THE FACTORIES ACT, 1948: OBJECT AND SCOPE: The factory Act regulates condition of work (health, safety, etc…) in factories, it safeguards the interest of workers and it is for the welfare of factory workers. This Act is applicable to any factory in which ten or more than ten workers are working. The factory Act has provisions in respect of Employee health and safety. Hours of work. Sanitary conditions and wholesome work environments. Employee welfare. Leave with wages, Etc… DEFINITIONS FACTORY A place where in ten or more persons are working and in which a manufacturing A process for process is going on using electricity, steam, oil, etc… MANUFATURING PROCESS  Making, Altering, Repairing, Finishing, Packing, Washing, Cleaning, or otherwise treating a substance for its use, sale, transport, disposal, etc…  Pumping oil, water or sewage, or  Generating, Transforming, or transmitting power etc…  Composing types of printing, printing for letterpress, lithography, photogravure or other similar process or book binding.  Constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting, finishing or breaking up ships or vessels. WORKER Worker means a person employed directly or through agency, whether for wages or not, in any manufacturing process or in cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process or in any other kind of work incidental to or connected with, the manufacturing process or the subject of manufacturing process. ADULT A person who has completed his eighteenth year of age. CHILD A person who has not completed his fifteenth year of age. POWER Electrical energy or any other form of energy which is mechanically transmitted and is not generating by human or animal agency. MACHINERY It includes  Prime movers: engine, motor, etc…  Transmission machinery: shaft, wheel, drum, pulley, belt, etc…  And all other appliances whereby power is generated transformed or transmitted.

OCCUPIER OF FACTORY A person who has ultimate control over the affairs of factory and where the said affairs are entrusted to a managing agent, such agent will be considered as the occupier of the factory. INSPECTORS State government appoints chief inspector and other inspector who,  May enter any factory and  May make examination of premises, plants, machinery and any document related to factory. CERTIFYING SURGEONS certifying surgeons for The examination and certification of young workers and The examinations of workers engaged in dangerous occupation or processes. THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF THE ACT ARE AS FOLLOWS HEALTH 1. CLEANLINESS  Removal and disposal of dirt and refuse from floors, benches etc… everyday.  Washing of floors of work room at least every weak, using disinfectant.  Effective means to drainage to avoid collection of water, etc… on the work floor.  All inside walls and partitions, all ceiling tops of rooms, passage and staircase.  To be repainted once in 5 years If they are already painted, and  To be white washed and the white washing to be carried out at least once in 14 months. 2. DISPOSAL OF WASTE AND EFFLUENTS Effective and suitable arrangements should be made for the disposal of waste and effluents due to the manufacturing process. 3. VENTILATION AND TEMPERATURE In every factory, effective and suitable provision shall be made for securing and maintaining in every workroom,  Adequate ventilation by fresh air circulation,  Suitable temperature to provide conditions of comfort and prevent injury to the health of workers. 4. DUSTS AND FUMES Employer shall take necessary steps to keep workrooms free from dust or fumes offensive or injurious to the health of the worker. 5. ARTIFICIAL HUMIDIFICATION In factories (e.g. textile) where humidity of air is artificially increased, state government may make rules  Prescribing standards of humidification.  Regulating the method of artificially increasing humidity. State government may appoint quality medical practitioners as

DRINKING WATER  Wholesome Drinking water should be available at suitable points conveniently situated in the factory.m. SAFETY 1. 7. urinal.  Latrines and urinal should be adequately lighted. Directing prescribed test for determining humidity and  Prescribing method for achieving adequate ventilation and cooling the air in workroom.2 meters above the floor level not to be calculated). accidents should be prevented.2 cu. he shall be published with a fine not exceeding rupees five. LIGHTING  Light whether artificial or nature or both. ( 4. which is injurious to the health of workers. ventilated and maintained clean at all times. 8.  Separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers. ENCASING AND FENCING OF MACHINARY In every factory the following shall be securely fenced they are in such position as to be safe for each worker. 6.  The water employed for humidification shall be form a source of drinking water. 9. 10.  Glares and shadows which cause eye strains or risk. LATRIENS AND URINALS  Sufficient latrines and urinals accommodation of the prescribed types should be conveniently situated and accessible to workers. etc… If more than 250 workers cooled water to be provided.  Sky light and glazed windows for lighting the workrooms should be kept clean and unobstructed. All such points shall be legibly marked drinking water. should be sufficient and suitable in all workrooms. . No such points shall be located within 6 meters of any latrine.  State government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in proportion to the number of workers. SPITTONS  There should be a sufficient number of spittoons at convenient places and maintained in clean hygienic condition  No worker shall spit except in a spittoon and if a person contravenes this.  The minimum space provided for a worker should be 4. OVERCROWDING No work room should be overcrowded to an extent.

