European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.24 No.3 (2008), pp.332-338 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.

2008 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

Recycling Steel Mill Scale as Fine Aggregate in Cement Mortars
Saud Al-Otaibi Associate Research Scientist Research, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Division of Environmental and Urban Development Building and Energy Technologies Department P.O. Box 24885, Safat, 13109, Kuwait E-mail: uotaibi@kisr.edu.kw Abstract During the processing of steel in steel mills, iron oxides will form on the surface of the metal. These oxides, known as mill scale, occur during continuous casting, reheating, and hot rolling operations.The scale is removed by water sprays and collected then disposed of by dumping. A local steel manufacturing company generates quantities reaching almost 7000 tons/year. This paper presents perliminary findings of a study that investigates the potential for recycling steel mill scale into concrete. The composition of the steel mill scale was determined by XRF. Several mortar mixes were made using the product as a replacement for the fine aggregates. Compressive strength, flexural strength and drying shrinkage were measured for different specimens from the mortar mixes. The results are promising and encourage further study in specific application in concrete, brick, and block manufacturing.

Keywords: Aggregate, Mortar, Steel Mill Scale, Strength.

Introduction
Waste management is one of the most complex and challenging problems in the world which has a great impact on environment. A local rolling mill is currently producing reinforcing steel bars in Kuwait. The capacity of this plant is 650,000 tons/year for deformed reinforcing steel bars with diameters from 8 mm to 40 mm. During the processing of steel, iron oxides will form on the surface of the metal. These oxides, known as mill scale, occur during continuous casting, reheating, and hot rolling operations. The scale is removed by water sprays and collected then disposed of by dumping. The plant generates quantities reaching almost 7000 tons/year (Figure 1). The factory approached KISR seeking their assistance in minimizing the environmental impact of dumping this product identifying possible means for recycling. Steel mill scale is usually recycled in steel plants again in sintering furnaces or hearthes (Adams, 1979, and Daiga, et al., 2002). Mill scale that cannot be recycled by steel plants has been used by Portland cement plants as an iron source (Portland Cement Association, 2005, Young et al., 2004). Other researchers (Pradip et al., 1990) carried out on utilizing steel mill scale in the production of alinite cements.

Recycling Steel Mill Scale as Fine Aggregate in Cement Mortars
Figure 1: Steel Mill Waste

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The steel slag which is somewhat similar to steel scale has been used in civil engineering tenths of years ago (Geiseler, 1999; Neville, 1996; Neville and Brooks 2002; Alizadeh et al., 1996, Asi et al 2005). Portland granulated ground blast furnace slag cement, which is produced from rapidly watercooled blast furnace slag, has been successfully used in concrete due to the high amount of lime (40 50%), which posses pozzolanic activity (Neville, 2002; Alizadeh et. al., 1996)). Electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) that contains low percentage of amorphous silica and high content of ferric oxides and consequently has low, or no, pozzolanic activities in comparison with blast furnace slag (BFS), is not appropriate to be used in blended cement production (Kamal et. al. 2002). Although many studies have been conducted on the evaluation of steel slag to be used in road construction, there are rare researches regarding the utilization of steel slag in concrete (Kamal et. al. 2002). Although many studies have been conducted on the evaluation of steel slag to be used in road construction, there are rare researches regarding the utilization of steel slag in concrete (Alizadeh et al). ASTM C33 gives specifications for the use of blast furnace slag as aggregates in concrete, while there is not such a standard for steel slag or steel mill scale. Alizadeh et al (1996) results of the experiments which are carried out on hardened concrete, indicate that slag aggregate concretes achieved higher values of compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, compared to natural aggregate concretes. Shekarchi et al (2004, 2003) introduced a comprehensive research on the utilization of steel slag as aggregate in concrete. In the study, Shekarchi (2004) concluded that the use of air-cooled steel slag with low amorphous silica content and high amount of ferric oxides it unsuitable to be employed in blended cement. On the other hand, utilization of steel slag as aggregate is advantages when compared to normal aggregate mixes. Maslehuddin et al (2003) presented a comparative study of steel slag aggregate concrete and crushed limestone concrete. In the study, only part of the coarse aggregate has been replaced by slag aggregate. The study concluded that the compressive strength of steel slag aggregate concrete was marginally better than that of crushed limestone aggregate concrete. Moreover, no significant improvement was noted in the tensile strength. Manso et al, presented a study in which electric has been used to obtain concrete of better quality. It was concluded that steel slag can be used to enhance concrete properties. However, according to the authors, special attention must be paid to the mixes of concrete to achieve a suitable fine aggregate, which can be obtained by mixing fine slag with filler material. This paper presents

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perliminary findings of a study that investigates the potential for recycling steel mill scale into concrete.

