# Ex.

No:

Date:

1. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING DIFFERENT SENSORS
AIM:

To measure the temperature using sensors like Thermocouple, Thermistor and RTD.
REFERENCE:

1. 2.

A.K. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1984. H.S. Kalsi: Electronic Instrumentation, TMH, 1995. Working principle and operations of different types of temperature

BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED:

measurement sensors.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl.No. 1 2 3

Particulars Temperature measurement kit Thermometer Multi meter

Quantity 1 No. 1 No. 1 No.

FORMULAE USED:

% Error = (Actual reading – True reading) / Actual reading
THEORY:

Thermistors: Thermistor means Thermal Resistor.Thermistor is a semiconductor device which behaves as thermal resistor having negative temperature coefficient (NTC) in which their resistance decreases as temperature increases. The NTC is as large as several percent per degree Celsius. This allows the thermistor circuits to detect very small changes in temperature which could not be observed with RTD or Thermocouple. In some cases the resistance of thermistor at room temperature may decrease as much as 5% for each one degree Celsius rise in Temperature. This high sensitivity to temperature changes makes thermistors extremely useful for precision temperature measurements control and compensation Thermocouples: When two metals having different work functions are placed together, a voltage is generated at the junction which is nearly proportional to the temperature. This junction is called a thermocouple.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fe Constantan DC output voltage

+5V -5V

MODEL GRAPH:

Thermistor

Thermocouple

RTD Thermocouple

RTD

OBSERVATION:

Thermistor

Room Temperature = Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Thermometer Reading (Degree Celsius) Thermocouple Reading (Degree Celsius) % Error

This principle is used to convert the heat energy to electrical energy at the junction of two conductors. The heat at the junction is produced by the electrical current flowing in the heater element while the thermocouple produces an EMF at its output terminals which can be measured with the help of a PMMC instrument. The EMF produced is proportional to the temperature and hence to the RMS value of the current. Thermocouple types of instrument can be used for both ac and dc. Resistance temperature detector: Electrical resistance of any metallic conductor varies according to temperature changes. The sensor for measurement of temperature by utilizing this phenomenon is called resistance thermometer. It is the basic element for resistance temperature detector.
PROCEDURE:

1. The heat source box is connected to the socket provided on the back side of the main unit. 2. The leads from the Transducers are connected to the input socket of main unit. 3. Single phase supply is given to the main unit 4. The glass mercury thermometer is placed (to measure the temperature) in heat source through the window hole. 5. Thermometer reading and digital display readings are noted down. 6. The knob of phase controller is adjusted to select the temperature level for experiment. 7. For various temperatures, thermometer reading and display reading are noted.
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What is a thermocouple? 2. What is Seeback effect? 3. What is Peltier effect? 4. What are the merits of thermocouple? 5. What are the demerits of thermocouple? 6. What are the applications of temperature sensors? 7. What are the various methods of measuring the thermocouple output?
RESULT:

Thus the temperature measuring transducer (Thermocouple) is studied.

WHEATSTONE BRIDGE B P

Q

A

D

C R-Unknown Resistance D- Galvanometer S

R D

E

KELVIN’S DOUBLE BRIDGE C

D

R1
DRB

c R4
R
3

R2

RX A
A

DRB

b

RS

a
+ +

B

C

Rb

Ex. No:

Date:

2. DC BRIDGES
AIM:

To determine the value of the given low resistance using (i) Wheat stone’s Bridge (ii) Kelvin’s Bridge
REFERENCE:

1. A.K.Sawhney: A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1984. 2. H.S.Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation, TMH, 1985.
BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED:

Principle and operation of bridge circuits.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sl.No: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
THEORY:

Apparatus RPS Ammeter Decade Resistance Box Resistor Rheostat

Range (0-30 V) (0-300 mA) (0-100 KΩ) 1 KΩ 1180 Ω / 0.6 A

Quantity 1 1 2 2 1

The bridges are used not only for the measurement of resistance but also used for measurement of various component values like capacitor and inductor etc. Bridge circuit in its simplest form consists of a network of four resistance arms forming a closed circuit. A source of current detector is connected to the two junctions. The bridge circuit uses the comparison measurement methods and operates on nullindication principle. The bridge circuit compares the value of an unknown component with that of an accurately known standard component. Thus the accuracy depends on the bridge component without the null detector. Hence high degree of accuracy can be obtained. In a bridge circuit when no current flows through the null detector which is generally a galvanometer, then the bridge is said to be balanced.

TABULATION: Kelvin’s Bridge: Sl.No R1 (Ω) R3 (Ω) RX (Ω) % Error Wheat stone’s Bridge: SL.No R1 (Ω) R2 (Ω) R3 (Ω) RX (Ω) % Error Actual works (Ω) .