g. LIFTING MACHINE. shall be of good construction. .  The head race and tail race of water wheel and water turbine. and He is under adequate supervision of an adult experienced worker/supervisor. o Hoists and cranes meant for carrying person shall have at least two ropes or chains separately connected with the cage. adequate strength and sufficiently protected and fitted with gates. The following parts should be securely fenced by safeguard which shall be kept in position while the parts are rotating. and adequate strength.. lubricate or adjust any part of a moving machinery which involves a risk of injury. weight of persons). He has got sufficient training to work at that machine. EMPLOYEEMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS ON DANGEROUS MACHINES No young person shall work on dangerous machinery. 4. motor. etc… Part of transmission machinery. CHAINS. Part of electrical generator. Moving part of prime – mover and flywheel connected to it. winch toggle. 6. 3.  Any part of stock bar projecting beyond the lathe head – stock. pulley block. Dangerous parts of any other machinery. sound material. HOISTS AND LIFTS Every hoist and lift shall be  Of good machinery construction. WORK ON OR NEAR MACHINERY IN MOTION  Any part of machinery if it is required to be examined while it is in motion shall be examined only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing. etc. 5. 2.. and  Adequate maintained and periodically (at least once in six months) examined. properly maintained and thoroughly examined at least once a year. PRESSURE PLANTS It should be ensured that the working pressure of such parts does not exceed the safe value. o Device should be provided to support cage in the event of breakage of the ropes or chains. Each rope or the chain with its attachments shall be able to carry weight of the cage together with its maximum load (e. ROPES AND LIFTING TACKLES Factory cranes and other lifting machines such as crab.  No woman or young worker shall be permitted to clean.

WELFARE 1. Every factory shall be provided with means as follows . 12. Hazardous processes are those where. SUMPS. each worker shall be provided with effective screens or suitable goggles. FLOORS. unless special care is taken would cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged or connected with. result in the pollution of general employment.7. 13. EXPLOSIVE OR INFLAMMABLE DUST. if an opportunity occurs in the course of their work. and  Such dust. EXCESSIVE WEIGHTS No person shall be asked to lift. without affecting the work. 11. WASHING FACILITIES  Washing facilities adequately screened for male and female workers should be provided in the factory. or vapors this can explode on ignition. ETC Shall be either securely covered or suitably fenced. scale removal etc…) or from exposure to welding rays. 14.  Washing facilities shall be easily accessible and kept clean. 8. pit. etc… should not be allowed to accumulate. PROTECTION OF EYES To protect the eyes of workers from the flying particles (such as in fettling. FACILITIES FOR SITTING Suitable sitting facilities shall be provided for all workers obliged to work in standing position so that they may take rest. PITS. fumes. PRECAUTIONS AGAINTS DANGEROUS FUMES No person shall be allowed to enter any confined space. gas. properly maintained and provided with handrails. revert cutting. GAS. OPENINGS IN FLOORS. tank. 2. PRECAUTIONS IN CASE OF FIRE and others to help escape in case of fire. Free passageways and easily open able windows. 10. gas. etc… in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present so as to involve risk to the entering person. carry or move any load so heavy as to cause him an injury. ETC… If a manufacturer process is producing dust. Unlocked doors and opening towards outside the workroom. 9. STAIRS AND MEANS OF ACCESS TO DIFFERENT PLACE They should be of sound construction. chamber.  The plant should be effectively enclosed. Safety Officers should be appointed if 1000 or more workers are employed. 15. Fire warning signal.

RESTRICTION ON DOUBLE EMPLOYEEMENT No adult worker shall be allowed to work in a second factory on any day on which he has already been working in one factory. FIRST AID APPLIANCES  For every 150 workers. WEEKLY HOLIDAY Sunday. he will get his over time wages at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of rage. if the number of such women workers exceeds 30. suitable. No adult’s workers shall be required to work for more than nine hours No adult worker shall be required to work on Sunday unless the manager substitutes Sunday by a holiday one or three days immediately before or after An adult worker shall be required to work in the factory for not more workers are ordinally employed. after five hours. 4. adequately lighted and ventilated rooms for the use of children (under the age of 6 years) of women workers.  The state government may prescribe the duties.  A factory employing more than 500 workers shall have a proper equipped ambulance room. basic wages and allowances) 6. clean. adequate. 4.e. minimum one fully equipped first – aid box shall be kept available during all working hours. 7.. 5. 6. SHELTERS. the worker shall have a rest for at least half UN hour.3. REST – ROOMS AND LUNCH – ROOMS and lunch rooms shall be provided. qualification and conditions of service of welfare officers so employed. 3. CRECHES Every factory shall provide clean. INTERVALS FOR REST No adult workers shall be required to work for more than 5 If a worker works for more than nine hours on any day hours continuously.e. sufficiently lighted and ventilated rest . (I. CANTEENS A canteen shall be provided in each factory in which more than 250 workers Every factory in which more than 150 are ordinally employed. DAILY HOURS on any day. WELFARE OFFICERS  Every factory employing 500 workers are more shall employee welfare officer. EXTRA WAGES FOR OVER TIME or for more than 48 hours in any week. 2. WEEKLY HOURS than 48 hours a week. i. WORKING HOURS 1. 5.