Test Methodology
Materials Cement: Ordinary Portland cement, conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 150 was used in this investigation. Aggregates: Local desert sand was used in this investigation. Steel mill scale obtained form a local steel mill was used (Figure 2) Water: Potable water was used. Mortar Mixtures The mortar mixtures were prepared in cement: fine aggregate ratio of 1:2.5 and a w/c ratio 0.55.
Figure 2: Steel Mill Scale Fine Aggregate

Testing Procedure Properties of the Fine Aggregates The specific gravity of fine aggregate (Sand and Steel mill Scale) and water absorption were determined following the ASTM C-127 procedure. The sieve analysis was carried out in accordance with ASTM C-136. The chemical composition was determined for steel mill scale was determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRF). Compressive Strength 50x50x50 mm3 cubes were prepared to determine the compressive strength according to BS EN 123903:2002.

Recycling Steel Mill Scale as Fine Aggregate in Cement Mortars

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Flexural Strength Two 75x75x250-mm mortar prisms were prepared for each of the mixtures. The flexural strength test was carried out in accordance with (BS EN 12390-5:2000), using the two-point loading method. Drying Shrinkage Two 25x25x280-mm mortar bars were prepared for each mixture. The bars were cured for 7 days in water then were left to dry in the controlled temperature and humidity room. The shrinkage was measured using a length comparator in accordance with BS 812: Part 120: 1989.

Results And Discussion
Characterisation of Fine Aggragates The results of the sieve analysis of both the fine aggregate and the fine steel slag are shown in Table 1, together with ASTM C33 and BS EN 12620 grading limits
Table 1:
Sieve Size (mm) 9.5 4.75 2.360 1.180 0.600 0.300 0.150 0.075
* Natural aggregate ^ Crushed aggregate

Sieve analysis of fine aggregates
ASTM Designation 3/8” #4 #8 # 16 # 30 # 50 # 100 # 200 Sand % Passing 100.00 99.16 96.70 90.32 74.68 30.54 9.06 6.26 Steel Mill Scale % Passing 100.0 97.7 65.8 50.6 36.7 27.0 18.2 17.6 ASTM Limits 100 100 95 - 100 80 - 100 50 - 85 25 - 60 10 -30 NA BS Grading Requirements BS - C BS - M BS - F 100 100 100 89 - 100 89 - 100 89 - 100 60 - 100 65 - 100 80 - 100 30 - 90 45 - 100 70 - 100 15 - 54 25 - 80 55 - 100 5 - 40 5 - 48 5 - 70 0 – 15* 0 – 15* 0 – 15* 0 – 20^ 0 – 20^ 0 – 20^ NA NA NA

It was intended to use the steel mill scale “as received” from the factory without any further screening. Also, it was intended to use the locally available desert sand from near-by sources. This choice would be the most economical for use in concrete mixes when accounting for the costs of transporting and screening. The Specific gravity and absorption of the aggregates were measured using ASTM C127 and ASTM C128. In each case, three representative samples were taken and tested according to the corresponding ASTM. The apparent specific gravity of the coarse sand and steel mill scale was 2.53 and 2.89 and the absorption was 1.1 and 0.11% respectively. The specific gravity of the steel mill scale is higher than that of normal aggregate. Also, the absorption is smaller (< 1 %). These results are acceptable for use in concrete structures, keeping in mind that higher density is expected. Chemical analysis of steel mill scale is shown in Table 2. It is clear that the mill scale has low CaO content indicating that no pozzolanic activity is expected.
Table 1:
Oxides %

Chemical analysis of the mill scale used in the study
Fe2O3 94.61 MnO 1.03 TiO2 0.014 SiO2 1.37 MgO 0.028 CaO 0.111 Na2O 0.013 Al2O3 0.099

Compressive Strength The compressive strength development of all the six mixtures is shown in Figure 3. These Results showed the compressive strength of the mortar specimens for all ages increased as the percentage of

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sand replacement by steel mill scale increased till reaching the 40% level. Then the compressive strength decreases. Overall the steel mill scale introduction gave an increase in strength.
Figure 3: Influence of Mill Scale on Compressive Strength
45 40 35 Compressive Strength MPa 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 50 70 100 Steel Mill Scale Content % 3 days 7 days 28 days

Flexural Strength The results in Table 2 indicate that the flexural strength increases in a similar manner to compressive strength when replacing sand by steel mill scale. The optimum value being around the 40% level of replacement.
Table 2: Flexuaral Strength at 28 days
0 6.60 20 7.05 40 7.26 50 6.92 70 6.90 100 6.53

Mill Scale % Flexural Strength MPa

Drying Shrinkage The results in Figure 4 show decrease in drying shrinkage with the increase in the level of replacement of sand by steel mill scale. The control mixture giving the highest value of drying shrinkage and followed by the steel mill mixtures according to their level of replacement. This can be attributed to the denser matrix produced and the less amount on absorbed water.