2. note different readings and repeat the calculation FORMULAE: Give supply and adjust Decade Resistance Box to get null Kelvin’s Bridge: RX = (RSR1) / R2 + R4 r (R1 / R2 – R3 / R4) / (R3 + R4 + r) (Ω) Wheat stone’s Bridge: R = P * S / Q (Ω) Where.Load resistance. R = S*(P/Q) Where R is the unknown resistance.Wheatstone bridge: A very important device used in the measurement of medium resistances is the Wheatstone bridge. 1. The well known expression for the balance of Wheatstone bridge is follows QR = PS If three of the resistance is known then the fourth may be determined from the eqn. It is still an accurate and reliable instrument for making comparison measurements and operates upon a null indication principle. deflection. By increasing DC Voltage source. A Wheatstone bridge has been in use longer than almost any electrical measuring instrument. S is called the standard arm of the bridge and P and Q are called the ratio arms. Note the values and calculate unknown resistance using the formula. Kelvin’s double bridge: The Kelvin Bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased accuracy in measurement of low value resistances. RS – Standard resistance. PROCEDURE: Make the Connections as per the circuit diagram. r . An understanding of the Kelvin bridge arrangement may be obtained by a study of the difficulties that arise in a Wheatstone bridge on account of the resistance of the leads and the contact resistances while measuring low valued resistors. RX – unknown resistance .

% Error = ((Actual Value – Obtained Value) / Actual Value) * 100 MODEL CALCULATIONS: .

What is the range of low. What are the precautions to be followed while measuring low resistance? 6. The value of the given resistor = _________Ω (Using Wheatstone bridge) _________Ω (Using Kelvin’s double bridge) . What is meant by balanced condition for Wheatstone bridge? RESULT: Thus the value of given resistance was determined using Wheatstone bridge & Kelvin bridge. What are the methods of measuring high resistances? 5. What are the factors involved in measurement of high resistance? 7. medium and high resistances? 2. What is Kelvin double bridge? 10. What is meant by Kelvin’s bridge? 9. What are the advantages of Wheatstone bridge method? 4. What are the methods of measuring medium resistances? 3.DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. What are the advantages of bridges? 8.

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER V1 + A1 - R2 R’ R1 A3 R’ R3 + R4 V0 R V2 + A2 .

REFERENCE: 1.Ex. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation.S. The output of transducers has to be amplified so that it can drive the indicator. So that it can display system. H. the output voltage V0 is given by V0 = . 2. As reqd In a number of industrial and consumer applications. water flow etc. V0 = R2/ R1 (V2 – 1/1 + R3/R4 (R1/ R2+1) V1V1) . INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER AIM: Date: To design and determine the performance characteristics of Instrumentation Amplifier. 1984. 1995.K. 3. Some typical examples are measurement and control of temperature.R2/ R1 V2 + 1/1 + R3/R4 V1 (1+ R2/R1) Or. As reqd 3 Nos. 2. light intensity.No 1. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. one is required to measure and control physical quantities. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. THEORY: Apparatus name Regulated Power Supply Resistors OP-Amp IC 741 Connecting wires Quantity 1 No. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Principle of working of Instrumentation amplifier. No: 3. 4. Many of the input specification of an Op-amps employed directly determine the input specifications of the instrumentation amplifier. humidity. These physical quantities are usually measured with the help of transducers. TMH. This function is performed by an instrumentation amplifier. An analysis of the circuit gives the following equation: Let R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 Considering the basic differential amplifier shown in the figure. A.

No Input Voltage (V1) V2 Output Voltage (V0) MODEL CALCULATIONS: .Rf / Rin (V1 – V2) TABULATION: Sl.V0 = -R2/R1 V2 + 1/ 1+R3/R4 V1 (1+ R2/R1) V0 = .

The gain of an instrumentation amplifier can be varied by changing R1 alone. under common mode condition.01% for a gain less than 10. Low power consumption 7. The expression for its voltage gain is generally of the form. accurate and stable gain 2. FEATURES: The important features of an instrumentation amplifier are 1. Finite. the amplifier has good linearity typically about 0. A = (V0/V2) – V1 Where V0 = output of the amplifier V2-V1 = differential input is to be amplified. 4. Easier gain adjustment 3. High CMRR 3. Because of the large negative feedback used. Low output impedance 5. However. Low thermal and time drift . If V1 ≠ V2 current flows in R and R2 and (V2-V1). The output impedance is also low being in the range of milliohms. Low dc offset 5. The input bias current of the instrumentation amplifier is determined by that of the amplifiers A1 and A2. For V1 = V2 that is. As no current flows through R and R1 the non-inverting amplifier A1 acts as voltage follower having output V11 and V1. the voltage across R will be zero. High gain stability with low temperature coefficient. Low output impedance The instrumentation amplifier is also called as Data amplifier.The Op-amp A1 and A2 have differential input voltage as Zero. High gain accuracy can be obtained by using precision metal film resistors for all the resistances. High CMRR 6. High input impedance 4. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER: 1. High gain accuracy and linearity 2.

