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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

INPLANT TRANING AT M/S COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMS GOREGOAN (W) MUMBAI 400 104 FROM: 1ST DECEMBER 2003 TO 15TH MAY 2004 SUBMITTED BY GAURAV MANOHAR RAUT 39911 EIGHT SEMESTER DIPLOMA IN ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (INDUSTRY INTEGRATED) L & T INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY SAKI VIHAR ROAD, POWAI, MUMBAI 400 072.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank M/S COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMS for giving me an opportunity to under go training in their esteemed Organization. I would like to convey my special thanks to Mr. ANWAR KHAN (Proprietor) for giving me the honor of training in their company. They gave me a chance to learn & enhance my knowledge. I convey deepest gratitude to Mr. VISHAL KALE (Senior Engineers), Mr. SAMEER MHATRE (Marketing Engineers) Mr. ASHOK GABALE (Senior Electrician) For the encouragement and Co-operation they have extended to me. They never hesitated to give a listening and helping hand in spite of their commitment towards their works. My special thanks to Mr. Joshi (Training in Charge) for timely help & guidance, which helps me, making the training an intensely valuable experience.

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No Objection Certificate

This is to certify that GAURAV MANOHAR RAUT of L & T Institute of Technology has undergone apprenticeship (From 01/12/2003 to 15/05/2004) In M/S COMECH AUTOMATATION SYSTEMS, Goregoan. He has been allowed to include the documents, data & sketches for which we have no objection.

Reporting Officer

Proprietor

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

L&T INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY POWAI-400072 INPLAT TRAINING EVALUATION SHEET (FIFTH SEMESTER) Mr. GAURAV M. RAUT. Roll no.: 39911 Course: EI-VIII Examination Seat no.: WHO UNDERWENT INPLANT TRAINING AT M/S COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMS FORM 01.12.2003 TO 15.05.2004

HAS BEEN EXAMINED FOR THE BOARD OF TECHNOLOGY EXAMINATION MAHARASHTRA STATE

PLACEMENT OFFICER

EXAMINER (Internal)

SEAL OF THE INSTITUTE

EXAMINER (External)

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CONTENTS Page No. 6 8 8 16 18 28 33 37 45 46 51 65 69 73 76 76 81 81 87 87 88 95

Introduction to Company Concept of Electric Motors Classification of Electric Motors Adjustable Speed Drives AC Motor Drive DC Motor Drive 5. Introduction to Inverters STATICON 4P (L&T STATIC CONTROL) VARISPEED (YASKAWA (JAPAN)) 1. VARISPEED F7 2. VARISPEED G7 3. VS mini J7 4. LnTOR D7 6. Frequently Ask Questions 7. Reference Table 8. Design Guidelines 9. Introduction to motor control circuit & design 10. Methods Adopted for Starting OF Three-Phase Induction Motors 11. Starting of 3-phase induction motor 12. Points to be considered while designing power circuits and control circuits 13. Design requirements of control systems for automatic machine tools/machines 14. Control cabinets construction 15. Main switches selection and installation 16. Guidelines for selection and method of wiring 17. Motor calculation

1. 2. 3. 4.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMMS M/SCOMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMS Unit no. 20, Amrapali Ind. Est., Ram mandir Rd. Goregoan (W), Mumbai-400 104 M/SCOMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEMS was established on dated by Mr. Anwar Khan. Comtech Automation System is authorized Larson & Toubros system house for process automation products, company deals with AC drive (Varispeed inverter), DC drive (LnTor),Programmable Logic Control (PLC) systems, Automation softwares, MCC, Control desks & other electrical panels for various application to industries like Steel, Textile, Paper, Plastic, Cement, Petrochemical etc. The various department of the company are as follows: Marketing Designing Manufacturing Commissioning Marketing Mr Anwar Khan & Mr. Sameer Mhatre look for the marketing in the various industries for the AC drives, DC drives and for electrical panels Desiging Mr Anwar Khan & Mr Vishal Kale look for the designing of the various things like circuit designing for the electrical panel, panel chassis designing, control desk designing Manufacturing Mr Ashok Gabale is the seniour electrician handles the job of the assembling of the panel, wiring of the panel, external wiring, on site electrical support. Commissioning Mr Ashok Gabale, Mr Vishal Kale and Mr. Sameer Mhatre handles the commissong of the projects which includes programming of the drives, settling the panels on the site, electrical wiring, necessary interaction with other devices

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rief lists of customers are: Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Nelco Ltd. Indabrator Ltd. Vikram Ispat. Conick Alloys Ltd. Grasim cement Ltd. Saw pipes Ltd. Jindal Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. Apollo Tyres Ltd. Multiform Machinery Ltd. Pennar steel Ltd. Sipta coated Steels Ltd. Proctor & Gamble Ltd. Times of India (Bennet & Colemann ltd.) Bombay Dyeing Ltd. Binani Cement Ltd. Zuari Cement Ltd. Exide Industries Ltd. Blue Star Ltd Rathi Alloys Ltd Remi Instruments Ltd. Remi Metals Gujarat Ltd Proctor & Gamble Ltd. Jindal Praxair Oxygen Co. Ltd. Essar steel Ltd. Potdar Tubes & Pipes Ltd. Indian Aluminium Co. Ltd. Concast (I) Ltd. Hempronics Systems Pvt. Ltd. Essar steel Ltd.

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1. Concept of an Electric Drive. Most of the production equipment used in modern industrial undertaking consists of three important components, namely, the prime mover, the energy transmitting device and the actual apparatus or equipment that performs the desired job. The function of the first two components is to impart motion and operates the third one. The most commonly used prime mover is, of course, an electric motor, since it is far superior in performance to steam, hydraulic, diesel and other types of engines. Electric motors are, often, operated directly from the supply line, under their own inherent speed-torque characteristics and their operating conditions are dictated by the mechanical loads, connected to them. However, in many applications, the motors are provided with the control equipment by which their characteristics can be adjusts and their operating conditions with respect to the mechanical load varied to suit specific requirements. The most common adjustment is of motor speed, but torque acceleration and deceleration can also be adjusted. The control equipment usually consists of relays, contactors, master switches and solid-state devices as diodes, transistors and thyristors. The aggregate of electric motor, the energy transmitting shaft and the control equipment by which the motor characteristics are adjusted and their operating conditions with respect to mechanical load varied to suit particular requirements, is called electric drive. The drive together with the load constitutes the drive systems. 2. Classification of Electric Drives In general, electrical drives may be classified in to three categories: Group drive, Individual drive and multimotor drive. Group drive consists of single motor, which actuates several mechanisms or machines by means of one or more line shafts supported on bearings. It is also called as line shaft drive. The line shaft fitted with multistepped pulleys and belt that connect these pulleys and the shaft of the driven machines serve to vary their speed. Even after taking into account the cost of the line shafts, belts and other installations, the group drive is the most economic one, since the rating of the motor used may be comparatively less than the aggregate of rating of the individual motor required to drive each equipment, because all of them may not be working simultaneously. But, seldom is the group drive used, nowadays, due to the following disadvantages: 1. Any fault that occurs in the driving motor renders all the driven equipment idle. 2. Considerable power loss takes place in the energy transmitting mechanisms. 3. Flexibility of layout of the different machines is lost, since they have to be located as to suit the layout of the line shaft. 4. The use of line shaft, pulleys and belt make the drive untidy in appearance and less safe to operate. 5. The level of noise produced at the worksite is quite high. In the individual drive, an electric motor is used for transmitting motions to various parts or a mechanisms belonging to single equipment. For example, such a drive in a lathe rotates the spindle, moves the feed and also with the help of gears, imparts motion o the lubricating and cooling pumps of the lathe. In many applications, the individual drive consists of motor, which is specially designed to form an integral part of the equipment. In the cases of individual drive too, the energy is transmitted to the different parts of the same mechanism by means of mechanical parts like gears, pulley etc. Hence, there occur some power losses. This disadvantage is removed in the case of multi motor drives. In multimotor drives, separate motor are provided for actuating different parts of the driven mechanism. For example, in traveling cranes, there are three motors: one for hoisting another for long travel motion and the third for cross travel motion. Paper mills, rolling mills, rotary printing machines, metal work machines etc. employ a large number of multimotor drives. Page 8 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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The use of individual drive and multimotor drives has enabled introduction of automation and production processes. This in turns has considerably increased the productivity of the different industrial undertakings. Complete or partial automation helps to operates various mechanisms at optimum conditions and to increase reliability and safety of operations. VARIOUS TYPES OF ELECTRIC DRIVE 1. AC motors 1. Asynchronous motors (Induction Motor) 2. Synchronous motors 1. Asynchronous or induction motors a) Single phase induction motor These motor are normally fractional HP rating, through sometimes-integral hp rating motors are also available in a lower hp range. The most common fractional hp single phase motors are the splitphase, capacitor start, permanent-split capacitor and shaded-pole types of motors. Single-phase motors run in the direction in which they are started, which depends on the electrical connections or mechanical restraints of the connected load. General-purpose motors can be run in either direction, but the usual direction is clockwise direction when the shaft is viewed from the drive end. The motors connections can be changed to reverse the direction of rotation.

Split phase motors (Single-phase): Basically constant speed motors. The motor consists of two windings, namely, the main winding and the auxiliary winding. The auxiliary winding including a torque, which results in the initial rotation and acceleration, causes a phase shift. At a certain speed the centrifugal switch opens, and the motor accelerates with only the main winding being energized, and the auxiliary winding cut out. Split-phase Page 9 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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motors provide a low or moderate starting torque, and are mainly used in small appliances, fans with belt drives and office machines. The principle behind capacitor start motors (Single-phase): It is the similar to split phase motor. The basic difference is that a capacitor is connected in series with the auxiliary winding. The locked rotor torque are greater than in the split phase motors, and find useful application in pumps, air-compressors, etc. Permanent split capacitor motors: It is similar to the capacitor start motors, but the centrifugal switch is absent, hence the auxiliary winding and the capacitor are continuously energized. This results in a higher power factor in comparison to the other motor, but the locked rotor torque is low. The normal applications are for directly driven fan or blowers, and are not recommended for belt-driven loads. Speed control by varying the voltage is possible since both winding are continuously energized, and can be used for variable torque applications. Shaded pole motor (single phase): Unlike in a capacitor motor, there is no auxiliary winding, but in its place, a solid copper loop is wound around a small portion of each salient pole, which causes the reaction required to give the motor a starting torque. The shading coil is capable of producing a limit torque during acceleration and running. Due to the inherent characteristics of low efficiency, power factor and starting torque, the motor finds applications mainly in low torque applications, such as small fans etc.

b) Three phase induction motors:Three phase induction motors are the workhorses of the industries and the most widely used of all electric motors the entire world over. There popularity stems from the fact that they are the simplest, most rugged, easily available, low cost, and simple control systems. The two types of three phase motors are the squirrel cage induction motor and slip ring induction motor. The squirrel cage induction motor derives its name from the fact that the rotor has cast aluminum conductors and short-circuiting end rings. The motor comprises a stationary wound stator and the rotor. AC current flowing in the stator induce currents in the rotor, and the combined electromagnetic effects Page 10 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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of the stator currents and rotor current produces the force to start the rotation of the rotor, when the moving magnetic field induces a current in the short circuited conductors of the rotor. The speed at which the magnetic field rotates is called the synchronous speed of the motor and is dependent on the number of pole in the stator and the power supply frequency. If Ns=Synchronous speed P=Number of Poles f= power supply Then Ns=120*f/P The synchronous speed is the maximum speed of the motor. When running, the rotor speed will always be less than the synchronous speed. If the rotor rotates at the speed equal to the rotating magnetic field, then the rotor conductor would cut no line of force and the torque would be zero. In actual running, the rotor speed is just sufficient to allow the required current to flow in the rotor, so that the resulting torque is able to meet the friction and windage losses and to drive the load. This difference in the speed between the magnetic field and the rotor is termed as slip and normally expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed. Slip S=100(Ns-Na)/Ns Where S=Slip Ns=Synchronous speed Na=Actual speed These motors are available in the single speed, two speeds, three speeds and four speed motors either pole changing types or separate windings types. The motors in general can be operated in any direction of rotation, and reversing can be accomplished fairly easily. Squirrel cage induction motors are basically constant speed motors, and relatively inflexible regarding speed and torque characteristics. Slip ring induction motors:It is also referred to, as would rotor induction motors. In these motors both the stator and rotor carry windings, and the rotor windings terminate in slip rings. The accessibility of the rotor circuit enables the slip ring motors for application where the squirrel cage motor finds restraints. Different performances characteristics can be obtained by the addition of varying resistances in the rotor circuit, since current, torque and speed of slip ring motors can be adjusted, and full advantage can be derived of these possibilities by selecting suitable control devices. Automatic or manual control systems can be incorporated for stating, accelerating, speed control and reversing. Slip ring motors find application both as constant speed motors and as variable speed motors. For certain type of constant loads such as constant printing presses, fans, compressors, and the speed may be reduced by up to 50 percent of the synchronous speed. But if the load is light, the speed reduction may be unsatisfactory, as the motor may tend to speed up at lighter loads. In applications requiring a high locked rotor torque, high accelerating torque with a low starting current, slip ring motors are fund useful. They are also applied where heavy loads have to be accelerated gradually and smoothly as required in elevators and hoists. The most common method for starting slip ring motors is by inserting resistances in the rotor circuit. The resistance is gradually reduced allowing the motor to come up speed. In this way, the motor is able to develop torque while limiting locked rotor current. The external resistance in the rotor circuit enables a motor characteristic that results in a large drop in rpm for a fairly small variation in load. Speed reduction up to 50 percent of the rated speed is feasible but at a considerable loss in terms of efficiency.

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

(a) Non-excited synchronous motors: - These are basically if three designs namely, reluctance, hysteresis and permanent magnet motors. These motors incorporate a self-starting circuit and do not require any external supply for excitation. Reluctance motors: - Are similar to squirrel cage motor construction having salient pole configuration. The rotor is designed to have one cutout per pole, so that the salient projections are equal to the number of poles. The provision of cutouts makes the magnetic reluctance between poles to be greater than the magnetic reluctance along the pole axis. Hence the motor operation is dependent on the difference in reluctance. Within one cycle of the applied voltage, the motor will be able to lock into synchronism. Efficiency and power factors are very much lower in comparison to an induction motor, but in smaller sizes these factors may be overridden compared to the low cost factor, simplicity and suitability for light loads. Hysteresis Motors: There are physical pole arrangements on the rotor. The fixed magnetic poles are developed only when the rotor reaches synchronous speed and licks into synchronization at any angular position. These motors find application as timing motors and in instrument applications where constant speed is required. Permanent-magnet Motors: These comprise a squirrel cage rotor with permanent Magnet fixed on the rotor. The fixed poles produced lock into step with the armature field. A high efficiency and power factor are characteristics of this type of motors and are finding wide applications both in the fractional and lower ranges of integral hp motors. (b) DC Excited Motors: - These motors require DC to be supplied through the slip rings for excitation. The DC can be fed with either from a generator mounted directly on the motor shaft or from a separate rectifier source. A synchronous motor is not self-starting, and requires either its rotor to be initially rotated or should have its rotor connected to have a self-starting circuit. The rotor must be accelerated before it can be pulled into synchronism as the filed is rotating at synchronous speed. Separate starting means are required since accelerating from rest requires slip till synchronism is attained. In self-starting designs methods similar to that employed in single-phase induction motors are employed. In the DC excited motors, DC is fed to the rotor via the slip rings from an external source. In the brushless variety, a directly coupled AC generator supplies the necessary excitation via a rectifier. A rotating assembly comprising the control circuit and SCR for excitation and field shorting are also provided. The control circuit senses the slip and phase angle and controls excitation to the motor field for proper synchronization. The standard synchronous motors are provided with starting windings embedded in the pole faces and properly connected to give required torques. AC/DC Motor: Universal motors: - These motors are special type of series motor, and can be operated on either AC or DC with nearly the same performance. It is ideally suited for application where the load is constant with an occasional intermittent overload. Except for its shorter life, it has a high torque, variable speed characteristics and small size. Applications are mainly for household appliances, and the brushes used required frequent maintenance and replacement. Page 12 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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DC Motors: DC motors find wide application in the industrial filed, as speed control of DC motors is easy and inexpensive in comparison to AC motors. In DC motors the variable speed torque relationship enables closer matching to the need of the application. DC motors can be used for applications requiring momentarily three to four times the motor rated torque. The use of DC motors enables dynamic braking or regenerative braking to be employed and thus avoiding the mechanical brake. DC motors permit smooth deceleration down to zero, and simultaneous reversing and acceleration the reverse direction, and the high ration of torque is inertia of the DC motors enables quick response of the motors to control signals. The most common DC motors normally found are the shunt wound, series wound, compound wound, permanent magnet and brushless types. 1. Shunt wound DC motors: - These motors find wide application where a constant speed is required at any setting of the control for instance in reel drives, where the material is wound on the reel at a constant linear speed and the strip tension being constant irrespective of the diameter. They are also useful where a large range of speed control (by field control) is required. The majority of the shunt would motor are operated from power supplies which can be varied and hence do not require auxiliary equipment for starting. The shunt field winding can be connected to the power supply feeding the armature (i.e. the selfexcited type) or the shunt field winding may be fed from a power supply source separate from that feeding the armature (separately excited type). The separately excited type finds wide application where change in motor speed is required, by varying the armature voltage and keeping the field voltage constant (armature voltage control). At rated current, the torque remains constant regardless of the speed and the motor displays constant torque characteristics over its speed range. The HP varies directly with the speed, but it should be noted that with the lowering of speed, the fan on the shaft of the motor also slows down this reducing the ventilation, and hence the armature current cannot be indefinitely increased without risking undue heating of the motor. In the field voltage control, the field voltage is varied to increase speed and reduce output torque for a specified armature current, which is constant over the speed range and determines the rating of the DC motor, i.e. at a rated current, the output torque varies inversely with the speed and the motor displays constant hp characteristics over the speed range. This method is suitable for obtaining speeds above the base speed. 2. Series would DC motor: These motors have the field winding connected in series with the armature. The current will maximum when the motor is started, and hence, the magnetic field density is maximum resulting in high torque. The current reduces as the motor speeds up and the field flux also reduces. Theoretically in the absence of a load on the motor shaft, the motor speed should runaway, but in practice the presence of several losses due to friction, windage, etc. creates a load sufficient to hold the maximum speed to a safe level. For this reason integral hp series motors are not recommended for use on belt drives where there are changes of the load dropping to very low values. A minor change in the design of the field winding gives us the split series motor. Here the field winding consists of two opposite wound fields. This feature enables the motor to be reversed by changing the applied voltage from one field to the other field.

