Ingredients Surfactants (Surface active agents) 

Examples of Ingredient

Functions

  Builders    

LAS (Linear -Lower the surface tension of wash water, thereby increase the wetting and spreading alkylbenzene properties of water. sulfonate) -By reducing the surface tension water, BAS (Branched surfactants improve the cleaning performance by alkylbenzene enabling the solution to wet a surface (for sulfonate) example clothes) quickly and effectively, and hence the dirt can be readily loosened and Soap removed. Surface active agents also emulsify oily soils and keep them suspended and dispersed so Alcohol they do not settle back on the surface. ethoxylatel Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) Sodium carbonate Sodium silicate Sodium citrate -Soften water by deactivating the hardness minerals (metal ions such as calcium and magnesium). The softening process is followed by two processes - one is sequestration (holding metal ions in solution) and another is precipitation (removing metal ions from solution as insoluble materials). -In addition to softening, builders also provide a desirable level of alkalinity (increase pH) that improves cleaning performance. They also work as buffer to maintain suitable alkalinity in wash water. -Help emulsify oily and greasy soil by breaking it up into small parts. Different builders in reality peptize or suspend loosened dirt and keep them from settling back on the cleaned surface.

Fillers

       

Sodium sulfate Clays (bentonite) Talc Kaolin Starch CaCO3 MgSO4 NaHCO3

-Provide moderate alkalinity and building effect as well as mildness to laundry bar formulation. -Helps harden the final bar as a consequence of the hydrates they form. -Hold solid components together in the final product. -To reduce bar plasticity, in particular with LAS formulations. -Contribute the pH buffering effect and reduce skin irritation due to higher alkalinity.

Binders Hardeners Alkalinity adjusters

Foam boosters Superfatting agent

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Alkanolamides Paraffin wax

-Stabilize the foam during the washing process and also act as skin emollients. -Provide mildness and an improved feel to the finished product -Reduce sliming of the wet bar since they are water repellent and prevent water penetrating into the bar. -Increase plasticity and minimize cracking of the finished products.

Emulsifiers

Other surfactants

-Used in fabric softeners along with conditioning agents to make the solution stable. Without emulsifiers the softener liquid will separate into two parts / phases.

Conditioning agent

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Cetearyl Alcohol -Ability to improve the cleaning performance of PEG 40 Castor detergents in hard water Oil Stearalkonium Chloride Na perborate Na hypochlorite Proteases Amylase -Remove color, via oxidation whiten, or disinfect, often

Bleaching agent Enzymes

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-Act on materials that make up a variety of stains and soils so that these materials can be washed away more easily

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