High Slew rate .8.

What are the properties of an ideal op amp? 5. V0 = R2/ R1 (V2 – 1/1 + R3/R4 (R1/ R2+1)V1V1) V0 = -R2/R1 V2 + 1/ 1+R3/R4 V1 (1+ R2/R1) V0 = -Rf / Rin (V1 – V2) DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. What is CMRR? 7. Differential gain is calculated Ad = V0/(V1~V2) 6. What are the characteristics of voltage amplifier? 6. Common mode gain is calculated Ac = V0/((V1+V2)/2) 4.R2/ R1 V2 + 1/1 + R3/R4 V1(1+ R2/R1) Or. What is the need of instrumentation amplifier? 9. 3. 5. CMRR of the Instrumentation Amplifier is determined. 2. What are the important features of instrumentation amplifier? 3. What is instrumentation amplifier? 2.PROCEDURE: 1. . What is bandwidth? 8. What is an op amp? 4.The output voltage V0 is measured. What are the advantages of instrumentation amplifier? 10. Circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram. the output voltage V0 is given by V0 = . V1 & V2 are given different voltages & the output voltage V0 is measured. V1 & V2 are connected together & the input voltage is set at 7V. What are the applications of Op-Amp? RESULT: Thus an instrumentation amplifier is designed and analyzed. CMRR= Ad / Ac DESIGN: An analysis of the circuit gives the following equation: Let R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 Considering the basic differential amplifier shown below.

R-L circuit: For a series RL circuit. V L V(t)R 2 I (t) Circuit Equations: V (t) = R i (t) + L di (t) dt di (t) = V (t) .R i(t) dt L L i (t) = ∫ ( V(t) .R i(t)) dt L L R-L Circuit Simulation: + S U M PRODUCT _ INTEGRATOR SCOPE V/ L V/ R/L R/ L .

Arumugam and N. Basic concepts of RL. 2. Either inductor or capacitor or both should be present. REQUIREMENT OF TRANSIENT IN THE CIRCUIT: 1. New Delhi. 2.L. M.Ex. a) The following are the simple 3 facts which are the fundamental to the phenomenon of transients in electrical power systems. No: 4. 3. The law of conversion of energy should hold good. RC transients and MATLAB.Chand and Company Ltd. S. Khanna Publishers. Theraja – Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics. b) The current can’t change instantaneously through any inductor. REFERENCE: 1. Newdelhi. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: • • Basic concepts of DC and AC circuits.Prem Kumar – Electrical circuits Theory. The duration of which they last is very significant as compared with operating time of the system. c) The voltage across a capacitor can’t change instantaneously. B. A sudden change in the parameter as the form should occurs as a fault or any switching operation. . the system may result in block out condition. But they are very important because depending upon the reversibility of the transients. THEORY: Transient phenomenon is a periodic function of time and doesn’t last longer. STUDY OF TRANSIENTS AIM: Date: To study the transients of DC circuits and AC circuits. To obtain the Transient Response Curve of R-L circuit and R-C circuit using MATLAB.

R-C circuit: For a series RC circuit. R C V(t) R2 i(t) Circuit Equations: V (t) = R i(t) + 1 ∫ i(t) dt C R i (t) = V (t) – 1 ∫ i(t) dt C i (t) = V(t) /R – ∫ 1 i(t) dt RC R-C Circuit Simulation: V/ R + S U M PRODUCT INTEGRATOR _ SCOPE 1/ RC .

Double click on each icon to get different blocks. Drag each component from library block and place in untitled. C=1f and V=10 V. After completing the circuit. RESULT: Thus the transient response curve for the given R-L circuit and R-C circuits have been obtained. Choose simulation time as 5 sec. Dragging the mouse between two components draws lines. R-C circuit R=10Ω. .SIMULATION PROCEDURE: 1. L=1H and V=10 V. first type simulink in the command window. 2. 4. Double click on the scope to view the response PROBLEM: R-L circuit R=10Ω. select start from the simulation menu. To work with Matlab-Simulink. Choose simulation time as 5 sec. 5. 6. A library file and untitled notepad appears in the window. 3.

Ex. No: Date: .

Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. 1995. 1 No. CALIBRATION OF SINGLE-PHASE ENERGY METER AIM: To calibrate the given single-phase energy meter by direct loading and phantom loading. A. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Working principle and operation of single phase energy meter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. Phantom loading: When the current rating of a meter under test is high. REFERENCE: 1. precision grade indicating instruments are used as reference standard. phantom or fractious loading is done. 1 No. These indicating instruments are connected in the circuit of meters under test. As reqd. 1 No. A test with actual loading arrangements would involve a considerable waste of power. 2. TMH.5. The current and voltage are held constant during the load test. 1984. installation according to the specifications. zero adjustment etc. loading arrangements and method of calibrating the energy meters. 1 2 3 4 5 6 THEORY: Particulars Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Test energy meter Phase shift transformer Connecting wires 1 No. The number of revolutions made by the meter disc and the time taken during the test are recorded.No.K.S. In order to avoid this. Direct loading: In this method. 1 No. . H. The calibration procedure involves the steps like visual inspection for various defects. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation.

