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D liu cho trc : Cng sut ca thp chng ct :Qv = 6,5 triu tn/nm

= 21666,67 tn/ngy (Nh my hot ng 300 ngy mt nm )


Gi s :
-

Thp chng ct kh quyn c 50 a


Sn phm nh: Kh + naptha
Kerosen ly ra a 15
LGO ly ra a 25

HGO ly ra a 40
Vng stripping y thp c 5 a
p sut ti nh: 1,5 atm, tn tht p sut trn tng a l 8
mmHg
Nguyn liu u vo l du th Bch H.
* Yu cu tnh ton:
Tnh nhit , lu lng Q ti cc vng ca thp
-

Tnh ton cu trc thp

Thit k bn v PFD cho phn xng CDU

Xy dng bn v P&ID cho mt thit b

A. TNH NHIT , LU LNG THP


CHNG CT KH QUYN
Bng A.1. c trng du th Bch H

STT
TINH CHT C BAN CUA DU TH
1 Ty trong, 0API
Ty trong, d6060 0F
Khi lng ring 150C, g/ml
2 Ham lng khi (C1-C4) hoa tan trong du, %KL
3 Ham lng lu huynh, %KL
4 im chay, 0C
5 Hng s c trng K UOP
6 nht ng hoc 500C, cSt
700C, cSt
7 Trong lng phn t
8 Ham lng parafin, %KL
9 Ham lng nc, %TT
10 Ham lng tro, %KL
11 Ham lng Nit, %KL
12 Ap sut hi bao hoa Reid, psi
13 Ham lng tap cht c hoc, %KL
14 Chi s axit, mgKOH/g
15 Cok Conradson, %KL
16 Ham lng mui NaCl, mg/kg
17 Ham lng nha, %KL
18 Ham lng Asphanten, %KL
19 Ham lng Vanadi, ppm
20 Ham lng Nicken, ppm
21 Nhit lng chay trn, kCal/kg
22 Tng thanh phn chng ct ASTM D2892 n:
2000C, %KL
3500C, %KL
5000C, %KL

KQ PHN TICH
40,2
0,8241
0,8236
0,041
36
12,39
5,286
3,434
240,5
27,23
0,20
0,014
0,032
3,79
0,005
0,037
0,82
51,32
1,88
0,50
<1
1,05
10973

20,11
49,19
78,25

S liu ly t trang Web: Congnghedaukhi.com

T d liu ca du th Bch H ta v cc th sau:

600

500

oC

400

300

n h i t

200

100

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

%V

Hnh 1: ng cong TBP ca du th Bch H

0 ,9

0 ,8

0 ,7

0 ,6

0 ,5

0 ,4

0 ,3

0 ,2

0 ,1

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

%V

Hnh 2: th biu din mi quan h: t trng -%V ca du th Bch H

600

0 ,9
500
0 ,8

0 ,7
400

300

0 ,5

0 ,6

0 ,4
200
0 ,3

0 ,2
100
0 ,1

0
0

20

40

60

80

0
100

%V

Hnh 3: Cc ng c trng ca du th

Cn c vo ng TBP chia du th thnh 5 phn on sau bng thp chng ct


kh quyn:
- Phn on kh
- Phn on Naphta
- Phn on kerosen
- Phn on LGO
- Phn on HGO
- Phn on AR

4,5%
17,5%
6,8%
15,2%
11,0%
45,0%

Phn t lng trung bnh ca du m v sn phm c th tm c nh


Hnh 3.13[1] vi KUOP = 12,39
Chng ta s dng hi nc stripping cn AR, cc phn on sn ly ra t nh
thp. Ton b hi nc dng stripping b ngng t thit b lm lnh dng hi bay
ra t nh thp chng ct v chy ra ngoi y t bnh hi lu.
Chng ta dng hi nc qu nhit 220oC, p sut 3atm. Entanpy cua hi nc cho
Hnh 3.14 [1] .Lng hi nc cn dng c tm theo Hnh 3.15 [1] .
Bng 1 c trng cc phn on nh sau:
( coi t khi bng khi lng ring )
Phn
%V
Th tch
T khi
Khi lng Phn
S
3
on
t
kmol/h
[m /h]
d
[tn/h]
lng
Kh
4,5
49,42
0,58
64
447,89
28,665
Naphta
17,5
192,2
0,736
138
1025,05
141,457
Kerosen
6,8
74,7
0,778
170
341,78
58,103
LGO
15,2
166,9
0,802
225
595,04
133,884
HGO
11
120,8
0,815
280
351,64
98,460
55
604,0
0,762
188
2448,33

460,286
AR
45
494,2
0,895
470
941,48
442,494
Du th
100
1098,3
0,823
240,5 3753,76
902,78

I, TNH TON NHIT VNG NP LIU Y THP:


I.1: S vng np liu y thp :

Hnh I.1: S dng vng np liu y thp


- Va: dng hi bay ln t du th
- La: dng lng chy xung t du th
- Vo: dng hi sinh ra nh stripping
- Lo: dng hi lu lng
- Wo: dng hi nc stripping y thp,
Theo iu kin tm thy bng 1v hnh I.1 ta c 2 phng trnh sau:
- Tng cc phn on gm GO v nh hn :
Va + Vo Lo = 55
- Phn on AR :
La + Lo Vo = 4 5
Trong cc s hng u dc tnh bng phn trm th tch so vi du th . Cn
Va + L a = 100
rm nhit ti a np liu ta phi da vo ng bay hi flash ca du
ti vng . Nhit ti a Ta s l nhit ng vi bay hi Va % trn ng
flash . Mun th cn tnh Va v p sut hi ring phn ca du ti a np liu,
tc p sut gy ra bi dng hi (Va + Vo) .Nh vy cn bit lu lng Va ,Vo
Wo. y l mt bi ton kh khn , ch c gii da vo nhng s liu rt ra t
kinh nghim ca cc nh vn hnh.