 Stopping employment of women and children in this operation. 10P. 3.7.. it may take rule. nature of work. SPECIAL PROVISIONS DANGEROUS OPERATIONS Where the state government feels that any operation is of serious risk or bodily injury.. the young person). and  During the night. Factory manager shall maintain a register of adult worker (stating their names.) and make it available to the 8. o A worker interested to take leave shall apply 15 days in advance. PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYEMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN age shall be allowed to work in any factory. REGISTER OF ADULT WORKERS inspector at all times during work hours.  Declaring the operation dangerous. RESTRICTION ON EMPLOYEMENT OF WOMEN factory except between the hours of 6A. ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES A worker who has worked for 240 days or more during a calendar year shall be permitted during the subsequent calendar year. NON – ADULT WORKER certificate of fitness. o One day for every 20 days of work performed by an adult worker.M and 7P. Advance Payment of Wages can be claimed if leave allowed is not less than 5 days for child and not less than 4 days for adult worker.M).e. 4.M EMPLOYEMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS 1. 2. group work etc. CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS It is a certificate of fitness for working in a factory which is given to a young person by a certifying surgeon after examining him (i.M to 6A. poisoning or disease. WORKING HOURS FOR CHILDREN No child shall be permitted to work  For more than four and half hours on any day. (i. REGISTER OF CHILD WORKERS Indicating their particulars and nature of work shall be maintained by the factory manager and be made available to inspector at all times during hours of work. leave with wages for a number of days at the rate of o One day for every 15 days of work performed by a child worker.e. A child who has even completed his 14 years of age shall not be allowed to work in a factory unless he carries while at work a token giving reference to No child under 14 years of No women shall be employed in any .

there will be a fine of day  After being convicted for an offence. NOTICE OF ACCIDENT An accident causing death or bodily injury due to which the worker cannot work for a period of 48 hours or more immediately after the accident. NOTICE OF DIESEASE which he is suffering. and o Prevents any factory worker from being examined by the inspector.  If contravention continues after conviction. OBLIGATIONS OF WORKERS No factory worker will misuse any appliance provided for the purpose of securing health. 10. OFFENCE BY WORKER If any worker contravenes any provisions of the Act. PENALITY FOR OBSTRUCTING INSPECTOR  An Occupier/Manager shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 6 months or fine up to Rs. he shall be punishable with fine up to Rs.000 or both. Providing protection of all concerned with that operation. and  Periodical medical check – up of all concerned with that operations.. after informing the manager may take sample of any substance being used in the factory. Rs. the occupier and manager shall each be guilty of an offence and punishable with up to 2 years of imprisonment or fine up to Rs.. safety and employee welfare. 100. appeal against it to the prescribed authority. 500. he shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 3 years. etc. 100. o Fails to produce registers or other documents on demand by inspector. POWER TO TAKE SAMPLES An inspector. a report immediately shall be sent to chief inspector giving particulars of the worker and the disease from . or both.  A worker who contravenes this provision shall be punished with up to 3 months imprisonment or a fine of Rs. PENALITIES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PENALITY FOR OFFENCES  Incase of any contravention of any of the provisions of this Act. APPEALS An Occupier/Manager on whom a written order by an inspector has been served under the provisions of the Act may within 30 days of the service of order. shall be brought to the notice of such authorities. a fine up to Rs. 1000 per If a worker is suffering from any disease specified in the schedule.000 or both. during working hours. within such time as may be prescribed. 10000 to 3 lacks or both. if the person does contravention of the same provision again.

000/. and To any other establishment employing twenty or more persons or class of such establishments which the Central Government may. or a fine of Rs. after giving not less than two months’ notice of its intention to do so by notification in the Official Gazette. 1912.... and cash value of food concession. The Employees’ Pension Scheme. or under any law for the time being in force in any State relating to co-operative societies. Term “pay” includes basic wages with dearness allowance. NON-APPLICABILITY OF THE ACT TO CERTAIN ESTABLISHMENTS: (a) Establishments registered under the Co-operative Societies Act. The following three schemes have been framed under the Act by the Central Government: The Employees’ Provident Funds Schemes. APPLICATION OF THE ACT: To every establishment which is a factory engaged in any industry specified in Schedule I and in which twenty or more persons are employed. and The Employees’ Deposit-Linked Insurance Scheme. specify in this behalf: Provided that the Central Government may. except . The Act is now applicable to employees drawing pay not exceeding Rs. 1952 INTRODUCTION: Provident Fund schemes for the benefit of the employees had been introduced by some organizations even when there was no legislation requiring them to do so.per month. 1000 or both. EMPLOYEES’ PROVIDENT FUNDS AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT. the Employees’ Provident Funds Act was enacted to provide institution of Provident Fund for workers in six specified industries with provision for gradual extension of the Act to other industries/classes of establishments. employing less than 50 persons and working without the aid of power. 1976. which comes to his knowledge in course of his official duties. by notification in the Official Gazette. 1952. 9. 1995. apply the provisions of this Act to any establishment employing such number of persons less than twenty as may be specified in the notification.5. or . retaining allowance (if any). In 1952. An inspector who does so shall have up to 6 months of imprisonment. The three schemes mentioned above confer significant social security benefits on workers and their dependents.RESTRICTION OF DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION No inspector will ever disclose any information relating to manufacturing processes. etc.

