extended with transformational rules. 75). giving lectures on politics. Ward Professorship of Modern Languages and Linguistics. in particular. He was also on a list of planned targets created by Theodore Kaczynski. power have raised controversy.Noam Chomsky best-known works in linguistics.) In this view. in The New York Review of Books. a collection of essays that established him at the forefront of American dissent. Chomsky resides in Lexington. His far-reaching criticisms of U. or can be optionally dropped. a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955.S. although he does not agree with the police protection. as in English.S. better known as the Unabomber. The Principles and Parameters approach (P&P)—developed in his Pisa 1979 Lectures. American Power and the New Mandarins. The universal features that would result from these constraints are often termed "universal grammar" or UG. which indicates whether an explicit subject is always required. Chomsky has taught at MIT continuously for 55 years. He has always acknowledged his debt to Pāṇini for his modern notion of an explicit generative grammar. In February 1967. Chomsky became one of the leading opponents of the Vietnam War with the publication of his essay. In other words. and idioms). and the differences among the world's languages can be characterized in terms of parameter settings in the brain (such as the pro-drop parameter. "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". often given to this approach. It is a popular misconception that Chomsky proved that language is entirely innate.
His best-known work in phonology is The Sound Pattern of English (1968). This work has had a great significance for the development in the field. While phonological theory has since moved beyond "SPE phonology" in many important respects. critics continue to argue that the formalisms within Chomskyan linguistics are Anglocentric and misrepresent the properties of languages that are different from English. in contrast with the largely representational approach of classic P&P. learning mechanism were being employed). Chomsky's ideas have had a strong influence on researchers of language acquisition in children. Initially. which can be done based on a few key examples. The knowledge of Universal Grammar would serve to bridge that gap. whereas other seemingly logical kinds of errors never occur (and. rather than language-specific. including autosegmental phonology. with the consequence that their theories are not psychologically plausible. he argues that there is an enormous gap between the linguistic stimuli to which children are exposed and the rich linguistic knowledge they attain (the "poverty of the stimulus" argument). Proponents of this view argue that the pace at which children learn languages is inexplicably rapid. the SPE system is considered the precursor of some of the most influential phonological theories today. explaining language with a number of general processing mechanisms in the brain that interact with the extensive and complex social environment in which language is used and learned. the strongest evidence for the existence of Universal Grammar is simply the fact that children successfully acquire their native languages in so little time. reverting to a derivational approach to generation. implying that children need only learn certain parochial features of their native languages. 4 . sometimes just one. This practice has been criticized on general methodological grounds. hundreds of different languages have now received at least some attention within Chomskyan linguistic analyses. often termed generative grammar. Generative grammar The Chomskyan approach towards syntax. while retaining the core concept of "principles and parameters. From Chomsky's perspective. One recurring criticism of the Chomskyan variety of generative grammar is that it is Anglocentric and Eurocentric. The innate body of linguistic knowledge is often termed universal grammar. unless children have an innate ability to learn languages. lexical phonology and optimality theory. Other critics (see language learning) have questioned whether it is necessary to posit Universal Grammar to explain child language acquisition. have argued that Chomskyan linguists pay insufficient attention to experimental data from language processing. according to Chomsky. in his Minimalist Program (1995). though sympathetic to Chomsky's overall program. written with Morris Halle (and often known as simply SPE). stripping from it all but the barest necessary elements. are also pointed to as indications of innateness. but they have also received criticism. Since the 1960s. and instead advocate emergentist or connectionist theories. The similar steps followed by children all across the world when learning languages. In addition. Chomsky has maintained that much of this knowledge is innate.Noam Chomsky determine the appropriate parameter settings. while advocating a general approach to the architecture of the human language faculty that emphasizes principles of economy and optimal design. Chomsky's theories have been immensely influential within linguistics. and that often linguists working in this tradition have a tendency to base claims about Universal Grammar on a very small sample of languages. Some psychologists and psycholinguists. More recently. though many researchers in this area such as Elizabeth Bates and Michael Tomasello argue very strongly against Chomsky's theories. However. should be attested if a purely general. Chomsky's approach has been criticized as a form of linguistic imperialism. Chomsky no longer publishes on phonology. studies grammar as a body of knowledge possessed by language users. and the fact that children make certain characteristic errors as they learn their first language. Chomskyan linguists rely heavily on the intuitions of native speakers regarding which sentences of their languages are well-formed. Thus. In spite of the diversity of languages that have been characterized by UG derivations." Chomsky attempts a major overhaul of the linguistic machinery involved in the LGB model. Furthermore. the Eurocentrism was exhibited in an overemphasis on the study of English.
is inherently illegitimate. Chomsky is also a member of the International Organization for a Participatory Society which he describes as having the potential to "carry us a long way towards unifying the many initiatives here and around the world and molding them into a powerful and effective force.. and that the burden of proof is on those in authority. unless justified. and he has praised libertarian socialism. published by the anarchist book collective AK Press in 2006. Although Chomsky tries to avoid the ambiguity of labels. with origins in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism". Chomsky has engaged in political activism all of his adult life and expressed opinions on politics and world events. which are widely cited. Today there are many different branches of generative grammar. an event of which he has been very critical. Authority for its own sake is inherently unjustified. Chomsky has in turn argued that his views are those the powerful do not want to hear. with increasing expressive power. lexical functional grammar." and he has described himself as an anarcho-syndicalist. Chomsky hierarchy Chomsky is famous for investigating various kinds of formal languages and whether or not they might be capable of capturing key properties of human language. publicized. and discussed. For example. An example given by Chomsky of a legitimate authority is that exerted by an adult to prevent a young child from wandering into traffic. He holds that workers should own and control their workplace. Schützenberger at the Sorbonne. He feels that it is an attack on personal integrity that undermines individual freedom. Chomsky has strongly criticized the foreign policy of the United States. Chomsky asserts that authority. one can view grammatical frameworks such as head-driven phrase structure grammar.e. the authority in question should be dismantled. He is a member of the Campaign for Peace and Democracy and the Industrial Workers of the World international union. . P. In addition to being relevant in linguistics. a view held (as he notes) by the Lowell Mill Girls. An alternate method of dealing with languages is based upon Formal Power series. Chomsky argues that modeling some aspects of human language requires a more complex formal grammar (as measured by the Chomsky hierarchy) than modeling others. while a regular language is powerful enough to model English morphology. fits any standard description of terrorism. Thus theorems about languages are often dealt with as either languages (grammars) or automata. Interestingly.Noam Chomsky arguing that domain-general learning mechanisms are sufficient." He published a book on anarchism titled Chomsky on Anarchism. His Chomsky hierarchy partitions formal grammars into classes. Formal Power Series are similar to the Taylor Series one encounters in a course on Calculus. 5 Politics Chomsky has stated that his "personal visions are fairly traditional anarchist ones. including the secret aid given to the Contras in Nicaragua. but with significant differences in execution. and combinatory categorial grammar as broadly Chomskyan and generative in orientation. the Chomsky hierarchy has also become important in computer science (especially in compiler construction and automata theory). Formal Power series as well as the relationship between languages and semi-groups continued to occupy M. i. He contends that there is little moral difference between chattel slavery and renting one's self to an owner or "wage slavery". and it is especially useful for languages where words (terminal symbols) are commutative. his political views are often characterized in news accounts as "leftist" or "left-wing. He often argues that America's intervention in foreign nations. Indeed. each successive class can generate a broader set of formal languages than the one before. If this burden can't be met. and for this reason he is considered an American political dissident. He claims double standards in a foreign policy preaching democracy and freedom for all while allying itself with non-democratic and repressive organizations and states such as Chile under Augusto Pinochet and argues that this results in massive human rights violations. it is not powerful enough to model English syntax. there is an equivalence between the Chomsky language hierarchy and the different kinds of automata. or groups.