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3. Compound wound DC motors: Compound wound DC motors are a combination of both series and shunt fields/. The compound wound motor overcomes the drawback of overspeeding at light loads encountered in series motors. In the absence of a load, the current in the series field is extremely low, and the shunt field above influences the speed. At higher loads, the speed is dependent on the sum of the two fields, and hence the reduction in speed is similar to that obtained in series motor. A compound motor is normally specified by the full load speed and the speed at no-load. The starting torques is high for compound motors and the speed torque a characteristic is fairly flat at rated load. To reverse the motor, the polarity of armature ending must the reversed or alternatively the polarity of both the shunt and series field windings must be reversed. The controls for reversing require complicated circuitry, and it is quite common to fund compound motors of very large size built for reversing duty. 4. Brushless DC motors: The main disadvantage of DC motors with brushes is the limited life of brushes, frequent replacement of brushes, dust from the commutator causing damage to the bearing and commutator wear out. The disadvantages are overcome by the brushless type of DC motors. Brushless DC motors are basically single phase permanent split capacitor induction motors, and the main winding is provided with a center rap. An oscillator circuit excites transistors which alternately conduct through each leg of the main winding.

5. Permanent Magnet DC motors: In these motors, the field coils are replaced by permanent magnets, so that excitation power supplies are not required. The permanent magnets create two or more Page 14 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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poles in the armature by the passage of magnetic flux through the armature. The passage of the magnetic flux causes the armature which has current carrying conductor s to move this creating a torque. This flux practically remains constant at all speeds of the motor giving rise to linear speed torque and current torque characteristics. General Information on Various Types of Motors 1. AC Squirrel Cage Induction Motor 1 or 3; 1 requires starting winding; 3 motors are self-starting; stator winding is stationary; the rotor is short circuited and has not electrical connections; the magnetic reaction between stator and rotor fields produces the torque; the speed is a function of the number of poles wound on the stator and the supply frequency; speed decreases slightly with increased load, but in considered as a constant speed; rugged construction and easily serviced; good running power factor at full load; high efficiency; motor controller required only for stator windings. 2. AC Wound Rotor (Slip Ring) Induction Motor Characteristics similar to those of AC squirrel cage motors; the stator winding is stationary; the rotor windings are brought out via the slip rings; external resistances can be added to the rotor circuit for speed control; draws a heavy current when started on full voltage; when resistors are inserted in the rotor circuit, the efficiency is low; good power factor when running; motor controllers necessary for both stator and rotor circuits. 1. DC Shunt Motor

Main field winding connected in parallel to armature. The field winding is stationary; armature rotates and has a commutator; no load speed exists; max. Speed at full load is less than max. Speed at no-load; the torque increases directly with load. 2. DC Series Motor: Main field winding connected in series with the armature; the field winding is stationary; armature rotates and has a commutator; there is no-load speed, requires to be connected directly to load solidly to prevent runaway at no-load; speed decreases rapidly with increase in load; torque increases as square of armature current; good starting torque, used for hoists.

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3. DC Compound Motor

Main field winding connected both in series and parallel with the armature; the field winding is stationary; armature rotates and has a commutator; the combination of parallel and series fields gives a characteristics in-between a DC shunt motor and DC series motor; good starting torque used for mills, presses etc. 6. AC Synchronous Motor: Stator winding stationary and require AC supply; field windings rotary and require DC supply; no starting torque unless motor provided with starting winding; normally low starting torque; constant speed attained when motor has run up to speed and the DC field winding is energized; with proper control of DC field, power factor correction is possible; special motor control systems required for both AC and DC windings in order to ensure that DC field is energized only after a certain speed has been attained. AC Motor Drives: - Adjustable Speed Drive Many advantages are available with AC motor drives when compared with DC motor drives for adjustable speed, mainly because of the simple construction, capability to operate at high speed, easy maintenance and universal availability of AC squirrel cage induction motors, and their easy adaptability Page 16 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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to operate under adverse working locations. Also a factor is the availability of AC power systems all over. Adjustable frequency AC drives basically consist of an AC supply in which the frequency can be varied. The three-phase AC input is rectified and the rectified output is fed to an inverter, where the DC input is converted to AC output whose frequency can be varied. This adjustable frequency AC output is used to drive the AC motors. The frequency is controlled by means of the speed regulating rheostat, which controls the thyristor firing controls comprising logic circuitry and adjustable frequency oscillators. The firing rate of the thyristors in the inverter is controlled by the oscillator and hence the frequency of the

AC output of the inverter can be controlled. A regulator in the circuit maintains a constant ratio of voltage to frequency and controls the voltage amplitude of the output and gates the thyristors in DC adjustable rectifier. A brief review of the various AC drives available is made below : 1. Variable Frequency Drives or PWM Inverter Drive: In these drives AC supply voltage are fed to a rectifier for conversion to DC and then fed to an inverter for inversion to variable frequency AC power and then supplied to an AC squirrel cage induction motor. The input to the inverter is DC voltage, hence the thyristors require forced commutation, i.e. zero current must be ensured to enable the thyristors to turn off when switching is required. Reversing is possible and regeneration can be done using additional controls.

Pulse width modulation and forced commutation results in a costlier control system in comparison to a DC drive but the cheaper cost of an AC motor offsets this cost to some extent. The Page 17 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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pulse width modulation is such that several pulses are available for each half cycle, and the pulses should be so controlled to minimize harmonics and to maintain a constant volts to frequency ratio over the frequency range. Suitable for 5 to 150 hp range. 2. Variable Voltage Drive: These are the cheapest and simplest type of AC drives, and can be used with AC squirrel cage induction motors. The principle employed us to control the point on the AC sine wave at which the thyristors are turned on, and the AC voltage adjusted to control the speed of the motor, as the torque varies as the square of voltage for a squirrel cage induction motor. These drives have application limited to loads that have soft-start, constant-torque characteristics, as the rotor posses are proportional to the slip, and are useful for pump applications where the torque varies as the square of the speed. The thyristors can be turned off by changing the AC input polarity. These drives cannot be reversed and are of the non-regenerative type.

These drives are also used with the slip ring induction motors. A permanent resistance is connected in the rotor. A tachometer feed back can be included if speed regulation is desired, and also stepless speed control, regenerative braking, static reversing are possible, In the absence of a tachometer, contactor reversing can be adopted. 3. Slip-power Feedback Drive These drives are used with slip-ring induction motors, where the AC slip power is rectified to DC, then inverted to AC and fed back to the AC supply line. The voltage to the rectifier can be controlled by adjusting the firing angles of the thyristors. Thus the rotor voltage can be regulated and the speed controlled. The inverters are line commutated and useful for constant torque loads; speed range varies from zero to near synchronous speed, and is non-reversing and non-regenerative. DC Motors Starting of DC Motors: DC motors can be started by either manually operated switches or by using contactors. Contactors in conjuction with fuse and overload relay are a safer and convenient method for stating especially the larger rated motors. When DC motors are started, directly across the line, the inrush currents are limited only by the resistance of the circuit and the inrush current may be up to ten times the full load current. DC motors have commutators which are susceptible to damage due to the heavy starting currents; full voltage starting is possible only for smaller ratings of motors having a relatively high winding resistance. A DC motor is normally capable of commutating a higher current at lower Page 18 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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speeds than at higher speeds. When the armature is at standstill, most of the commutators can handle safely without sparking four to six times the full load rating of the motor. Larger motors require a starting or current limiting resistor to be included, and the resistance is gradually cut out as the motor speeds up. The counter emf of the motor increases with speed and the current gradually decreases. When the base speed or normal operating speed is attained, the resistance is completely cut off and only the normal running current will be drawn by the motor. In a magnetic starter used for accelerating the motor, the starting resistance can be cut out in steps, the steps being dependent of the motor size and smoothness of acceleration required. Automatic acceleration can be obtained by the time limit control, current limit control or by speed acceleration control. The time limit acceleration method is perhaps the most popular system. The motor is brought upto a speed in a definite interval of time, irrespective of the load. Timers are used to control the accelerating contactors. The current limiting acceleration method is preferred for heavy inertia loads, where a current sensing relay is used to sense the motor current and close the accelerating contactor. The starting load must be stable and not greater than the full load as the motor current has to reduce to the value set on the current sensing relay to cut off the resistance. The speed acceleration controls utilises the counter emf to signal the cut off of the starting resistor. A voltage sensing relay senses the counter emf. In case the motor fails to accelerate then the resistor will not be cut off, and damage to the resistor may result especially of the resistor is not rated for continuous duty. Speed control of DC motors: The speed of a DC motor can be controlled in three ways : (i) by varying the voltage across the armature, (ii) by varying the voltage across the field, and (iii) by varying the voltage across both the field and armature. Some of the methods are listed below :

A resistance is inserted in series with field of a shunt motor. With this arrangement speed control up to four times base speed is possible. Motor torque gets reduced as filed strength is weakened. But as the motor speed is increased, the rated output power of the motor remains constant. A resistance can be inserted across the armature along with the armature series resistance. With this arrangement it is possible to obtain speeds down to 10 percent at light loads. The motor slows down to creep speed as a large quantity of the like current is diverted around the armature. The series resistance reduces the armature voltage, keeping the speeds low. A positive slowing down or braking action can be obtained with this system, when changing from a high speed operation to an armature shunt point. The armature shunt resistor can also be used for dynamic braking. Page 19 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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A resistance can be inserted in series with the armature of a series or shunt motor. With this arrangement it is possible to obtain speeds below the base speed of the motor. In a series motor the resistance in series with the armature affects the field winding thereby producing a marked effect on the torque-speed relationship. In the shunt motor this effect is absent as the field current remains constant. In this arrangement, speed control up to about 50 percent of base speed is feasible [(a) and (b)].

Field Control of DC Motors: Various Methods The base speed of a wound field DC motor is defined as the speed at which the motor runs on application of full armature voltage at full field strength. To operate the DC motor below base speed the armature voltage has to be reduced. To operate above base speed, the field current must be reduced in order to weaken the motor field. But by weakening the field to increase the speed reduces the output torque since the motor output torque is directly proportional to the field strength. The power output of a motor is proportional to the product of speed and torque, therefore, above base speed the output hp remains constant. The various methods for controlling the field include simple methods like adding a rheostat in series with the field winding to sophisticated automatic system capable of regulating both armature voltage and field strength, through a common control. Some the methods are explained briefly below: 1 Rheostat control of the wound field: In this system, a ballast resistor or rheostat is added as shown in, so that field current can be adjusted. This system is adopted when the standard motor base speeds do not meet actual requirements, for instance if the requirement calls for a motor with base speeds of 2800 rpm, and the standard base speed available are 2500 and 3000 rpm; then a 2500 rpm base speed motor can be selected and a ballast resistor can be inserted in series with the field. The resulting field strength reduction enables the motor Page 20 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

to be operated at a speed higher than the rated base speed when 100% armature voltage is applied. The main drawback of adding a ballast resistor is that the resistor has a tendency to reduce the saturation of the motor iron core and the motor may not be able to stabilize itself, and motor heating and AC power supply variations can affect the maximum speed.

When a rheostat is used in place of a ballast, adjustability of the field current is possible, but operation of the rheostat must be properly controlled, for if the rheostat is suddenly rotated from maximum to zero resistance, the motor will be subjected to the full like current, causing the motor counter emf to increase, resulting in damage to both motor and controller. Suitable overload protection must be built into the system if the rheostat control is likely to permit more than 15 to 20 percent change in the motor speed. 2. Voltage and field control or field weakening: This method enables the motor to be operated in the entire constant hp and constant torque region using a single speed control.

Armature voltage is used to control the field current regulator. The field current is maximum, when the field current is approximately about 85 percent of the rated voltage. When the armature is Page 21 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

increased from 85 percent range to 100 percent, the field current is automatically reduced so that maximum motor speed can be obtained. As the field strength is varied as a function of armature voltage, it is possible to effect, small speed changes quickly, for normal speed changes by field control is restricted by the large electrical time constant of the field. At about 85 percent armature voltage, field strength has a tendency to reduce and there may be up to 15 percent list in maximum hp capability at 100 percent base speed, which loss has to be tolerated if fast responses are required. 3. Field trimming or ballast system: In this electronically based system, a phase controlled SCR power supply is used to regulate the field current. A portion of the field current is fed back to a current regulator to compensate for AC like voltage variations and any changes in the resistance due to motor heating up. A potentiometer provides the reference input signal and the SCR power supply in effect functions similar to rheostat. The armature voltage can be monitored to control the rate of increases the field current and acts as an over voltage protections.

4. Armature Voltage Controls for DC Motors In a DC motor, in the absence of regulation, a loss in speed to the extent of 5 perdcent can take place due to internal losses such as friction, IR drop and windage, when driven at rated armature voltage from no-load to full load conditions. Feedback techniques are employed to improve motor performance, depending on the application and degree of performance desired. 5. Voltage Control:

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This is the most common and simple method for DC motor speed control. A voltage signal is derived directly from the drive output terminals and is compared with a reference signal from the setting potentiometer. An IR compensation circuit is included to improve the speed regulation and linearity of the speed setting potentiometer. Speed Control: When precise shaft speed is required, speed feedback is employed. A tachometer is used for measuring the shaft speed,. And the signal from the tacho is compared to the speed reference signal. A mechanical time constant due to the inertias of the motor and the load are impressed on the system./ For large inertias special compensating circuits may be necessary, and where higher accuracies are desired a digital tachometer with a digital/analog convertor may be used to provide the required feedback signal.

Torque control: When torque control independent of motor speed is desired, the motor has to be supplied with a constant current. The armature current of the motor is measured by connecting a resistor at the drive output. This signal is compared with a reference current signal. The torque available at the motor shaft will be less by a sum equal to the friction and windage losses. By biasing the control circuit these losses can be offset to some extent.

Position Control: Position control is used when difference processes in industrial machinery must operate at similar speeds. A potentiometer is used as a feedback device, or linear, rotary or photo-electric sensors may also be employed. If tension control is also required, force transducers are employed. When hunting and oscillations occur than speed feedback may be provided.

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DC Motor Controls and Drives: Because of their easy adaptability to speed control, DC motors are widely used in adjustable speed drives. In a DC motor, speed is a function of armature and field voltages. By controlling the armature voltage we get a constant torque drive, and by controlling field voltage we get a constant horse power drive. The drive system for a DC motor basically consists of DC motor, controlled voltage power supply, and a feedback system by which the DC voltage is controlled depending on the speed. The drives for DC moors can be broadly classified as semi-convertors and convertors based on the controlled voltage supply.

Semiconvertor type DC motor drive: In this type of drives, diode rectifiers are located on one side of the bridge and thyristors are placed on the other side, and a diode for commutating purpose is placed across the output. This type of drive system provides a unidirectional current and voltage, and is not applicable for reversing or regenerative purposes. If reversing is desired, additional contactors have to be provided for reversing the motor, and if braking is required, the power generated by the motor should be fed to a resistor grid for slowing down and stopping the motor. (a) Single phase semi-convertor system:

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

The changing polarity of the input current alternately pulses the thyristors. By delaying the trigger pulse to the thyristors the output current can be regulated. Any inductive current, which would keep the thyristors on, is bypassed by the commutating diode D3. Single phase semi-convertors are normally used for drives for motors up to 5 hp. If reversing is required, contactors have to be used. (b) The three-phase semi-convertor: The three-phase semiconvertor is similar to the single-phase convertor and has three diodes on one side and three thyristors on the other side to handle three-phase input. Three-phase semiconvertor is employed for drives for motors above 5 hp and up to 150 hp.

Convertor type DC motor drive: In this type of drives, thyristors are provided in all the legs of the bridge, to facilitate reversing and regeneration. The ripple current in these systems is less than in the semiconvertor system. (a) Single-phase dual convertor: In the single-phase dual convertor, complete control of voltage and current is provided in both forward and reverse directions of rotation of the motor.

Thus speed and torque control is possible. Smooth transition from forward to reverse speeds is made possible by the gating and control circuitry, which also helps in preventing circulating current Page 25 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

between the convertors. In some applications, where the motors have to run in reverse directions under low torque requirements, the capacity of the reverse thyristors can be halved if necessary. (b) Three-phase dual convertor: The three phase dual convertors are similar to single-phase convertors and have the required number of thyristors in the bridge to handle the three-phase input AC. They are employed for motors ranging from 20 hp onwards.

(c) Three-phase single convertor: Three phase single convertors are non-reversing and non-regenerative by design. If reversing is required, an additional contactor has to be employed to reverse the motor field terminals, and a reversing/regenerative drive can be realized. The control for such a drive is both costlier and complicated compared to the controls required for a three-phase dual convertor. They are usually employed for unidirectional motors from 20 hp onwards.

(d) Three-phase singleway dual convertor: These convertors provide both voltage and current control in both directions. They have six thyristors in the circuit and full reversing and regeneration can Page 26 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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be obtained. One end of the motor armature is connected to the neutral of three-phase transformer usually employed for motors of 5 to 100 hp.

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

4P STATICON

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Introduction
4P series is the latest generation in L&Ts range of DC controllers. It employs contemporary technology in thyristors drive systems and conforms to international standards of test and performance. 4P MIDIPACK is a self-contained complete DC drive package with protection features, interlocking and reference interfacing. The 4P MIDIPACKS feature either a 3-phase fully controlled bridge (Single-Ended or SE) or two 3-phase fully controlled bridges connected in antiparallel configuration (Double-Ended or DE), complete with dv/dt and transient overvoltage suppression for conversion of incoming AC supply with a controlled DC output voltage for accurate, stepless speed/torque control of DC motors. These power packs have been designed for normal industrial applications. However, due considerations must be paid to hostile environmental conditions which may cause premature failing/malfunctioning, and all efforts must be made to avoid these during receipt, storage, handling and installation. These conditions are not considered as defects in material and workmanship and whence are not covered by L&T warranty. As such, the equipment should not be subjected to: Ambient operation temperature range beyond 0 to 65 degrees of the powerpack (unless otherwise specified). Storage temperature range beyond -20 to +70 degrees C Excessive dust, sulphurous/corrosive fumes, other corrosive chemicals, metallic dust suspended in finely vaporized oil etc. Condensation or high relative humidity greater than 95% alone or conjunction with contaminants mentioned above. High frequency signals as might be generated by capacitive current breaking (by arc welders) or by inductive current breaking (due to operation of relays/contactors with unsuppressed coils) as a part of or in the vicinity of electronic control circuits of the powerpack. About 4P MIDIPACK The 4P MIDIPACK features either a 3-phase fully controlled bridge (SE) or two 3-phase fully controlled bridges connected in antiparallel configuration (DE), complete with dv/dt protection and transient overvoltage suppression, for the conversion of the incoming three phase ac supply into a steplessly controllable dc variable output voltage, suitable for dc motor speed control. The controlling principle essentially is the same as any other thyristorised dc drive viz., ramp section for soft start and controlled stop, speed amplifier as the outer main loop nesting the current amplifier as the inner loop. Speed amplifier receives the speed reference either through ramp or inch reference or in some other form from some other sources and compare speed/voltage feedback signal with the same to generate reference for the current amplifier. Reference to the current amplifier may be adequately trimmed by the current limit adjustments to initiate current (drive losing speed) at a desired value of current feedback. Current amplifier receives appropriately scaled speed amplifier output and compares the same with current feedback to generate output whose nature would dictate whether the firing pulse would be in the conversion or in the inversion zones. Output of the current amplifiers gets compared with the synchronizing ramp signals for generation of firing pulse instants in the pulse generation section of control electronics.