bonus. the person so named. 1948. (ii) And dearness allowance. [Section 2(e)] Employee: . [Section 2(d)] allowance. overtime allowance. all cash payments by whatever name called paid to an employee on account of a rise in the cost of living). commission or any other similar allowance payable to the employee in Contribution: “Contribution” means a contribution payable in respect of a member under a Scheme Or the contribution payable in respect of an employee to whom the Insurance Scheme applies.(b) To any other establishment belonging to or under the control of the Central Government or a State Government and whose employees are entitled to the benefit of contributory provident fund or old age pension in accordance with any scheme or rule framed by the Central Government or the State Government governing such benefits. the owner or occupier of the factory. Provincial or State Act and those employees are entitled to the benefits of contributory provident fund or old age pension in accordance with any scheme or rule framed under the Act governing such benefits. or managing agent. (that is to say. IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS: Basic wages: “Basic Wages” means all emoluments which are earned by an employee while on duty or on leave or on holiday with wages in either case in accordance with the terms of the contract of employment and which are paid or payable in cash to him. managing director or managing agent. the person who or the authority which. but does not include: (i) The cash value of any food concession. managing director. and (ii) In relation to any other establishment. house-rent respect of his employment or of work done in such employment. or (c)To any other establishment set up under any Central. the legal representative of a deceased owner or occupier and where a person has been named as a manager of the factory under clause (f) of sub-section (1) of Section 7 of the Factories Act. (iii) Any presents made by the employer. has the ultimate control over the affairs of the establishment. including the agent of such owner or occupier. [Section 2(c)] Employer: It means(i) In relation to an establishment which is a factory. and where the said affairs are entrusted to a manager. such manager.

finishing. manual or otherwise. but for the exemption granted under Section 17. means the attainment. ornamenting. Factory: It means any premises including the precincts thereof. Administration of the fund: . washing. delivery or disposal. oiling. in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on or ordinarily so carried on. the Central Government has framed the following three schemes: (A) EMPLOYEES’ PROVIDENT FUND SCHEME: The Central Government has framed a Scheme called Employees’ Provident Fund Scheme. of the age of fifty-eight years. Superannuation: “Superannuation”. whether with the aid of power or without the aid of power. not being an apprentice engaged under Apprentices Act. who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory. altering. SCHEMES UNDER THE ACT: In exercise of the powers conferred under the Act. cleaning. (ii) Engaged as an apprentice. transport. repairing. and where the said affairs are entrusted to a managing agent. 1961 or under the standing orders of the establishment. in or in connection with the work of an establishment and who gets his wages directly or indirectly from the employer and includes any person(i) Employed by or through a contractor in or in connection with the work of the establishment.[Section 2(g)] Industry: It means any industry specified in Schedule I. Manufacturing process: It means any process for making. [Section 2(f)] Exempted Employee: It means an employee to whom a Scheme or the Insurance Scheme as the case may be would. sale. have applied. and includes any other industry added to the Schedule by notification under Section 4. packing. Occupier of a Factory: It means the person. by the said employee. breaking up. such agent shall be deemed to be the occupier of the factory.“Employee” means any person who is employed for wages in any kind of work. in relation to an employee. demolishing or otherwise treating or adapting any article or substance with a view to its use. who is the member of the Pension Scheme. The fund vests in and is administered by the Central Board constituted under Section 5A.

for the territories to which this Act extends. 1997. The rate of interest for each financial year is recommended by the Board of Trustees and is subject to final decision by the Government of India. (2) Withdrawal for purchasing a dwelling house or flat or for construction of a dwelling house including the acquisition of a suitable site for the purpose. for the time being payable to each of the employees whether employed by him directly or through a contractor and the employee’s contribution shall be equal to the contribution payable by the employer. or for completing/continuing the construction of a dwelling house. the contribution which shall be paid by the employer to the Fund shall be 10%. a Board of Trustees. The Central Government may by notification in the Official Gazette constitute with effect from such date as may be specified therein.33% to 10% in general and in cases of establishments specially notified by the Government. from 10%to 12% with effect from September 22. dearness allowances and retaining allowance. other than an excluded employee. already commenced by the member or the spouse and an additional advance for additions.(a) Board of Trustees or Central Board: Section 5A provides for the administration of the Fund. may make contribution exceeding the prescribed rate but subject to the condition that employer shall not be under any obligation to contribute over and above the contribution payable as prescribed by the Government from time to time under the Act. . Contributions: As per Section 6. shall be entitled and required to become a member of the fund from the date of joining the factory or establishment. of the basic wages. alteration or substantial improvement necessary to the dwelling house. Advances/withdrawals: Advances from the Provident Fund can be taken for the following purposes subject to conditions laid down in the relevant paras of the Employees’ Provident Fund Scheme: (1) For payment of premia towards a policy or policies of Life Insurance of a member. Investment: The amount received by way of Provident Fund contributions is invested by the Board of Trustees in accordance with the investment pattern approved by the Government of India. Employees. if any. if they desire. Class of employees entitled and required to join Provident Fund: Every employee employed in or in connection with the work of a factory or other establishment to which this scheme applies. The Government has raised the rate of Provident Fund Contribution from the current 8.