" Before its collapse. that have been achieved by centuries of popular struggle. domestic drug policy does not carry out its stated goals. OK." Chomsky objects to the criticism that anarchism is inconsistent with support for government welfare. He has stated: U. global "war on drugs". I think that anyone in the Third World would be making a grave error if they succumbed to illusions about these matters. He believes that the radical humanist ideas of his two major influences. were "rooted in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism." He has argued that the mass media in the United States largely serve as a "bought priesthood" of the U. such as marijuana are attacked because of the effect achieved by persecuting the poor. a smaller power which happens to have its boot on other people's necks. He believes that society should be highly organized and based on democratic control of communities and work places." He favors drug policy reform." He has also said "In many respects. "Evaluating countries is senseless and I would never put things in those terms. and want to think about a possible tomorrow. Herman has written that the American media manufactures consent among the public." Regarding the death of Osama bin Laden. millions of refugees. other non-profitable crops. for example in 1986 during a question/answer following a lecture he gave at Universidad Centroamericana in Nicaragua. Chomsky has condemned the 2010 US Supreme Court Citizens United ruling revoking the limits on campaign finance. though that's true too.Noam Chomsky including "official definitions in the US Code and Army Manuals in the early 1980s. If it isn't about reducing substance abuse.S. and dumped his body in the Atlantic." Chomsky opposes the U. his crimes vastly exceed bin Laden’s. stating in part: One can. and refers to it as "the war on certain drugs. claiming its language is misleading. assassinated him. destruction of much of the country. and is critical of "authoritarian" communist branches of socialism." Chomsky responded: "One of the truths about the world is that there are two superpowers. what is it about? It is reasonably clear. specifically an anarcho-syndicalist. Bertrand Russell and John Dewey. are to be admired. and retain their revolutionary character. but also in terms of individual relations. particularly in the area of free speech.-based corporations. Chomsky argued that. In a famous reference to Walter Lippmann. Chomsky is critical of the American "state capitalist" system and big business.S." Chomsky has stated that he believes the United States remains the "greatest country in the world". I don't just mean in terms of limits on state coercion. in education and prevention rather than military or police action as a means of reducing drug use. with the three intertwined through common interests. that the criminalization of certain substances is a technique of social control. he describes himself as a socialist. and policymakers are well aware of that. He also believes that socialist values exemplify the rational and morally consistent extension of original unreconstructed classical liberal and radical humanist ideas to an industrial context. Chomsky stated: "We might ask ourselves how we would be reacting if Iraqi commandos landed at George W. but then don't pretend to have any interest in human beings and 6 . whereas crops such as tobacco receive no mention in governmental exposition. The United States comes closer to classlessness in terms of interpersonal relations than virtually any society. that substances tend to be criminalized when they are associated with the so-called dangerous classes. In an interview in 1999. when challenged about how he could "talk about North American imperialism and Russian imperialism in the same breath. [and] the bitter sectarian conflict that has now spread to the rest of the region. Chomsky along with his coauthor Edward S. calling it a "corporate takeover of democracy. take the position that we don't care about the problems people face today. Uncontroversially. of course. Bush's compound. Chomsky also condemned Soviet imperialism. government and U. and he is not a 'suspect' but uncontroversially the 'decider' who gave the orders to commit the 'supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole' (quoting the Nuremberg Tribunal) for which Nazi criminals were hanged: the hundreds of thousands of deaths. one a huge power which happens to have its boot on your neck.S. another. but that some of America's advances. both from current actions and the historical record. the United States is the freest country in the world. a comment that he later clarified by saying.S.
. Chomsky disagreed. to build a better society for tomorrow – the classical anarchist position. and try to survive. because he "knew it would hurt them" he says. "I don't think a Jewish or Christian or Islamic state is a proper concept. support systems for people who need them. Chomsky has a broad view of free-speech rights.S. That's exactly right. arguing that " 'supporters of Israel' are in reality supporters of its moral degeneration and probable ultimate destruction" and that "Israel's very clear choice of expansion over security may well lead to that consequence." Chomsky hesitated before publishing work critical of Israeli policies while his parents were alive. he said regarding the connection between his politics and his work in linguistics: I still feel myself that there is a kind of tenuous connection. the United States' support of the government." Chomsky disagreed with the founding of Israel as a Jewish state. Anything else will receive the well-merited contempt of people who do not have the luxury to disregard the circumstances in which they live. Chomsky has made many criticisms of the Israeli government.Noam Chomsky their fate. Chomsky holds views that can be summarized as anti-war but not strictly pacifist." On May 16. others -. its supporters. Government -. etc. Chomsky's complaint prompted The Guardian to publish an apologetic correction and to withdraw the article from the paper's website. with the caveat that a preferable outcome would have been to end or prevent the war through earlier diplomacy. In a 1969 interview. I think that anyone's political ideas or their ideas of social organization must be rooted ultimately in some concept of human nature and human needs. saying. and it leads directly to support for the people facing problems today: for enforcement of health and safety regulation. He prominently opposed the Vietnam War and most other wars in his lifetime. or you reject it and prefer Stalinist/fascist standards". and its treatment of the Palestinian people.S. He has stated that "with regard to freedom of speech there are basically two positions: you defend it vigorously for views you hate. and stay in the seminar room and intellectual coffee house with other privileged people. Chomsky maintained that based on the several hours of interviewing. but it is a necessary condition. is the bitter hatred of democracy that is revealed both by the U. 2010. "mostly because of their friends. especially in the mass media. saying that the Interior Ministry official who interviewed him was taking instructions from his superiors. Israeli authorities detained Chomsky and ultimately refused his entry to the West Bank via Jordan. I would not want to overstate it but I think it means something to me at least. I would object to the United States as a Christian state..Hillary Clinton." Chomsky refuses to take legal action against those who may have libeled him and prefers to counter libels through open letters in newspapers. Or one can take a much more humane position: I want to work. A spokesman for the Israeli Prime Minister indicated that the refusal of entry was simply due to a border guard who "overstepped his authority" and a second attempt to enter would likely be allowed. He expressed these views with tax resistance and peace walks. 7 .and also by the diplomatic service. and opposes censorship. He maintains that U. One notable example of this approach is his response to an article by Emma Brockes in The Guardian which alleged he denied the existence of the Srebrenica massacre. In 1968. provision of national health insurance. involvement in World War II to defeat the Axis powers was probably justified. he was denied entry because of the things he says and because he was visiting a university in the West Bank but no Israeli universities. he signed the “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge. quite different from the slogans in the question. He believes that the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were "among the most unspeakable crimes in history". With reference to the United States diplomatic cables leak. today. Chomsky has frequently stated that there is no connection between his work in linguistics and his political views and is generally critical of the idea that competent discussion of political topics requires expert knowledge in academic fields. Chomsky suggested that "perhaps the most dramatic revelation . including "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. who reacted hysterically to views like those expressed in my work. He published a number of articles about the war in Vietnam. That is not a sufficient condition for organizing for a different and better future.
S. since they are profit-oriented businesses selling a product—readers and audiences—to other businesses (advertisers). ownership. he notes that most major media outlets are owned by large corporations. As you know. The second. it has been broadened to allow for shifts in public opinion. especially the US. the fourth filter.) The model describes how the media form a decentralized and non-conspiratorial but nonetheless very powerful propaganda system. Flak. Herman and Chomsky's book Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (1988) explores this topic in depth. more democratic societies like the U. non-violent means of control. In March of 2012. Chomsky endorsed Jill Stein for President of the United States in 2012. Nick Cohen has criticised Chomsky for frequently making overly critical statements about Western governments. I strongly oppose the execution of Steven Woods on September 13. presenting their "propaganda model" of the news media with numerous detailed case studies demonstrating it. that is able to mobilize an elite consensus. They use a number of such examples to attempt to show that in cases where an "official enemy" does something (like murder of a religious official). notes that the outlets derive the majority of their funding from advertising. In explaining the first filter. Norms. use subtle. unlike totalitarian systems. In an often-quoted remark. the news media are dependent on government institutions and major businesses with strong biases as sources (the third filter) for much of their information. It argues the bias derives from five "filters" that all published news must "pass through. its structures and constraints. Chomsky states that "propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state." which combine to systematically distort news coverage. and the subordination of the former to the latter. frame public debate within elite perspectives and at the same time give the appearance of democratic consent. thus victims of "enemy" states 8 . According to this propaganda model. refers to the various pressure groups that attack the media for supposed bias. where physical force can readily be used to coerce the general population. Chomsky and Herman test their model empirically by picking "paired examples"—pairs of events that were objectively similar except for the alignment of domestic elite interests. military. saying. has reached historic heights. refer to the common conceptions shared by those in the profession of journalism. early research at the institution (MIT) where he did his linguistic research had been substantially funded by the American military. In addition. I think the death penalty is a crime no matter what the circumstances. Thus." (Media Control) The model attempts to explain this perceived systemic bias of the mass media in terms of structural economic causes rather than a conspiracy of people. and its perceived role in supporting big business and government interests. There could hardly be a better time to open up political debate to the just anger and frustrations of citizens who are watching the country move towards what might be irreversible decline while a tiny sector of concentrated wealth and power implements policies of benefit to them and opposed by the general population. with the fall of the Soviet Union. the press investigates thoroughly and devotes a great amount of coverage to the matter. published in 1988. And for sound reasons.S. the model expects them to publish news that reflects the desires and values of those businesses. the fifth filter. the fifth filter was "anticommunism". However. in spite of his political criticism of American and European military imperialism.Noam Chomsky Some critics have accused Chomsky of hypocrisy when. he has an even greater responsibility to criticize and resist its immoral actions. (Note: in the original text. not readers. 2011. funding. whom they are casting adrift. He is also an outspoken advocate against the use of the death penalty and has spoken against the execution of Steven Woods. Media Another focus of Chomsky's political work has been an analysis of mainstream mass media (especially in the United States). popular anger at the political and economic institutions. Chomsky makes the argument that because he has received funding from the U. and for allegedly refusing to retract his speculations when facts become available which disprove them. and it is particularly awful in the Steven Woods case. Edward S.