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This, in a nutshell, is the basic operating principle of the powerpack, much the same as any other dc drive advanced techniques/features which have been incorporated in the controller are: Phased Locked Loop (PLL) ensuring flawless synchronization-despite polluted mains High frequency pulse train firing (within individual main pulses) using ferrite core pulse transformers ensure better triggering and reduced dissipation of thyristors Adaptive current amplifier giving optimum response under varying load conditions (automatic Itime adjustment of the current amplifier depending on continuous/discontinuous mode of conduction) Designed for large power supply variations Buffered speed and current signals available for external use viz., metering etc. Flat ribbons eliminates cumbersome conventional wiring to facilitate quick replacement while ensuring proper connections Fast reversal possible: typical full load torque reversal time of 10msec Substantial access from front because of instantaneous pulse suppression on account of overcurrent, semiconductor fuseless operation possible for SE drives with incoming line chokes. In case of DE (reversible) drives, dc side fuses required. Single main control card: adjustment presets (and LED indication) and terminal row for external connections brought to interface card. This eliminates retuning on replacement of card. 35 LED indications that display drive status/faults; 9 built-in protections. The built-in protections means that external relay logic to build an integrated drive system (complete with necessary protections) need not have provision for ensuring protections which are there anyway in the control electronics. The powerpacks, as might have become obvious by now, consists of two parts: 1. Power circuit 2. Control electronics The power circuit essentially consists of the thyristors section assembled on the single extruded aluminium heatsink. This type of construction is made feasible by the use of the electrically isolated base type thyristors modules (each having a pair of thyristors) with a conductive metal base. This assembly is mounted on the left side of the main frame of the powerpack, and is visible on the opening out the hinged door in front. In case of unidirectional (SE) drives, there would be three such modules on the heatsink whereas in case of reversible (DE) drives, there would be six such modules. Apart from this, there would be line surge suppressor assembly, field CT, dummy load, field diode bridge, main CTs (3nos.) and power supply and sync transformer in the power circuits. These would be found to occupy the right half of the rear of the powerpack in the same plane as the thyristors, separated by the partitions plate, but would be visible only if the power supply card is rotated on its bottom hinge and swung down or totally removed. The control electronics consists of four PCBs: 1. Main control card (or M/C card) 2. Interface card (or I/F card) 3. Pulse transformer card (or PT card) 4. Power supply card (or P/S card) The first three cards are mounted on the front-hinged door and power supply card is mounted behind the front door and is hinged at bottom. There are LEDs on the PT card to indicate transmission of firing pulses. There is an on-board RESET switch on the I/F card to reset electronically detectable faults. Page 30 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT Sr. No. A) B)

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM BOARD SPECIFICATION

Mains supply nominal voltage

3-phase 415V AC 50Hz permissible variation in magnitude +15% to 20% for regulator; permissible variation in frequency +3% to 5%

C) D)

E)

F) G)

H)

I)

J) K) L)

Rated DC output voltage with frequency variation of +3% to-5% and input voltage variation of a) +10% to 15% 440V DC for 4PC series (SE drive) 400V DC for 4PE series (DE drive) b) +10% to 20% 440V DC for 4PC series (SE drive) 370V DC for 4PE series (DE drive) Rated DC output current Varies from 18A to 280A depending on class and type of MIDIPACK Field power supply Single-phase encapsulated bridge rectifier with acceptable input ac voltage as 240V +25% Max. dc excitation is 0.9 input voltage Maximum dc excitation current is 9.2A at 40Deg.C ambient. Current sourcing capability is to be derated above 40Deg. C at the rate of 1.3% per Deg. C till an ambient of 65Deg. C Speed reference options +/-10V DC thru voltage source 2K, 3W external potentiometer 4-20mA process signal (Reference corresponding to max. output will be +10V or +20mA for single ended (SE) or 4PC series; reference corresponding to max. output for double ended (DE) for 4PE series will be +/-10V) Speed control range With tacho feedback 1:100 With armature voltage feedback 1:50 With armature current (tension) control 1:20 Outer loop feedback option DC tachogenerator or Self DC voltage feedback thru ISOAMP mounted on power supply card for rated speed, feedback signal has to be of the same order as ref. I.e., +/-10V Speed regulation a) With +10% & -15% supply +/- 0.1% with tacho feedback variation +/- 2.0% with voltage feedback b) With 100% load change +/- 0.1% with tacho feedback +/- 1.0% with voltage feedback Speed holding accuracy +/-0.08% per Deg. C in case of tacho feedback with internal trimming resistors; 0.03% per Deg. C in case of tacho feedback with external trimming Resistor (50 PPM) Current feedback 3 nos. current transformers on ac input side busbar Inch speed range 2.5% to 25% IR compensation range for armature Upto 12% of armature voltage at CLASS I current voltage control rating of the bridge LTIT VIII EMESTER

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT M) N) O) P) Q) R) S) T) U) Power ON & RESET delays Forced ventilation (when applicable) Dimensions Weight Operating powerpack ambient temperature Range Altitude Degree of protection in the powerpack Ramp rate adjustment range Current limit adjustment range

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM 3 seconds each respectively Cooling fan is single phase, 240V, 35W with a flow of 220 cfm; fan failure monitor is by means of a temperature mounted on heat sink 550 mm height; 483 mm width; 240 mm depth Upto 40 Kg max 0 to 65 Deg. C Less than 1000 m. above sea level IP 00 4 to 60 seconds either thru built in preset on the I/F card or with voltage injection externally 0 to 200% (approx) of CLASS I rating as given in technical data book each type of powerpack either thru built in presets on the I/F card or thru voltage injection externally

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM VARISPEED F7 INVERTER (YASKAWA)

More powerful More flexible More user friendly More energy saving More compact More reliable

High grade L&T Yaskawas Varispeed F7 is the worlds most powerful, and flexible inverter. This can be use as optimum drive for any application. Enhanced Braking Inverters up to 18 kW can produce 125 % braking torque simply by connecting an external braking resistor. Above 18 kW braking unit and braking resistor are required. (Optional) In addition to dynamic braking flux braking is available. Reliable protections The high speed, highly accurate current limit prevents nuisance trips caused by over currents. Momentary power loss restart function, stall prevention and fault retry functions improve drive continuity, avoiding useless downtime. Software functions Varispeed F7 has over 175 software functions, including PID control, high slip braking, speed search in both directions, copy unit function for programming multiple inverters, over/under torque detection and energy saving operations mode. Varying voltages - no problem Varispeed F7 meets a variety of world power supply voltages. Three phase 200V series (200 to 240V). Three phase 400V series (380 to 480V). DC power supplies such as common converters are also available. Page 33 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Excellent speed control F7 series inverters produce high starting torque at 0.5 Hz in open loop vector control. Allows high precision operation from 1/100 speed to high speed even under fluctuating load conditions. In addition to dynamic auto tuning, static auto-tuning is standard feature, eliminating the need to de-couple the load on the motor, drastically reducing commissioning time. Tropicalised Inverter The special Asian version inverter can be used Up-to ambient temperature of 60 Deg.C In addition to this the current ratings are declared at an ambient temperature of 45 deg. C making it the ideal choice for the harsh Indian environment.

User friendly L&T Yaskawas Varispeed F7s simple design allows ease of operations,and reduces the time required for set-up and maintenance. Easy operations The standard digital operator allows remote operation by use of a simple extension cable. Using the Quick Program Mode the inverter is ready to run for any application in the minimum possible time. It is ideal for first time users. The Copy, Paste and Verify function, allows constants to be easily uploaded/ downloaded from one inverter to another, and verified, resulting in error free programming, and reduced start up time. Simple maintenance Varispeed F7s detachable control circuit terminals can be replaced even with the wiring connected. Press-fit arrangement for cooling fan with ON/OFF control increases fan life. The fan can be replaced with minimum downtime.

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT Energy saving

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

L&T Yaskawas Varispeed F7 gives great energy savings, and suppresses harmonic distortion Energy Savings The unique energy saving function operates the motor at the point of theoretical maximum efficiency, resulting in 5 to 7 % higher energy saving compared to all other inverters.

Reduced Harmonics Models of 22 kW and above are equipped with DC reactor, and 12 pulse input configuration as a standard feature, greatly reducing harmonic currents. For 12 pulse input a transformer with a dual star / delta secondary is required for the input power supply.

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Varispeed F7 The Varispeed F7 is a general-purpose inverter with current vector control in open loop (without Pulse Generator) or V/f w/PG or V/f w/o PG. It provides smooth start-up at low speeds and extremely precise operation. The proprietary 3-auto-tuning functions enable high performance tuning of any induction motor: 1. Rotating with unloaded Motor 2. Stationary 3. Line to line resistance from precision machinery to multiple motor drives, the F7 proves to be the ultimate drive for any application. The F7 is designed to meet international safety standards. It is a global product that is UL/cUL and CE compliant, adaptable for installation worldwide. Ratings 3~ 200V240V +10%-15% 0.4 - 110 kW 3~ 380V480V +10%-15% 0.4 - 300 kW

Main Features High starting torque, 200% at 0.5Hz The control methods in one drive: Current -vector control w/o PG (in open loap vector mode) V/f control w PG V/f control w/o PG 3-Auto-tuning functions Flash memory Custom Application Software Environment (CASE) provides capability to customize drive software to meet customer needs Options available for all communication Interface protocols, DeviceNet, Profibus-DP, Interbus S, CANopen, etc RS-485 for Memobus / Modbus PID Control allows for constant flow control or other applications Energy saving function Dual Diode Input on models 22kW and above (12 pulse input) Built in DC reactor on models 22kW and above High Slip Braking Speed Search Function in both directions

Optional LCD 5line, 7-language operator available

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM VARISPEED G7 INVERTER (YASKAWA)

Auto tuning-static or dynamic Constant or variable torque applications Energy saving Exceptional low speed/high torque control Field bus compatible Low electrical and acoustic noise Low surge voltage Quick and easy installation Unique new 3-level PWM flux vector control method 0.4kW to 300kW power range

Technical Specifications Superb new performance features Yaskawas unique new 3-level control method sets a new global standard for AC variable speed control method Extended open-loop speed control range, increased from 100:1 to 200:1 Smooth stable performance at ultra low speeds Full control at zero speed Accurate torque control in open loop Fantastic control and protection features Low acoustic noise Low electrical noise (reduced RFI) Reduces electrolytic corrosion in motor bearing caused b motor shaft voltages Eliminates micro surge problems due to reflected voltage waves Leakage current greatly reduced Can be used on existing standard motors, without the use of output chokes for cable runs of up to 300m Low cost of ownership Easy to install and simple to use language LCD display fitted as standard High efficiency Low maintenance Global certification Global availability and interchangeability Global certification CE,UL,cUL Main features of Varispeed G7 Inverter

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Feature 1: 3-Level Control Technology 400V frequency inverter solution These first 400V frequency inverters with 3 level control technology are now available to approach sinusoidal output voltage. This technology helps to solves the problems such as stressing of insulation of the motor winding by overvoltage (caused by traveling waves), and electrolytic corrosion of the bearing (caused by leakage currents via the motor shaft) it also considerably reduces motor acoustical noise and leakage currents (particularly with long motor cables). Advantages of 3 level control technology

1. Low voltage peaks Lower voltage peaks increases the life of the motor by reducing the stress on the insulation of the motor windings. They also make operation with long cables readily possible. 2. Low level of radio interference Considerably reduced conducted emission caused by the inverter reduces the cost of the line filters. 3. Quiet motor operation The 3 level technology drastically reduces the noise due to magnetic transients in the motor.

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Feature 2: Ecologically friendly 1. Effectively energy saving function The energy saving control approaches the maximum efficiency, High efficient, energy saving operations are achieved for any applications either in vector or V/F control.

2. Suppression of harmonic distortion All inverter larger than 15kW are equipped with a DC bus reactor and second rectifier bridge as standard. In combination with a transformer with two secondary windings (star and delta), the harmonics can be suppressed using the 12-pulse method. Page 39 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Feature 3: Highly Dynamic and Precise Control 1. Excellent torque characteristics The new dual flux observation method improves the torque characteristic (105% at0.3Hz for op n loop vector control 2). 150% torque is available at 0rpm with pulse generator feedback.

2. Accurate torque control The precision of the limiting function allows accurate control of the output torque in order to protect machine and material against sudden changes in load. 3. Extremely fast response The model tracking control assures fast response even a without PG (double in in-house comparison). With a PG you can make use of our unique high-speed current vector, rapidly response speed reference changes (speed response 40Hz/motor unit). Speed keeps constant even if load fluctuates Page 40 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

4. Very fast speed search function This function reduces the recovery time after momentary powerloss. Recovery is possible regardless of the direction of rotation

5. Simple method of autotuning Another method of autotuning, with the motor shaft stationary, is now available as an alternative to the established rotating technique. This allows the performance of any make of motor to be optimized. 6. Reliable protective function Very fast and accurate current regulation functions support continuous operation by preventing overcurrent tripping. Powerloss ride through; motor stall prevention and automatic restart after fault also support the uninterruptible operation. A motor thermistor evaluated using an analog input and protects the motor against overheating. Page 41 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Feature 4: User friendly 1. Easy to operate The 5 lines, illuminated LCD display allows easy operation. The copy function provided by the removable operator makes it easy to copy a set of parameters from one inverter to another. The quick programming mode makes startup easier. Parameters differing from the factory defaults can be read and altered by choosing modified constants from the menu.

2. Easy maintenance and inspection The removable control terminal block allows the inverter to be replaced without disconnecting the control lines. The cooling fans can be changed without dismantling the inverter. The operating time of the inverter and individual fans can be recorded and displayed. A support tool using a PC is also available. All constants of inverter can be managed from computer. 3. Multi function I/O interface The analog inputs and outputs are supplemented with a pulse train input and a pulse train output. 10 digital multifunction outputs are available. Positive or negative (NPN/PNP) logic can be chosen for the digital inputs. Feature 5: Global specification 1. Support for global field bus standards All inverters support the memobus/modbus protocols via an RS422/485 interface as standard. Optional fieldbus cards can be fitted to allow the varispeed G7 to communicate with the host systems for central control of production with minimum wiring. 2. Digital operator in seven languages The illuminated 5-line LCD display allows operation in 7 languages 1. English 2. French 3. German 4. Italian 5. Japanese 6. Portuguese 7. Spanish 3. Conformity with global standards Certificated to UL/cUL and CE Page 42 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Global fieldbus standards Varispeed G7 The Varispeed G7 is designed for very high performance applications. It is worldwide the one and only inverter with 3-level-technology for 400 V power supply and IGBTs. This technology reduces the stress for the motor winding insulations and the bearing current, which helps in applications with long motor cables and increases the motor lifetime extremely. The Varispeed G7 supports V/f control with and without PG, Open Loop Vector control and Closed Loop Vector control. The proprietary 3-autotuning functions enable high performance tuning of any induction motor: 1. Rotating autotuning with unloaded motor 2. Stationary autotuning 3. Line to line resistance measurement The Varispeed G7 is designed to meet international safety standards. It is a global product that is UL/cUL and CE compliant, adaptable for installation worldwide.