1995 i.f. earthquakes or riots. Final withdrawal: Full accumulations with interest thereon are refunded in the event of death. in place of Family Pension Scheme. (7) Withdrawals for repayment of loans in special cases. for the treatment of which leave has been granted by the employer. superannuation. The Scheme provides for payment of monthly pension in the following contingencies(a) Superannuation on attaining the age of 58 years. voluntary retirement. certain discharges from employment under Industrial Disputes Act. It is also compulsory for the persons who become members of the Provident Fund from 16. 1947. or (b) Major surgical operation in a hospital.B. Normal superannuation pension is payable on attaining the age of 58 years. and (8) Advance to physically handicapped members for purchasing equipment required to minimize the hardship on account of handicap. Government has introduced a new pension scheme styled Employees’ Pension Scheme. Mental derangement or heart ailment. (6) Advance in case property is damaged by a calamity of exceptional nature such as floods. Minimum 10 years’ contributory service is required for entitlement to pension. 1971. (b) Retirement. or (c) Suffering from T. permanent disability. (5) Advance to members affected by cut in the supply of electricity. The Employee’s Pension Scheme is compulsory for all the persons who were members of the Family Pension Scheme. retrenchment or migration from India for permanent settlement abroad/taking employment abroad. (B) EMPLOYEES’ PENSION SCHEME: Under Section 6A.11. Where pensionable serice is less than 10 years.. Cancer. ( 2 ) and (7) are withdrawals and others are non-refundable . advances.1995. for reasons other than a strike or due to non-receipt of wages for 2 months or more.11. Leprosy. 1995 w. (4) Advance in case of: (a) Hospitalisation lasting one month or more.e. the date of introduction of the Scheme. and refundable advance due to closure of the factory or establishment for more than six months. Pension on a discounted rate is also payable on attaining the age of 50 years.e. transfer to an establishment/factory not covered under the Act.(3) Advance to members due to temporary closure of any factory or establishment for more than fifteen days. 1971. 16. the members has an option to remain covered for pensionary benefits till 58 years of age or claim return of contribution/withdrawal benefits. Paralysis.

m. The formula for calculation of monthly member’s pension is as under: Member’s Pension = *Pensionable Salary x (Pensionable service+2) --------------------------------------------------------70 A separate formula for pension has been prescribed for the members of the ceased Family Pension Scheme. Under the pension scheme. In the case of employee opting for 10% less pension than the actual entitlement. Depending upon the retirement date.m. 1. (a) The rate of minimum widow pension is Rs.1995. is also payable to the widow of the member who has contributed only for one month to the pension fund. (f) Children Pension. In addition such Family Pension members will get back their full provident fund including the employer’s share along with interest accumulated in their account upto 15. 115 p. per child payable upto two children at a time till they attain the age of 25 years. 1.500 p. (d) Death during service.000 p. 2.2.800 the family will have refund of the capital amounting to Rs. the employees have an option to accept the admissible pension or reduced pension with return of capital. For example.m. the family is also entitled to children pension.750 p.800 per month. the scheme provides for return of capital equivalent to 100 times of the original pension in the event of death of the pensioner.m. payable as normal member’s pension on completion of nearly 33 years of service. and (g) Orphan Pension. the amount of pension for such members may go even beyond Rs.m.m.m. the minimum amount of pension will be Rs.450 p. the maximum may go upto Rs. (c) If there are no parents alive. In the case of members who contributed to the Family Pension Scheme for 24 years. 2. 1971. The amount of monthly pension will vary from member to member depending upon his pensionable salary and pensionable service. Family pension upto Rs. (b) In addition to the widow pension.(c) Permanent total disablement. (e) Death after retirement/superannuation/permanent total disablement. if the monthly pension is Rs. the scheme provides for orphan pension @ 75 per cent of the widow pension payable to orphans subject to the minimum of Rs.11.00. and the employee opts for reduced pension of Rs. per orphan.265 p.000 on death of the .500 per month. 1995 after having membership of only 10 years will also get a minimum pension of Rs. The Family Pension members retiring in November. The rate of children pension is 25 percent of widow pension for each child subject to a minimum of Rs. 170 p.