or perhaps suggest an entirely different course. but that is only a fraction of the total word count. or gibberish. But there is a difference. Human affairs are way too complicated. Although Chomsky believes that a scientific background is important to teach proper reasoning. in cases of particular interest to me. Quite regularly. As soon as things become too complex. the ability to use language is. behavioral terms. These functionally different kinds of responses. that may be my own limitation. for example. He defined "Verbal Behavior" as learned behavior that has characteristic consequences delivered through the learned behavior of others. (Chomsky—Language and Mind. rather than "discoveries. the press downplays the story. which required in turn separate explanations. using the only methods I know of. I know how to get to understand them. linguistics is a branch of cognitive psychology. I therefore read the papers with some hope that they would help me "transcend" these limitations." They also test their model against the case that is often held up as the best example of a free and aggressively independent press. what I understand is largely truism or error. and I also know that people in these fields can explain the contents to me at my level. the majority of his contributions to science have been frameworks and hypotheses. Skinner's approach focused on the circumstances in which language was used. and have done so. responding to someone asking for water." As such. sharply contrasted both with traditional notions of language and Chomsky's psycholinguistic approach. Even in this case. error. "my eyes glaze over" when I read polysyllabic discourse on the themes of poststructuralism and postmodernism. and I do not know how to proceed. Chomsky published an influential critique of B. and rejects the views of it as a catalog of facts or mechanical explanations. And it rarely reaches human affairs. Admittedly. In 1959. True. etc. there are lots of other things I don't understand: the articles in the current issues of math and physics journals. genuine insights in linguistics imply concomitant understandings of aspects of mental processing and human nature.Noam Chomsky are considered "worthy". His theory of a universal grammar was seen by many as a direct challenge to the established behaviorist theories of the time and had major consequences for understanding how children learn language and what. they argue that the press was behaving subserviently to elite interests. he considers certain so-called post-structuralist or postmodern critiques of logic and reason to be nonsensical: I have spent a lot of my life working on questions such as these. and what’s at the edge of understanding is usually fairly simple. "rationality. But when the domestic government or an ally does the same thing (or worse). and asks hard questions about them. no one seems to be able to explain to me why the latest post-this-and-that is (for the most part) other than truism. those condemned here as "science". Skinner's Verbal Behavior.. This makes for a view of communicative behaviors much larger than that usually addressed by linguists. In the latter case. 9 Science Chomsky sees science as a straightforward search for explanation. for example. For Chomsky. Psychology Chomsky's work in linguistics has had profound implications for modern psychology. science can’t deal with them." "logic. asking for water was functionally a different response than labeling something as water." and so on. he holds that science in general is "inadequate" to understand complicated problems like human affairs: Science talks about very simple things. thus victims of US or US client states are considered "unworthy. I'm afraid I was disappointed.. In contrast. . a book in which Skinner offered a theoretical account of language in functional. exactly. the media coverage of the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War.F. so that I can gain what (partial) understanding I may want. But it’s a complicated matter: Science studies what’s at the edge of understanding. In this light. Chomsky thought that a functionalist explanation restricting itself to questions of communicative performance ignored important questions.
Subsequent psychologists have extended this general "nativist" thesis beyond language. Chomsky's review. Chomsky raised the examples of rapid language acquisition of children. and more recently developed experimentally and theoretically by Jacques Mehler and Stanislas Dehaene in particular in the domain of numerical cognition lend support to the Chomskyan "nativism". The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. In the review Chomsky emphasized that the scientific application of behavioral principles from animal research is severely lacking in explanatory adequacy and is furthermore particularly superficial as an account of human verbal behavior because a theory restricting itself to external conditions. cohering. The assumption that important aspects of language are the product of universal innate ability runs counter to Skinner's radical behaviorism. Harvard University Press." cannot adequately account for generative grammar. These and similar critiques have raised certain points not generally acknowledged outside of behavioral psychology. Chomsky laid out an explanation of human language faculties that has become the model for investigation in some areas of psychology. or that the mind actually contains mental states. the most famous criticism being that of Kenneth MacCorquodale's 1970 paper On Chomsky’s Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. pages 307–319). The review has been further critiqued for misrepresenting the work of Skinner and others. one must first postulate a genetic linguistic endowment. doubts. pages 83–99). The acquisition and development of a language is a result of the unfolding of innate propensities triggered by the experiential input of the external environment. it is averred that those most influenced by Chomsky's paper probably either already substantially agreed with Chomsky or never actually read it." It has been claimed that Chomsky's critique of Skinner's methodology and basic assumptions paved the way for the "cognitive revolution". Chomsky made the concept of "modularity" a critical feature of the mind's cognitive architecture. and the universally creative language use of competent native speakers to highlight the ways in which Skinner's view exemplified under-determination of theory by evidence. he argued that most of the important properties of language and mind are innate. This model contrasts sharply with the 10 . it is argued that he made several serious errors. volume 13. The mind is composed of an array of interacting. volume 54. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. It does not. the critics maintain that the review failed to demonstrate what it has often been cited as doing. beliefs. Chomsky's 1959 review has drawn fire from a number of critics. provide clues about the type of rules that would organize neuronal connections to permit language competence. Much of the present conception of how the mind works draws directly from ideas that found their first persuasive author of modern times in Chomsky. First is that the mind is "cognitive". specialized subsystems with limited flows of inter-communication. to "what is learned. and mentalism (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. we are still far from understanding the genetic bases of human language.Noam Chomsky 1968). or the differences between Skinner's behaviorism and other varieties. In his 1966 Cartesian Linguistics and subsequent works. including their quickly developing ability to form grammatical sentences. On account of these perceived problems. and so on. Although links between the genetic setup of humans and aptitude to language have been suggested at that time and in later discussions. Consequently. 1980). He focused on questions concerning the operation and development of innate structures for syntax capable of creatively organizing. however. Lastly. The link between human innate aptitude to language and heredity has been at the core of the debate opposing Noam Chomsky to Jean Piaget at the Abbaye de Royaumont in 1975 (Language and Learning. such as the claim that Chomsky did not possess an adequate understanding of either behavioral psychology in general. Second. including by quoting out of context. As such. He argued that to understand human verbal behavior such as the creative aspects of language use and language development. Philippe Courrège and Antoine Danchin. There are three key ideas. Work derived from the model of selective stabilization of synapses set up by Jean-Pierre Changeux. Chomsky has maintained that the review was directed at the way Skinner's variant of behavioral psychology "was being used in Quinean empiricism and naturalization of philosophy. adapting and combining words and phrases into intelligible utterances. the shift in American psychology between the 1950s through the 1970s from being primarily behavioral to being primarily cognitive. MacCorquodale's argument was updated and expanded in important respects by Nathan Stemmer in a 1990 paper.
for example. and many others. and they're interested in the issues because they are important. in 1997. Chomsky has received many honorary degrees from universities around the world... Jr. William F. ". a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University. The Chomsky hierarchy is often taught in fundamental computer science courses as it confers insight into the various types of formal languages. was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability. Richard    Perle.. by emotion and so on.. he delivered the John Locke Lectures at Oxford University. with various features of protein structures". linguistics. I doubt that people are attracted to whatever the persona is.Noam Chomsky old idea that any piece of information in the mind could be accessed by any other cognitive process (optical illusions.. used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system. The 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine and Physiology. the Nehru Memorial Lecture in New Delhi.. the Huizinga Lecture in Leiden.. including from the following: • University of London • University of Chicago • Loyola University of Chicago . Niels K. to name a few.I must admit to taking a copy of Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures along with me on my honeymoon in 1961 . Here was a marvelous thing: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition!". Academic achievements. The Davie Memorial Lecture on Academic Freedom in Cape Town. Hilary Putnam. Michel Foucault. in philosophy. particularly combinatorialists. Nim Chimpsky. Jerne.. in 1988 the Massey Lectures at the University of Toronto. Chomsky said that "I'm a boring speaker and I like it that way. in 1972. Buckley." Chomsky at the World Social Forum (Porto Alegre) in 2003 Influence Chomskyan models have been used as a theoretical basis in various fields of study. cannot be "turned off" even when they are known to be illusions). The title of Jerne's Stockholm Nobel lecture was "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System". and Alan Dershowitz. in 1977.. Christopher   Hitchens. This hierarchy can also be discussed in mathematical terms and has generated interest among mathematicians.. 11 Debates Chomsky has been known to vigorously defend and debate his views and opinions. Famous computer scientist Donald Knuth admits to reading Syntactic Structures during his honeymoon and being greatly influenced by it.. and politics.. People are interested in the issues.. Some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results. equating "components of a generative grammar . He has had notable debates with Jean Piaget." "We don't want to be swayed by superficial eloquence. titled "Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies". awards and honors In early 1969. George Lakoff. In response to his speaking style being criticized as boring. Willard Quine. the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture at University of Cambridge. in January 1970.
and is a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association. the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences. Chomsky received The Uppsala University (Sweden) Honorary Doctor's degree in commemoration of Carolus Linnaeus. and others. He is twice winner of The Orwell Award. he received the President's Medal from the Literary and Debating Society of the National University of Ireland.Noam Chomsky • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Swarthmore College University of Delhi Bard College University of Massachusetts University of Pennsylvania Georgetown University Amherst College University of Cambridge University of Colorado University of Buenos Aires McGill University Rovira i Virgili University Columbia University Villanova University University of Connecticut University of Maine Scuola Normale Superiore University of Western Ontario University of Toronto Harvard University Universidad de Chile University of Bologna Universidad de La Frontera University of Calcutta Universidad Nacional de Colombia Vrije Universiteit Brussel Santo Domingo Institute of Technology Uppsala University University of Athens University of Cyprus Central Connecticut State University National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Peking University National Tsing Hua University  12 He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Since 2009 he is an honorary member of IAPTI. the Helmholtz Medal. the National Academy of Sciences. Galway. He is a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Department of Social Sciences. In February 2008. the 1999 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science. the Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award. and the American Philosophical Society. In addition. In 2005. he is a member of other professional and learned societies in the United States and abroad. Chomsky received an honorary fellowship from the Literary and Historical Society. granted by The National Council of Teachers of English for "Distinguished Contributions to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language" (in 1987 and 1989). In 2007. .