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Ratings 3~ 200V240V +10%-15% 0.4 - 110 kW 3~ 380V480V +10%-15% 0.4 - 300 kW Main Features 3-Level-Control at 400V class inverters High starting torque, 150% at 0.3Hz in open loop vector mode 150% at zero speed in closed loop vector control The control methods: Current Vector control with pulse generator (Closed Loop Vector) Current Vector control without pulse generator (Open Loop Vector) V/f control with PG V/f control without PG 3 Auto tuning functions Energy saving function PID Control for e.g. dancer control High Slip Braking Inverters above 22kW have built in DC reactor Dual Diode Input on models 22kW and above (12 pulse input) Custom Application Software Environment (CASE) provides capability to customize drive software to meet customer needs Options available for communication interface protocols, DeviceNet, Profibus-DP, Interbus S, CANopen RS-485 for Memobus (Modbus) Low audible noise Applications High-speed elevators, Positioning, Synchronization Centrifuges Press and cutting machines In paper production Printing machines

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT VARISPEED J7 YASKAWA

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

VS mini J7 The VS mini J7 is a compact, cost-effective inverter. The J7 can handle many applications with high starting torque. Designed to suit the global market, VS mini J7 is UL/cUL and CE marked. Ratings

1~ 200V240V +10%-15% 0.1 - 1.5 kW 3~ 200V230V +10%-15% 0.1 - 4 kW 3~ 380V460V +10%-15% 0.2 - 4 kW

Main Features

Multi-speed step operation (up to 8-step speed), up/down operation, jog operation, etc. Energy saving control Slip compensation function, over torque detection and speed search functions

Applications

Conveyors Commercial laundry machines Fans and pumps Blowers Food processing machines Air conditioning

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

LnTor

Large 40 Character Alpha-numeric Display Large 40 character backlit alphanumeric LCD display Programming menu designed for rapid travel to desired parameter using ergonomically designed keys Friendly, easy to use menu structure with plain English parameter names eliminate need for look-up tables Monitoring All analog input voltages All digital input states All analog output voltages All digital output states Tachogenerator voltage Motor armature current Motor field current Motor armature voltage Output power AC supply voltage Robust Design Current ratings declared at 50 deg C Ambient Can work up to 60 deg C Ambient Tanzorbs at every control input (Stop Spikes) All Analog & Digital Outputs are Short Circuit Protected All Analog & Digital Inputs are Over - voltage protected Quantity & Variety of I/Os Extensive, multi-function programmable I/Os, with over 36 digital & analog input/output combinations. Extensive suite of standard application blocks, it can take control of the most demanding motion tasks Universal Inputs - (8 Total - resolution 5mV+sign) Can be used as Analog Input or Digital Input Page 46 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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All configurable All have programmable thresholds and 4 voltage ranges +/- 5/10/20/30V All inputs are over voltage protected Analog Outputs - (4 Total - resolution 2.5mV+sign) 1 armature current output 3 configurable All outputs are short circuit protected Digital Inputs - (8 Totals) 4 Nos. configurable All Over voltage protected Digital Input / Output - (4 Totals) Can be configured as Digital Input or Output All configurable Short circuit, overtemperature and overvoltage protected Digital Outputs - (3 Total) All configurable All outputs are short circuit protected Thermistor Input - (1 Total) Potential Free Contacts - (2 Totals) Dedicated for Contactor ON feedback Standard Software Functions Full suite of centre winding Macros Motorized pot simulator with memory 2x PIDs (undedicated) 2x summers (undedicated) 2x Filters (undedicated) Delay timer Current Profiling Spindle Orientation Jog/Crawl functions Dual motor swap Latch Linear or S ramp Slack take up Batch counter Draw control Auto self-tune current loop Configuration Checker Extremely flexible block diagram including unique Configuration Checker, detects shorting of output connections of user programmed block diagram Three fully independent, user programmable drive configurations In depth diagnostic facility available from on board display and in-built meter Page 47 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Built in oscilloscope output for full parameter monitoring Non-volatile trip alarm memory, even after power-down Protections Intelligent Overload High energy MOVs Instantaneous overcurrent Field failure & overcurrent Motor overtemperature Thyristor stack overtemperature Mains supply phase loss Mains synchronization loss Armature overvoltage Speed feedback failure Stall protection Standstill logic Thyristor trigger failure Digital output short circuit Unmatched Features Unique electronic regenerative stopping facility on some two quadrant models 3 user programmable drive configurations Can store 2 motor parameters Easy swapping of E2PROM on control cards ensures quick startup Alarm Status First fault latched and automatically displayed Fault automatically saved at power off PL PILOT - SCADA like Programming Package

Allows on-line and off-line drive configuration Allows copy and paste of entire recipes or sections of recipes to improve speed and ease of drive set up Custom page allows users to select up to 16 parameters, displayed in bar graph or panel meter format Tile and zoom facility allows user to view and arrange any number of screens simultaneously Diagnostic monitoring in engineering units (Volts, Amps, kW, Rpm, Hz) and percentages for all terminals and block outputs Extensive colour dynamics to assist in the detection of important conditions LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Built in interactive help pages Intuitive to use Minimizes drive set up and commissioning time Allows real time parameter diagnostics and monitoring Unique Configuration Checker automatically scans for user programmed connection faults and highlights the conflicts The layout of the diagram pages and soft buttons mimic the drives menu structure Bar Sub-menus Second Level shows the four main menu bars on the PL PILOT entry page. These are: Change parameters Diagnostics and ancillary functions Application blocks Control terminals Each bar has buttons that allow access to a drive block page Block Pages At lowest level each block has its own page which details its default values (shown in blue text) and any altered values (shown in black text) with its own block diagram - in most cases this alleviates the need for a hard copy of the technical manual - an excellent plus point when commissioning on site! Specifications Power Configuration PLX Four Quadrant Regenerative PL Two Quadrant Non-Regenerative Some PL models have electronic regenerative stopping facility Fully controlled variable field supply in built All current ratings at 55oC Environment Ambient Operating Temperature range 0-60oC (all ratings) AC Supply Voltage Main 3 phase 50-60Hz: - 12 to 480Vac +/- 10%* for armature power Auxiliary 3 phase 50-60Hz: - 100 to 480Vac +/- 10% for field power Control 1 phase 50-60Hz: - 110 to 240Vac +/- 10% for control power Armature Voltage Varmature = Vac x 1.1 Armature Current Ratings Overload 150% for 25 seconds Field Current 8A (12-123A ratings) 16A (155-330A ratings) 32A (430-630A ratings) Field Voltage Vfield = 0 to 0.9 x Auxiliary AC Supply Feedback options Encoder Page 49 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Tachogenerator Voltage F/B Field Configurations Fixed current Fixed voltage Field weakening Delayed quenching Standby field value Field economy Steady State Accuracy 0.01% Encoder feedback with digital reference 0.1% Analog tachogenerator feedback 2% Armature voltage feedback 0.01% Encoder + tacho, encoder + AVF or encoder only feedback Maximum encoder frequency 100 KHz Conformance to International Standards Marked to EN50178 (low voltage directive) EN50082-2: 1995 immunity industrial environment EN50082-1: 1997 immunity residential commercial and light industry EN50081-2: 1993 emissions industrial environment (EN55011 Class A) EN50081-1: 1992 emissions industrial environment (EN55022 Class B)

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FAQs on Variable Speed AC Drive Introduction to Drives/Common Terminology

1. What is VVVF drive? Variable Voltage Variable Frequency drive (also called as VVVF Inverter) is a power electronic controller used to control speed of 3 phase AC motor (synchronous or induction) varying the frequency and voltage applied to the motor terminals. Voltage and frequency relationship is decided based on the motor name plate data and the load characteristics. 2. What are the advantages of VVVF Drives? Step less speed can be achieved which is required in process control systems. Energy saving. Improvement in productivity. Process improvement and better quality of the product. 3. What is the typical power circuit configuration of a VVVF drive? Typical power configuration involves 3 phase diode rectifier at the input to convert AC input to DC voltage, LC or C filter to reduce the ripple in the dc voltage. 3 phase IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) inverter stage converts this DC voltage into variable voltage variable frequency output as per the desired pattern. 4. What are the different types of VVVF drives? VVVF drives are generally classified into three types based on the type of control philosophy adopted for motor control: Scalar control/PWM control Sensor-less vector Control Vector Control (with sensor) or flux vector control Whatever may be the control philosophy, the basic architecture is as shown in the figure. Page 51 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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For flux vector control pulse encoder (or PG) will be mounted on motor shaft as a feedback element. 5. What is scalar control? In scalar control, relationship between voltage and frequency of the AC voltage is applied to the motor terminals is predetermined by the user. This relationship gets marginally alerted in scalar drives sometimes, to improve the performance of the drive. Scalar controlled inverters can have only speed control and these are ideal for the group/multi motor drives or constant frequency sources. 6. What is vector control or flux control? What are the typical applications? In vector control, current is controlled with two independent components i.e., torque component and flux component. These components are computed by the AC drive based on the rotor position, rotor speed and the motor parameters. Motor speed and torque are controlled rather then output frequency. Relationship between voltage and frequency is decided by the operating conditions. Vector controlled inverter invariably use encoder for rotor speed and position feedback. As flux and torque components of current are de-coupled, fast dynamic response is obtained. It is possible to get more than rated torque at zero speed also. Vector control inverters are used for application demanding near zero speed regulation, wide speed control range and excellent dynamic response. Such as paper machine drive, film line drives etc. 7. What is sensor-less vector control? In sensor-less vector control, motor speed is estimated based on the measured motor terminal parameters and speed sensor is avoided. Based on the motor parameters and computed rotor speed, flux and torque component of motor current are computed. As flux and torque component are independently controlled fast dynamic response is achieved although not as good as flux vector control. Speed regulation is better than scalar drives and typical value is +/-0.5%. This speed regulation is typically achieved in the range 1:50 or above. High starting torque (>150%) is also achievable by this control. 8. What is PWM control? Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is the method of control where variable voltage (AC/DC) is achieved from a fixed DC voltage using switching devices. Dc voltage is applied for some time in the cycle and in the remaining period, and no voltage is applied to the load. Microprocessor based control keeps adjusting the duty cycle ratio (ratio of ON period to cycle time) depending on the speed reference signal given, and output voltage thus varies from nearly zero to rated voltage. 9. What is Carrier frequency or switching frequency? What is its effect on inverter performance? Carrier frequency is the frequency of the modulating wave which will determine the pulse number per half cycle in the PWM waveform. With higher carrier frequency the number of switching per second will be higher and hence, harmonics in the output voltage are reduced causing smoother motor rotation even at low speeds. This also helps reduce motor losses & audible noise levels. However, higher carrier frequency causes increased device losses. Hence, rating of the drive may have to be reduced at higher carrier frequencies. 10. What is applied motor rating as specified by inverter specification? Applied motor rating specifies the maximum rating of the 4 pole motor that can be connected to the inverter to obtain its rated output speed. 11. What is rated (KVA) output capacity? It is the apparent power that can be delivered continuously by the inverter, represented by the product of rated output voltage and rated output current, at the rated output frequency. This is calculated as (3 x rated output voltage x rated current)/1000. 12. What is the rated output voltage? Rated output voltage is the fundamental R.M.S. value of the output terminal voltage at rated input and output conditions. 13. What is the rated output current?

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The current flowing through the output terminals is equivalent to the total R.M.S. value, at specified (rated) input and output conditions. The rated output condition which satisfies the rated output voltage, rated output current, rated output frequency and rated load power factor. 14. What is the rated input voltage and frequency? The terminal voltage (R.M.S. value) of the inverter ac input specified as the reference rating. Similarly, rated frequency is the input frequency determined as the specified rating. 15. What is input voltage variation and frequency variation? Input voltage and frequency variation range specifies the range wherein the inverter can deliver the rated current without affecting the life of the equipment. Other specifications such as output power, voltage speed holding accuracy and speed regulation, etc., may not be met during the variation. 16. What is the power factor as claimed by manufacturers? Input power factor can be specified by two ways i.e., displacement power factor and harmonics power factor. If diode rectifier is used displacement between the fundamental voltage and current is nearly zero and hence displacement power factor is approximately 1.0. Harmonics power factor in the ratio of input effective power and input apparent power. This depends on output speed and load conditions and also on input line impedance. It is normally specified at rated input and output conditions. Power factor depends on the power circuit configuration. 17. What is input KVA capacity? The capacity determined by the product of rated AC input voltage and AC input current under the rated input and output conditions. 18. What is the frequency and speed range? Frequency/speed range is the ratio of minimum and maximum frequency/speed in the defined operating condition. E.g. 1:10 speed range with constant torque (CT) mode. 19. What is frequency stability or accuracy? Frequency stability/accuracy indicates the ratio of frequency variation range to the maximum frequency after the frequency has been adjusted, at specified conditions of line voltage and frequency variations, and at a specified temperature e.g., +/-0.5% at 25C. 20. What is inverter efficiency? Inverter efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power of inverter at rated output conditions i.e., with rated voltage, rated current and rated power factor at the output of the inverter. 21. What are the types of V/F patterns and their applications? Following are the different V/F patterns normally provided in inverters and their typical applications: a) Liner -Conveyor, Extruder (Constant torque) b) Square law -Fan, Pump (Variable torque) c) Bend characteristics -Special Mixers. 22. What is V/F ratio? V/F ratio is the ratio between rated voltage and base frequency set in the inverter. This has to match with V/F ratio for the motor to ensure proper functioning of the drive system. 23. What is Torque/Voltage boost? Motor flux is reduced below the rated level just V/F ratio is maintained at frequencies much below rated frequency. To maintain the flux/starting torque additional voltage needed to be applied to motor terminals. This is called s Voltage/Torque boost. 24. What is Acceleration/Deceleration time? Acceleration time is the time taken by the inverter to increase the output speed/frequency to the maximum value from zero after run command is given with the maximum frequency/speed reference Page 53 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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set. Deceleration is the time inverter will take to decrease the output speed/frequency to zero after stop command is given with frequency/speed at maximum value. 25. What is automatic voltage regulation? The process by which inverter output voltage was aimed to kept at desired value irrespective of input voltage variations and load variations. However, output voltage can never be greater than the input voltage. 26. What is dynamic braking? Dynamic braking in the inverter comes into operation during deceleration of the motor. During deceleration, motor work like an induction generator and returns the kinetic energy of the load to DC link of the inverter. Dynamic braking control connects the DB resistor across the DC link using a power switch to dissipate the energy in the resistor. The power switch is controlled by the PWM firing pattern decided by the microprocessor, which determines the switching pattern depending on the DC link voltage. This method is recommended when deceleration time is short compare to operating duration. Constant deceleration torque can be achieved by this method. 27. What is regenerative braking? In the regenerative braking, load kinetic energy is returned to the DC link due to induction generator operation of the motor. Energy from the DC link is fed back to the source through regenerative converter or by PWM converter. This method is recommended wherein braking torque is either needed continuously or when load inertia is constantly changing making it impossible to design DB resistor which will give desired braking action under all operating conditions or when great potential of energy saving is there for loads with considerable regeneration duty. 28. What is DC braking/DC injection brake? During DC injection braking, DC voltage is applied between two motor terminals. Losses takes place in the rotor and braking torque is generated. Braking torque is generated falls with speed. This method is normally used at low speeds only for good parking accuracies. 29. What is Overload capacity? Overload capacity specifies the higher than rated current the inverter can handle within the specified (and short) time limit e.g., if IRATED =150% for 1 min. and 200% for 2 sec., inverter can handle 15A for 1 min. and 20A for 2 sec. without trip. 30. What are Different starting methods provided? Following starting methods are provided in inverter and they are selectable by user: a) Minimum frequency start Inverter starts with minimum frequency with run command. b) Starting with last operating frequency Power to the motor cut off only after minimum frequency is reached. c) Starting with the frequency matched with motor speed Inverter detects motor speed and starts with the matched frequency. 31. What are the Different stopping methods provided? Following stopping methods are provided in inverter and they are selectable by user: a) Deceleration stop power to the motor cut off only after minimum frequency is reached. b) Coast to stop/instantaneous cut off motor power to motor cutoff instantaneously on stop command. 32. What is slip frequency compensation? Slip frequency compensation facility is provided in scalar inverters to improve the speed holding accuracy. With the feature invoked, we can get accuracy close or even better than +/ 2%. Motor slip frequency is calculated based on motor current and is added to the output frequency. 33. What is torque limit feature? Torque computation function calculates the output torque demanded by the motor based on the motor parameters, load current and voltage. If the torque demanded is more than the set limit, speed is reduced till torque demanded is less than the set limit. Page 54 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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34. How is torque control different from speed control? In torque control mode, speed of the motor is adjusted in such a way that output torque developed is as per the set torque reference value, provided programmed speed limits are not violated. In speed control mode, output speed is maintained at the set speed value irrespective of the torque demands conditions provided programmed torque limits are not violated. 35. What is over current protection? If the power devices like IGBT current exceed the safe limit due to output short circuit or due to any other reason, output devices get stressed suddenly. Over current protection circuit senses the device current and instantaneously trips the inverter if the current exceeds the safe limit. 36. What is over voltage protection? If the DC link voltage exceeds the safe limit, devices and filter capacitors are likely to get stressed. To avoid this, devices are switched off when DC voltage exceeds a set limit say, 800V DC for a 400V class inverter. 37. What is overload protection? Inverter has specified overload capacity. If the safe is exceeded, inverter is tripped and overload fault is annunciated. 38. What is ground fault protection? Ground fault can cause large unbalance currents to flow through the devices leading to premature failure. The sensing circuit within the inverter detects this abnormal condition and instantaneously trips the inverter. 39. What is over frequency / speed protection? Over frequency/speed protection trips the inverter if the output speed / frequency exceed the set limit. This protection is provided to avoid to the load system due to over speed. 40. What is electronic thermal protection for motor? Motor cannot handle the same current (if self cooled) at all frequencies. Inverter will have motor thermal model, which calculates the current, the motor can handle at any frequency. If the model matches the motor characteristics, motor can be protected against overheat by inverter. This function is called electronic thermal overload protection. 41. What is stall prevention? While accelerating the load, if the current exceeds the predetermined limit, acceleration time is intelligently extended by microprocessor to avoid probable over current trip. Similarly, during deceleration, if the DC voltage exceeds the set limit, deceleration time is intelligently extended by microprocessor to avoid probable over voltage trip. These two functions are together called as stall prevention. There is also a feature of stall detection (and prevention) during running which can be programmed in some inverters. 42. What is under voltage protection? If DC voltage reduces below safe limit, inverter is tripped since it becomes to difficult to maintain near rated torque & power conditions as per the load demand, without violating permissible current flow. This function is called under voltage protection e.g. UV trip level approximately 300V DC for a 400V class inverter. 43. What is retrial protection? Inverter has facility to automatically reset the fault if retrial protection is enabled. Normally overload, under voltage and over voltage faults are allowed to be reset automatically. 44. What is protection history? Protection history function stores some recent fault along with status of the inverter / motor at the time of fault for easy diagnosis. Typical faults such as overvoltage, overcurrent, speed etc are stored. 45. What are the normal frequency setting signals accepted? Normal frequency setting accepted by the inverter are (0 to +10V), (0 to -10V), (+10V to -10V), (4 to 20mA), Serial input (RS485/ RS232) and Keypad input. Page 55 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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46. What is meant by programmable inputs? Digital inputs to the inverters are programmable to provide flexibility and to reduce the number of terminals. They are called programmable inputs. Functions programmable are multi speed inputs, multiple acceleration, direction of rotation etc. 47. What meant by programmable outputs? Digital outputs from the inverter are user programmable to provide flexibility and to reduce the number of output terminals. Functions programmable are: speed reach, zero speed, under voltage etc. 48. What is the operating temperature range? Operating temperature range specifies the range wherein the inverter is expected to function reliably. If the range is exceeded, life is adversely affected. E.g. 0 to 50 C. 49. What is storage temperature range? Storage temperature range specifies the range wherein inverter if stored will not affect the functioning of the inverter. E.g. -20 C. 50. What is operating humidity? Max. Operating humidity specifies the limit on relative humidity wherein the inverter can function reliably. If operating humidity exceeds the limit, corrosion of parts will occur and adversely affect the reliability of the equipment. 51. What is the acceptable altitude? Altitude specification gives the maximum altitude up to which the inverter can work without any duration. Use of the inverter above the specified altitude can result in reduced cooling of the inverter by the cooling fans due to reduced air density and consequent tripping/malfunction. 52. What is enclosure protection? Enclosure protection specifies the protection of the inverter against the ingress of solid and liquid e.g. IP20 (product protected against ingress of solids with diameter greater than 12mm and no protection against liquid ingress). 53. What is AC Reactor/Line Choke? Ac Reactor is used when supply line has to be isolated from commutation notches caused by the inverter and to reduce the rectifier pick current. It also has other beneficial effect like lesser harmonics reflected back to mains, and better filtering of EMI/RFI effects from inverter to supply side. 54. What is noise filter? Noise filter is an electrical device involving inductor and noise capacitor, connected to inverter input or output or both, to suppress the electromagnetic noise associated with high frequency switching of inverter output transistor section, which, if unabsorbed or unsuppressed, can cause electromagnetic interference with nearby sensitive electronic equipment. 55. What is close loop control? In closed loop control reference quantity is compared with the measured quantity and corrective action is taken to achieve the reference e.g. closed loop speed control. 56. What is BJT? Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is high voltage high current Darlington transistor with built in free wheeling device. This is a current controlled device with typical current gain of 100. Maximum switching frequency of inverter using BJT is limited to less than 5 KHz. 57. What is IGBT? Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a high voltage, high current device with input MOS stage and output transistor stage. It has built in free wheeling diode also. IGBT is a voltage-controlled device with a high speed switching ability. Inverters using IGBTs have a switching frequency up to 15 KHz. 58 What is IPM? Intelligent Power Module (IPM) is the power device having IGBT along with its driving circuit and protection features. It accepts control directly. IPM simplifies the driving circuit of inverters. Page 56 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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59. What is integrated power pack? Integrated Power Pack has both inverter and rectifier portion of the drive in the same device. These devices are available in low current rating (up to 15A). 60. What are cooling methods adopted in inverters? Inverters are normally provided with forced cooling arrangement. In lower rating up to 4kW natural cooling design is adopted. 61. What is speed regulation? Speed regulation specification gives variation of speed expected by the variation of load on the motor from the no load to full load with input supply held constant, or variation of speed excepted due to the variation of input supply at a constant load on the motor, or a specific combination of above happening simultaneously. Variation is expressed as the percentage of rated speed of motor. Speed regulation is dependent on the control method adopted in the inverter. 62. What is auto tuning? Auto tuning is the function wherein motor electrical parameters normally not mentioned on the nameplate (like leakage inductance, no load current, etc.) are automatically measured and stored by the inverter. The procedure involves connection of the motor to the inverter and giving an auto-tune run or auto-identification run command, after some basic nameplate data have been entered. Some parameters are learnt even without the motor running (inverter passes a DC current during this period) and some more during running the entire process is over in a matter of minutes. The parameters thus learnt are used to model the motor correctly in the software for vector algorithms to be solved with sufficient accuracy. 63. What is minimum frequency/speed limit? Minimum frequency / speed limit is the frequency speed below which the motor will not operate if the reference command is lower than the set value. 64. What is maximum frequency/speed limit? Maximum frequency / speed limit is the frequency speed above which the motor will not if the frequency/speed reference is greater than the set value. 65. How is fuse protection provided in inverter? Semiconductor fuses are provided in inverters to protect the rectifier portion in the event of short circuit in the inverter portion. 66. What is base speed/frequency? Base speed/frequency is the speed/frequency at which rated voltage is to be applied to the motor. 67. What is constant torque range? Constant torque range is the speed / frequency range when motor flux/V/F ratio is maintained constant. 68. What is constant power range? Constant power range is the frequency / speed range when motor terminal voltage is maintained constant. 69. What is a 4-quadrant drive? Four quadrant drives can work in both forward and reverse directions and torques can be motoring or braking in either directions. Two-quadrant drive can work in both directions of rotations with only motoring torque or one direction of rotation with both motoring and braking torques. 70. What is gate drive? Gate drive is the control signal given to the gate of the IGBT or IPM to control its switching pattern/operation. 71. What is frequency/speed setting resolution? Frequency/speed setting resolution is the smallest step change possible in frequency/speed. This depends on the setting method i.e. analog, digital. 72. What is SMD? Page 57 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Surface Mount Devices (SMD) is compact components, which do not need through holes on the PCB for mounting. This decreases PCB size allowing the components to be mounted on both the sides of printed circuit board. 73. What is ASIC? Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is and integrated circuit designed for specific purpose/functions as per requirement of the product. ASIC can reduce the number of components used in the controller card and its size. 74. What is the difference between Micro Controller and Digital Signal Processor (DSP)? Micro Controller is a digital controller with built in memory to accommodate the user programmed. DSP is the digital controller with fast computational feature for mathematical computation. 75. What is preset speed function? Preset speed function has multiple speeds programmed on the inverter which are selected by digital inputs e.g. 8speeds can be selected by 3 inputs (since binary combination of states of three inputs can give rise to 23 = 8 states). 76. What is pattern function? Pattern function enables the inverter to vary the output speed as per the defined profile in the program. Speed change takes place without any operator, induced change in the speed reference. 77. What is Shoot through protection? Shoot through protection protects the inverter devices against overcurrent caused by the switch on of two devices on one limb at the same time. For this protection current in the DC link is sensed. 78. What is DC reactor? Dc reactor is utilized to minimise the input current harmonics and to improve the input power factor. This is connected between rectifier and capacitor filter. SPECIAL FEATURE / BENEFITS 1. What are the different modes of controls available with the inverter? An inverter can be used in either as a simple V/F inverter, or as vector control inverter. 2. Is a speed feedback device necessary for proper operation of motor with inverter? No, the inverter can work in open loop i.e. without any speed feedback. Inverter can be operated with open loop V/F control or open loop 9sensorless) vector control. However, it is also possible to have closed-loop V/F as well as vector control. 3. Is motor of any specific design / characteristics required for inverter control? No, with inverter of voltage-fed design, any standard motor can be used. The inverter can adapt itself to any standard motor. 4 How does the inverter adapt itself to any standard motor? The inverter adapts itself to any standard motor using a built-in function called auto-tuning or motor identification. Using this function, the motor parameters necessary for inverter operation & control are automatically measured and permanently stored in the memory of inverter. 5. Does the inverter need the input power supply in a specific base sequence? No, most inverter are insensitive to input-supply phase sequence. They work even if the input supply is not in the proper phase sequence. 6. After installation, if the input phase supply is reversed, will the motor rotate in the reverse direction? No. the direction of rotation of the motor is dependant only on the inverter control. It does not depend on input supply phase sequence. 7. If the application requires operation in both directions, are reversing contactor required?