65. 2/. if any. Exemption from the Scheme: Factories/establishments. which have an Insurance Scheme conferring more benefits than those provided under the statutory Scheme.000.01% of the pay of the employee-members for meeting the administrative charges. 1976 is applicable to all factories/establishments to which the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act.000. In addition. (C) EMPLOYEES’ DEPOSIT-LINKED INSURANCE SCHEME: The Act was amended in 1976 and new Section 6C was inserted empowering the Central Government to frame a Scheme to be called the Employees’ Deposit-Linked Insurance Scheme for the purpose of providing life insurance benefit to the employees. 35. the widow and two children will continue to get pension for life or upto the age of 25 years. 25. Application of the Scheme: The Employees’ Deposit-Linked Insurance Scheme. 1. 3. whichever is less shall be paid to the persons eligible to receive the amount or the Provident Fund accumulations. subject to certain conditions. dearness allowance including. Administrative expenses: The employers of all covered establishments are required to pay charges to the Insurance Fund. if majority of the employees are in favour of such exemption.e.per month. 6. cash value of any food concession and retaining allowance. DETERMINATION OF MONEYS DUE FROM EMPLOYERS: (i) Determination of money due: . In case the average balance exceeds Rs. at the rate of 0.. i. 2. Nomination: The nomination made by a member under the Employee Provident Fund Scheme 1952 or in the exempted provident fund is treated as nomination under this scheme. Payment of assurance benefit: In case of death of a member. Contributions to the Insurance Fund: The employees are not required to contribute to the Insurance Fund. the amount payable shall be Rs. The employers are required to pay contributions to the Insurance Fund at the rate of 1% of the total emoluments. 4. basic wages. 5. 1952 applies.000 plus 25% of the amount of such excess subject to a ceiling of Rs. subject to a minimum of Rs. may be granted exemption.pensioner. an amount equal to the average balance in the account of the deceased during the preceding 12 months or period of membership.

For this purpose he may conduct such inquiry as he may deem necessary.Section 7A vests the powers of determining the amount due from any employer under the provisions of this Act and deciding the dispute regarding applicability of this Act in the Central Provident Fund Commissioner. call for arrest and detention of employer. The Recovery Officer has got the powers to attach/sell the property of employer. may be recovered by such employer from the contractor either by deduction from any amount payable to the contractor under any contract or as a debt payable by the contractor. etc. gratuity or provident fund or life insurance. EMPLOYER NOT TO REDUCE WAGES: Section 12 prohibits an employer not to reduce directly or indirectly the wages of any employee to whom the Scheme or the Insurance Scheme applies or the total quantum of benefits in the nature of old age pension. or Regional Provident Fund Commissioner. PROTECTION AGAINST ATTACHMENT: Statutory protection is provided to the amount of contribution to Provident Fund under Section 10 from attachment to any Court decree. TRANSFER OF ACCOUNTS: Section 17A(1) of the Act provides that where an employee employed in an establishment to which this Act applies leaves his employment and obtain re-employment in another establishment to which this Act does not apply. the amount of accumulations to the credit of such employee in the Fund. Deputy Provident Fund Commissioner. (v) Priority of payment of contributions over other debts: Section 11 of the Act provides that the contribution towards Provident Fund shall rank prior to other payments in the event of employer being adjudicated insolvent or where it is a company on which order of winding up has been made. (iii) Recovery of moneys by employers and contractors: Section 8A lays down that the amount of contribution that is to say the employer’s contribution as well as the employee’s contribution and any charges for meeting the cost of administering the Fund paid or payable by an employer in respect of an employee employed by or through a contractor. Additional Provident Fund Commissioner. (iv) Measures for recovery of amount due from employer: The authorized officer under this Act shall issue a certificate for recovery of amount due from employer to the Recovery Officer. (ii) Mode of recovery of moneys due from employers: Section 8 prescribes the mode of recovery of moneys due from employers by the Central Provident Fund Commissioner or such officer as may be authorized by him by notification in the Official Gazette in this behalf in the same manner as an arrear of land revenue. Sub-section(1) of Section 10 provides that the amount standing .

a minor legitimate or adopted son. POWER TO EXEMPT: Section 17 authorises the appropriate Government to grant exemption to certain establishments or person from the operation of all or any of the provisions of the Scheme. Such exemption shall be granted by notification in the Official Gazette subject to such conditions as may be specified therein. The Central Government is empowered to enforce the provisions of the Act by notification in the Official Gazette. a legitimate or adopted son or daughter who has attained the age of 18 years and is infirm.to the credit of any member in the Fund or any exempted employee in a Provident fund shall not in any way. IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS: Confinement: “Confinement” means labour resulting in the issue of a living child or labour after 26 weeks of pregnancy resulting in the issue of child whether alive or dead. be capable of being assigned or charged and shall not be liable to attachment under any decree or order or any court in respect of any debt or liability incurred by the member. to enforce different provisions of the Act on different dates and for different States or for different parts thereof. 1948 provides for certain benefits to employees’ in case of sickness. Dependent: “Dependent” means any of the following relatives of a deceased insured person namely: (i) A widow. an unmarried legitimate or adopted daughter. (ii) If wholly dependent on the earnings of the insured person at the time of his death. THE EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT. (iii) If wholly or in part dependent on the earnings of the insured person at the time his death: (a) A parent other than a widowed mother. (ia) A widowed mother. . maternity and employment injury and also makes provisions for certain other matters in relation thereto. 1948 INTRODUCTION: The Employees’ State Insurance Act. 10.

an unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter legitimate or adopted or illegitimate if married and minor or if widowed and a minor. EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE: All the employees in factories or establishments to which this Act applies shall be insured in the manner provided by this Act. Insured person: It means a person who is or was an employee in respect of whom contributions are. (f) A minor child of a pre-deceased daughter where no parent of the child is alive or. (iii) A child who is wholly dependent on the earnings of the insured person and who is: (a) Receiving education. (c) A minor brother or an unmarried sister or a widowed sister if a minor. (iv) A child who is infirm by reason of any physical or mental abnormality or injury and is wholly dependent on the earnings of the insured person.(b) A minor illegitimate son. Such insured persons shall pay contributions towards Insurance Fund through their employers who will also pay their own contribution. being an insurable employment. so long as the infirmity continues. namely: (i) A spouse. till he or she attains the age of twenty-one years. Such insured persons are entitled to get certain benefits from that fund which shall be administered by the Corporation. or were payable under the Act and who is by reason thereof entitled to any of the benefits provided under the Act. (d) A widowed daughter-in-law. (ii) A minor legitimate or adopted child dependent upon the insured person. Employment Injury: It means a personal injury to an employee caused by accident or an occupational disease arising out of and in the course of his employment. ADMINISTRATION OF EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE SCHEME: . (g) A paternal grandparent if no parent of the insured person is alive. whether the accident occurs or the occupational disease is contracted within or outside the territorial limits of India. Family: “Family” means all or any of the following relatives of an insured person. (e) A minor child of a pre-deceased son. Insurable Employment: It means an employment in factory or establishment to which the Act applies. (b) An unmarried daughter. (v) Dependent parents.

Appointment of Regional Boards etc: The Corporation may appoint Regional Boards. as may be provided by the regulations. employees. (Section 25) WINGS OF THE CORPORATION: Standing Committee: The Act provides for the constitution of a Standing Committee from amongst its members. Such Corporation shall be body corporate have perpetual succession and a common seal and shall sue and be sued by the said name. state governments/union territories and medical profession. to promote. and delegate to them such powers and functions. EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE CORPORATION: Section 3 of this Act provides for the establishment of Employees State Insurance Corporation by the Central Government for administration of the Employees State Insurance Scheme in accordance with the provisions of Act. Local Committees and Regional and Local Medical Benefit Councils in such areas and in such manner. Power of the Standing Committee: The Standing Committee has to administer affairs of the Corporation and may exercise any of the powers and perform any of the functions of the Corporation subject to the general superintendence and control of the Corporation. The . a vice-chairman and other members representing interests of employers. Constitution: The Central Government appoints a chairman.For the administration of the scheme of Employees State Insurance in accordance with the provisions of this Act. EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE FUND: Creation of Fund: Section 26 of the Act provides that all contributions paid under this Act and all other moneys received of behalf of the Corporation shall be paid into a Fund called the Employees State Insurance Fund which shall be held and administered by the Corporation for the purposes of this Act. Powers and duties of the Corporation: Section 19 empowers the Corporation. Three members of the Parliament and the Director General of the Corporation are its ex-officio members. measures for the improvement of the health and welfare of insured persons and for the rehabilitation and re-employment of insured persons who have been disabled or injured and incur in respect of such measures expenditure from the funds of the Corporation within such limits as may be prescribed by the Central Government. the Employees State Insurance Corporation Standing Committee and Medical Benefit Council have been constituted.

local authority. (viii) Payment of any sums under any contract entered into for the purposes of this Act by the Corporation or the Standing Committee or by any officer duly authorized by the Corporation or the Standing Committee in that behalf. for all. Purposes for which the Fund may be expended: Fund shall be expended only for the following purposes: (i) Payment of benefits and provisions of medical treatment and attendance to insured persons and. of any court or tribunal against the Corporation or any of its officers or servants for any act done in execution of his duty or under a compromise or settlement of any suit or any other legal proceedings or claims instituted or made against the Corporation. their families including the cost of any building and equipment. donations from the Central or State Governments. gratuities and compassionate allowances. the Standing Committee and Medical Benefit Council. in accordance with any agreement entered into by the Corporation.Corporation may accept grants. in accordance with the provisions of this Act and defraying the charge. the Regional Boards. Local Committees and Regional and Local Medical Benefit Councils. where the medical benefit is extended to their families. (vi) Defraying the cost of auditing the accounts of the Corporation and of the valuation of the assets and liabilities. order or award. (iv) Establishment and maintenance of hospitals. (iii) Payment of salaries. (ix) Payment of sums under any decree. local authority or any private body or individual towards the cost of medical treatment and attendance provided to insured persons and where the medical benefit is extended to their families. their families. (ii) Payment of fees and allowances to members of the Corporation. (x) Defraying the cost and other charges of instituting or defending any civil or criminal proceedings arising out of any action take under this Act. travelling and compensatory allowances. or any of the purposes of this Act. dispensaries and other institutions and the provisions of medical and other ancillary services for the benefit of insured persons and where the medical benefit is extended to their families. leave and joining time allowances. contributions to provident or other benefit. and costs in connection therewith. . pensions. or any individual or body whether incorporated or not. (vii) Defraying the cost of Employees’ Insurance Courts set up under this Act. (v) Payment of contribution to any State Government. gifts.