c trng phn on AR
600

0,92

0,91
500
0,9
400

0,89

0,88
300
0,87

200

0,86
0,85

100
0,84

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

0,83
120

%V

I.2 Lu lng cc dng


Kinh nghim ch ra rng cn lm bay hi 3 -5 % th tch (so vi du
th) bng cch stripping lng y thp. Theo H3.15 [1] th stripping 3% AR
(6,6% du th) cn dng 1,2 lb hi nc cho 1 gallon AR, tc khong 0.14 kg
hi nc cho 1lt AR. Vy lng hi nc cn dng stripping l :
Wo =494,2.0,14.103 = 69188(kg/h) = 3843,78(kmol/h)
Thng thng phi lm bay hi 1 lng du th vt qu tng lng
cc phn on distillat (cc phn on ly ra pha trn a np liu) mt
lng 3 5%. Ta dng Vo = 3%; gi s Lo = 6%. Theo h phng trnh lp ra
I.1 ta c:
55 = Va + 3 - 6 = Va 3
45 = La + 6 3 = La + 3

Va = 5 8 % , La = 4 2 %

I.3 nng cc dng vng np liu :


bit c lu lng mol ca cc dng cn bit nng, y l t khi
ca cc dng nu chng th lng , cng nh phn t lng trung bnh ca cc
dng .
Theo H3.17 [1], t khi Va l 0,775 ;ca dng La l 0,887
Phn t lng ca phn on t 55 -58 % l 322 (theo H3.13 [1]) phn t lng
ca 0% - 55% l 168 .Do phn t lng trung bnh ca Va l :
MVa =

168 .55 + 322 .3


= 176.
58

Khi lng ca dng Va : 0 , 7 7 5 . 5 8 % . 1098,3= 4 9 3 , 6 9 t n / h


L u l n g m o l d n g Va : (4 9 3 , 6 9 .103)/ 176 = 2805 kmol/h
Vic nh gi t khi ca dng V o, Lo c th thc hin bng cch da vo
nhng lun im sau :
- V nguyn liu c np vo vng gn y thp nn thc t thp chng ct hot
ng gn nh khng c vng chng ct. Vng y thp chng ct vi 5 a ng
vai tr l stripping lm tng kh nng phn tch. Trong 2 dng L a v Lo th dng La
cha nhiu hp cht nh hn dng Lo, v La vn l pha lng ca dng du th va
np vo y thp, n nm cn bng Flash vi dng hi Va, cn dng Lo l dng
hi lu lng c trao i cht kh tt vi dng hi trong vng pha trn a
np liu . Vy qu tnh strippinh ch yu l xy ra vi dng La. Bn cht ca dng
Lo thay i khng nhiu trong vng np liu.
- Nh vy mc d nh vy dng Lo vn nng hn dng La v nh hn dng AR
vi d = 0,895
0,880< dLo < 0,895
Ly t khi ca dng Lo l 0,892 nh vy theo H I.1 ta c phng trnh cn bng
khi lng m :
mAR = mLa+ mLo mVo
thay s ta c :
442,494= 42%.1098,3.0,887 + 6%.1098,3.0,892 3%.1098,3. Vo
Vo = 0,773 tn/m3 , nn t khi ca Vo= 0,773. t bng 3.13[1] th phn t
lng trung bnh va Vo = 168
Lu lng mol dng Vo l : 3%.0,773.1098,3/168=151,6 kmol/h
I.4 :Nhit ti a np liu :
Nu ta coi t trng bng khi lng ring thi ta v c ng c trng TBP ca
phn on cn nh sau :
p sut ti a np liu Pa : 1,5.760 + 50.8 =1540 mmHg
p sut hi ring phn ca du ti a np liu Pa :
Va +Vo

2805 +151,6

Pa = (Va +Vo ) +Wo Pa = 2805 +151,6 + 3843,78 .1540=669,5 mmHg


Nh vy phi v ng flash 669,5 mmHg ly T 58 trn ng . chnh l
nhit ti a np liu Ta. Trc ht cn c vo TBP v ng flash ta lm
nh sau :

Theo hnh 3.11[2] ta c : B =

A= 3,5 (oC/%)

T 70 T 10
438 112
=
= 5,43(oC/%)
60
60

T50 = T50DRL T50FRL = 24 ,

M T50DRL = 335 oC nn T 50FRL = 311oC ,


Nh vy ta v c ng flash ti 760mmHg.
Sau tnh tin n v pha di mt on ng vi 13oC ta s c ng flash ti
o
669,5 mmHg .Ly T58 trn ng ny ta c Ta = 350 C
I.5 : Nhit ti y thp :
Phng php tnh nhit y thp chng ct da trn cn bng nhit hay cn
gi l da trn cn bng entalpy ca vng np liu- y thp. Tng entalpy dng
vo phi bng tng entalpy cc dng ra khi vng ang xt.
S liu Entalpy ca du ly trang 83[2] , entalpy ca nc ly hnh 3.14[1] s
liu xut pht tm entalpy cho bng sau :
Bng 2 : S liu lin quan n vng y thp
Dng

Nhit
[oC]

Th tch
[m3/h]

Khi lng
[kg/h]

Vo
La (lng)
Lo (lng)
Wo

350
350
220

Ra
AR
Vo
Wo

Td
350
350

Entalpy

0,887
0,892

461,3
65,9

409,2.103
58,8.103
69188

215
214
715

87978.103
12583,2.103
49469,4.103

0,894
0,773

494,2
32,95

442494
25470
69188

x
255
765

442494.x
6494,85.103
52,93.106

Kcal/kg Kcal/h

Ev = Er : 87978.103 +12583,2.103+49469,4.103
= 442494.x+6494,85.103+52,93.106
x=205
Cn c vo biu trang 83[2] ta c T= 335 oC
II : TNH TON VNG A LY HGO :
Ta quyt nh stripping 6% so vi HGO ly ra. Theo H3.15 [1] l cn dng
3
35 kg hi nc cho 1 m HGO).