.

Phase shaft transformer is kept at UPF position PROCEDURE: Direct loading: 1. Note down readings of time taken for the Energy meter for 5 revolution. 3. 3. Make the circuit connection as per the circuit diagram. actual energy and % error. 6. Close the DPST switch. Note down the time taken for five revolutions for various load at UPF. Vary the resistive load to vary the load current. 3. 6. 2. Rheostat is kept at minimum position in phantom loading. Vary the single phase variac up to rated current in ammeter there by energising the current coil. ammeter and voltmeter. Close the DPST switch 2. 4. 8. Rotate the phase shifting transformer and note down the readings for lagging power factor and leading power factor. 4. Auto transformer is kept at minimum position at the time of starting. Adjust single phase auto transformer till the voltage connected across the primary winding reads rated primary voltage. Phantom loading: 1. Make the circuit connection as per the circuit diagram. Wattmeter. Calculate percentage error and draw the graph between percentage error and load current. of revolution made by energy meter = meter constant True energy in kWhr = Actual energy . FORMULAE: % Error = Actual − Trueenergy ×100 % Actualenergy Wattmeter reading × Timetaken ×100 % 3600 × 1000 No. 5. Draw the graph between % error Vs load current. 5. 7. Give the supply to energy meter circuit which energies the pressure coils in energy meter and wattmeter. 2. 7. 2. Calculate the true energy. Repeat the same procedure for various load conditions.PRE CAUTIONS: 1.

MODEL GRAPH: Direct loading Phantom loading UPF % Error % Error Lag Lead IL (A) IL (A) TABULATION: Direct loading Sl. Voltage Current Wattmeter Time taken Actual True %Error (Volts) (Amps) Reading for 5 Energy energy (Watts) revolutions Phantom loading: Power factor UPF Voltage (V) IL (A) Wattmeter Reading Time for 5 Actual revaluations energy True %error energy Lagging Leading DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: .No.

What is the provision available in low power factor measurement energy meter? 7. . What is calibration and why it is needed for instruments? RESULT: Thus the single phase energy meter was calibrated using direct and phantom loading methods and the graph is drawn. What are the advantages of two element polyphase meter? What is the provision available in energy meter for adjusting creeping? 6.1. . What are the types of energy meter? 5. What is Phantom Loading? 3. What is energy meter? 4. What is creeping in energy meter? 2.

.

1995. This is irrespective of whether the load is balanced or unbalanced. But if we make the common points of the pressure coils coincide with one of the lines. 3 Nos. Therefore the sum of the two wattmeter readings are equal to the power consumed by the load. 2 Nos.Ex.Sum of instantaneous readings of two wattmeter =W1+W2. by means of Kirchhoff’s voltage law. hence sum of instantaneous readings of two watt meters = V1i1+V2i2+V3i3. the sum of the two wattmeter reading is equal to the power consumed by the load. 2. As reqd.Therefore. three wire system. H. we require three elements. No. Date: 6. 1984. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation.No. This is irrespective of whether the load is balanced or unbalanced. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. Basics of Star and Delta connections. 2 Nos. Delta Connection Here also. In a three phase. TMH. then we require only two elements. Delta connected load & to check the relationship between line and phase quantity. Instantaneous power consumed by load =V1i1+V2i2+V3i3.K. MEASUREMENT OF THREE PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR AIM: To measure the power and power factor in three-phase circuit star connected. Star Connection: Instantaneous reading of P1 wattmeter W1 and the instantaneous reading of P2 is W2. 1 2 3 4 5 THEORY: Particulars Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Rheostat Connecting wires Quantity 2 Nos. A. . REFERENCE: 1. Basics of three-phase power and power factor 2.Sum of instantaneous readings of two watt meters = V1i1+V2i2+V3i3. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl.S.Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: 1.

F = FORMULA: 3-phase power P = W1+W2 (Watts) Power factor Angle φ = tan-1 [√3 (W1 ~W2) ] (W1+W2) MODEL CALCULATION: .TABULATION: Sl.No Voltage (V) Current (V) Wattmeter reading W1 (W) W2 (W) Power factor cos φ M.

Close the TPST switch. 2. What is the relation between the line and phase quantities in delta connection? 4.PROCEDURE: 1. By knowing the Multiplication factor. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. 7. Note down the line voltage and phase voltage using voltmeters. What do you meant by power factor? RESULT: Thus the relationship between phase & line quantities for star and delta connected load are verified in three phase connection and the power and power factor is measured. 5. Make the circuit connection as per the circuit diagram. What is energy? 2. What are the methods for measuring power? 5. By using the above all the readings calculate the power and power factor. Note down the line current and phase current using ammeters. 3. Note down the Wattmeter readings W1 and W2. . 6. What are the advantages of three phase system? 3. 4. calculate the power.