Principal employer to pay contributions in the first instance: According to Section 40 of the Act. (d) The entry in or upon books or cards or particulars of contribution paid and benefits distributed in the case of the insured persons to whom such books or card relate. Recovery of contribution from immediate employer: According to Section 41. cards or otherwise and regulating the manner. (b) The payment of contributions by means of adhesive or other stamps affixed to or impressed upon books. both the employer’s contributions and the employee’s contribution.(xi) Defraying expenditure within the limits prescribed.75 percent and 1. such stamps are to be affixed or impressed. The present rates of contribution are 4. (c) The date by which evidence of contributions having been paid is to be received by the Corporation. times and conditions in. it is incumbent upon the principal employer to pay in respect of every employee whether directly employed by him or by or through an immediate employer. CONTRIBUTIONS: The contributions have to be paid at such rates as may be prescribed by the Central Government. Method of payment of contribution: Section 43 provides for the Corporation to make regulations for payment and collection of contribution payable under this Act and such regulations may provide for: (a) The manner and time for payment of contribution. The wage period in relation to an employee shall be the unit respect of which all contributions shall be payable. he can recover from the employee (not being an exempted employee) the employee’s contribution by deduction from his wages and not otherwise. and (xii) Such other purposes as may be authorized by the Corporation with the previous approval of the Central Government. on measure for the improvement of the health and welfare of insured persons and for the rehabilitation and re-employment of insured persons who have been disabled or injured.75 percent of workers wages by employers and employees respectively. principal employer who has paid contribution in respect of an employee employed by or through an immediate employer is entitled to recover the amount of contribution so paid (both employer’s and employee’s contribution) from the immediate employer either by deduction from any amount payable to him by the principal employer under any contract or as a debt payable by the immediate employer. and . at and under which. However.

any contribution due shall be paid in priority to all other debts. Section 4 provides that every employer (whether principal or immediate employer) shall submit to the Corporation or its designated offices such returns in such forms and containing such particulars relating to persons employed by him or to any factory or establishment belonging to him as may be specified in the regulations made in this behalf and shall maintain such registers or records in respect of his factory or establishment as may be required by regulations in this behalf. lost. their dependent are entitled to the following benefits on prescribed scale: (a) Periodical payments in case of sickness certified by medical practitioner. (b) Periodical payments to an insured workman in case of confinement or miscarriage or sickness arising out of pregnancy. (e) Medical treatment and attendance on insured person. production.(e) The issue. due to Corporation to have priority over other debts: In the case of the employer being adjudged insolvent or wound up as the case may be. (c) Periodical payment to an insured person suffering from disablement as a result of employment injury. sale. (d) Periodical payment to dependants of insured person. inspection and delivery of books or cards and the replacement of books or cards which have been. or (ii) Twice the amount of contribution which the employer failed or neglected to pay. the Corporation may on being satisfied that the contribution should have been paid by the principal employer pay to the person the benefit at the rate to which he would have been entitled if the failure or neglect had not occurred and the corporation shall be entitled to recover from the principal employer either (i) The difference between the amount of benefit which is paid by the Corporation to the said person and amount of benefit which would have been payable on the basis of the contributions paid by the employer.. destroyed or defaced. custody. The amount recoverable under this section may be recovered as arrears of land revenue. etc. BENEFITS: Under Section 46 of the Act. Corporation’s rights where employer fails to pay contribution: Section 68 provides that if any principal employer fails or neglects to pay any contribution which under the Act he is liable to pay in respect of any employee and by reason thereof such person becomes disentitled to any benefit or entitled to a benefit on a lower scale. Contributions. . the insured persons. To furnish return and maintain registers in certain cases: Besides the duty of the employer to pay contribution in the first instance under Sections 40 and 42 of the Act. whichever is greater. confinement.

EXEMPTIONS: The appropriate Government may exempt any factory/establishment from the purview of this Act. whether any person is an employee under the Act.I. he is not entitled to receive benefits under any other enactment. The State Government may appoint the same Court for two or more local areas or two or more Courts for the same local area and may regulate the distribution of business between them. EMPLOYEES’ INSURANCE COURT (E. namely.Court. action for failure or negligence to pay contribution. etc. . Any person who is or has been judicial officer or is a legal practitioner of 5 years’ standing shall be qualified to be a judge of E. The applicant has to submit application justifying exemption with full details and satisfy the concerned Government. as well as any person or class of persons employed in any factory/establishment. rate of wages/contribution.g.1. General provisions relating to Benefits: Right to receive benefits is not transferable or assignable. claim for recovery of any benefit admissible under the Act. The Court shall consist of such number of judges as the State Government may think fit. e. as to who is or was the principal employer.Court: (i) Adjudication of disputes: The Employees Insurance court has jurisdiction to adjudicate disputes. right of a person to any benefit under the Act.(f) Payment of funeral expenses on the death of insured person at the prescribed rate of Rs. When a person receives benefits under this Act. Matters to be decided by E.COURT): Constitution: Section 74 of the Act provides that the State Government shall by notification in the Official Gazette constitute an Employees’ Insurance Court for such local area as may be specified in the notification. benefit of sickness cannot be combined with benefit of maternity or disablement. provided the employees employed therein are in receipt of benefits superior to the benefits under the Act.I. (ii) Adjudication of claims: The EI Court also has jurisdiction to decide claims for recovery of contribution from principal employer or immediate employer.I. Such exemption is initially given for one year and may be extended from time to time. An insured person is not entitled to receive for the same period more than one benefit.500/.

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