Hnh II.1: S dng HGO


c trng phn on HGO
370

0,845

360
0,84
350
0,835

0,83

330

320
0,825
310
0,82
300

290

0,815
0

20

40

60

80

%V

Do vy tng lng hi nc cn dng l:

100

120

340

W1= 35.120,8= 4228 kg/h hay 234,9 kmol/h


Trong s Hnh II.1 th
V1(tng cc phn on hi)= 49,42+192,2+74,7+166,9+ 120,8 =604,0 m3/h
S1(dng hi b stripping t dng lng): S1= L1 L1
C th coi S1 c t khi bng t khi ca phn on gn n nht (LGO) d=0,802 ,
S1 =

6 100
.
.120,8 = 7,71 m3/h hay 6183,4 kg/h
100 94

Cc s liu v dng hi lu R1 ti a ly HGO c xc nh da trn cn bng


khi lng cc dng u vo v ra khi thp stripping :
120,8.0,815 +0,802.7,71 =(120,8+7,71). L1
L1 = 0,8142
khi lng ca L1= (120,8+7,71).0,8142 = 103981,5 kg/h
Theo phng php tnh trn cn bng nhit ta tnh c cc s liu bng sau:
Bng 3: S liu lin quan ti vng HGO
(Nhit gi nh T1 = 300 oC)
Dng
Nhit
d
Th Khi lng
Entalpy
o
tch
[ C]
[kg/h]
kcal/kg kcal/h
3
[m /h]
Vo
493675
128,35.106
Va (hi)
350
0,775
637
260
26426
6,738.106
Vo (hi)
350
0,802 32,95
255
R1
226.R1
R1(lng)
296
0,8142
180
69188
53,27.106
Wo
350
770
Ra
V1(hi)
Lo(lng)
R1 (hi)
Wo

300
350
300
300

0,762
0,892
0,8142

604,0
65,9

460248
58783
R1
69188

Ev = Er
R1 = 275320 kg/h
Lu lng mol ca L1 = 351,64 kmol/h
Lu lng mol dng S1= 7,71.0,802.103/225=27,48 kmol/h
Phn t lng dng L1 =

103981,5 .
351 ,64 + 27 ,48

=274

Lu lng mol dng R1=275320/274=1004,8 kmol/h


Tng s mol hi qua a ly HGO l :

240
220
230
740

110,46.106
12,93.106
230R1
51,2.106

n(V1+R1+Wo)= 2448,33+1004,8+3843,78
= 7298,92 kmol/h
S mol hi HGO ti a ly HGO l:
n(R1+L1) =1004,8 +351,64 =1356,44 kmol/h
p sut hi P ca HGO :
P = 1,5.760+40.8=1460 mmHg
p sut hi ring phn P ca HGO :
1

P =
1

1356 ,44
1460
7298 ,92

= 271mmHg

Nh vy phi v ng flash ca HGO 271mmHg ri tnh tin xung pha di


35oC theo trang 72 [2]

V ng flash ti 271mmHg
Ta c : B=

T 70 T 10
343 306
=
=0,62(oC/%)
60
60

A=0,1(oC/%) , C 0
M T50DRL =335 TFRL= 333
Tnh tin xung di 35oC ta c Tflash 271mmHg l 298oC , nhit gi nh
l chp nhn c . Vy nhit ly HGO l 298oC.
III, TNH NHIT TI A LY LGO :
S dng nh hnh sau :

S III.1 :S dngLGO

c trng phn on LGO


350

0,82

300

0,815

250
0,81

0,805

200

150
0,8
100

0,795

50

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

0,79
120

%V

Vn stripping 6% so vi LGO ly ra vy lng nc W2 cn dng l :


W2= 35.166,9=5841,5 kg/h hay 324,53 kmol/h .
Nhit gi nh l 240oC
Trong s III.1 th :
V2 (tng phn on hi t a LGO tr ln)=49,42+192,2+74,7+166,9
= 483,22 m3/h
Khi lng ring ca V2=( 4,5.0,58+17,5.0,736+6,8.0,778+15,2.0,802)/44
=0,749 .
Ta c th coi S2 c t khi bng t khi ca kerosen bng 0,778
S2 =

6 100
.
.166,9=10,65 m3/h hay 8285,7kg/h
100 94

Cc s liu v dng hi lu ni R2 ti a ly LGO tm c bng cch da vo cn


bng khi lng cc dng du vo va ra thp stripping :
166,9.0,802 + 10,65 .0,778 =(166,9+10,65) L2
L2 = 0,800
Theo khi lng ring ca L2 = 0,800. vy t khi ca dng R2= 0,800
Khi lng dng L2 = 142040 kg/h
Bng 4: S liu lin quan ti vng LGO

Dng

Nhit

[oC]

298
298
298
240
298

0,762
0,814
2
0,802
0,800

Vo
V1(hi)
R1(hi)
S1(hi)
R2(hi)
Wo+W1
Ra
V2(hi)
R1+L1(lng
)
R2 (hi)
Wo + W1

240
298
240
240

Th
tch
[m3/h]

Khi
lng
[kg/h]