Director: Christopher P. Directors: Sut Jhally and Bathsheba Ratzkoff (2004) On Power. Journalist: Nicolas Rossier. in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers. critical analysis of power and promotion of human rights". to Chomsky. Director: Rebecca Chaiklin and Donovan Leitch (2001) Power and Terror: Noam Chomsky in Our Times. In 2011. Baraka Productions (2004) Lake of Fire. In June 2011. 2010. his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous because of three factors. Director: Denis Delestrac (2010) Article 12: Waking up in a surveillance society. 13 Filmography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. saying "I don't pay a lot of attention to polls". attended by Chomsky and dozens of his family and friends. Nonetheless. by Zoltán Gendler Szabó. htm). In April 2010. Second. First. turning away from the prevailing empiricism of the middle of the twentieth century: behaviorism in psychology.. Rex Brynen. Writer: Joel Bakan (2003) Peace. 2007. The concert. Director: Will Pascoe (2003) The Corporation. 196–200). he was voted seventh in the list of "Heroes of our time". featured music composed by Edward Manukyan and speeches by Chomsky's colleagues. CO. a special honorary concert for Chomsky was given at Kresge Auditorium at MIT. Director: John Junkerman (2002) Distorted Morality—America's War On Terror?. 1860–1960. Actor Viggo Mortensen with avant-garde guitarist Buckethead dedicated their 2006 album. Fouad Moughrabi. org/ sici?sici=0377-919X(199422)23:4<196:L>2. In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006. Chomsky has an Erdős number of four.Noam Chomsky In 2010. Marshall (out in 2009) The Money Fix. On January 22. 1965)) laid a conceptual foundation for a new. Havens Center's Award for Lifetime Contribution to Critical Scholarship. 1994. jstor. Chomsky was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize. pp. Director: Richard Hall (2008) Chomsky & Cie Director: Olivier Azam (out in 2008) An Inconvenient Tax. Producers: Eli Choukri. philosophy coming as a distant third. structuralism in linguistics and positivism in philosophy. 23. including David Pesetsky of MIT and Gennaro Chierchia. Dissent and Racism: A discussion with Noam Chomsky.. 0. which cited his "unfailing courage. head of the linguistics department at Harvard University. Directors: Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott. Director: Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick (1992) Last Party 2000. "Letters to the Editor" in Journal of Palestine Studies (http:/ / links. Chomsky contributed substantially to a major methodological shift in the human sciences. Chomsky became the third scholar to receive the University of Wisconsin's A. Journal of Palestine Studies via JSTOR (Vol. Summer. info/ bios/ 2004----. Chomsky was voted the leading living public intellectual in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll conducted by the British magazine Prospect. Director: Juan Manuel Biaiñ (2010) References  Kanan Makiya. Relevant quotation: "On page 146 of my book. Director: John Junkerman (2003) Noam Chomsky: Rebel Without a Pause (TV). his groundbreaking books on syntax (Chomsky (1957. Germany. accessed December 4. Director: Tony Kaye (2006) American Feud: A History of Conservatives and Liberals. He reacted. I clearly adopt the propaganda model developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. Adel Safty. Propaganda & the Promised Land. No.2-3). called Pandemoniumfromamerica. 4. Chomsky was inducted into IEEE Intelligent Systems' AI's Hall of Fame for the "significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems". ed."  "Noam Chomsky" (http:/ / chomsky.E. cognitivist approach to linguistics and . Ernest Lepore (2004). "Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism. Chomsky received the Erich Fromm Prize in Stuttgart. Director: Alan Rosenblith (2009) Pax Americana and the Weaponization of Space.
info. . . edu/ OLD/ calendar/ past_events/ millennium/ final. html). htm). cogsci. He is also a disturbingly divided intellectual. Web.chomsky. Retrieved 2007-09-03. ".  Matt Dellinger. "A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies" (http:/ / select.berkeley. newstatesman. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.  Michael Sipser (1997).. Retrieved 2008-08-02. Birkhäuser. youtube. and political activist. Cogsci. berkeley. "Divided Legacy" (http:/ / www. info/ books.  "Chomsky is Citation Champ" (http:/ / web. Csudh. Lenin.  Choamsky. Conversations with History. edu/ dearhabermas/ kibbutzim01. Bryan (2008-12-20). com/ watch?v=8ghoXQxdk6s  "The Chomsky Tapes: Conversations with Michael Albert" (http:/ / www. htm). Anthony (March 1997). "According to a recent survey by the Institute for Scientific Information. com/ news/ education/ higher/ articles/ 2008/ 12/ 20/ carol_chomsky_at_78_harvard_language_professor_was_wife_of_mit_linguist/ ). chomsky. Retrieved 2007-09-04. . at 78. chomsky. chomsky. November 2001. who edges out Hegel and Cicero. html). and he'll say that established powers have never been able to handle his brand of dissent. philosopher..mit. mit. Anthony (1995-11-19). engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy.  Barsky. 101. Retrieved 2011-08-16.. Link (http:/ / www."  Thomas Tymoczko. Robert Franklin (1997).  Chomsky. 1999-08-24.. p. boston.  Hughes. Retrieved 2007-09-03. htm). pp. Many of Chomsky's most significant contributions to philosophy. Retrieved 2007-09-03. com/ pw/ print/ 20030505/ 30953-the-accidental-bestseller-. "Regarded as the father of modern linguistics. htm). archive. he has persistently defended his views against all takers.  "The Life and Times of Noam Chomsky. 138. Retrieved 2011-08-16. . "Chomsky's controversial political works.. Retrieved 2008-08-02.. 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Retrieved 2011-08-16. . Retrieved 2008-12-21. "Sounds and Sites: Noam Chomsky". . "Speech!" (http:/ / www. .  "Eight Question on Kibbutzim: Answers from Noam Chomsky Questions from Nikos Raptis" (http:/ / www. "In Perspective: Noam Chomsky" (http:/ / pubs. Retrieved 2011-08-16. U. 5-5-03. New Statesman. . . mnsu. Noam Chomsky: a life of dissent (http:/ / books. Paul (1979-02-25). Noam. MIT News Office. socialistreviewindex. Boston Globe. The New York Times. Henle. htm). csudh. 2000.. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Retrieved 29 October 2011. which relies heavily on logic and philosophy. The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 August 2011.. James M.umn. The Boston Globe.info. info/ onchomsky/ 19951119. "Chomsky."  The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (1999). com/ gst/ abstract.info. And finally. com/ books?id=GhwvCoZBFoYC& pg=PA47). accessed 1-26-09  "Noam Chomsky" (http:/ / web. p.became mainstream bestsellers. Samuel (July/August 2001). google. 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Chomsky. & Plunkett. R. Retrieved 2011-08-16. 32(5). . Retrieved 2011-08-16. "William F. D." Book Citation: Rudolph Rocker. Buckley. Bull Research and Development.Interim Committee (http:/ / www.  Evans. (2009).. MIT PhD dissertation. chomsky.  Elman. . Desson (21 December 2003). Karmiloff-Smith. M (2003). 2007-10-10. (1996). berkeley. nytimes.  Martin. by Jean-Eric Pin. J. Youtube. Bates.  Huang. npr.  Tomasello.edu. G. Linguistic diversity and theoretical assumptions. 1/ 16328). McNamara: Bound by 'The Fog'".Noam Chomsky  Barsky (1997). ii. 1/ 15215). one that may well be the only alternative to the 'universal catastrophe' towards which 'we are driving on under full sail'. The Washington Post. (2000). Rajesh (1997). justice. In it Chomsky wrote: "I felt at once. com/ watch?v=2G6kf7XM9Nk). mit. .Consider IOPS (http:/ / www. D. and still feel. S..  Folkenflik. NPR. Harvard University Press. edu/ people/ cschutze/ Icelandic. (1965).  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Paul Randolph (1978). ISBN 0-262-53007-4. pp.IWW Biography (http:/ / www. p. ca/ thehour/ video. zmag. voanews. E. pdf). MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 31. html) .  Muhlhausler. and his lone opinion piece in the New York Times was not an original contribution but rather excerpts from testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee". Retrieved 20 September 2011. AK Press. 1994: 327.  Everett. zcommunications. 2 of 5" (http:/ / globetrotter.. cbc. Retrieved 2007-09-04. html). chomsky. Retrieved 2011-08-16. "Bin Laden Resurfaces in Recordings" (http:/ / www. Conservative Bulwark. p. Cambridge. C. org/ en/ history/ biography) Retrieved 2012-2-11  International Organization for a Participatory Society . The New York Times. org/ chomsky/ other/ notes-on-anarchism. ISBN 0-375-42502-0.  "Computer Programming and Formal Systems". Towards a Minimalist Account of Quirky Case and Licensing in Icelandic. & Levinson. Eds. "Chapter 4" (http:/ / cognet. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. complexity. iww.  Matthews. Hidatsa Syntax. For example. Harcourt. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 19. "Chomsky has never had an Op Ed column in the Washington Post. 71. MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.info. "Morris. Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. . org/ interim-committee) Retrieved 2012-3-31  ZNet .  Noam Chomsky. MIT PhD dissertation.. Carson T. "US Sticking With Choice for Envoy Despite Venezuelan Rejection" (http:/ / www. 429-492. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Barsky quotes an excerpt of Edward Herman examining why "one of America's most well-known intellectuals and dissidents would be thus ignored and even ostracized by the mainstream press". Rethinking innateness: A connectionist perspective on development. Davis.  Chomsky wrote the preface to an edition of Rudolf Rocker's book Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice. Retrieved 20 September 2011. George (2006-03-13). Brace. Dies" (http:/ / m. mit. edu/ people2/ Chomsky/ chomsky-con2.  Van Valin.  Chomsky. com/ english/ news/ americas/ US-Sticking-With-Choice-for-Envoy-Despite-Venezuelan-Rejection--112972279. org/ GlobalWatch/ chomskymit.  Thomson. Pantheon Books.  Chomsky.. Available online (http:/ / www. 373-391. Retrieved 20 September 2011. there are snakes: Life and language in the Amazonian jungle. A. MITWPL. Print. Computability.H. Routledge.  Stroumboulopoulos. Available online (http:/ / people. Retrieved 2007-09-04. info/ articles/ 200501--. linguistics. 2004. Parisi. (2008). pp. html). Voice of America. ISBN 0-674-01764-1.