Recycling Steel Mill Scale as Fine Aggregate in Cement Mortars
Figure 4: Influence of Mill Scale on Drying Shrinkage
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Time (days) 0% 40% 50% 70%

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Conclusions
The main conclusions are: 1. The steel industry in Kuwait has a huge amount of solid waste that need to be dealt with. 2. Replacing 40% of sand with steel mill scale gave the highest increase in compressive strength. 3. Replacing 40% of sand with steel mill scale also increased flexural strength. 4. Drying shrinkage is lower when using steel mill scale. 5. Attention should be given to further research on the influence on concrete durability. 6. Future research work will include other waste forms and applications in construction.

Acknowledgment
The author wishes to thank the United Steel Company for their support and assistance throughout this research work which is continuing of means for utilising different wastes of the steel industry in construction in Kuwait.

Drying Shrinkage (microstrain)

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Adams, C.J. (1979) "Recycling Of Steel Plant Waste Oxides - A Review" CANMET Report (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) Issue 79-34. p. 11. Alizadeh R., Chini M., Ghods P., Hoseini M., Montazer Sh., M. Shekarchi M. (1996) “Utilization of electric arc furnace slag as aggregates in Concrete” Environmental Issue, CMI report Tehran. 1996. Asi I., Qasrawi H. and Shalabi F., 2005 “use of steel slag in engineering projects”, Progress Report No. 1 submitted to United Iron and Steel Manufacturing Company. ASTM C127-07 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate ASTM C127-07 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate ASTM C128-07a Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate ASTM C136-06 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. ASTM C150-07 Standard Specification for Portland Cement ASTM C33-07 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates BS 812-120:1989 Testing aggregates. Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete BS EN 12390-3:2002 Testing hardened concrete. Compressive strength of test specimens BS EN 12390-5:2000 Testing hardened concrete. Flexural strength of test specimens. BS EN 12620:2002 Aggregates for concrete Daiga, V.R., Horne, D.A., Thornton, J.A. (2002) " Steel mill waste processing on a rotary hearth furnace to recover valuable iron units" Proceedings - Ironmaking Conference, pp. 655-665. Geiseler, J. (1999) “Slag-approved material for better future, Proceeding of International Symposium on the Utilization of Metallurgical Slag (ISUS 99),Beijing,China. Kamal, M., Gailan, A. H., Haatan, A., Hameed, H. (2002), “Aggregate made from industrial unprocessed slag” Proceeding of the 6th. International Conference on Concrete Technology for Developing Countries, Amman, Jordan. Manso J., Gonzalez J and Polanco J. “Electric furnaceslag in concrete” (2004), Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, November/Decembrt, pp639-645. Maslehuddin M., Alfarabi M., Shammem M., Ibrahim M. and Barry M. (2003),“Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes”, Construction and Building Materials,, Vol.17, pp 105-112 Neville A. and Brooks J. (2002), "Concrete Technology", 2nd edition, Longman, UK. Neville A. M. (1996), "Properties of Concrete", 4th. edition, Longman, UK. Portland Cement Association (2005), "Iron And Steel Byproducts" Portland Cement Association Sustainable Manufacturing Fact Sheet. Pradip, D. Vaidyanathan, P. C. Kapur and B. N. Singh, (1990), "Production and properties of alinite cements from steel plant wastes", Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 20, Issue 1, January, Pages 15-24. Shekarchi M., Soltani M,. Alizadeh R., Chini M, Ghods P., Hoseini M., Sh. Montazer Sh.(2004) “Study of the mechanical properties of heavyweight preplaced aggregate concrete using electric arc furnace slag as aggregate” International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology Malaysia. Shekarchi, M., Alizadeh, R. Chini, M., Ghods, P. Hoseini, M. and Montazer, S. (2003), “Study on electric arc furnace slag properties to be used as aggregates in concrete,” CANMET/ACI International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology, Bucharest, Romania. Young; Rom D. and Norris; David, (2004) " Process for using mill scale in cement clinker production", US Patent No. 6709510.

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