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No, the direction of the motor can be reversed electronically within the inverter itself. Therefore, reversing contactors are required. The inverters have reversing feature as a standard built-in facility. 8. Is the output frequency dependant on the input frequency? No, the output and the input frequency are not related to each other. For example, with rated input frequency of 50Hz, it is possible to get output frequency 60Hz, or even 400Hz. 9. Is it possible to control the run-up (acceleration time) of the motor? Yes, the acceleration time can be adjusted (set) over the large range using the inverter. Similarly, the deceleration rate can be adjusted using the inverter. It is also possible to have multiple slopes (acceleration/deceleration rates) and change over from one rate to another rate using external command. 10. Is the V/F ratio fixed throughout the operating range? No, not necessarily. Even with V/F control, it is possible to set a variable V/F pattern, matching with the load pattern. Therefore, the V/F ratio could be different operating frequency/speed points. 11. What is the minimum speed, which can be achieved using inverter? The minimum achievable speed depends on the control methods (V/F or vector control) and whether openloop or closed-loop. It also varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. But typically, a 1:20 speed range in open-loop V/F control and 1:50 in open-loop vector control is available. That means it possible to have 5% and 2%of rated motor speed as minimum speed, respectively. 12. What are the typical protections available with the inverter? The inverter is typically equipped with various protections such as input &output single-phasing, overload, short-circuit, earth fault, supply undervoltage etc. 13. How does the user set-up the inverter? The user sets up the inverter using the key-pad, which allows the user to do the various setting as required for the application. The key-pad also helps the user in fault-display and other annunciation. 14. How does the inverter take care of problem of mechanical resonance of the mechanical rotating systems? The inverter can bypass specific frequencies where mechanical resonance is expected / experienced. The user can store several such frequencies in the inverter. 15. What happens to the parameters set with in the inverter if the power supply to the inverter is put off? The parameters are stored in the memory, and are retained even if the power supply to the inverter is switched off. Thus the settings done by the user for a specific application are always retained in the inverter memory. 16. How does the user know about any fault in the inverter? The inverter automatically display any fault in the key-pad. It also captures the values of operating parameters at the times of fault. 17. In which ways is it possible for other automation systems to communicate with the inverters? What all can be done using such a communication facility? The inverters are typically equipped with one or more of the standard hardware communication protocols, such as RS 232, RS 485, and RS 422 working on one or more than one accepted software communication buses like MEMOBUS or PROFIBUS-DP etc. Using any of these, it is possible for other automation systems to communicate with the inverter for sending the set points, reading operating data, giving starts/stop/forward/reverse commands etc. 18. What is meant by speed search facility? Speed search is the feature of an inverter to catch a motor on the fly. Using this it is possible to connect the running motor to an inverter on line, without chance of spurious inverter trip out. 19. What is Auto Reset/Restart feature? This is the feature of the inverter by which it automatically reset the fault, and restarts itself, without any manual intervention. Page 59 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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20. What is carrier frequency? Carrier frequency is the frequency at which the power devices are switched on and off. The carrier frequency is typically in KHz in modern inverters equipped with IGBTs as power devices. 21. Is it possible to do sequencing / interlocking with the inverter? Yes, the inverters are equipped with several programmable inputs and outputs. These include both discrete and analog inputs and outputs. These can be used for sequencing and interlocking the inverter with external equipment. 22. Does the inverter have built-in reference up-down setter? Yes, the inverters have built-in reference unit (up-down setter), which accepts speed up/ speed down commands, and sets the reference internally within the inverter. 23. Does the inverter accept 4-20mA speed set? Yes, the inverter would accept a 4-20mA speed set point from the external devices such as DCS, PLC, and PID controller. The set point could be using any one of the following ways, namely by the potentiometer, by 4-20mA/ 0-20mA/ 0-10VDC signal, by a reference up/down command, or by a digit set point over communication link between inverter & host PC/DCS/process Controller etc. 24. How does one configure an inverter for an application that requires multiple fixed speed set points instead of a continuously variable set-point? It is possible to select the multiple fixed preset reference using discrete inputs of the inverter. By having the combination of these discrete inputs, it is possible to invoke many preset reference setpoints from memory. 25. How does the inverter withstand input power supply disturbance? The inverter is equipped with built-in power-loss ride through for specific duration (typically 1 or 2 seconds) which enables the inverter to withstand momentary power supply loss, and restart the operation on resumption of power. 26. Can one inverter drive more than one motor? Yes, multi-motor operation is possible with one inverter. In this ways, applications where more then one motor is sharing a load can be accomplished using one single inverter. Feature such as droop control are used for such applications. 27. Is it possible to have torque limit of driven equipment using the inverter? Yes, torque limit is possible using vector control inverters and can be employed for applications requiring it. INSTALLATION AND OPERATION 1. What protection is required to install the drive? Protection depends on the environment. If installed in the dust-free environment, says in a control room or a machine tool shopfloor IP-20 protection is sufficient. Dusty environment would call for IP-42 or IP-54 protection. IP-65 drives, if available can be mounted in the shopfloor or dairies and food product where there are chances of water spray on the drive. 2. My shopfloor environment contains corrosive gases. Can I install the drive here? Corrosive gases are harmful to the electronic components as well as sheet metal in the long run. Best option is to install the drive away in the control room. 3. Do I need air-conditioning for the drive? No. The drive does not need air-conditioning as long as heat is properly dissipated from it. Drive should be subjected to the ambient temperature for which it is designed. Ways to achieve this include installing exhaust fans in the drive panel or using pressurised panels or use of air-conditioner. 4. Can I mount the drive horizontally it suits my shop floor space. No. Most drives are designed for hot air flow vertically for heat dissipation through heat sink. Mounting other than vertical will hinder the heat dissipation thus affecting the drive life. 5. Do I need any buffer material (between drive and back plate of panel) for insulation like Bakelite sheet? Page 60 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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No insulting material should be used since it will block heat dissipation. Drive should be directly mounted on the panel back plate as per the mounting instructions in the user manual or heat sink should be exposed outside by a suitable cutout in the panel back plate. 6. My machine vibrates a lot. Can anything wrong happen to drive electronics due to this? Yes. Drive is generally designed for a rated value of vibration level. Vibration beyond this may lead to peeling off components or cracking of copper tracks or PCB itself resulting in malfunctioning of drive. Anti vibration pads can be used to absorb the extra vibration. 7. Can drive take care of power fluctuations? What care I need? Most drive have inbuilt MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) to protect against power transient caused by fluctuations. However, in case the transient is of long duration or too frequent the high energy of transient may render MOV incapable of protecting and drive may get damaged of burnt. In case a line reactor (choke) at the incoming of the drive. 8. When is it recommended to use an isolation transformer at the incoming of drive? In case input power supply experiences severe voltage imbalanced and sustain for long periods. While using isolation transformer, line reactor (choke) is not required. 9. Is it necessary to use fuses at the incoming of drive? Most drives do not include fuses for incoming. In some cases, semi conductor fuses may have to be used for protection of drive rectifier from short circuit. 10. Do I have to use contactor at the incoming of the drive? Not required for drive operation. Few power schemes recommended using input contactor for isolation purpose. However, care must be taken not to use this contactor for starting or stopping of the drive. Starting/ stopping of the drive should always be through control logic. 11. Do I have to use contactor at the output of drive? Not required for drive operation. Bypass power schemes use output contactor for isolation purpose. Logic should be designed such that output contactor must close before applying start input to drive. 12. Will my welding set pose any problems to drive? Yes. Welding sets creates large power spikes that affect drive rectifier as transients. 13. What care do I need while using welding set close to the drive? Best is to isolate the power feeders of welding set and drive. Alternatively, isolation transformer or a high impedance line reactor (chock) should be used at drive input. 14. What is harmonics? Harmonics means distortion in the voltage and current from the fundamental waveform. This effect is produced most by non linear devices such as computer. Distortion affects the other equipment connected to the power feeder. IEEE-519 guideline recommended total voltage distortion less than 3%. For equipment producing harmonics beyond this, tuned filters are required to be used. 15. Do drivers produce harmonics? Will this affect my system? Drive operating on PWM principle and having built-in DC bus inductor produce harmonics within IEEE guideline and hence do not affect the systems. However if your plant is installed with a large number of drives (i.e. if drives contribute a good % of total load in the plant) you may need to evaluate the total harmonics produced. 16. Do I have to buy filters along with each drive to reduce harmonics? Not generally designing of filter is done based on the complete power system of the plant involving transformer fault capacity and total load. Filter is not designed for a single drive in isolation. 17. Drive improve power factor. Do I still need to retain power factor correction capacitors? It is best to remove the capacitor since switching on/off of the capacitor produces transient which is bad for the drive. If not possible to remove, line reactor (choke) should be used for drive protection. 18. What is EMI/RFI? Do I need to install filters with my drives? I am worried about their high costs. Page 61 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) and RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is caused due to switching of IGBTs used in the drives. This interferences causes erratic operation of electronic equipment used in the electrical vicinity such as PLCs, flow meters, weigh meters etc. Drive manufactured as per the international standards conform to emission norms and when installation takes into account proper grounding of the motor and the drives, the interference does not affect. Also common mode (an inexpensive device) installed at the drive output suppresses interference. Thus it is required to installed expensive RFI filters. Hence a drive, if being exported to Europe, needs to be fitted with a filter. 19. Is deration required for the motor I use with the drive? Deration is required for CT loads if operated at low speeds because the cooling of motor is reduced due to reduced speed of cooling fan too. 20. How much deration is required? Ideally this must be checked with the motor manufacturer. In practice, however, it is difficult and time consuming to depend on the motor manufacturers to get the confirmation. Following thumbs rule can be adopted in practice: An externally powered cooling fan can be used which is not always possible. If running load of the motor is 90% of rated load and/or motor is operated in 1:5 speed ranges, no deration is necessary. In otherwise situations 15% deration can be applied. 21. What kind of motor I need to install with the drive? One should specify an inverter grade motor which is unique in terms of following: Has class F or Class H insulation. Is derated by 10% -15% (depends on the motor manufacturer) to compensate for the reduced cooling at low speeds. Insulation voltage level of coil is 1200 volts is greater on continuous basis (needs to be checked with motor manufacturer). 22. What if the motor insulation level is not 1200Volts? Such motor has risk of premature failure due to reflected wave phenomena which happens due to large distance between drive and motor. 23. What distance is considered as large? The distance is dependent on the characteristics of IGBT used (so it will be different or different makes and rating of drives), type of cable used etc. distance of 5-10 meters as used in machines (where generally the drive and motor are both installed nearby ) is considered short and safe. Distance for installations in control rooms (where is generally crosses 50 meters) are considered large and unsafe. 24. What safety measure can I take to prevent motor installed at large distance? Either a reactor (choke) or an L-R-C filter device can be installed at the drive output. 25. What preventive maintenance can be adopted? Drives are pretty reliable and do not need much maintenance being static. However, following periodic actions can be taken for trouble free operation. Check the cooling of panel against jamming of cooling fans, blocking of louvers and dust filters etc. Use air blower to blow dust accumulations at drive terminals, PCBs etc. Tighten any loose wires and connections.

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Buying an AC Drive, Check this out before you buy!! 1. What is the maximum ambient temperature inverter can handle? India is a tropical country. Ambient temperature during summer soars up to 48o C. Even if panels are located in controlled environment, to ensure long, trouble-free/reliable operation, product should be designed to handle actual ambient conditions at site. A study has shown more than 70% of the failures in electronic equipment are attributed to thermal failure of components. L&T-Yaskawa inverters are designed to work up to 60o C ambient temperature. 2. At what ambient temperature standard current of inverter unit is declared and what is the deration factor for elevated temperature? Standard current rating of an inverter unit is declared at a particular ambient temperature. This temperature value varies from manufacturer to manufacturer e.g. most of the European manufacturers declare current rating of inverter at 40o C. When inverter unit is used at an ambient temperature higher than specified value, its current delivering capacity reduces. Reduction in current capacity could be calculated by applying deration factor on standard rating. Current deration factor is specified as __% reduction in rated current capacity for every 1o C increase over specified ambient temperature. L&T-Yaskawa inverter standard current ratings are declared at 45o C and deration factor is 1.25% for every 1o C increase in ambient temperature. 3. What is the overload capacity of drive? 150% for 1 Min. for constant torque load e.g. Conveyors, Agitators 120% for 1 Min. for variable torque load e.g. Fans, Pumps 4. What kind of voltage & frequency variation drive can handle? Keeping in mind Indian power supply conditions +10%, -15% - Voltage +5%, -5% - Frequency 5. Is rated voltage available at inverter output at rated conditions? In some inverter technologies, 7-8% drop in output voltage is observed at rated conditions. This results in proportionate increase in output current to maintain output power. This increased current causes additional thermal fatigues in motors and may cause early burn out of motor L&T-Yaskawa Inverter output voltage drop is less than 1% 6. Is main control card common for entire inverter range? Yes Reduced spares inventory 7. What is overall input power factor of the drive? Most of the manufacturers specify only fundamental power factor to mislead the customer. Actually overall power factor of system is much poor as fundamental power factor does not include input harmonics. L&T Yaskawa Overall power factor 0.95 with DC Reactor. 0.93 with AC Reactor.