604,0

460286
275320
6183,4
R2
73416

7,71

0,749
0,814
2
0,800

361931,8
379301,5
R2
73416

Entalpy
Kcal/kg Kcal/h
238
228
229
140
738

198
180
190
705

109,55.106
62,77.106
1,416.106
140.R2
54,18.106
71,66.106
68,27.106
190R2
51,76.106

Theo cn bng Entalpy ta c :


Ev = Er
R2= 724520 kg/h
Lu lng mol dng lng L2 :595,04 kmol/h
Lu lng mol dng S2 : 8285,7/170 = 48,74 kmol/h
Phn t lng dng L2: 142040/(595,04+48,74) = 221.
Lu lng mol dng R2: 724520/221=3278,4 kmol/h .
Tng s mol qua a ly LGO :
n = nV2 + nR2 + n(Wo + W1) = 2409,76 + 3278,4+4078,7 =9766,86 kmol/h
Tng s mol hi qua a ly LGO :
n = nR2 + nL2 = 3278,4 + 595,04 =3873,44 kmol/h
p sut ti a ly LGO l :
P2= 1,5.760 + 25.8 = 1340 mmHg
p sut hi ring phn ca a ly LGO:
P2 =

9766 ,86
3873 ,44

.1340= 515 mmHg

Nh vy ta cn v ng flash ca LGO 515mmHg .


V ng flash ca LGO ti 760mmHg.
T hnh v c trng phn on LGO ta c :
B=

T 70 T 10
285 246
=
= 0,65 (oC/%)
60
60

A= 0,12(oC/%) ,C 0
M T50DRL = 265 TFRL= 260.
Tnh tin xng di 20 oC ta c Tflash = 240 oC
Vy gi nh l chnh xc .Nhit ti a ly LGO l 240oC.

IV. TNH NHIT TI A LY KEROSEN :

S dng vng Kerosen


c trng phn on karosen
300

0,8

0,795

250

0,79
200

150

0,785

0,78

100
0,775

50

0,77

0,765
0

20

40

60
%V

80

100

120

Trong hnh trn ta ly stripping 5%. Lng hi nc W3 cn dng l :


W3= 38.74,7=2838,6 kg/h hay 157,7 kmol/h
Nhit gi nh l 200oC
V3 l tng phn on hi bay qua a ly Kerosen, ngha l:
V3 =49,42+192,2+74,7= 316,32 m3/h
V c t trng l :
dV3=

( 4,5.0,58 +17,5.0,736
28,8

+ 6,8.0,778)

=0,722

S3 c t khi coi bng t khi ca Naphta ,v bng 0,736


S3=

5
74 ,7 = 3,93 m3/h hay 2893,64 kg/h
95

Cc s liu dng hi lu ni R3 c th tm c nh cn bng khi lng vo v ra


thp stripping : 3,93.0,722 + 74,7.0,778= (3,93+74,7) L3
L3= 0,775.
Vy t khi ca dng R3 =0,775 khi lng dng L3 = 60,94 kg/h
Bng 5: s liu lin quan ti vng Kerosen
Dng

Vo
V2(hi)
R2 (hi)
S2(hi)
R3 (lng)
Wo+W1+W2
Ra
V3 (hi)
R2+L 2(lng)
R3 (hi)
Wo+W1+W2

Nhit
[oC]

240
240
240
200
240
200
240
200
200

0,749
0,800
0,778
0,775

0,722
0,800
0,775

Th tch
[m3/h]

483,22
10,65

316,32

Khi lng
[kg/h]
361931,8
724520
R3
79257,5

228383
823560
R3
79257,5

Theo cn bng Entalpy ta c :


Ev = Er
R3= 821724.14 kg/h
Lu lng mol L3 =341,78 kmol/h
Lu lng mol dng S3: 2893,64 /138 = 20,97 kmol/h
Phn t lng dng L3= 60,94 /(341,78 +20,97 ) = 168
Lu lng mol dng R3 : 821724.14 /168=4891,22 kmol/h
p sut ring phn ca hi kerosen P3

Entalpy
Kcal/kg Kcal/h
198
190
195
112
705
180
140
170
685

71,66.106
129,49.106
1,62.106
112R3
55,88.106
41,1.106
115,3.106
170R3
54,29.106

P3 =

4891,22 + 341,78
4891,22 +1814,72 + 79257,5/18

(1,5.760 +15 .8) =

581 mmHg

Tng t nh i vi phn on HGO,v LGO ta v ng flash 760mmHg ri


tnh tin xung 15oC . Ta c ng flash ti 581 mmHg .Nhit To trn ng
flash tm c l 198oC . Nhit gi nh l chp nhn c. Vy nhit a ly
Kerosen l 200oC
V.TNH NHIT TI NH THP CHNG CT

S dng vng nh thp


Trong hnh trn ta vn stripping 5 % , lng hi nuc cn stripping l :
W4= 42.192,2= 8072,4 kg/h hay 448,47kmol/h
Nhit gi nh l 120oC.
V4 l tng phn on hi i qua a ly naptha
V4= 49,42+192,2= 241,62 m3/h v c khi lng l :
mV4 = 170,122 tn/h v t khi dV4= (4,5.0,58+17,5.0,736)/22=0,704.
Cch tm nhit ti nh thp cng dc thc hin bng cch gi nh . sau
kim tra li xem gi nh c chp nhn c khng. Vic kim tra c thc
hin bng cch thit lp ng flah ca sn phm nh ,sau ly T100 trn ng
flash .
Gi s chng ta lm vic vi dng hi lu lnh L c nhit l 30oC.ML = 130
Dng L tip xc vi dng hi ang bay ln lm ngng t mt lng lng R4. R4
ng vai tr l hi lu nng trong nh thp.
Dng hi nc W3 = 42.74,7=3137,4 kg/h
Dng S3 : S3=