chomsky. ISBN 978-0-89608-289-2. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 93. 51. . Retrieved 2007-09-04. 170 . com/ books?id=Y5Ouy4XoXPsC). Chomsky on democracy & education (http:/ / books. Carlos Peregrín (2003). ZMag.  "Science in the Dock. Mother Jones. London: The Observer. "Mysteries of Nature: How Deeply Hidden?". Retrieved 2007-07-27.  Chomsky.  "Israel bars Noam Chomsky from West Bank" (http:/ / www. . Discussion with Noam Chomsky.  "Interview with Noam Chomsky. mit. Retrieved December 25. Chomsky on Democracy & Education. . com/ 2003/ 11/ 02/ magazine/ way-we-live-now-11-02-03-questions-for-noam-chomsky-professorial-provocateur. nytimes. pp. jillstein. . 57. info/ interviews/ 20101130. and Arthur Dorfman" (http:/ / www. What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way. zmag. Lawrence Krauss & Sean M. Mother Jones Magazine (http:/ / books. Harper Collins. info/ debates/ 20060301. org/ chomsky). 2010. – Oct. 01. 1967-04-20. org/ home). 155-62. Retrieved 2007-07-27. Agence France-Presse (Canwest Publishing Inc). The Gazette. ROX. uk/ magazine/ story/ 0. Chomsky. htm). 30. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0205/ 30/ ltm.  Chomsky. google. org/ chomsky/ sam/ sam-3-2. 1968 New York Post  "An Exchange on "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". On power and ideology: the Managua lectures (http:/ / books. Democracy" (http:/ / chomsky. guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2011. htm). Chomsky. 128. google. Chomsky.  "Chomsky endorses Stein in 2012" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Retrieved 16 August 2011. Noam Chomsky on Drugs (TV).info. May 30. ISBN 978-0-415-92632-4.  Noam Chomsky. . . com/ books?id=_HkOaB89p7YC& pg=PA167). Noam (2009). . Retrieved 2011-08-16. Noam (1987). Noam. Emma (2005-10-31). google. Guernicamag. 399  'Answers by Noam Chomsky' to questions about anarchism (http:/ / www. p. S. 2003. google. Chomsky on anarchism (http:/ / books. chomsky. html). The New York Times. Noam. Chomsky.  Jones. ISBN 978-1-904859-20-8. Chomsky. Mother (1988-10). "Questions for Noam Chomsky: The Professorial Provocateur" (http:/ / www. pp. co. 2003).com. . (1999). Chomsky. info/ letters/ 198509--. org/ chomsky_repliesana.  "Noam Chomsky: My Reaction to Osama bin Laden’s Death" (http:/ / www. 258. ISSN 0022-362X.1094708. Military Hegemony. . Carroll" (http:/ / www.00. Carlos Peregrín (2003). . 167.info. . Chomsky on democracy & education (http:/ / books. ISBN 978-0-415-92632-4.  Nick Cohen (2007). 1969. . . guernicamag. chomsky. Sept. Noam (2002-02-08). Tim (2003-10-30).  "Israel Roiled After Chomsky Barred From West Bank" (http:/ / www. info/ articles/ 199112--02. nytimes. Noam (1993).  Noam Chomsky et al. info/ articles/ 20100124. 2010. Routledge.  Chomsky. Retrieved 2011-08-16. shtml). Pateman. html). .11913. Deborah (November 2.info. South End Press. html). Bill Bennett" (http:/ / transcripts. info/ letters/ 20051113. html). 2010. Noam Chomsky debates with Fryar Calhoun. com/ blog/ 2652/ noam_chomsky_my_reaction_to_os/ ). htm)  “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” January 30. com/ books?id=I-cDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA30). edu/ V128/ N51/ chomsky. . "The Corporate Takeover of U. 77. info/ debates/ 19670420. B. 16 . com/ Israel+ bars+ Noam+ Chomsky+ from+ West+ Bank/ 3035253/ story. (Daily Camera)" (http:/ / www.info. htm). 14. p. "Free speech in a Democracy. Retrieved 16 August 2011. com/ books?id=Ot6pRjxv2ykC& pg=PA93#v=onepage& q=a huge power& f=false). Chomsky. Jill Stein for President. htm). 2005-11-17. 30–. Retrieved 2011-08-16. info/ onchomsky/ 20051031. com/ books?id=84NQ3IXpbOYC& pg=PA30). "What Uncle Sam Really Wants" (http:/ / www. google. guardian. "The Greatest Intellectual?. html?partner=rss& emc=rss). AK Press.  Chomsky (1996).info. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Available online (http:/ / tech. . Journal of Philosophy 106 (4): 167–200. 2008-06-06. chomsky. E. May 17. .  Chomsky. htm). zmag. co.  Solomon. p. by Emma Brockes" (http:/ / www.info. Otero.S. . corrections). 2006-03-01.  Chomsky. chomsky. htm). htm). p. "International Terrorism: Image and Reality" (http:/ / www. Psychology Press. . Murray. html). Retrieved 9 March 2012. pp. cnn. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky" (http:/ / stopthedrugwar. com/ 2010/ 05/ 18/ world/ middleeast/ 18chomsky. html). chomsky. Chomsky Discusses Economy. htm).info. DRCNet (http:/ / stopthedrugwar.info. Retrieved 2011-08-16. 2002 American Morning with Paula Zahn CNN  Adams. . Otero.  Brockes.  Noam Chomsky (1980-09-10). 21  Ghoshroy. ISBN 978-0-00-722969-7.  Chomsky. .  New Left Review.  Chomsky. 164-8 . Retrieved 2011-08-16. 179-80.  "WikiLeaks Cables Reveal "Profound Hatred for Democracy on the Part of Our Political Leadership"" (http:/ / www.  "On the Future of Israel and Palestine" (http:/ / www. pp. The New York Times Magazine (The New York Times). Retrieved 2011-08-16. org/ chronicle-old/ 223/ noamchomsky. The Guardian. uk/ media/ 2005/ nov/ 17/ pressandpublishing. montrealgazette. Noam.  Noam Chomsky (2005-11-13). Noam Chomsky website. chomsky. RoutledgeFalmer. pp.Noam Chomsky  Noam Chomsky. Retrieved 2011-04-28. .  "Corrections and clarifications" (http:/ / www. (2008). Retrieved 16 August 2011.  Chomsky. Noam. 51. "Noam Chomsky: Thorn in America's Side" (http:/ / observer. Barry (2005). info/ interviews/ 20080606. htm). The Tech. May 16. chomsky. . Chomsky. "Open Letter to The Guardian (ZNet)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-08-16.