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When thyristors is used as rectifier, there is further reduction in input power factor due trigger Better input power factor reduces your Total Ownership Cost (TOC) which is very important in current business scenario. 8. What is overall efficiency of the drive (end to end)? Most of the manufacturers specify only inverter unit efficiency and not overall efficiency of the system. This is very important to arrive at TOC. L&T-Yaskawa better than 96% 9. Hat is specification of CPU of used in the control card? Performance of vector control drive is decided by how well/fast dynamics of motor model are solved by the processor. For this fast number crunching, CPU should be suitably sized. L&T-Yaskawa inverter uses state-of-the-art 32-bit RISC processor. 10. What is the nominal input voltage range the inverter can handle? Supply voltage is not same across the Globe. In India, we use power system with 415 V as nominal voltage for LV system. Our transformer no-load voltage is 433V. Many suppliers offer inverter models designed for European power conditions (380V) in India, which results in premature failures. L&T-Yaskawa inverters are designed to handle supply voltage range of 380V 480V. 11. What protection is provided to protect motor against voltage spikes generated due to long motorinverter distances? When motor to inverter panel cable distances are long (in excess of 30m), due to standing wave phenomenon, high voltage spikes are generated at motor terminals. To guard motor against these voltage spike, appropriate protection device needs to be provided at output of the inverter e.g. output reactor, sinusoidal filter. Absence of any protection results in premature burn out of the motor. L&T-Yaskawa provides output reactor as a protection 12. Is stall prevention feature provided during - acceleration, running and deceleration? These protective functions ensure trip-less operation of drives under arduous loading conditions in continuous process plants. L&T-Yaskawa inverters - provided 13. Any communication port is provided for future connectivity? Networking enables you to attain total plant control through integration of all control elements. L&T-Yaskawa provides Modbus (Universal industry standard) port as standard. Trust when you will compare true answers for above pointed questions from all inverter manufacturers, L&T-Yaskawa drive will emerge as the WINNER.

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REFERENCE TABLE DESIGN GUIDELINE On the drawing the alphabetical designations are to be written either above or to the right of the circuit symbol or under and to the left of the concerned symbol. Careful location of the designation is important especially if the diagram has the number of parallel lines as the designations can be mistaken as relating to another adjacent line. The designations have to mark not only on the drawings, but also on apparatus, panels, terminals, wire ends, etc. Avoid designations having more than four digits, as they create a lot of convenience. Do not mark designations on removable casting, as casing of identical elements can be interchanged. Electrical drawing contains a great deal of alphabets and numerals. Hence, before marking a diagram, first work out the marking system to be followed and adhere strictly to the adopted system and male the system clear to user. In diagram having several motor drives, automatic processing lines, etc. where several mechanisms are interlocked, involve a marking system which make it clear to the user that one or another element like an interlocking element from one circuit is introduced in another circuit. DEVELOPMENT OF A CIRCUIT DIAGRAM First it is important to recognize that there are two separate circuits involved in the operation of a motor. There is the power circuit, which supplies 415V, three phase, 50Hz power to the motor, and there is the control circuit, which provides the means for controlling the motor. A complete circuit diagram will show both circuits so it can be readily seen how the wiring of one relates to the wiring of the other. Figure shows the power circuit, including the connection to the primary winding of the control transformer. The control circuit is drawn in steps in order to illustrate the thought process that the designer is likely to follow.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTROL CIRCUITS Step 1 Draw the control bus, giving spacing between 100 and 150mm, the horizontal lines, depending upon the complexity of the control circuit.

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Step 2 Draw the stop push button. Stop push buttons are always normally closed. The symbol shows a bar across a terminals and a push rod symbol connected to the bar. Pushing on the end of the rod will open the circuit. The buttons are spring returned to their normal position. Stop buttons are usually the first device connected to the control bus and stop buttons are always in series with each other. Pushing any stop button will open the circuit.

Step 3 Draw the start push button. Start push button are always normally open. Pushing on the button will cause the bar to connect across the terminals and close the circuit. Note that the stop and start buttons are connected next to each other because they are in the same location otherwise extra wiring would be required in actual installation.

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Connect the overload relay contact. Contacts of the overload heater are connected in series with the stop push buttons. If the contacts of overload relay open, the circuit will be open.

Step 5 Connect the contactor coil. When the coil is energized, the contacts of the contactor will open a set contact (normally closed) and will close a set of contacts (normally open). The coil is therefore the principal element in the circuit in terms of causing an action to take place. The other side must be connected to the other control bus line. This completes the circuit to the coil and now pressing the start push button will energized the coil. But because the start push button is spring return to open, when the button is released the coil will be de-energized and the motor will stop. This is not as per requirement so step no. 6 must be made to overcome this defect.

Step 6 Connect self-holding contact across start button a self-holding contact C1 is connected in parallel with the start button so that the start button can be released after it is used to start the motor by energizing contactor coil C1. Once coil C1 is energized it will cause the C1 contact to close. This will seal in the circuit to the coil and keep it energized till stop button is pressed or the overload contact opens. When coil C1 is de-energized the C1 hold-on contact will open. Page 71 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Step 7 Add indicating lights. Additional contacts of the contactor C1 can be used to control indicating lights. When the contactor coil is energized, the normally open contact wired to the light closes and the light is energized. This completes the circuit. When the contactor coil C1 is energized, the contacts of C1 operate. Those in the power circuit close and the motor starts. The self-holding contact keeps it running and the light shows the operating condition. Pressing the stop button will shut the motor down and pressing the start button can restart it. In case of overloading the bimetallic strip of OLR will get overheated and will bend to open the OLR contact, thereby de-energizing contactor C1 and thus the motor will stop.

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Fundamentals to be remembered while analyzing or designing control circuits. 1. The contacts of the different relays are connected in parallel, when the circuit has to be closed independently by which of them, but has to be opened by all the contacts jointly. 2. The contacts of the different relays are connected in series, when the circuit has to be opened independently by each of them, but has to be closed by all the contacts jointly. 3. If the continuous current exceeds the allowable continuous current rating of the contacts of the relay; two contacts of the same relay are connected in parallel. Note should be made of the fact that the transient resistance varies from contact to contact and there will be chance of one contact working under more severe conditions than the other. 4. In some circuits, the two sets of contacts of the same relay may be connected in series, to open the circuit. This is done so that the arc is split up into a number of small arcs when opening the circuit and aids in quenching the arc. 5. In some circuits, the number of contacts available in a relay may not be sufficient. In such cases an additional relay is used and the coils of both the relay may be connected in series, or in parallel, or the second relay may be switched on by the contact of the first relay. 6. Resistors are quite often used in the circuits. A resistor may be connected in series with a 24V lamp as a series resistor to operate the lamp from 110V source. A resistor may be connected in series with the relay winding to accelerate the operation of the relay. 7. Capacitor along with the resistor is used for time delay and for arc suppression circuits. Capacitor in the DC circuits conduct current till they are fully charged and charged capacitor does not conduct current. When capacitor is used with windings they may give rise to resonance in AC circuits and to oscillation in the DC circuits. This phenomenon can be overcome by using calculated values of resistor along with the capacitors. 8. In certain circuits rectifier are not only used for rectification of the voltage from AC to DC, but sometimes as valves for separating the circuit, similar to isolating transformer or multi-winding apparatus. INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT DESIGN In designing motor control circuits, the following essential features should be incorporated in the circuit. 1. Provision of short-circuit protection 2. Provision of overload protection 3. Provision of no-volt protection 4. Provision of isolator to isolate the circuit from the main supply 5. Building in control circuit reliability Provision of short-circuit protection All electrical equipment requires protection against short-circuits. This is achieved by using HRC fuses, which are used for their current limiting effect. Fuse protection is based on the simple principle based on the use of the fusible element called the fuse link, which gets heated to its melting point when a predetermined maximum current is exceeded. This opens the circuit and isolates the equipment from the supply. MCBs also can be employed for short-circuit protection as they offer the advantages of 3-phase protection, thus eliminating single phasing, and also they can be instantaneously reset after the fault has cleared.

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Provision for overload protection Motors are subjected to the overload, i.e. it is feasible for the motors to take the higher current than the normal full load current; if it persists beyond certain duration of time it can destroy the insulation of the winding. The motor must be protected from this danger, which can be achieved by using an overload relays are dealt in detail later. The overload relays may be of two functions, namely, manual reset and automatic reset. In manual reset, the overload is reset by hand after the overload relay has operated. In automatic reset, the overload relay resets itself after cooling down. The manual reset is mostly preferred as it causes the operator to open the control cabinet and investigate the cause of the overload before restarting. The choice of manual or automatic reset is dependent upon operational rather than electrotechnical points. Provision of no-volt protection Provision has to be made while designing control circuits, to ensure that the motor does not restart on its own after an interruption in the power supply. This is achieved by using contactors in conjunction with momentary contact push buttons. This is an important aspect of design, as unintended starting can result in dangerous consequences both to men and machinery. With the contactor under voltage release is an inherent feature. When the voltage reduces or completely fails, the contactor is deenergized, thus interrupting its self-holding circuit. On resumption of power, the contactor will not be automatically switched on, and an impulse from the momentary contacts push button will be necessary to restart the motor, hence reducing the risk of unintentional restarting. Provision of isolator to isolate the load circuit from the main supply These are used for isolating the circuit from the main supply for repairs, etc. The isolators are usually no load or current rated switch, however where they are to be used in emergency switches or where semi-skilled operators may tend to use it for total stop under full conditions, it is advisable to use motor duty rated isolating switches. Control circuit reliability The optimum performance of the contactors and relays depends upon a stable supply of power of the correct voltage at the contactor coil. The standard coil voltages are 415V, 220V, 110V, 48V, and 24V with 50Hz. This supply may be obtained either directly from the main across phases for 415V, or between phases and neutral for 220V, or through a control transformer. The most popular coil voltage is 220V, 50Hz that can be easily tapped from phase and neutral or from a control transformer. Using 415V, 50Hz directly from the mains, gives rise to dangerous voltage fluctuations under single phase conditions. Low voltage is not recommended due to the high currents at low voltages and also results in unreliable operations under high voltage drop conditions. To overcome these defects, control transformer is recommended and also they isolate the control circuit c\from the mains supply, and eliminate high short circuit fault conditions in delicate elements, owing to the saturation capability of the transformer. The regulation of the transformer should not be greater than 5% and inrush VA of the contactor coil must be considered while calculating the transformer capacity. Reliability of the contactor and rely circuits can be increased by adopting parallel auxiliary contacts for very critical circuits. Especially semi-skilled electricians should strictly follow wiring manual supplied along with the machine to prevent incorrect wiring. Motor Protection and Its Necessity The various types and frequency of motor damage normally encountered varies greatly and depends on the specific conditions at the site. Nearly 40 percent of failures can be attributed to contamination, i.e. Page 74 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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oil, grease due to overlubrication, moisture, dust and chemicals. They result in insulation faults like turn to turn faults Winding faults or earth faults. Nearly 25 percent damages can be attributed to overloads or stalling. These are followed by failures such as bearing failures, phase failure and ageing. A great deal of this damage can be prevented if the installations are correctly designed, used and provided with correct motor protection devices. Contamination failures can be avoided by good sealing and proper maintenance. Bearing damage is mostly due to excessive V-belt tension. Where motors are operating in dusty surroundings, a reliable and periodical cleaning scheme should be implemented, to avoid damage to the motor. Other faults can be attributed to severe motor operating conditions combined with unsuitable protection, e.g. due to high switching frequencies or to high inertia starting. The following three points may be borne in mind to obtain fault free operations: 1. Select the right motor for the specified application. 2. A professional approach to installation and maintenance. 3. Select a good protective device which does not give nuisance tripping, and trips correctly when the motor is in danger, and further in case of a fault the tripping should be fast in order to minimize the fault. Overall Causes of Motor Failure, their Result and Damage. Fault Result Damage caused in the motor Asymmetrical supply Uneven wear of bearings Bearings damaged voltage, badly aligned drive, poor balancing, improper mounting of drive Cooling obstructed, higher Temperature rise beyond Stator windings are burnt out ambient temperature permissible level Single phasing Asymmetrical over Individual windings or part current. Temperature of windings are burnt out. rises beyond permissible limits

Short-circuit in winding, Temperature rises Individual windings or part earth fault, excessive voltage, beyond limits permitted. of windings are burnt out. asymmetry Sustained overload, under Excessive heating of Soldering at the rotor cage voltage,intermittent operation bearings, over current melts, stator windings can be beyond limits, locked rotor burnt out. extremely heavy starting conditions.

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Methods Adopted for Starting of Three-Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motors One of the major sources energy the world over is electricity. In India the standard industrial power supply is 415 V, three phases, 50 Hz, which gives us a voltage of 240 V between phase and neutral. The economical AC power has led to widespread use of the AC squirrel cage induction motor. Several methods of starting of AC induction motors are possible, but the most important are the Direct-on-line (DOL), which is the simplest and most economical followed by the star-delta system. In certain cases, DOL starting use age becomes restricted because of the high inrush currents (between five to seven times the rated current) to due to the associated high starting methods, namely (I) star-delta starting, (ii) primary resistance starting, and (iii) autotransformer starting. Primary resistance starting method is costlier than DOL starting by nearly five to six times, and autotransformer starting nearly ten to fifteen times, while star-delta starting is two to three times as costly as DOL starting. Star-delta starting can be used for motors which have six stator terminals, so that the stator windings can be first connected in star and when the motor accelerates up in speed with motor current and the output torque reduced upto one-third of the normal values. After a time interval provided by times, the windings are connected in delta and the motor accelerates to full speed and develops full rated torque. Hence it is obvious that star-delta starting can be used for applications which do not required full output torque at starting. Three-phase slip-ring motors are much more costlier than squirrel cage induction motors, but the addition of rotor resistances enable control of torque and speed, and full output torque can be realized at low speed. Contactors are used both for the stator and rotor circuits together with a resistance bank, and this system is nearly ten to fifteen times costlier than DOL starting system. Single phase motors or low hp are mainly used for small fans or pumps, and comprise a starting winding controlled by a centrifugal switch or capacitor. The control gear is simple and usually of the DOL variety, based on full load current and motor hp. The various types of starting circuits are dealt with in detail in the following sections. DOL STARTING OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

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The control and power circuits for DOL starting of Three-phase induction motor is shown. The control circuit is inoperative until the (momentary) start push button P1 is depressed to energize the main contactor C1, and close its main and auxiliary contacts in the power and control circuit lines, respectively. This contactor coil C1 servers as (1) under voltage protection, (2) a triple-pole line contactor, and (3) a means of stopping the motor, either manually, or, on the event of overload automatically. The control-circuit operation is initiated by depressing the momentary contact start button P1. This closes the normally open (NO) three-pole, lain contactors C1 and the smaller NO auxiliary contact C1 that shunts the start button P1. The function of the auxiliary contact C1 is to maintain the control circuit in an energized condition when the start push button P1 is released. The motor M starts across the line with all the C1 contacts closed. The motor may be stopped by any one of the following methods: 1. Manually, by depressing the momentary NC stop button P2. 2. By a sustained overload operating the overload relay OLR 1, causing NC contact on the control circuit to open. 3. By a short-circuit causing the fuses to open and disconnect the motor from the line. 4. By a short-circuit or overload in the control circuit, causing its low-rated ruses to open. 5. By a sustained undervoltage sufficient to cause coil C1 to become denergized. 6. By opening the main switch disconnecting the motor from the three-phase supply. 7. By accidental single phasing of the motor, e.g. the opening of one of the C1 contacts on the line, causing an overload ( 3 times the normal load current) and operating the overload relay J1. Direct on line starting draws nearly five to six times the rated current for a short duration. This inrush of starting current produces momentary line-voltage reductions affecting other electrical equipment. The capacity of supply permits, even large induction motors may be started directly across the line without damage to the motor. DOL STARTING OF INDUCTION MOTOR WITH REVERSING (FORWARD-STOP-REVERSE)

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The circuit employs three push buttons and two contactors for direct-on-line starting and reversal of three-phase, squirrel case induction motors. In order to reverse the direction of rotation of three-phase motor, any two conductors of the motor must be interchanged. The power circuit shown that when the reversing contacts (C2) are closed, the phase 1 line load connects to the phase 3-line lead in the forward operation and phase 3-line lead connects to the phase 1 motor load. Phase 2 does not interchange. The control diagram provides push buttons for both directions plush a single stop button, P3. Note that a normally closed electrical interlock contact from each coil is placed in series with the opposite coil directly after the start button. If the forward button (P1) is pressed, the coil (C1) cannot be energized when the motor is running in reverse. The same is true for the reverse operation. This is a safety feature to prevent a short-circuit at the power contacts. In addition, most reversing starters are provided with a mechanical interlocking device; this prevents closing of the opposite direction contacts, when one set is closed. This control scheme requires stopping the motor from running in either direction by use of the stop push button, before direction can be reversed. DOL STARTING WITH RANDOM REVERSING

The circuit employs three push buttons and two contactors for direct-on-line starting and random reversal of three-phase, squirrel cage induction motor. In order to reverse the direction of rotation of three-phase motor, any two conductors of the motor must be interchanged. The power circuit shown that when the reversing contacts (K2) are closed, phase 1 line load and phase 3 line load are interchanged at the motor load, while there is not change on phase 2. The control circuit provides push buttons P1 and P2 for both directions plus a single stop Page 78 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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button P3. Besides the electrical interlock provided by the normally closed contacts of the contactors, a mechanical interlocking device may also be provided. The normally closed contacts of the push buttons are placed in series with the opposite coil directly after the start push button. If the forward push button P1 is pressed, when the motor is running in reverse, the coil K2 will be de-energized and then coil K1 is energized causing the motor to run in forward direction. The same is true for the reverse operation. This control scheme facilitates the direct reversal of the motor without operating the stop push button. The stop push button is operated only to stop. AUTOMATIC STAR-DELTA STARTING INDUCTION MOTORS (6 terminals) OF THREE-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE

Application Star-delta is used mainly because of the reduction of the initial current demanded buy electric supply authorities. Star-delta starting can be applied to the motors with six stator terminals; the stator windings are first connected in star, and when the motor accelerates up to speed with starting current and output torque reduced to one-third of normal values, the windings are changed over to delta and the motor accelerates upto to full speed and full output torque. Star-delta starting cannot be used for motor application where full output torque is required as the motor accelerates. In summary, at starting in star approximately 58 per cent of full line voltage is applied to the windings; at this reduced voltage, the motor will develop about 33 per cent of its normal locked rotor current. After a time interval, the motor is automatically connected in delta, applying full line voltage to the windings.