5
74 ,7 = 3,93 m3/h hay 2893,64 kg/h
95

Dng L3 = 58103+2893,64= 60996,64kg/h

c trng phn on Naphta


250

0,9

0,8
200

0,7

0,6
150

0,5

0,4
100
0,3

0,2

50

0,1

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

%V

Ta c bng s liu sau:


Bng 6: S liu lin quan ti vng nh thp
Dng

Vo
V3(hi)
R3 (hi)
S3 (hi)
L(lng)
W0 3
Ra
V4 (hi)
R3+ L3(lng)
L (hi)
W0 3

Nhit
[oC]

200
200
200
30
200

120
200
120
120

0,722
0,775
0,704
0,736

0,704
0,775
0,736

Th tch
[m3/h]

316,32

241,62

Khi lng
[kg/h]

228383
821724.14
2893,64
L
82394.9

170122
882720,78
L
82394.9

Entalpy
Kcal/kg Kcal/h
180
170
173
15
685

140
112
138
644

41,1.106
139,69.106
0,5.106
15L
54,29.106

23,82.106
98,86.106
138L
53,06.106

Theo cn bng Entalpy ta c :


Ev = Er
L= 486504 kg/h hay 3742.3 kmol/h
p sut hi ring phn ca HC nh thp :
P4 =

3742,3 + 447,89+ 1025,05


1,5.760= 607 mmHg
3742,3 + 447,89+ 1025,05+ 82394.9/18

V ng flash ti 760mmHg ri suy ra ng flash ti 607mmHg


V ng flafh ca phn on nh ,ri tnh tin 12oC ta c T100 ca n l
119oC .sai khc 1 oC nn c th chp nhn c nhit si nh thp l 120oC .
C th tnh dng hi luuw nng ti nh thp nh phng trnh :
R4(138-65) = L(138-15) = 486504(138-15)
R4= 819725,92 kg/h
VI.XC NH PHN TCH CA PHP CHNG CT DU TH:
Bng 7: Tm phn tch gia cc phn on
i lng

LGO HGO

Kerosen- LGO

Naphta - kerosen

S a Ni
Dng hi lu ni Ri,
[m3/h]
Dng hi ly ra Vi,
[m3/h]
di hi lu= Ri/ Vi
F= Nihi
T50,TBP phn on nng
T50,TBP , phn on nh
T50,TBP
phn tch

15
R2= 724,52/0,8
= 905,65.

10
R3=821,7/0,775
= 1060,29

15
R4=819,726/0,73
6=1113,76

V2= 483,22
1,874
28,11
335
195
140
+25

V3= 316,32
3,352
33,52
265
150
115
+20

V4= 241,62
4,610
69,15
202
140
62
+10

Gi tr phn tch ly c nh biu Hnh 3.3[1]


Kt qu cho thy php chng ct tt, cc phn on t ln vo nhau.
VII.HI LU VNG :
Phng php hi lu vng ngi ta trch mt phn dng lng ti a no em ra
ngoi lm lnh ,ri bm tr v thp chng ct v tr cao hn vi ba a.
Hi lu vng l mt bin php c s dng rt ph bin trong chng ct ti cc
nh my lc ha du.
Trc khi hi lu: (c biu din bi cc mi tn lin nt )
Lu lng hi ti a ly phn on sn l: Ri + Vi
Lu lng lng ti i ly phn on sn l: Ri + Li
1. Ti a ly HGO :
R1 + L1 = 379301,5 kg/h

R1 + V1 = 460286+275320 = 735606 kg/h


2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Ti a ly LGO:
R2 + L2 = 823560 kg/h
R2 + V2 =361931,8+681520 =104345,18 kg/h
Ti a ly kerosen:
R3 + L3 = 882720,78 kg/h
R3 + V3=228383+821724.14= 1050107 kg/h
Ti nh thp:
R4 = 81972=5,92 kg/h
R4 + V4 =819725,92 + 170122=989848 kg/h
L + V4 = 486504+ 170122= 656626 kg/h
Ti a np liu:
Lo + La = 409,2.103 +58,8.103 = 468000 kg/h
Vo + Va = 25470+4 9 3 6 9 0 = 5 1 9 1 6 0 kg/h

Ti y thp :
AR = 442494 kg/h
Ly hi lu vng ti v tr a ly HGO:
Gi s ta ly 200 tn/ h t a ly HGO thc hin hi lu vng ,lng nhit
cn ly bi dng du th ti thit b trao it nhit l :
200000.(180- 110)= 14.106 kcal/h
y 112 l Entalphy ca dng lng ti 170oC.
Lu lng ca cc dng trong thp thay i nh sau:
- Dng hi lu lnh L:
L= L - 14.106/ (138- 15)= 476504 14.106 (138- 15)=412617,4 kg/h
- Dng hi ra khi nh thp chng ct :
L+V4=412617,4 +170122=582739,4 kg/h
- Dng hi lu nng R4:
R4 = R4- 14.106/ (138-60 ) = 819725,92 179487,2= 640265,74 kg/h
- Dng bay ln a trn cng :
R4+V4 = 640265,74 +170122= 810387,7 kg/h
- Dng hi lu nng :
R3 = R3 - 14.106/ (170- 110) = 821724.14 233333,3 = 588390,8 kg/h
- Dng hi lu nng chy vo a ly Kerosen
R3 +L3= 588390,8 +60996,64=649387,44 kg/h
- Dng hi bay ln t a kerosen:
R3 + V3= 588390,8 +228383= 816773,8 kg/h
- Dng hi lu R2:
R2= R2 - 14.106/ (190 100)= 724520 -15555=468964 kg/h
- Dng hi lu nng chy vo a ly LGO
R2 + L2 =468964 +142040= 611004 kg/h