Aipti. Retrieved 2007-09-04. mit. pdf) (PDF). 2007. . htm). 2001  Christopher Hitchens. the society’s achievement award. . Routledge. info/ bios/ 2002----. Retrieved 2007-09-04. YouTube  Noam Chomsky " A Quick Reaction (http:/ / www.org.10. htm).1073/pnas. "Grammar" (http:/ / mathworld.  Massimo Piatelli-Palmarini. . cn/ News_Events/ News/ Campus/ 6797. [has] been won in the past by the likes of Noam Chomsky.  "Past Recipients of the NCTE Orwell Award" (http:/ / www. com/ doc/ 20011015/ chomsky20011001)".edu. Massey University. Counterpunch September 12. ac.  "Lecture 6: Evolutionary Psychology. The Nation. Cu. Problem Solving. html). nih.  "Noam Chomsky Lectured in Beijing" (http:/ / www. thenation.info. "Chapter 3" (http:/ / cognet. ed. sanu.com.. massey. youtube. ncte. ac. journalist Fintan O’Toole and. PMID 4517949. html).edu. counterpunch. edu/ ~knuth/ cl. Philippe.info  Sakharov. htm). pku. The Nation. . youtube. Nybooks. Danchin. org/ library/ NCTEFiles/ Involved/ Volunteer/ Appointed Groups/ Past_Recipients_Orwell_Award. com/ Grammar. the Left & Islamic Fascism (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-08-16. 2001  Christopher Hitchens. com/ press/ 80-archbishop-desmond-tutu-to-speak-to-litndeb.ac. Retrieved 2011-08-16. thenation. Retrieved 2011-08-16. October 2003.  "Noam Chomsky. com/ doc/ 20011008/ hitchens20010924)".  Chomsky vs. Soundtracksforthem. Buckley vs. 2001  Christopher Hitchens. " A Rejoinder to Noam Chomsky (http:/ / www. . Archived from the original (http:/ / evolution. "Chomsky Replies". . chinatoday. False. Harvard University. com/ watch?v=VYlMEVTa-PI). . . Donald (2003). literaryanddebating.za. CSLI Lecture Notes. Noam. MIT World.70. "False. aipti. universitys. " Against Rationalization: Minority Report (http:/ / www. 2003-10-13. " Of Sin. thenation. uct. com/ doc/ 20011015/ chomsky20011004)". nlm.cn. . htm). 1996. 2007. 2001  Noam Chomsky. 1928-12-07. cu. Retrieved 2007-09-04. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Stanford. com/ reviews/ chomskyrebel. Courrége. 1973 20. htm). playwright. September 24. Retrieved 2007-09-04.  "''The Chomsky–Foucault Debate: On Human Nature''" (http:/ / www. California: Center for the Study of Language and Information. Perle (http:/ / www. tv/ file/ 420305). Retrieved 2011-08-16. info/ debates/ 1971xxxx. Chomsky. html). Alex (2003-05-12). . democracynow. Retrieved 2011-08-16. massey. Uct. id0AC. 2001  Noam Chomsky. edu/ library/ books/ chomsky/ chomsky/ 3/ 2. School of Psychology. 1999 Chomsky.  KU Leuven. stanford. aspx?arg=odeljenja. htm). chomsky.  Changeux. . Uppsala University. researchportal. 2001  "The New York Review of Books. archive. ac.  William F. za/ mondaypaper/ archives/ ?id=4104). edu/ video/ 403/ ). Retrieved 2011-08-16. 1975. html)". The Nation. PMC 427150. Alan Dershowitz: A Debate on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict" (http:/ / www.Noam Chomsky  Journal citation PMC2774611 . "A Theory of the Epigenesis of Neuronal Networks by Selective Stabilization of Synapses". be/ en/ project/ an-epistemological-reading-of-the-debate-between-quine-and-chomsky--(KUL_3H050619)/ ). cn/ ctenglish/ se/ txt/ 2010-08/ 23/ content_293243.  "Noam Chomsky v. org/ chomskybomb.2974. Jean-Pierre. excerpt:the Literary and Debating Society’s President’s Medal. Retrieved 2011-08-16. nsf/ pm/ uppsala. Chinatoday. org/ eng/ honorary_members/ ). "An Epistemological Reading of the Debate between Quine and Chomsky" (http:/ / www. htm). com/ articles/ archives/ 1973/ jul/ 19/ chomsky-replies/ ). nz/ lecture6/ lect600. ac. com. Democracy Now!. January 20. " Reply to Hitchens (http:/ / www.  http:/ / www. com/ doc/ 20011015/ hitchens20011004)". wolfram. html). com/ doc/ 20011008/ hitchens)". Senator Mike Gravel. uu. php). thenation. Retrieved 2011-08-16.An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959) (http:/ / www. Dvdverdict.Department of Social Sciences members (http:/ / www.  "Van Zyl Slabbert to present TB Davie Memorial Lecture" (http:/ / www. "Externalism: Its Motivation and Its Critics" (http:/ / blip. com/ blog/ ?p=81).cn. Selected Papers on Computer Languages (http:/ / www-cs-faculty. Congressman Bruce Morrison. False. 17 .pku. rs/ English/ Clanstvo/ Clanstvo. htm) on January 17. .12" (http:/ / www. nybooks. chomsky.  Knuth. mit. Retrieved 2011-08-16. Language and Learning: The Debate Between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky. chomsky.info. and False: Noam Chomsky interviewed by Ray Suarez" (http:/ / www.  "Uppsala University’s Honorary Doctorates in Commemoration of Linnaeus" (http:/ / info. doi:10. Noam Chomsky (http:/ / www. . nz/ lecture6/ lect600. 2010-12-12.  "CU Regents" (https:/ / www. Chomsky.  Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts .  The Current Crisis in the Middle East: About the Lecture (http:/ / mitworld. Antoine (October 1973). . se/ press. . YouTube  Hilary Putnam.com. MIT Linguistics Program" (http:/ / www. edu. dvdverdict. The Nation. MathWorld. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2774611/ ?tool=pmcentrez)  Barsky (1997). edu/ regents/ Awards/ AwardsMaster. Retrieved 2011-08-16. org/ web/ 20070117055247/ http:/ / evolution. and 'Machiavellian' Intelligence" (http:/ / web.06) Retrieved 2012-2-11  "Interviews Polathicks/Society » Interview: Noam Chomsky Speaks Out On Education and Power" (http:/ / soundtracksforthem. 2007-02-13.  "Chomsky Rebel" (http:/ / www. ncbi.  "Welcome to Peking University" (http:/ / english. org/ 2005/ 12/ 23/ noam_chomsky_v_alan_dershowitz_a).com. 2005-05-16. 2010-08-13. 23 December 2005. 2005-09-20. thenation. Tom Murphy. info/ interviews/ 19990120. The Nation. honorary member of IAPTI" (http:/ / www. English. " Reply to Hitchens' 'Rejoinder' (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=KNAGE9rLFRg). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 70 (10): 2974–8.  Chomsky.  "Noam Chomsky.
 "Viggo Mortensen's Spoken Word & Music CDs" (http:/ / www.info/) official website • Noam Chomsky (http://web. newstatesman.  "Chomsky named top intellectual: British poll" (http:/ / www.org/Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/People/Chomsky. org/ ComputingNow/ homepage/ 2011/ 0811/ rW_IS_AIsHallofFame.c-spanvideo. Retrieved September 18.charlierose.com. IEEE Intelligent Systems (IEEE Computer Society) 26 (4): 5–15.  "Author.  Weininger._Noam//) at the Open Directory Project • Noam Chomsky articles on libcom. Perspectives on Power.org/program/Chom) Noam Chomsky (http://www. com/ news/ 2005/ 10/ 18/ 051018152652.edu/people2/Chomsky/chomsky-con1. 2005-10-18. edu/ enp/ erdpaths/ ).uk/profile/noamchomsky) at The Guardian • Appearances (http://www. UC Berkeley. html). 2011. .guardian. 2011. de/ biophil/ en/ index. . . news.chomsky.html). smh.com.edu/linguistics/www/chomsky. Viggo Fan Base. .com/guest/view/440) on Charlie Rose Noam Chomsky (http://www. . org/ cms/ Computer. ISBN 978-1-55164-048-8. "Activism. viggofanbase. Oakland University. html).html) and videos (http://anarchismtoday. The Erdös Number Project. Press release source: PRWeb (Vocus).org/noamchomsky) on C-SPAN • • • • • • In Depth interview with Chomsky. Retrieved 2011-08-16.zcommunications. edu/ 17889). August 24. "Heroes of Our Time" (http:/ / www. erich-fromm. Montréal: Black Rose. Retrieved 2007-09-04. Edwardmanukyan. html#ixzz1O7yqP75P). 2003 (http://www.2011. au/ entertainment/ books/ controversy-dogs-chomsky-as-he-accepts-sydney-peace-prize-20110601-1fgqf.1109/MIS. Conversations with History. Retrieved 2007-09-04.guardian. computer. Boston Globe.org/zspace/noamchomsky) at ZSpace Articles (http://anarchismtoday. June 1. activist Noam Chomsky to receive award" (http:/ / www. • Kreisler.imdb.wisc. . External links • chomsky. Harry (2002-03-22). Anarchism.democracynow. Retrieved 18 September 2011.org/tags/noam-chomsky) • Noam Chomsky (http://www.org/ DF_Multimedia/categoryby=17. .c-spanvideo. David (2010-01-21). .org/) Noam Chomsky (http://www. wisc.org/tags/noam_chomsky) at Democracy Now! • Column archive (http://www.org/News/topic=12.co. "Chomsky Tribute" (http:/ / www.mit. International Erich Fromm Society. Retrieved 2010-03-16.  Cowley. com/ pr/ 399442).jpost. Retrieved 2011-08-16. oakland.com/topic/Noam_Chomsky) collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post .com. boston.dmoz.uk/world/noam-chomsky) collected news and commentary at The Guardian • • Noam Chomsky (http://www.co. Retrieved 2010-04-05. edwardmanukyan. com/ 200605220016).  "Some Famous People with Finite Erdös Numbers" (http:/ / www. digitaljournal. Smh.edu. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=190:the-2010-erich-fromm-prize-to-noam-chomsky& catid=54:latest-news). . com/ cds/ #pfa). .org (http://libcom.  "Noam Chomsky Honorary Concert" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-08-16.64. News. 18 • Chomsky. New Statesman. pdf).  "Controversy dogs Chomsky as he accepts Sydney Peace Prize" (http:/ / www.Noam Chomsky  "The 2010 Erich Fromm Prize to Noam Chomsky" (http:/ / www. doi:10. Retrieved 2007-09-03.berkeley. com.  "AI's Hall of Fame" (http:/ / www. 2011-06-02. Jason (2006-05-22).org (http:// AnarchismToday. .org/identities/lccn-n79-104267) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Noam Chomsky (http://www. Breitbart.home.  "IEEE Computer Society Magazine Honors Artificial Intelligence Leaders" (http:/ / www. Noam (1996).com. and Power: Conversation with Noam Chomsky" (http:// globetrotter. breitbart.info (http://www. 2010-01-16.com/name/nm0159008/) at the Internet Movie Database Works by or about Noam Chomsky (http://worldcat. com/ ae/ music/ articles/ 2010/ 01/ 22/ fours_a_charm_for_parker_quartet/ ). 77esbn1j. DigitalJournal.html) at MIT • Noam Chomsky (http://www. 2011. 2010-03-29. Institute of International Studies. com/ concerts/ chomsky_tribute.html) featuring Noam Chomsky at AnarchismToday.au.