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Function Pressing the start button P1, energize the star contactor C3, the line contactor C1 and time delay relay TDR1 and the motor starts in star. The NC contact of C3 opens and the coil of delta contactor C2 is prevented from simultaneous energization. After a present time interval, the TDR1 operates and deenergizes contactor C3, and the closing of NC contact of C3 energizes contactor C2 and the motor runs in delta. The motor can be stopped by pressing stop button P2. The motor is protected against short circuit by the fuses F1, against overload by the thermal overload relay OLR and against under-voltage and novoltage by the holding in feature of the contactors. Position of Bimetal Relay for Star-delta Starting In the power circuit the position of bimetal overload relay OLR is indicated at three positions, viz. A, B and C. Position OLR (A) indicates the position where the bimetal relay is generally connected and set at 0.58 times the full load current. In case the starting is heavy and the time is not sufficient to get the motor to its operating speed the relay can be placed in the line circuit at position POLR (B). in this case, it has to be set to the normal motor full load current. The relay has starting current flowing through it in star, but it is set for a higher value and gives no protection for continuous operation in star. As this is not a requirement for star-delta starting, it is not considered dangerous. However, danger does exist when for any reason the change over from star to delta does not take place and the motor is under full load conditions in star connection. In extreme cases bearing in mind protection and cost, bimetal relay at B and another bimetal relay at C can be provided, so that protection both while starting in star and running in delta can be ensured.

Characteristic: Variation of Current from the Supply and Variation of Torque T in Relation the Speed N. Page 80 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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It can be seen from that too early a change over from star to delta connections will result in excessively high inrush current and torque. Hence, the change-over from star to delta should not take place before the motor has reached its normal speed. POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE DESIGNING POWER CIRCUITS AND CONTROL CIRCUITS. Main Circuits 1. Provide fuses for short-circuit protection. 2. Provide bimetal overload relays for overload protection. 3. For drives of smaller ratings check if it will be advantageous to use circuit breakers with instantaneous overcurrent release, in place of fuses and bimetal overload relays. 4. For pole changing motors, the rated output differs for each speed. Provide corresponding number of bimetal overload relays. If however, the current consumption is similar for all speeds, it will be sufficient top provide one bimetal overload relay for all speeds. 5. Base diagrams for clockwise rotation where reversing is not required. If reversing is required, two of the supply wires must be interchanged at the terminal box of motor. Control Circuits 1. Connect the control circuits to the voltage between phase and neutral in the absence of a control transformer. If control transformer is provided connect to the secondary of the control transformer, and provide one fuse for protection the line conductor. 2. Connect the operating coils of contactors, solenoids etc. so that one side is directly connected to the neutral or return line of control transformer and other side is connected to the line via the various switching elements of the control circuits. This method of connection ensures that accidental activation of the coil due to earth faults does not occur. 3. Use auxiliary NC contacts to interlock contactors or push buttons which should not be simultaneously operated. 4. Located the bimetal overload relay tripping contacts for one motor in the common supply to the magnet coil of the other contactors forming this drive, so that after tripping of one relay, it should be possible to start the motor by another contactor. 5. The layout of the circuit should be so, that the number of control wires between contactors, fuses, bimetallic relays one side and external push button stations are minimized to the extent possible. 6. Keep the connecting wires as short as possible to keep the voltage drop to a minimum. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC MACHINE TOOLS / MACHINES The Start of a Cycle or Operation The start of a cycle or operation shall only be possible if all the safety requirements for the operator, the machine and the work in progress are fulfilled and if devices for necessary ancillary services are working. Suitable interlocks shall be provided to secure correct sequential starting of cycles and operations. When necessary for set-up purposes, means may be provided to permit individual functioning but interlocks for the safety of the machine, equipment and personnel shall still be effective. A Single Station for Starting the Motors Page 81 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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In automatic operation there shall be one station only in service for the simultaneous starting of all the motors on the machine which must be started before the beginning of the cycle. Methods of Actuating STOP and START Functions The stop function shall be carried out by de-energization of the control devices and conversely the start shall be carried out by energization. Start with both Hands Two hands control is not a substitute for effective mechanical guarding. The two push buttons shall be separated and protected to prevent spanning with one hand or operation with one hand and another part of the body. The controls shall be maintained in working positions simultaneously for the whole duration of the part of the cycle which involves danger and therefore one or both controls are released; dangerous parts should be immediately arrested. The circuit shall be so arranged to provide release of al buttons between successive operations. Non-repetition of Cycle On all machines where the automatic repetition of the cycle is not intended, the circuit shall be so arranged that repetition cannot occur even of the action is maintained on any of the controls placed at the disposal of the operator. The machine shall stop at the end of the cycle without the action of the operator. Restarting after Emergency Stopping in Automatic Control On restarting after an emergency stop it shall be possible: 1. To return the elements on the machine to the start point by manual mode. 2. To complete the cycle in progress in automatic mode. 3. To complete the cycle which was in progress in manual mode? 4. To return the elements of the machine under automatic control to their start points. Automatic Operation / Manual Operation On machines with automatic cycle, provision shall be made for the operation of the various individual elements by manual input devices. In automatic operation, the manual input control should be rendered ineffective. When the manual mode has been selected, there shall be no possibility of starting an automatic sequences or initiating movements due to the actuation of a limit switch. Normal starting and safety conditions shall be ensured in both manual and automatic operation modes. Incase of multi-station machine, local push button stations shall be provided on each unit with a keyoperated selector switch to isolate the automatic control circuits. The Automatic/Manual Selection Circuit Whenever necessary the machine shall be provided with operating devices for selecting automatic or manual modes. Selection shall be obtained through relay contacts. The relay shall be energized to select the automatic operating mode to ensure fail-safe conditions exist. Push button selection is preferred to selector switches. Selector switches with multiple contacts shall not be used. Jogging Circuits in Automatic Machines Jogging circuits shall be so designed to prevent run or automatic operations, and shall be effective only in the manual mode.

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Control of Sequence in Automatic Operation Electrically Controlled Sequence of Machine Elements When the sequence of operation includes definite displacements of machine elements, these displacements shall always be controlled directly by the true position of these elements by means of limit switches or position sensors. When the end of displacement of a machine element by a hydraulic device is checked by a pressure sensor placed on the hydraulic circuit, the action of this pressure sensor shall always be subordinate to that of a position sensor which checks the effective displacements of the elements and authorizes the following operations. Where the movement of the element cannot be effectively detected by a limit switch or position sensor, e.g. Fixture clamping, the use of a pressure switch alone is permitted. Time delay relays shall be used only for definite operations which are a function to time. They shall never be used to limit the travel of a machine element. Checking that certain Operations have been performed Interlocks shall be provided to prevent the continuation of new cycle of the machine if any operations have not been performed. If memories are necessary they shall be erased when the power supply fails. Interlocking of the Machining Motion with the Feed Motion In automatic operation, interlocking shall be provided between the machining motion and the feed so as to ensure the rotation of the spindles before the tool is in contact with work piece and to prevent them from stopping until machining has creased. This interlocking may involve the corresponding contacts and protective devices. Hydraulically operated heads shall not require and energizing operation to change the, from rapid traverse to feed rate. Magazine Fed Machines Magazine fed machines shall stop cycling on completing the last component from the magazine and indication to show this shall be provided. Initiation of Head Cycling by Means of Component Detect Switches Multi-station transfer machine should be fitted with component detect systems, so that individual heads only cycle in automatic when work pieces are present. Guidelines for Control Circuit Design 1. A control transformer with an isolated secondary supplying 220 V A.C. or less shall be used. 2. Contacts of relays/contactors shall not be connected in parallel to increase ampere capacity. 3. Where there is danger to operator or equipment due to improper sequencing, protective interlocks shall be provided to protect against failure of one or more devices to function properly and improper functioning in manual or automatic operation. SERIES AND PARALLEL WIRING OF CURRENT PATHS Parallel connections of current paths in switchgear are resorted in order to increase their thermal load ratings. However, it should be borne in mind, that the resistances of the individual current paths may not be identical, but may vary in each path due to contamination, contact burn etc., resulting in Page 83 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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uneven current distribution among the parallel paths in proportion to their resistances. To avoid overload of a contact point, a reduced factor for the number of paths can be introduced. For 3 parallel current paths I x 2.5 For 2 parallel current paths I x 1.7 Connecting parallel current paths for contactors may be resorted to only for active loads (AC-1 utilization category). This should not be adopted for switching motors with current ratings greater than those for which the contactor is designed for. In auxiliary circuits, parallel connection of current paths increase contact reliability. A series connection of two or three current paths of standard three-phase switchgear is resorted to increase dielectric strength, improve switching capacity or to obtain greater contact life. It should be remembered that the permissible current load of series connected main current paths remains the same as for the individual current path. OPERATORS PANEL 1. Emergency push buttons shall be of the mushroom type. 2. Start push buttons shall be of the shrouded type. 3. Mushroom type push buttons shall not be used for start circuits, excepting when two or more are connected in series. 4. The push buttons, selector switches, etc., shall normally by of oil-tight type. 5. Colour code for push buttons shall be as shown in Table 4.2. 6. Colour code for illuminated push buttons shall be as shown in Table 4.3. 7. Stop push buttons shall be of the unshrouded type. 8. Start push buttons shall normally be mounted to the left of the associated stop push button in horizontal line. 9. Start push buttons shall normally be mounted to the top of the associated stop push button in vertical line. 10. A name plate or symbol shall be provided at each component on the operators panel to identify the function of the element and located so that it is clearly visible to the operator from his workstation. 11. The operators panel should preferably be in a clean and dry location, and located so that it is in easy reach of the operator. To reach the panel there should be no spindles or any other moving parts in the operators path. 12. The normal movements of the operator or machine should not give rise to any possibility of accidental operation. 13. The panel on which the push buttons are mounted shall not be less than 45 from the horizontal plane. 14. Pneumatic or hydraulic piping or devices operated pneumatically or hydraulically shall not be located in the operators panel. 15. Pendant type push button stations shall be supported by other independent means and not by the flexible conduit used for running conductors. 16. Colour code for pilot lamps shall be as in Table 4.4, COLOUR CODE FOR ILLUMINATED PUSH BUTTONS (Table 4.2) Indications: Red, yellow, green and blue colour. The button is lighted to indicate to the operator that the lighted button should be pressed, or a certain tasks should be performed and the button then pressed. When the button is pressed, and the order has been completed, the light goes off. Page 84 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Confirmation: White colour only. When a dark button is pressed, the lamp lights glows a signal that the order given by the button has been completed, and continues to remain lighted till the signal to the contrary is given. Colour Function of the button Significance of lighted Application examples button and remarks 1 2 3 4 Red *(See note below) Stop and in some cases (Indications) Use of red illuminated reset only-if the same push buttons for stop is button is used for stop not recommended Green Start after authorization M/C or unit ready for -Start or motors, (Indications) by the lighted push operation elements for auxiliary button function -Energize magnetic chuck -Start cycle Yellow Start of a operation to Attention-caution -Some values like (Indications) avoid dangerous temperature or current conditions etc. reaching dangerous values -Operating yellow button can over-ride previously selected Blue Any function not Any significance not -Indication of order to (Indications) covered by other covered by other perform a certain task and then press this colours colours button White Start, or pre-selection, Confirmation that -Start or pre-selection of (Clear) or closing of a circuit circuit has been feed motion, speed, etc. energized or a function -Auxiliary circuit not or movement has been related to the working cycle is energized started Note : 1. Do not use illuminated push buttons for emergency stop buttons. 2. Use non-illuminated black or green push buttons for inching and jogging. RECOMMENDED COLOUR CODE FOR PUSH BUTTONS Colour of push button Function of push buttons Examples of application and remarks Red Stop -motors Stop -generators, pump, etc. -cycle -total stop For emergency stop use red mushroom push button Green Start Start -motors, generators, pump, etc. -cycle or function Black Inching or jogging Inch or -motor, table, etc. Jog Page 85 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT Yellow Blue Start of auxiliary Start functions not related to cycle Functions not covered by above colours

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM -auxiliary cycle, etc. -

Note : 1. Emergency push buttons shall always be of the mushroom type and red colour. 2. Where two handed operation of start push buttons is required for operators safety, use mushroom type push buttons of appropriate colour code.

RECOMMENDED COLOUR CODE FOR PILOT LAMPS (Table 4.4) Table 4.4 Function of pilot lamp Examples of application and remarks Fault or abnormal Mains on, automatic cycle on, fault conditions, danger in auxiliary systems Attention Safe condition Normal conditions Motor running, cycle on, unit in forward condition Cycle completed, unit in home position, motors off, motion stopped Air, water or lubrication pressure normal

Colour of pilot lamp Red Yellow Green White (Clear)

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT CONTROL CABINETS

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Control Cabinet Construction The cabinet shall be non-ventilated, and constructed so as to give minimum protection as per IP 54, against contact with live parts, ingress of solid foreign bodies, dust and liquid. Where the use of ventilated enclosures is necessary due to heat dissipating elements, the ventilation should be so placed as to avoid entry of oil, swarf, etc., and a minimum protection of IP 33 should be ensured. When forced ventilation systems are used, care should be taken to ensure that components are not damaged due to overheating when the equipment is switched off. There should be no opening between compartments containing electrical; equipment and those containing mechanical parts, coolant, hydraulic oils, etc. If necessary, when components dissipating large heat are used, a separate compartment with side louvres may be employed. Enclosures that contain panels with rear of panel wiring or back connected devices, shall be provided with rear access to those panels, The cabinet shall not be open to the floor. Rigidity and Enclosure Material The enclosure and door shall be designed to have sufficient rigidity to ensure continuing proper alignment between mating parts, such as mains disconnecting switch with door lock or door locks, etc. Door aligning guides shall be used where necessary to ensure alignments and reinforcement shall be used where necessary to prevent door warpage. The outer structure and internal members shall be fabricated in sheet steel of minimum thickness 2 mm (14 SWG). All sharp corners and edges shall be removed. MAIN SWITCH SELECTION AND INSTALLATION 1. The supply disconnecting main switch should be mounted on the control enclosure, except in cases of 400 A or more, the circuit breaker shall be mounted separately. 2. The incoming supply leads must terminate directly on the main switch, and there must be no intermediate terminal blocks. The terminals may be provided in suitable protective cover. 3. When the main switch is in the OFF position, there must be no live terminals, excepting those on the switch. 4. The current capacity of the main switch must be at least 125 percent of the sum of the full-load currents of all the electrical equipment in the system in operation at one time under normal working conditions. 5. The main switch should have only two positions at test, i.e. ON and OFF. 6. The disconnecting switch must be mounted on the control cabinet, between 1 and 1.9 metres above the floor level. 7. The main switch must not be mounted on the door of the control cabinet. 8. Where the control cabinet is at a distance from the machine, a main switch with locking facility in the OFF position is recommended from the safety point of view. THE EQUIPMENT PANEL 1. Equipment panel must be manufactured from the sheet steel of minimum 2.6 mm (12 SWG). Local reinforcement is to be added to the rear of panel where necessary for supporting components and to provide sufficient thickness to allow engagement of at Least two full threads (for M4 and M5 minimum thickness for engaging two full threads in 1.2 mm; for M6, minimum thickness for engaging two full threads is 1.6 mm). Page 87 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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2. Provide at least 10 per cent of the effective area of the panel or an area, equal to the space required for mounting two control relays of the largest type used, whichever is larger. 3. All electrical components must be mounted on to the equipment panel by means of fixing screws into threaded holes in the panel. Nut and bolt fixing may be avoided as far as possible. All panel mounted control devices such as relays, etc., should be mounted in numerical order from left to right and from top to bottom corresponding with the designations on the circuit diagram. Devices carrying a combination of supply voltage and control voltage or supply voltage only, must be grouped above or to the side and segregated from devices which carry only the control voltage. All terminals must be so placed that the wires may be easily connected to the terminal. Only one layer of terminal blocks is permitted, and vertical mounting of terminals is preferred. The rain mounted type terminals are preferred and not more than two wires should be clamped in each terminal. Terminals for power and control voltages should be individually grouped. Spare terminals should be provided on each control panels; up to 10 per cent of the total number of terminals. 8 per cent for control circuit wires and 3 per cent for power circuit wires. 4. All apparatus including terminals must be situated 200 mm above ground level. Devices such as overload relays, fuses, etc., which will require frequent replacement or adjustment must be fixed at levels convenient for easy accessibility to the electrician. 5. Heat emitting devices such as resistors etc., are to be mounted at the top of the panel so that the heat evolved does not affect the other equipment. 6. Heavy electrical accessories such as transformers, power supplies, etc., can be mounted on the floor of the cabinet or, in such cases where the thickness of the panel and supports will have to be unnecessarily strengthened just for fixing these items. 7. Sufficient spacing between electrical elements should be maintained, to ensure easy removal of elements for replacements or repairs, and for operating reset button on the overload relays. 8. Sufficient space should be ensured for internal wiring; the tables for raceway wiring may be referred to, and care should be taken to see that spare capacity in the raceway is provided to take care of future alternations or additions when necessary. 9. Painting of control cabinet: External as per requirement. Internal white (to ensure brightness inside). 10. Interior panel lighting shall be provided if necessary, by a fluorescent light (600 mm long), if the equipment panel area is 1.3 sq. metre or more. The lighting fitting shall be mounted at the top of the control cabinet. They shall not be fixed on the equipment panels, and shall be controlled by door operated switches. 11. The supply disconnecting switch must be mounted in the upper part of the control cabinet, with no other components directly above it, preferably on the right hand side. No components should be mounted on the doors except operating, signalling or measuring devices. No components should be fixed behind fixed door pillars or on the side of the control cabinet. 12. Removal or opening of doors shall be necessitate the use of a key or tool. All live parts which can accidentally be touched after the door has been opened must be disconnected before the door can be opened. The incoming main line can be connected to the main isolator switch on the cabinet, to avoid the live terminals, and the three main incoming terminals on the switch should be provided with protective covering to avoid accidental contact. GUIDELINES FOR WIRING OF MACHINERY General 1. The colour code for wiring as given below shall be strictly followed: Page 88 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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Black or Grey : Line, load, control circuits at line voltage Red : AC control circuit Blue : DC control circuit Green : Earthing 2. Conductors should be identified at ends by a tag bearing the number corresponding with the circuit diagram. The tags may be either of adhesive tape type or sleeve type. 3. Terminal blocks should be provided with numbers on the terminals corresponding with the circuit diagrams, and the numbers should be in ascending order from left to right or top to bottom. 4. The mounting and wiring of terminal blocks shall be such that internal and external wiring do not cross above the terminals. 5. Avoid terminating more than two conductors at each terminal. If more than two conductors terminate at a terminal, use additional terminal strip to accommodate the extra conductors. Machine Wiring 1. Conductors and their connections running from the control cabinet to other poarts of the machine external to the cabinet shall be run in flexible/rigid conduits or raceway. 2. Flexible, multistranded type of conductors shall be used. 3. Flexible cables in flexible conduits shall be used to connect stationary or infrequently moved electrical devices such as motors, limit switches, etc. operated at line voltage. 4. Connections to frequently moving electrical devices shall be made using flexible conductors running in flexible conduits. 5. Care should be taken to connect the conductors and flexible conduit vertically so that liquids will drain away from the fittings, and the connections should have sufficient slackness to avoid sharp bends and consequent damage to the flexible conduit. 6. Where electrical devices have to be removed frequently, plugs and sockets should be provided. The plugs and sockets must be of the earthed type and the plug should be connected to the load side. Do not connect both power and control circuits to the same plug. 7. For machinery which required disconnecting the electrical wiring for transport etc., it would be advisable to have a separately enclosed terminal block, at which point the wiring can be disconnected and connected at site. 8. Plugs and socket construction shall be such that the grounding pin contact is first made before any current carrying poles make contact, and the reverse occurs which disconnecting. 9. All sharp ends or burrs likely to damage the wire must be removed and rubber grommets used to avoid damage to the wires. Panel Wiring 1. The panel wiring shall be done in raceways. For panels containing less than five relays, contactors, etc. open front of panel wiring may be adopted, in which case wires must be properly bunched and fixed to the panel using proper saddles and straps. 2. The raceways must be of the flame retarding type, and must have a wire fill in accordance with Table 1.13. 3. The control panels shall have terminal blocks for all external wiring. A minimum of six terminals should be proved as spare terminals. 4. Conductors carrying AC voltage and conductors carrying Dc voltage may be placed in the same raceway. 5. Conductors smaller than 1.5 sq. mm must not be used for electrical connections.