- Dng hi nay ln t a LGO:


R2+V2= 468964 + 361931,8=8300895,8 kg/h
- Dng hi lu nng chy vo a HGO :
(R1+L1)+200000=379301,5 +200000= 579301,5 kg/h
Cc gi tr thu c biu din bi mi tn t nt
B.TNH TON CC THNG S CA THP CHNG CT KH QUYN:
T tnh ton phn A ta thy lu lng cc dng vng Kerosen l ln nht .Ta c
th ly s liu vng ny tnh ton .
Theo kt qu ca phn A ta c cc d liu sau:
Khi lng dng lng : 649387,44 kg/h
Khi lng ring dng lng : 775 kg/m3 20oC
Lu lng th tch dng lng: 649387,44.106/(775.3600 )=232755,4
cm3/s 20oC.
Khi lng dng hi: R3 + V3+ W0+W1+W2 =816773,8 + 79257,5= 896031,3 kg/h
Phn t lng trung bnh R3 tm coi bng 170
Phn t lng trung bnh hi bng :
M

896031,3
588390,8 /170 +1814 ,72 + 79257,5/18

=92,5

Khi lng ring dng hi 200oC , 1260 mmHg

1260 .92 ,5
760 .0,082 ( 200 + 273 )
v=

3,95 kg/m3

Lu lng th tch dng hi 200oC , 1260 mmHg :


Qv= 896031,3/3,95=226613,9 m3/h hay = 62,95.106 cm3/s
Khi lng ring dng lng 200oC c th c tnh theo cng thc (4-10)[1]
L = o a(t-20)
Trong :
o: khi lng ring dng lng 20 oC (kg/m3)
o
t: nhit , C
a: h s ph thuc o. Theo bng 4/5 [1] a= 0,83
L = 775 0,83(200-20)= 625,6 kg/m3

Nn lu lng th tch 200oC l :


QL=649387,44.106 /625,6.3600=288339,8 cm3/s
I.TNH NG KNH A :
Lu lng a kh ln nn bi th ta chn a c ng knh ngoi ln ,chn a s
6 trong bng 4/2 [1]. Khong cch l gia hai a c la chn l 0,37 ln ng
knh ngoi chp, bng 0,37.15,48= 5,73cm
Theo cng thc (4-6)[1] ta c

v
qv=30,12 L
v

1/ 2

A a2

H a1 + a 2

a a2 3 / 2
1 + 0,4 1
H 3

a2

Trong :
A: tng din tch cc khe trn 1 chp, A = 93,61 (cm3)
H: chiu cao khe chp, H = 3,81 (cm)
3
L, V: khi lng ring dngv kh, kg/m a1, a2: chiu rng y khe, nh khe chp a1
= 0,84cm, a2 = 0,42cm
Thay s ta c :
1/ 2

qvmax=

625 ,6 3,95

30,12
3,95

0,42

0,84 0,42
.93,61.3,811/2
0
,
42

. 0,84 + 0,42 1 + 0,4

=32204,1 cm /s
Nu chn m khe chp h3/H = 0,9 th theo cng thc (4-7) [1], lu lng hi qua
1 chp l :
a 2 + 0,4(a1 a 2)h3 / H h3 3 / 2
qv =
. .qvmax
a 2 + 0,4(a1 a 2)
H
0,42 + 0,4(0,84 0,42 )0,9
= 0,42 + 0,4(0,84 0,42 ) 0,9 3/2.32204,1 =

26710,7 cm3/s

S chp trn mt a :
Qv
qv

62,95.10
26710,7

=2357 chp

Tng tit din cc khe chp


2357 93,61= 220610 cm2
Vi s lng chp rt ln nh trn th a t nht cng phi l loi 2 dng. Khi ,
dng chy ca pha lng 2 a lin tip s khng ging nhau (do khc nhau bi
di b chn ng chy chuyn). iu ny dn ti s khc bit v din tch vng m
gia 2 a .V th m bo l trnh dng lng vng m lun ln, ta cn
tng vng ln so vi a 1 dng. Ni cch khc, t l din tch vng cha chp
s b i.
Cn c vo bng 4/4 [1] ta chn phn trm cc vng theo din tch iac l

Vng kt ni : 4%

Vng m :10%

Vng ng chy chuyn :16%

Vng cha cc chp : 70%


Din tch vng chc cc chp, theo bng 4/3[1] l :
220610/0,24= 919208 cm2
Din tch a : A =919208/0,7=1313154,7 cm2

ng knh a: D= 2.

= 1293,4 cm

Ch l nu dng chp b hn th a s b hn
C th tinhd ng knh a bng cng thc (4-9)[1] vi khong cch gia cc a
l 60cm sc cng b mt l 20dyn/cm.
D=

4m v

K v v ( L v )

4.896031,3
0,84 .3,14 .196

3,92 (625 ,6 3,92 )

=11,85m

=1185cm
II. S SP XP MT A :
phn trc ta chn loi chp s 6 cho thp. Khi chiu cao lp lng trn a
phi vo khong > 10 cm (ln hn chiu cao chp l 9,52 cm).
Nu dng a 1 dng: Vi tit din ng chy chuyn bng 8% din tch a th
di b chn L ca ng chy chuyn l 68% D hay 879,5cm .
T s QL/L= 288339,8 /879,5= 327,85 cm2/s
Theo biu H 4.19[1] th gradien mt lng i ng vi1dy chp khong10 mm.
Khi l/d = 0,37 th s chp ti a trn 1 dy l
D
1,37 d

1293 ,4
1,37 .15 ,48

= 61 chp

S dy chp l: 2357 /61= 39 dy


Vy gradien mt lng = 39 i = 39.10 =390 >>25cm .
Kt qu tnh s b cho thy phi dng a 2 dng.