LINEAR VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORMER CORE Difference Voltage 1 φ AC Excitation + Sy1 _ AFO Py + Sy2 _ CRO .

The transformer has three solenoidal coils placed end-to-end around a tube. so that the output voltage is the difference (hence "differential") between the two secondary voltages. slides along the axis of the tube.Ex. A. 1984. The centre coil is the primary. As the core moves. attached to the object whose position is to be measured. causing the voltages induced in the secondary coils to change. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. THEORY: Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT): The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement. 2. the voltage in one coil increases as the other decreases. REFERENCE: 1. No 7. When the core is in its central position.S. causing the output voltage to increase from zero to a maximum. these mutual inductances change. 1995. The coils are connected in reverse series. so the output voltage is zero. causing a voltage to be induced in each secondary proportional to its mutual inductance with the primary. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. The frequency is usually in the range 1 to 10 kHz. and the two outer coils are the secondaries. When the core is displaced in one direction. A cylindrical ferromagnetic core. equidistant between the two secondary coils. TMH. . H. An alternating current is driven through the primary.K. STUDY OF DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER (Linear Variable differential Transformer) AIM: Date: To obtain the performance characteristics of Linear Variable differential Transformer (LVDT) and to measure the displacement made by the given object using LVDT. equal but opposite voltages are induced in these two coils. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Principle of working of Linear Variable Differential Transformer and different transducers.

No Micrometer Reading (mm) Actual Displacement (mm) Display reading (Volts) Indicated displacement (mm) %Error 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MODEL GRAPH: Output voltage (mV) Displacement (mm) SPECIFICATION OF LVDT: Four Stage range Excitation Sensitivity Body Diameter Resolution : 20mm : Upto 5V. rms at 3 KHz : 22mm : Infinite Resolution .TABULATION: Sl. 3 KHz AC : 5mV.

Initially the unit is set at ‘0’ at 40mm in vernier. 8. which is why the device is described as "linear". For 10mm movement towards right. 6. 9. The LVDT module is connected to main unit. To measure the displacement made by the given object: 1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram. The zero adjust is varied to obtain a correct zero value on output display.5V and so on. The magnitude of the output voltage is proportional to the distance moved by the core (up to its limit of travel). but its phase is opposite to that of the primary. For further 5mm movement the display will indicate 1. 3. When the core moves in the other direction. PROCEDURE: For plotting the Characteristics of LVDT: 1. the output voltage also increases from zero to a maximum. 5. 2. 2. the display will indicate 1V. Measure the output Voltage. 4. Now core of LVDT wire will move towards positive position. 3. Plot the Graph between displacement and output voltage. it can move without friction. By using noted value. Vary the frequency and the LVDT core. making the LVDT a highly reliable device.This voltage is in phase with the primary voltage. The absence of any sliding or rotating contacts allows the LVDT to be completely sealed against the environment. The phase of the voltage indicates the direction of the displacement because the sliding core does not touch the inside of the tube. FORMULAE: % Error = (Actual Displacement – Indicated Displacement)/Actual Displacement . 7. Now the given object is placed in Vernier scale. 4. Vernier position is adjusted using the screw provided towards right hand side. PRECAUTIONS: In all the arms of the bridge the resistance values one kept at Maximum position to reduce current through the detector circuit. The reading shown by the display and Vernier scale are noted. error is calculated. The power supply is given to the unit.

01) MODEL CALCULATION: . V0 = Output voltage V01 = Voltage across secondary SV1 V02 = Voltage across secondary SV2 (ii) Displacement = MSR + (RSR x 0.FORMULAE: (i) V0 =V01-V02 Where.

Mention some of the transducers. What are the types of synchro systems? RESULT: Thus the performance characteristic of LVDT is studied. What is LVDT? 3. State the advantages of LVDT. 4. 2. What are the applications of LVDT? 6. What is Synchro? 8. . What are the disadvantages of LVDT? 5. What is RVDT? 7.DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1.

SCHERING’S BRIDGE C1 C2 AF O D R4 R3 C3 MAXWELL’S BRIDGE RX LX R2 D R3 R4 C4 E .