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INPLANT TRAINING REPORT SELECTION OF METHODS OF WIRING The two mostly adopted control panel wiring are 1. Front of panel wiring or channel wiring 2. Rear of panel wiring.

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Front of Panel Wiring or Channel Wiring Front of panel wiring is more commonly referred to as Channel Wiring. The wires inside the control cabinet lie in channels. In some cases, channels are not used, but the wires held in place by equally spaced supports. The channel wiring offers the following advantages: 1. All the wires are in the from of the panels, and hence readily accessible when the door is opened and the channel covers are removed. 2. It is quite easy and less time consuming to effect additions or alterations. 3. It is simple to locate and follow individual wires. 4. The channel being insulating material provides additional operational safety as it separates the wires form the sheet steel panel. 5. Assembly time is reduced, as the wires are simply placed in the channel and connected. 6. The system provides for greater flexibility in positioning the components on the panel, giving maximum utilization of space and arrangement. 7. Cables of all sizes can be laid in the same channels. Rear of Panel Wiring In the rear of panel wiring, holes are drilled at convenient locations near to each component, so that wires from the terminals are passed through these holes to the rear of the equipment panel, and again emerge out to be connected to another component terminal. The holes should be provided with rubber grommets to prevent damage to wires while being drawn through the holes. The second method is to subdivide the equipment panel to mount the components, and leave a gap between the plates, through which the wiring can be taken to the rear of the panel. The gaps can also be fitted with rubber blocks having a series of holes for passing the wire. It can be clearly seen that separate plates, rubber blocks, etc. all add to the cost of the panel and assembly time. Also it must be mentioned that rear of panel wiring can be adopted only where doors are available at the rear; hence the cabinet should neither be guilt on the top of the machine nor placed against a wall. Also the system required greater manual labour both for assembly and trouble-shooting. Front of panel or channel wiring is free of the difficulties pointed put above and it much more superior to rear of panel wiring. MOUNTING AND PROTECTION OF MOTORS FOR MACHINE TOOLS / MACHINERY 1. Motors should be so mounted so that easy accessibility to the motors is possible without dismantling any parts of the machine, for removing the motors for repairs or replacements. 2. Motor mounting should be such that couplings, belts and chains can be easily replaced. 3. Motors mounted inside any machine, should have enough ventilation for motor cooling. A thumbrule to determine the minimum space requirements is to provide for space required for the next higher frame size of motor. 4. Depending on the accuracy required and type of machine under consideration, the motors should be dynamically balanced separately. 5. Due to design constraints, if the visibility of the motor name plate is restricted, a separate name place should be fixed near the motor in clearly visible position. Page 90 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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6. All motors above 1 KW should be provided with protection devices against overload. 7. Where motors are subject to frequent starting and braking, it may suffice to provide only short circuit protection. 8. Motor protection should also include circuitry to prevent self-starting of motors after power resumption after a power failure. 9. All motors should have short circuit protection (i.e. fuses). 10. The direction of rotation of the motors should be clearly marked on the motor end covers. 11. The compartment for the motor must be separate as far as possible and should not be interlinked with hydraulic compartment, etc. 12. Foot mounted motors which are directly coupled should be aligned properly, using a flexible type coupling. Contactor Definition of Contactor A contactor is a device, actuated by electromagnetic means, for establishing and interrupting an electric power circuit repeatedly. Description The principal parts of a contactor are the electromagnet, the contracts and the arc quenching structure. The basic working principle can be seen from. When the solenoid coil is energized from an A.C. source, the moving armature is attracted upwards and the moving contacts make contact with the stationary contact. . When the solenoid coil is de-energized, the armature drops out and the contacts open. Normally double break contacts are employed in contactors for cutting the voltage in half on each contact providing high arc rupturing capacity and longer contact life. The AC electromagnets consists of thin laminations with an insulation coating to reduce the iron loses due to eddy currents. The coil surrounds the centre leg and the moving armature extends partially into the coil. Due to AC supply, wherein the magnetizing current and flux pass through zero twice in each cycle, the armature tends to open momentarily upon each reversal, resulting in chattering of the magnet. To avoid this shading ring is embedded in the pole face. The shading ring is a short-circuited loop of conducting material. Whenever the main flux passes through zero, the shading coil contributes an auxiliary flux which holds the magnet armature closed. When the magnet is open, the air gap is large, hence the reactance (and impedance) is low. When the coil is energized, the coil will draw a large inrush current, and as the magnet armature closes, the air gap becomes smaller, the reactance increases and the coil current decreases. When the armature is closed, the coil current drops to the magnetizing current which is sufficient to hold the contactor closed against the force if the contact springs. Magnetizing current and inrush current must be taken into consideration for selection of control transformers, push-buttons, etc. Arc chutes of an arc-resisting insulating material are provided to extinguish the arc. In addition to the power contacts, auxiliary contacts are also provided for interlocking, etc. Function of a Contactor 1. To establish and interrupt electric power as per requirement. 2. To provide no-volt and under-volt protection. A contactor in conjunction with a push-button provides no voltage protection which is required for machine tools to prevent inadvertent restarting after a power supply failure. The design of the coil enables the contactor to operate effectively for supply voltage between 85% and 110% of rated supply. Hence when voltage falls below 85% if rated coil voltage, the contactor drops out, preventing overloading of the motor. Page 91 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

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COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Limit Switches Definition A limit switch is a control switch mechanically operated by the moving part of a machine, wen it reaches a predetermined position. A limit switch interlocks a mechanical motion or position with an electrical circuit. Construction A limit switch comprises an operating lever, the actuator pin on which are mounted the moving contacts and the fixed contacts mounted to the body, as shown in. The operating lever acts directly on the actuator pin and the moving contacts open or close with the movement of the actuator pin. The movement of the actuator pin is called travel and determines the opening and closing of the contacts, and is necessary to plan the fixing of the limit switch. The limit switch element as shown in may be used by itself where there is no risk of oil or contamination or it may be enclosed in a steel cover as shown in. When it is likely to be exposed to oil or contamination, etc., limit switches may be used with different type of actuator heads as shown in. Depending upon the application, various contact arrangements are possible. The most common are: 1. Make after break contacts, often referred to as the normal strokes. 2. Snap-action contacts, wherein the contacts close or open simultaneously and are independent of the speed of the actuator pin. Snap-action limit switch is recommended in cases where the approach speed is too low. 3. Extended stroke contacts, wherein a large difference in the travel between the opening and closing of the contacts exists and practically amounts to a time delay between opening and closing of contacts. 4. Make before break contacts, wherein there is a small interval of time wherein both the sets of contacts will be closed simultaneously and is useful where circuits must be switched without interruption. Applications 1. To bring to rest moving parts to the correct place. 2. To stop or reverse the motion at the end of a stroke. 3. To sense the position and initiate other operations required at that particular position. 4. Prevention of overtravel in moving parts. 5. To stop machines under certain circumstances, such as where a safety guard is opened, or if a sequence is missed. Points for consideration While Installing Limit Switches 1. Limit switches should not be used as a mechanical stop. 2. Mounting should be done so that limit switches are not used as hand-holds or steps. 3. Location of limit switches should ensure reasonable accessibility but minimum chance for accidental actuation or damage. 4. Mount with conduit entrance down to minimise condensate collection. 5. Install away from heat source, chip accumulation, and moisture or oil accumulation. Timing Relays or Timers Many applications require timers that are dependable in operations and easily adjustable over a range of timing. A number of timers are available with features for a wide range of applications. Page 92 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

The most common varieties are (1) the bimetallic timer, (2) pneumatic timer, and (3) the motorized timer. The bimetallic timer is the cheapest and finds application where the timing accuracy is not of great importance like star-delta starters, etc., and suffers from the inherent drawback of the bimetallic strip, that repeated operation gives rise to inaccuracy of timing. The second most popular timer is the pneumatic timer. It finds application in a majority of industrial applications. Pneumatic timers are not affected by normal variations in ambient temperature or atmospheric pressure; can be adjusted over a wide range of timing periods; have good repeat accuracy, and are available with a wide variety of contact combinations. The pneumatic timers have a time delay unit mechanically operated by a solenoid. The time delay is obtained by the passage of air through a restricted orifice and a diaphragm. The timing range can be adjusted by moving a needle valve to vary the opening of the orifice. Pneumatic timers are widely used in a sequence controls, machine tool controls, process industry, etc. where repetitive accuracy is required. Pneumatic timers provide the time delay in two forms ON-DELAY, where the time delay occurs after the timer is energized and OFFDELAY where time delay occurs after the timer is de-energized. The third and most accurate timer is the motorized timer, which find applications where repetitive accuracy is of great importance. It is also the costliest. A typical motorized timer comprises a small synchronous motor driving a cam assembly on a common shaft that opens or closes switch units, which are wired to control circuits to energize relays etc. Considerations for Selecting a Timer 1. Time delay length required. 2. Time delay length required. 3. Timing range required 4. Accuracy 5. Type of operation and reset time (ON-DELAY / OFF-DELAY etc) 6. Cost of timer considering the application 7. Additional requirements like extra contacts etc. 8. Contact ratings. 9. Coil voltage. LT Switches and their Selection The switch is the simplest device employed for controlling electrical energy. With the vast applications in industry, various types of switches are being manufactured and the choice of switches has to be made with care, bearing in view, both applications, cost and performance. A switch with a lower switching capacity leads to dangerous conditions; while on the other hand, too large a switch for the rated functions leads to uneconomical application. Function and Operation The basic function of a switch is to connect or disconnect an electrical circuit. They may be classified based on their functions i.e. ON-OFF switch, speed selection switch, pole changing switch, reversing switch, system selection switch, star-delta switch, etc. Switches are normally manually operated and of the air-break type, and are either directly operated via the handle or through a drive system. Switches are normally available as single pole (SP), single pole and neutral (SPN), double pole (DP), triple pole and neutral (TPN), depending upon the requirement of the circuit to be controlled, and are provided with contacts for controlling auxiliary circuits or for interlocking purposes. Switches are available with in open execution for mounting inside control panels, or with protective covers when they have to be mounted independently. Page 93 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Selection of Switches When selecting it is of utmost importance to select the switches for the rated voltage (supply voltage), and the rated current considering both making and breaking capacity of the switch. Certain switches are used as isolators and are expected to be operated only under off-load conditions, such as for isolating the circuit for maintenance etc. Such switches should never be used as an isolating switch when load is present. When the design demands that the switches should be able to close on existing faults, it has to be ensured that the switches have the requisite making capacity, so that they so not suffer damage during the time required to clear the fault by the protective devices in the circuit. Switches or isolating switches are not designed to break the circuit during short-circuit and attempting this is dangerous. Though it is not a recommended practice, very small motors are directly switched on using a switch and fuse. Such switches should have a motor rating duty. Normally for a motor circuit, a starter is provided to switch ON and OFF the motor, and a switch for isolating the circuit after the motor is switched OFF by the starter. The selection of such a switch should be based on the (1) frequency of operation required for the switch (2) the safety factor desired, and (3) the cost factor. Depending on the type of load, the selection of switch should be based on economical considerations and safety considerations both to the installation and to the operator. Rotary Switches Application is mainly for opening, closing, switching over simultaneously several circuits and for starting or stopping of smaller sized induction motors. In construction, the rotary switch comprises a stack of circular insulated mouldings. Each of these moulded stacks contain the contacts for each pole, comprising fixed contacts attached to the moulded section and a set of moving contacts that can be actuated by rotating the switch handle through 90 , 120 or 180 steps. All the moving contacts of the switch are operated simultaneously by the central shaft attached to the switch handle. The stacks are fixed on the central shaft and clamped together, having suitable spring washers, springs and positioning lugs to provide the switch with a snap-action mechanism and a positioning system for the handle of the switch. The moulded stacks design provides for extinguishing the arc provided while opening the contacts. Normally the contact system has two brakes per pole of the switch. Rotary switches are available in single, double or triple pole configuration and with current rating ranging from 6 A to 250 A and voltages up to 600 V. Rotary Selector Switches / Rotary Control Switches Rotary selector switches are basically intended for manually switching on AC or DC circuits upto 500 V. Their application is intended for making infrequent changes in control circuits, for ammeter/voltmeter selection, for manually connecting and disconnecting electrical equipments, and for changing the poles for two-speed motor etc. The switches are similar to rotary switches in construction and consist of several stacks of moulded sectors, through which passes a central operating shaft coupled to the operating handle directly. Each moulded sector had a set of fixed contacts attached to the moulded sector and a set of moving contacts actuated by a cam attached to the central shaft. The cams open and close the contacts when the handle moves the central shaft. A number of operating sequences can be obtained by varying the cams and stacking, and may be ordered to suit individual circuit requirements, or various combinations assembled by stacking individual sections.

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LTIT

VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT Motor Calculations, Equations and their Applications

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

Definitions 1. Nominal Voltage UN [V] It is that voltage from which the nominal data is taken. 2. Nominal Speed nN [rpm] It is the speed which is determined by the nominal voltage and nominal torque. 3. Nominal Torque MN [mNm] It is the torque of the shaft at nominal voltage and nominal speed. 4. Nominal Current IN [mA] It is the current consumed at nominal torque and after nominal speed is reached. 5. Nominal Electrical Input P1N [ mW ] It is the product of the nominal voltage and nominal current. 6. Nominal Power P2N [mW] It is the mechanical power which is developed at the motor shaft. It is calculated from the nominal torque and nominal speed. 7. Nominal Efficiency N [%] It is the quotient of the nominal power output and nominal power input. 8. Stall Torque MH [mNm] (Also known as stopping torque, short-circuit torque and starting torque) It is the torque which, at nominal voltage, causes the motor shaft to stop (Dependent on temperature). 9. No Load Current lO [mA] It is the current which at idle running results from bearing and brush friction and specific torque at a motor temperature of 25C. 10. No Load Speed no [rpm] It is the speed which is achieved by the unloaded motor with nominal voltage applied at 25C. 11. Friction Torque MR [mNm] It is the torque requirement of the motor when running idle due to the bearings and brush friction, measured after a running in period. 12. Specific Current is [A/mNm] It is the current change at a constant voltage, which is brought about by a defined torque change. It is one of the motor characteristics. 13. Specific Torque mS [mNm/A] It is the factor at which the generated motor torque changes with electrical input. It is one of the motor characteristics. 14. Specific Speed nS [rpm / V] It is the speed change per volt, voltage change at constant load. It is one of the motor characteristics. 15. Specific Generator Voltage eS [V / 1000 rpm] It is the change in open circuit voltage output at the motor terminals achieved by changing the motor shaft speed by 1000 rpm. It is one of the generator characteristics. 16. Inner Voltage ei [V] It is the generated EMF of the motor or generator. 17. Gradient of the Speed/Torque Curve n / M [rpm / mNm] It the gradient of the speed-torque curve gives information on the power capacity of the motor. It shows the change of speed at particular torque variations. The smaller value of this quotient the flatter the curve showing that the motor is more operationally efficient. 18. Terminal Resistance R [] Page 95 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER

INPLANT TRAINING REPORT

COMTECH AUTOMATION SYSTEM

It is the resistance across the motor terminals taken at 25C winding temperature with a stationary shaft but run-in motor. (Incl. brushes and brush contact resistance). 19. Terminal Inductance L [mH ] It is the inductance at the motor terminals when stationary. The test voltage and test frequency should be given. 20. Electrical Time Constant e [ms] It is the time in which the current increases to 63 % of the final value when the shaft is blocked. e=L / R 21. Electromechanical Time Constant m [ms] It is the time needed by the rotor, with unloaded shaft, to reach 63 % of the no load speed from standstill at nominal voltage.

22. Full Speed Time th [ms] It is the time the rotor takes, with unloaded shaft, to reach virtual no load speed from standstill at nominal voltage. (in practice t h 3 m ) . 23. Rotor Moment of Inertia JR [gcm2] It is the mass moment of inertia of the rotor. 24. Maximum Acceleration amax [rad s-2] It is the maximum change of the angular speed, with an unloaded shaft and without additional mass moment of inertia, when nominal voltage is applied. It is the quotient of the stall torque MH and the rotor mass moment of inertia JR. amax =MH / JR 25. Speed Constant kn [rpm / V] It is the quotient of the no load speed no and the induced voltage of the motor Ui. It is one of the motor characteristic constants. kn =no / Ui 26. Torque Constant kM [mNm / A] It is the factor at which the generated motor torque changes with electrical input. It is one of the motor characteristics. kM =Mi /I 27. Current Constant kl [A / mNm] It is the reciprocal of the torque constant. It is one of the motor characteristic constants. kI = 1 / kM Page 96 of 96 LTIT VIII EMESTER