B tr chp;
Trn mt a, cc chp c sp xp theo
quy lut tam gic u nh hnh bn.
Nu la chn a 2 dng 1 bc :
Phn trc ta chn a c 16 % din
tch l ng chy chuyn. Trong ng
chy chuyn gia chim 8%; 2 ng chy
chuyn 2 bn mi ng 4% .Theo biu
H 4.30 [1] th chiu di b chn ng chy
chuyn bn l : 52% D hay 672,6 cm .
ng chychuyn gia chim 8% din tch
a hay 96972 cm2 . Do b rng ng
chy chuyn khong 75cm .

Mt a nhn t trn xung


mi bc c 1179 chp c xp thnh 19 hay 20 dy khi dng chy t 2 bn
vo gia. Cn khi dng chy t gia ra 2 bn th s dy c th nhiu hn, l trnh
dng lng qua vng m s ln hn.
dy trung bnh h ca lp lng trn a ch c th nh gi 1 cch gn ng :

h = h5 + h6 +

h5: chnh gia mt cht lng trn b chn ng chy chuyn vi mt b chn .
Theo cng thc (4-15)[1] ta c :
Q
h5 = 0,15 L
L

3/ 2

F0

H s Fo c tra theo biu H 4.23 [1].


Vi

288339,8
QL
= 672,6 2,5
2,5
L

=0,0246

L/D=0,68 th F0 =1,04
Thay s ta c :
288339,8
h5=0,15.
672,6

2/3

.1,04= 8,77 cm

Ly h1 = 2,5 cm, theo bng 4/2 [1] th vi chp s 6, chiu cao ng hi : h6 = 8,25
(cm )
= 3cm
h = 8,87+8,25+3=20,12 cm
Khi
Vi h =20,12 cm ,Ql/L= 215 , h1 = 2,5 cm , =0,37 th i =3,8 mm
= 3,8.20=76mm >25mm
Nh vy vic la chn a 2 dng 1 bc khng ph hp .
Ta s dng a 4 dng 1 bc:

Hng dng lng trn mt a

i vi a 4 dng 1 bc, lp lng trn mt a c chia lm 4 vng 1-2, 2-3,


3-4, 4-5. Mi vng c 9 hay 10 dy. Do 2 a lin tip c s ng chy chuyn l
khc nhau nn gradien mt lng cc vng cng khc nhau.
Ta c qui tc sau :
1-2 = 4-5, 2-3 = 3-4
Q2 = Q3 = Q4 = 2Q1 = 2Q5
S2= S3 = S4 = 2S1 = 2S5
S1=2% A L1/D = 0,42 L1 = 543 cm
S2=4% A L2/D = 0,52 L2 = 672 cm
S3=4% A S3= 36768 cm2
Theo hnh 4.30 [1] th ng chy chuyn gia chim 4% din tch a hay bng
36768 cm2 .Do vy b rng ng chy chuyn 28,5 cm
III.TNH CHIU CAO THP:
p dng cng thc tnh chiu cao thp :
H=( N- 2).h + 2a + b
Trong
H: chiu cao thp
N: s a thc t ca thp
h: khong cch gia hai a l 0,8m
a:chiu cao nh thp ti a trn cng (3m)
b:khong cch gia 2 a tip liu (2m)
Thay s ta c : H =(50-2).0,8+2.3+2 = 46m
III.GRADIEN MT LNG :
1.Gradien mt lng quanh a :
Vic tnh gradien mt lng c tnh nh biu 4.19[1]. Vi h5: chnh gia
mt cht lng trn b chn ng chy chuyn vi mt b chn .
Theo cng thc (4-15)[1] ta c :
Q
h5 = 0,15 L
L

3/ 2

F0

H s Fo c tra theo biu H 4.23 [1].


QL
288339,8 /4
Vi 2,5 =
=0,01
543 2,5
L1
L1/D=0,42 F0 = 1,0
Thay s ta c :
288339,8/4
h5=0,15.
543

2/3

.1,0= 3,9cm

Ly h1 = 2,5 cm, theo bng 4/2 [1] th vi chp s 6, chiu cao ng hi : h6 = 8,25
(cm )
V ly = 2,3
Khi : dy trung bnh ca lp lng trn mt a : 3,9+8,25+2,3=14,45 cm
i = 1,8mm

Chng ta cn tnh n nh hng ca dng hi nh hnh 4.20[1]


i lng

uo

62,95.10 6
1313154,7 .0,84

= 3,6

0,00395

Theo hnh 4.20 th h s iu chnh bng 0,96.vy Gradien mt lng ng vi 1 dy


chp l 0,96.1,8=1,73mm , trong vng l 1,73.9= 15,57 mm
2.Gradien mt lng vng trung tm a :
L2= 672cm
L2/D= 0,52
Theo cng thc (4-15)[1] ta c :
Q
h5 = 0,15 L
L

3/ 2

F0

H s Fo c tra theo biu H 4.23 [1].


Vi

QL
288339,8 /4
=
=0,0062
2,5
672 2,5
L2

L1/D=0,42

F0 = 1,015

Thay s ta c :
288339,8/4
672

h5=0,15.