ndsu.eecs.php?op=search&nav=&session=& searchtext=chomsky) at A-Infos Radio Project • Interview about Human Rights (http://www.paroledechercheurs.umich.edu/researcher/show/5973) at the AI Genealogy Project (http:// aigp. October 2009 • Thought Economics Interviews Noam Chomsky (http://thoughtstrategy.newstatesman.com/international-politics/2010/09/ war-crimes-interview-obama) interviewed by Alyssa McDonald on New Statesman.tv/2004/02/03/Noam_Chomsky) – discussion on the "Bush doctrine" and its implications.com/t2/index.php?query=chomsky) at the Internet Archive • Noam Chomsky (http://www.nytimes.co.umich.php?article765) by scholars (English with French subtitles) – 2009 • Chomsky media files (http://www.eecs. Interviews and articles • Talks by Noam Chomsky (http://www.nodak.edu/id.org/search. • Noam Chomsky Interviews on [[The Real News (http://therealnews.math.php?option=com_content& task=view&id=33&Itemid=74&jumival=638)] (TRNN) ] • Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance (http://fora.net/spip.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/c/noam_chomsky/) collected news and commentary at The New York Times • Noam Chomsky (http://genealogy.uk/2011/04/27/ understanding-democracy/) – Noam Chomsky interviewed on global democracy.Noam Chomsky • Noam Chomsky (http://topics. September 2010.php?id=82231) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project • Noam Chomsky (http://aigp. C-SPAN.net/index.edu/about).radio4all.tv/2009/10/06/ Noam_Chomsky_Philosophies_of_Language_and_Politics) – talk at The Commonwealth Club. Feb 2004 • Philosophies of Language & Politics (http://fora.archive. April 2011 19 .
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HectorRodriguez. Pfhastie. Abolishrants. Sesel. Beao. Deflective. Bonus Onus. ElfMage. Cast. Ebrooks. DBaba. Pohick2. Ocatecir. BuickCenturyDriver. Nathan Hamblen. Mahanga. A82423. JForget. Elockid. Ciaccona. Law of Entropy. 2005. Jebba. IntrigueBlue. Ryulong. Eirik (usurped). Puellanivis. DavidA. Sam Spade. Mpidge. Gaius Cornelius. Jecar. Omicronpersei8. Peter Winnberg. Jemmy Button. Fabriziopilato. Richard001. Kingturtle. Bramlet Abercrombie. Fipps revenge5. Ahadland1234. Alarichus. RevTarthpeigust. Descendall. Bjornyvan. Andycjp. Itai. GregLindahl. Deodar. B4hand. Jgold03. Netoholic. Bonadea. Segv11. RexNL. E0N. RJaguar3. Said Shirazi. Bondolo. Credema. DerHexer. Calm. Kingstowngalway. Rjimenezh. Caper13. Lacrimosus. Apokrif. Fosterpan. Ed Poor. Michael Hardy. Shamir1. Seegoon. Alelover. CrypticBacon. Bwithh. Anhilizer. FRCP11. KarlHeg. Blackeagles. Joecashfire. Jmw0000. Kuru. JohnCD. Prblr. CartoonDiablo. Philip Trueman. MPerel. Mrandrewv. Pistolpierre. Basilisk4u. Cremepuff222. Andonic. Clancelot. Bobblewik. Mortense. Noctibus. GuillaumeTell. Modernist. AV3000. Nimc. Sarefo. Crazycomputers. Secondfletcher. Morton devonshire. FeloniousMonk. LakePaddler29. Nk. Candorwien. Cstella23. Oxymoron83. Aeusoes1. SNIyer12. RoseParks. Atropos. M. Rivertorch. Savant1984. Ayanoa. MiguelMunoz. Pizza Puzzle. Hobartimus. Der Golem. Doug Danner. Jumanjisalvo. NickBush24. NickCT. Drano. Arrest pol pot stoogerance. Rostz. Fang 23. Humanisticmystic. Ged UK. Debresser. Kalki. Joenad. Sdedeo. Algebra. Pilesofloot. Hoary. Pierpontpaul2351. Nima Baghaei. Amunoz1. Cyrius. Behemoth. Dahn. El C. Hammersoft. Malo. Lantrix.Article Sources and Contributors 20 Article Sources and Contributors Noam Chomsky Source: http://en. Brian71777. Chewshit2 rance. Byrial. Jeltz. OliverTwisted. Robin klein. Choam numsky. Lights out!. Jeandré du Toit. Mthomas1967. Hromi Daba. Madhava 1947. Peripitus. Leutha. Ravenswing. Donarreiskoffer. Cielomobile. Neutrality. Harksaw. RoyalWithCheese. Mixcoatl. 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Philwiki. Intrepidosl. EyeSerene. C. Koavf. DocteurCosmos. GHcool. Sam Francis. Karimarie. Causa sui. Lacatosias. Irn. Commodore Sloat. Cumbrowski. Pir. Lexo. Mic. BillFlis. Redthoreau. Quodlibetarian. Green01. Off2riorob. Infrogmation. Nirvana2013. Gingerup. Pokemno. Rhlozier. Gamaliel. Highland14. Nihiltres. Icairns. Sam Korn. Buffyg. Ian Burnet. Michael Devore. JayJasper. RucasHost.wikipedia. Fipplethitsback. Bdeitz. Imprison roland.K. Cireshoe. Bigglove. Schissel. Gunnar Larsson. Bbpen. Ejk81. Pragitor. Falcon8765. Delirium. Baddabingbat. JEN9841. Sara Parks Ricker. Eleland. Ruy Lopez. Guptaft. Fuscob. CharlesKiddell. Mercurywoodrose. Hadal. Bilalarif. Drekonrance. Dspradau. Dekisugi. Kevin Myers. Jon Bailes. Mustafaa. Lowellian. Laria47.xxx. Robojames. Knoma Tsujmai. Sabaton10. Gedge67. Neilc. Mesoderm. Chameleon. Neither. Quark1005. Gregcaletta. Jurk4stalyn. GD. Gilliam. Raymond arritt. Shanel. Korath. Greensteintony. Satori.Anthony. Omegatron. Baad. Fifo. Fetid commy die. Rance impaled. Aleph4. SandyGeorgia. ASchmoo. Danny lost. RedWolf. Grim23. KYPark. CanadianLinuxUser. Chonak. Malik Shabazz. Irishpunktom. L33 H4rv3y 0sw4ld. Gandalf61. Pyssoff rantsie. Chris Q. Impaciente. N1h1l. DarinB. Saturn star. Joyson Prabhu. Orion11M87. John. Hermel. MeteorMaker. Kniwor. Daniel Case. Kallerdis. HJ Mitchell. Bugsy bonovich. . Dirkbb.191. Addshore. Crybaby kommy. JohnGaltJr. Cihan. Donnachadelong. Richard56. Joe cunsusser. ShadowCreatorII. Andrew Norman. Nmkuttiady. Benwing. Atwarwiththem. Aquillion. Intelligentsium. Indeterminate. 8bitJake. Excirial. Ams80. Freed42. Frank. Jooler. Decapitate rancele. Dilaudid. Pablothegreat85. Ric. Demolish rancie. LeonardoRob0t. Sardanaphalus. Colonies Chris. Onesius. McMuff. BOB PIXER. Fon. JJstroker. Rodentrance. Kusaburance. Irfsmurf. Giftlite. Asad112. JohnOwens. Delldot. Leila Monaghan. Johnuniq. Guanaco. Rsm99833. JohKar. Poor Yorick. Sean. Fastfission. Richard Myers. Mpmcgui. Jail the roland. Nableezy. Dannyno. Moeron. Barnaby banger. Richfife. Grunge6910. Harel. Makaristos. Kchishol1970. MrJones. Gotterfunken. Bevo.christopher. Gurch. Byelf2007. Red is so dead. Edward. Readysteadybook. AndrewHowse. Css. Nickshanks. Looper5920. Pratyeka. Gyrofrog. PDH. Lockley. Jossi. Boing! said Zebedee. Josquius. Nova77. BanyanTree. HairyWombat. Filippowiki. Lynch derance. Grick. Hammersbach. Dreadstar. Labor345. Roliecoaster. Loonymonkey. 