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl. 1985. H. The standard Capacitor C2 is a high quality mica capacitor (low-loss) for general measurements or an air capacitor (having a very stable value and a very small electric field) for insulation measurement. 4. {R1+[1/jωC1]}{R4/[1+jωC4R4]} = {I/jωC2}R3 {R1+1/jωC1}R = R3/jωC2[1+jωC4R4] R1R4-[jR4/ωC1] = -[jR3/ωC2]+ [R3C4R4/C2] C1=C2R4/R3 .K. A. 2 Nos. TMH. loss angle. Schering’s Bridge: A very important bridge used for the precision measurement of capacitors and their insulating properties is the Schering Bridge. 2. 1 No. 1 No. 2.S. REFERENCE: 1. 1 No.Sawhney: A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. 6.Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. BRIDGES AIM: Date: To determine the value of the unknown capacitance and loss angle (δ) using low voltage Schering’s bridge. 1984. Under balance condition. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. A. 3. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Principle of bridge circuits. THEORY: Particulars Capacitor Decade capacitance Box Decade Resistance Box Resistor AFO Galvanometer Quantity 3 Nos. No 8.No: 1. 1 No.Ex. To measure unknown value of inductance using Maxwell’s Bridge. 5. low voltage Schering bridge for measurement of capacitance and low frequency and high frequency inductance measurements using Maxwell’s Bridge.C.

R3 – Variable resistance R4 – Standard resistance (Ohm) (Ohm) C1 – unknown Capacitance (Farad) C2 – Standard Capacitance (Farad) C4 – Variable Capacitance (Farad) Loss angle δ = tan-1(ω C4 R4) % Error = ((Actual Value – Obtained Value) / Actual Value) * 100 MODEL CALCULATION: . No.TABULATION: (Schering’s bridge) SL. Capacitor C2 (µf) R4 (Ω) C4 (µf) R3 (Ω) C1 Actual Value (µf) C1 Obtained Value (µf) % Error FORMULAE: C1= C2 ( R3 / R4) cos2δ Farad Where.

One arm has a resistance R1 in parallel with C1. 3. 4. 2. The capacitor is almost a loss-less component. i. and hence it is easier to write the balance equation using the admittance of arm 1 instead of the impedance.e. Y1=1/Z1 Y1=1/R1 + jωC1 Z2=R2 Z3=R3 Zx=Rx in series with Lx=Rx + jωLx From these equations we have. Dissipation factor D1= tan δ=ωC1R1 = ω[C2R4/R3][R3C4/C2] = ωC4 R4 This bridge is widely used for testing small capacitors at low voltages with very high precision. R1= R3C4/C2 Two independent balance equations are balanced if C4&R4 are chosen are the variable element. Rx + jωLx = R2R3(1/R1 + jωC1) Rx + jωLx = R2R3/R1 + jωC1R2R3 . Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Using the formula find the value of unknown capacitance. Vary the DRB and DCB.Equating real and imaginary terms. When the detector shows null position. Maxwell’s bridge: Maxwell’s bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of a known capacitor. note the corresponding readings. The use of standard arm offers the advantage of compactness and easy shielding. PROCEDURE: 1. Z1=R1 in parallel with C1. The general equation for bridge balance is Z1Zx = Zx = Z2Z3 Z2Z3/ Z1 = Z2Z3Y1 Where.

LX = unknown Inductance RX =Effective resistance of inductance LX R2. R3. R4 = Known non – Inductance resistance C4 = Standard capacitance MODEL CALCULATION: .No R2(Ω) R3(Ω) R4(Ω) RX(Ω) Actual Practical LX(Ω) Actual Practical FORMULAE: RX = R2 R3 / R4(Ώ) LX = R2 R3 C4(H) Q factor=ω LX / RX Where.TABULATION: (Maxwell’s bridge) Sl.

to obtain a reactance balance.C. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: How can we eliminate the error? Applications of Schering’s bridge? What is the use of vibrational glanvanometer? List out commonly used detectors for A. Thus the unknown value of inductance using Maxwell’s Bridge was determined. 3. This can be avoided by varying the capacitances. The measurement is independent of the excitation frequency. The scale of the resistance can be calibrated to read inductance directly. Bridge.bridges? How do you measure capacitance? What are the advantages of Maxwell Wein Bridge? What are the disadvantages of Maxwell Wein Bridge? What are the advantages of electronic oscillator? RESULT: Thus the value of the unknown capacitance and loss angle (δ) using low voltage Schering’s bridge was determined. instead of R2 and R3. However. . Note the values and calculate unknown Inductance using the formula. Give supply and adjust Decade Resistance Box to get null deflection.C. What are the types of A.Equating real terms and imaginary terms we have Rx = R2R3/R1 and Lx=C1R2R3 Also. Commercial bridges measure from 1-1000 H. the bridge can be made to read directly in Q. (If the Q is very large. 2. Make the connections as per the circuit Diagram. R1 becomes excessively large and it is impractical to obtain a satisfactory variable standard resistance in the range of values required) PROCEDURE: 1. This bridge is particularly suited for inductances measurements. with + 2% error. since comparison with a capacitor is more ideal than with another inductance. Q = ωLx/Rx = (ωC1R2R3 * R1)/R2R3 = ωC1R1 Maxwell’s bridge is limited to the measurement of low Q values (1-10). The Maxwell’s bridge using a fixed capacitor has the disadvantage that there is an interaction between the resistance and reactance balances.

.

Analog to digital converter (ADC) acts as an encoder. Binary weighted resistor type & R-2R ladder type. The output voltage will be VR/ 8. In this type most frequently used method is successive approximation . TMH.5kΩ to 10kΩ. the reference voltage is applied to one of the switch position and the other switch position is connected to ground. THEORY: DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERSION: It involves conversion of digital information into equivalent analog information. 1984. 4) Flash type. DAC are of two types. is equivalent to binary input 001. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. A/D CONVERTER AND D/A CONVERTER AIM: Date: (i) To obtain the analog output voltage from digital Input. REFERENCE: 1. R-2R ladder DAC: In this type. 2.S. VSTM 003 experiment unit and channel DAC kit. (ii) To obtain the digital output voltage from Analog Input. 5) Delta modulation and 6) Adaptive delta modulation. 2.Ex. VSTM 003 experiment unit and channel ADC kit. Digital to analog converter (DAC) acts as a decoding device since it operates on the output of the system. Let us consider 3 bit R-2R ladder DAC with binary input 001. No 9. ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION: The analog information is converted into equivalent binary number in the digital form. H. The typical value of resistors ranges from 2. 3) successive approximation. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. 1995. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2) Dual slope. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Basic theory and operation of A/D & D/A and its types. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. The types of ADC are 1) single slope. A.K.

Successive approximation: In this type the basic idea is to adjust the DAC’s input code such that its output is within ±1/2 LSB of the analog input Vi. The circuit uses Successive Approximation Register (SAR) to find the required values of each bit by trial and error. .

For example if the input is 496 V then the switch positions are as follows. 3. 2. TABULATION: Digital to Analog Conversion: Sl.PROCEDURE: D/A Conversion: 1. 3. The jumpers J9 to J16 should be in the s/w (right) position. The LED 9 glows on pressing start of Conversion button. The Variable terminal of the potentiometer is given to analog input channel 2. The start of conversion button (soc) is pressed. SW1 1 SW2 1 SW3 11 SW4 1 SW5 1 SW6 1 SW7 SW8 Hex Value 0 (FE) H 5. The output voltage can be observed by using CRO. 2. To select the analog input channel 2. 5. The switches sw1 through sw8 are placed approximately to represent the desired output. Switch on the Power supply. Switch on the supply. The Address latch enable button is also pressed once so as to enable the digital data to be sent to the output. 4. A/D Conversion: 1. Once to start the Conversion from analog signal to digital form. the channel select switch position is as follows. SW1 0 SW2 1 SW3 0 4. No B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 Hex Value Analog O/p .

No Analog I/p B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 Hex Value DISCUSSION QUESTION: 1. 2.Analog to digital Conversion: Sl. What are the types of D/A converter? What are the advantages of R-2R ladder D/A converter? .

What is sample and hold circuit? 7. What are the advantages of successive approximation converter? 9. 5.3. What are the uses of D/A converter? What are the types of A/D conversion? What is the use of A/D conversion device? 6. 4. What are the disadvantages of Dual slope converter? RESULT: Thus the analog output voltage from digital input and digital output from analog input were obtained. What is resolution? 8. .

.

H. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. In a 3φ three wire system. CALIBRATION OF THREE-PHASE ENERGY METER AIM: To calibrate and hence draw the characteristics curve for the given 3Φ energy meter by direct loading. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Working principle and operation of Three-phase energy meter.UPF 0 .I Wattmeter Three-Phase energy meter Voltmeter M. 2. C2.No 1 2 3 THEORY: Apparatus Ammeter M. REFERENCE: 1. . The graph is calibration curve for the energy meter. the actual energy consumed by load for time corresponding to two revolutions must be same as εr.I Quantity 1 1 1 1 Range 0 – 10A 600 V. and P3. the measurement of energy is carried out by 2 element energy meter. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. loading arrangements and method of calibrating the energy meters.S. P2. 1984.600 V 4 In a 3φ four wire system. The coils are connected in such a manner that the net torque produced is the sum of the torques due to all the three elements. These are employed for 3φ four wire systems where the fourth wire is a neutral. The current coils are connected in series with line and denoted as C1. 1995. This meter consists of 3 elements.Ex. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. while pressure coils are connected along line & neutral and denoted as P1. No Date: 10. To have a zero error. the measurement of energy is carried out by a three phase energy meter. A. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Sl.K. The construction of an individual element is similar to that of a single phase energy meter. 10A. This energy is actual energy consumed or true energy denoted as εr. TMH. C3.

No IL (Amps) Wattmeter Readings (W) W1 W2 Actual Energy (kWhr) Time Taken True for 5 Energy revolutions (kWhr) (sec) % error = (AE-TE)/ TE x 100 .MODEL GRAPH: % Error Load Current (A) TABULATION: Sl.