26 chippytt. Lukobe. Rhance rholand. Rebroad. Fseth7. Jpaulanderson. Lquilter. Kulak revenge. Ferg2k. Jerrymonaco. Nosedung. Bathurst to. Nadavspi. Eastforker. Mptb3. Gareth E Kegg. Butterfly ea. Ranceatshyt. Fadesga. A1534. Brushed.K. Ifnord. CmrdMariategui. Loganberry. Drrll. JaReedUT. Alyoshenka. Beno1000. Quadell. Flowanda. DropDeadGorgias. Kleptomik. Joepeterpierce. Emiellaiendiay. Alkashi. Davenbelle. Savidan. Oblivious. Leonxlin. Rancebesnuffed. Drmies. Classicfilms. MSTCrow. Oashi. Edwinstearns. IgorekSF. Radical Mallard. Friendlymat. Bongwarrior. Kosebamse. Conversion script. Mentifisto. Benwbrum. Anthony717. Lyingkommy. Gregbard. P. PRB. MarkSweep. Blobglob. Radicalsubversiv. Raymond Meredith. Anna Frodesiak. Paul A. Egg beater77. Merovingian. Canthusus. Kaiketsu. Monkey7999. Mininuni. Rooky mountain. LMBM2012. Avg. Anythings. Eeera.64. Coemgenus. Paul August. 69Lalala69. Roliejurkingoff. Gag on rance. Minesweeper. Graham87. Khukri. Matve. Annoynmous. Gabbe. Hall Monitor. A. ShalashaskaX.php?oldid=494024105 Contributors: 130. Justus Nussbaum. Arrnoo. Hephaestos. Quackslikeaduck. Mingus ah um. Merenta. Guy Peters. S. Jennifer. MECU.benko. Arvindn. Fropuff. Mrigankasekhardolchhut. Rantsongallows. Mrdthree. Freakofnurture. Michael J Swassing. BernardL. Cyfal. Helpful Dave. Iwpoe. Shanes.. Conti. Parhamr. Intolerrance2. DenisRS. GregorB. Rebooted. Cptn Funk. Powo. Jon Awbrey. Klonimus. Manicsleeper. Andrewlp1991. Mana Excalibur. Mark R Johnson. Dirtypants. Biplabpal2000. Dickfacerance. NSH001. Mackan. Giles. Flup. Alex Bakharev. Khalid hassani. MER-C. Kariteh. NorthernThunder.reid. DownTheSlopes. Matthew Fennell. Anonymous44. Kristen Eriksen. Bomac. Pmanderson. Dorftrottel. SJP. Brighterorange. Mythrandir. Expelrancie. DoItAgain. Biker Biker. Keith-264. Bbold. Hdlc. GcSwRhIc. Peter pieman. Dumpster. Khalid Mahmood. Guy Hatton. Adrian. Saforrest. Connormah. Patrick Fox85. Poccil. ShelfSkewed. Evil saltine. Everyking. Blowme rancie. Nat Krause. Russil Wvong. Katanada. Ave Caesar. DieWeisseRose. Oudeis23. Rich Farmbrough. Meelar. Mjpieters. Alansohn. Materialscientist. Jmc. DE. Kbdank71. Kev40293. Aelffin. Lesbian-power. Rubikslens. Lapsed Pacifist. JerryHstevensjr. In earnest. LittleDan. DaveGorman. Kemkem. JMhobbs. Fifth Fish Finger. Rolandrance fullofshyt. Sbrianhicks. Mordantkitten. Andy Marchbanks. Semmelweiss. Buniverse. Jimbo Wales. Karl-Henner. Glenn Willen. Scartol. Akerans. BD2412. Albrock. Rlandmann. Gokulam. Ahoerstemeier. Adjam. Karlwinterling. Bill Hicks Jr. Mhw. Christiaan.22. Mav. Avala. 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Zinjixmaggir. Spellcast. Zoicon5. Slowking Man. Warrior8u.Article Sources and Contributors Shmootz rrance. Yoctobarryc. Shytbrain rrance. Zaheen. Yuriybrisk. Vis-a-visconti. Tobias Schmidbauer. Sslevine. Skarebo. Trash stalinazis. Zilinsky. WilyD. Tommy2010. SunDragon34. Valkyrian Einherjar. ZooFari. Summary diss. Tangerines. Silversmith. Slightlyslack. Stephenb. Wilfried Derksen. Suzanv. Teknolyze. WhisperToMe. VanishedUser314159. Suppresstreason. Skol fir. Stomponrance. Tresiden. Terrifictriffid.wikipedia. Simon Wardell. Zwitterion117. Tofocsend. Steinsky. Ssarkar74. Wavelength. YoavD.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2. Waddypak. Wikiupdater2. Slimerance. Sundar. Superiority. Vary.jpg Source: http://en. Zhoustev. The unchomsky. YUL89YYZ. SpaceMoose. Simon horowitz. Vshahuk. TROGG. TXiKi. Trot icepicker. Trey Stone. Socrates999. Telaviv1. Snowolf. Wall Screamer. Stevenwagner. Soosim. ThomasK. Tpbradbury. Vojvodaen. The dark lord trombonator. Shytonrancele. Vashti. Smark33021. Y. Threeafterthree. Sluckett7. Swapspace. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. Szyslak. TDC.php?title=File:Noam_Chomsky_WSF_-_2003. Sunray. Typing monkey. Zuky79.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Tassedethe. VKokielov. Qwertyus. Tothebarricades. Timwi. Zzorse. Soetermans. Vkandaharv. Ødipus sic. Simsimian. The Squicks. Versus22. Snowded. Tombomp. TakuyaMurata. Sparticus6. Stringmup. Verdy p. Tzartzam. Tom Morris. Utcursch. VeryVerily. Signal charm. Telso. Valley2city. Skoojal. YeshuaDavid. Uppa uppa. Spidern. User2102.0 Unported //creativecommons. Theodork. Tbhotch. SpNeo. Stalynsboy. Smite rrants. Wik. Wassermann. Yechiel Gordon. TheSun. Tazmaniacs. Stallinsdyldo. Zzuuzz. Wereon. Therewillbehotcake. Xchbla423. Thessaysno.אצטרובל 2184 . Zafiroblue05. Smjg. Stevertigo. Wildhartlivie. The Anome. Vapour. Thenerdypengwin. Tweisbach. Thumperward. Waggers.2003. Sluzzelin. Zaharous. Vexorg. Sj1357.jpg License: Agência Brasil Contributors: Dbenbenn. Snoyes. Ssd. Somerset219. Ty580. Tyrell turing. Wandering Courier. Washjourno. Tangentier. Uncircumcize rrance. Stan Brin. Xjy. Ultramarine. Skywriter. Wseaman. Smilkyone. Stewartadcock. Skomorokh. Vanu.wikipedia. Trevor Burnham. Sir Paul. Smekking about. Ugly shmeck. Snigbrook. William Avery. Suppresstwits. Sidhu Jyatha. Sperrfeuer. Woland1234. Sillyfolkboy. Tomsega. Stephen Bain. Tony Sidaway. The Rhymesmith. Maarten van Vliet. Tim Ivorson. Yeanold Viskersenn. Slrubenstein. Xkoalax. Tabletop. Skywriting1. Zenohockey. Vanished user 5zariu3jisj0j4irj. Uri. . Viveka. Tempshill. Terra Xin. Wleman. Yopienso. Supertouch. Tiles. Sparticus5. Tempodivalse. ValenShephard. Susurrus. Synsem. Spinoff.jpg Source: http://en. Toytoy. StudierMalMarburg. Soporaeternus. Theobald Tiger. Troelz. South73. TheRedPenOfDoom. Snotbonger. Te24409nsp. Wmahan. Toiletfacerance. Tom harrison. Rd232 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. יניבפורanonymous edits 21 Image Sources. Trilobite. Unended. Temporaluser. SimonP. Sstteevvee. Studerby. Stogie10. TheDoober. Sugerall. Trot icepicker2. Vssun. Sionus. StAnselm. Wurkir. User3. Syl kestii. Suffusion of Yellow. Tcncv. Treybien. Wrp103. Sparsefarce. Stefanomione. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington. Stefan Kruithof. Squidley. The Little Teapot. Syrchek. Mdd. Tcsh. Willowx. Tannin. WikiManGreen. Wyatt Riot. Wildt. TUF-KAT.0 Contributors: Duncan Rawlinson File:Noam Chomsky WSF . Traitorsinjail. Stalinlust. Yossarian. SwinginDigs. XP1. TJive. Synchronism. Xyzzyva. Vulturell. Thorburn. SqueakBox. Zigger. TPK. Stacyjj.tk.org/w/index. Wikispan. Uncle Bill. Syntactician. Soap. SoWhy. Villan. Zero0000.0/ . Slimey rollie. Ta bu shi da yu. Uncle G. Wiserd911. Str1977. TSberger. ZX81. Zeno Gantner. Vanished User 8a9b4725f8376. Velblod. Stedder. Uoj chassid. Steve2333. Wes!. Taw. Toby Bartels. Tristessa de St Ange. Svick.php?title=File:Chomsky. Shythead rrance. FSII. Winkytink. TonyW. Yottie. Victosiro. Wsperlich. Susvolans. Will Lakeman. Viajero. Zleitzen. Stickee. Licenses and Contributors File:Chomsky. Stagecoach east. Woohookitty. Yuckfoo.org/w/index. Vzbs34. Stalinized enema. Torture Trots. Tonys prison butch. The Master of Mayhem. Stinky from usc. Trusilver. Wfaulk. Yaelgolan. Wolfdog.
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