4. 3. 6. 5. 4. 7. Calculate the percentage error and draw the graph between percentage error and load current. Why? RESULT: Thus the given 3 φ energy meter was calibrated by direct loading & the graph was plotted. 5. Make the circuit connection as per the circuit diagram. 2. 8. Wattmeter and ammeter. What is Creeping? What is Phantom Loading? What is energy meter? What is calibration? What are the types of energy meter? What are the methods of testing the energy meter? What is the reason for rotation of disc? How can the creeping be eliminated? Which torque is absent in energy meter. 6. 9. Vary the resistive load to vary the load current. 2. Note down readings of time taken for the Energy meter for 5 revolution. Resistive load should be kept at minimum position. PROCEDURE: 1.PRECAUTIONS: 1. Close the TPST switch. Auto transformer should be kept at minimum position at the time of starting. 2. Repeat the same procedure for various load conditions. Adjust three-phase auto transformer till the rated voltage. FORMULA: % Error = (Actual energy – True energy) / True energy X 100 Actual energy (kWhr) = No of revolutions by energy meter / Meter Constant True energy (kWhr) = (Watt meter readings X Time taken) / (3600 X 1000) DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. 7. 3. .

CALIBRATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER A P 30 V AC Supply V V N Ex. No Date: .

11. Ratio error or Current error (%) = 100( KN IS -IP) IP KN = Primary winding current Secondary winding current Phase Angle error ө Im 180   Im  =   π   Ip     Ip  =    nIs  THEORY: A current transformer is an instrument transformer specially designed and assembled to be used in measurement control and protective circuits. 1984. 1995. H. CALIBRATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER AIM: To study and calibrate current transformer parameters REFERENCE: 1. 1 No. APPARATUS REQUIRED: SNO 1 2 3 4 FORMULAE: Apparatus Current Transformer Trainer Rheostat Loading rheostat Patch cords Range 500 Ω. TMH.3A 700 W Quantity 1 No. A. Its primary consists of few turns and is connected in series with the circuit whose current is desired to be measured and the secondary is connected to the current measuring instrument. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Principle of working of current transformer. 1 No. 2. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. The secondary circuit is closed through the typical low impedance of the instruments connected to it.K.S. As reqd. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. TABULATION: .

Sl No Supply Voltage (V) Primary Current ( IP) Secondary Current ( IS) Ratio Error KN Phase angle Error ө MODEL CALCULATION: .

4. 3A rheostat. The exciting current must be subtracted phasorially from the primary current to find the amount remaining to supply secondary current. High Voltage : (ie. 5. 5.Low voltage and high voltage) Low Voltage : (ie. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. Now note down the primary (IP) and secondary current (IS) of transformer. Mention the uses of current transformer. Load the CT by using loading rheostat 700 W. Tabulate the readings and calculate calibration parameters DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 1. This results in introduction of ratio and phase angle errors when compared to ideal CT. Load the CT by using 500 Ω. 4. How is current transformer designed? 3. 6. 3. . Keep the rheostat maximum position. What is calibration? Mention the need for calibration. 4. 6.230 V) 1. Now note down the primary (IP) and secondary current (IS) of transformer. Switch on the kit and switch on the MCB. 3. This value will be slightly different from the value that the ratio of turns would indicate and there is slight shift in phase relationship.In ideal CT the secondary current is inversely proportional to the ratio of turns and opposite in phase to the impresses primary current. PROCEDURE: The calibration of current transformer operation is under two modes (ie. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. 5. Define current transformer 2. Mention calibrated parameters of current transformer RESULT: Thus the calibration of current transformer was studied and calibrated. Mention precautions to be followed while using current transformer. Switch on the kit with rheostat at minimum position. The calibrated parameters are ratio error & phase angle error .30 V) 1. Tabulate the readings and calculate calibration parameters.

MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS A L R AC G R3 R4 .

Ex. 1. 3. Also connect variable inductor with the Maxwell’s bridge. Switch on the power supply and adjust the variable inductance and potentiometer till the galvanometer reads to zero. A. Switch off the power supply and measure the resistance value of potentiometer. Connect the galvanometer and ammeter with ring specimen. 4. 2. 1 No. BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED: Concept of hysteresis and eddy current loss.[Rs-Rw] Rs = (R3/R4). 1995. TMH.S. 1 No. H. Iron loss Pi = I2[R4/(R3+R4)]. Measure the resistance value of ring specimen by using multi meter in ohm. 6. MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS AIM: Date: To determine the iron loss in magnetic material using bridge method. No 12.K. . 2. APPARATUS REQUIRED: SNO 1 2 3 4 PROCEDURE: Apparatus Ring Specimen Ammeter AFO Patch cords Range 0-2A. 5. Kalsi : Electronic Instrumentation. REFERENCE: 1. 1984. Dhanpat Rai & Sons. Observe ammeter reading. As reqd.(R2+R2) RESULT: Thus the Iron loss of the given magnetic material is determined using bridge method. M. Sawhney : A course in Electrical and Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation.I Quantity 1 No.