2/3

.1,015= 3,4cm

Ly h1 = 2,5 cm, theo bng 4/2 [1] th vi chp s 6, chiu cao ng hi : h6 = 8,25
(cm )
V ly = 3,2
Khi : dy trung bnh ca lp lng trn mt a : 3,4+8,25+3,2=14,85 cm
i = 1,7mm
Chng ta cn tnh n nh hng ca dng hi nh hnh 4.20[1]
QL 2
62,95.10 6
u

i lng o v = 1313154,7 .0,84 . 0,00395 = 3,6 ,


=107
L2
Theo hnh 4.20 th h s iu chnh bng 0,95.vy Gradien mt lng ng vi 1 dy
chp l 0,95.1,7=1,62mm , trong vng l 1,62.9= 14,54 mm
IV.TNH P SUT A:
H thng ng hi chp cng nh s tn ti ca lp lng trn mt a to ra 1 tr
lc i vi dng hi i qua a .Do p sut pha trn a phi b hn p sut
pha di a, ngha l mi a gy ra 1 gim p sut. Ta gi ngn gn l p sut
a.
p sut a b gy ra bi lp cht lng trn a, bi gim p khi dng hi i qua
h thng ng hi-chp v bi sc cng b mt. Trong nhiu trng hp c th b
qua gim p gy bi sc cng b mt.
gim p gy bi s chui lun ca dng hi qua h thng ng hi-chp ho c th
tnh theo cng thc (4-11) [1]
v
ho = k 0
L v

Qv

Ao

H s ko c gi tr ph thuc t s tit din hnh vnh khn so vi ng hi. Theo


bng 4/2 [1]:
Tit din hnh vnh khn =90,30 (cm2 )
Tit din ng hi = 76,00 (cm2 )
tit din vnh khn/tit din ng hi = 90,30/76,00 = 1,19
Theo H 4.22 [1] th ko = 0,00145
Vy

3,95

62 ,95 .10 6
ho = 0,00145

625 ,6 3,95 76 .2357

= 1,138cm

Theo cng thc (4-13) [1] th gim p hl gy ra bi lp lng hot ng trn a


phi bng chiu cao lp lng t mt lp lng n v tr thp nht khe chp m
dng hi chui qua :
hl = h3 + h4 + h5 + /2 = 0,9H + (h6 h1 h2 H) + h5 + /2
= 0,9.3,81 + (8,25 - 2,5 - 0,65 - 3,81) +3,4 + 3,2/2 = 11,03(cm)
Vy theo (4-14) [1] :
h = ho + hl = 1,138+11,03=12,169 cm
Vy p sut a tnh theo chiu cao ct lng tng ng l 12,169cm
V.NG CHY CHUYN :
1. ng chy chuyn trung tm(3)
Theo H 4.5 v cng thc (4-16) [1] th chiu cao ca lp cht lng trong ng
chy chuyn l: h c = (h6 + h5 + D) + h + hk
hk l gim p gy ra bi s chy ca cht lng t chn ng chy chuyn qua
khe ng chy chuyn trn qua mt a.
Q
C th tnh hk theo cng thc (4-16a) [1] : hk = 1,65 .10 L
Ak
=2

Ak l tit din khe ng chy chuyn , Ak = L.h k


Khe ng chy chuyn phi nh sao cho mp di ca tm chn phi ngp
trong lp lng trn mt a1khong su ngn khng cho dng hi t a
di chui qua ng chy chuyn ln a trn. ng thi khe ng chy chuyn
phi ln tc chy ca dng lng trong ng chy chuyn ra a di l
va phi ,trnh gy hin tng dn .ngp lt .
Nh vy cao khe phi nh hn mc cht lng trn a:
hk' < h = h5 + h6 + = 15 1
Ly hk = 15 cm
Ak = L.h k= .1293,4.15= 19401 cm2
288339 ,8
hk = 1,65 .10 2

19401 .4

= 0,228 cm < 25mm

Vy thay s vo ta c:
h c= 14,85+12,169+0,228= 27,247 cm
Thi gian lu cht lng trong ng trung tm l :

t=

A .0,04 .hc
1313154,7. 0,04.27,24 7
=
= 16,8s
288339,8/4
QL

Tc chy xung ca cht lng trong ng chy chuyn l 27,247/16,8=1,62 cm/s


Kt qur tnh cho thy kch thc ng chy chuyn l hon ton thch hp
2.ng chy chuyn ngoi cng:
Ak= 543.15=8145cm2
2

288339 ,8

1,65.10-2 8.8145

hk =
= 0,32cm
hc =14,85+12,169+0,32=27,39 cm
t=

1313154 ,7.0,02 .27 ,39


288339 ,8 / 8

= 17,7 s

Tc chy xung ca cht lng trong ng chy chuyn l 27,39/17,7=1,54 cm/s.


VI.HIN TNG NGP LT :
Hin tng ngp lt (flooding) l hin tng trn ngp cht lng trong ton b
khng gian gia cc a. Khi b ngp lt, thp chng ct b tc dn ti ngng hot
ng v cht lng khng chy kp, hi khng bay ln c. Ngoi ra ,n cn c
th gy n thp chng ct do s tng p sut qu mc (dn , tch t qu nhiu
pha hi).
Hin tng ngp lt xy ra do cht lng trong ng chy chuyn khng chy kp
hoc do cht lng trn mt a b li cun qu d di di tc ng ca dng
hi bay ln vi tc qu ln. Ni chung l s phn b khng hp l vng
cha chp v vng ng chy chuyn.
Do tc hi ca hin tng ngp,lt chng ta phi xem xt, nh gi kh nng
khng b ngpngp lt.
Ta c th nh gi kh nng theo cng thc (4-19) [1] .
2

S S
f = 1l + 2l
1,2 S1 1,8S 2l

S1l: din tch l thuyt ca vng cha cc chp


S1: din tch thc ca vng cha cc chp
S2l: din tch ca vng ng chy chuyn
S2: din tch thc ca vng cha ng chy chuyn
f: i lng nh gi kh nng khng b ngp lt
yu cu f < 1,2
Theo cng thc (4-20) [1] :
S1l =

Qv

Kl

( L v ) / v

Chn khong cch gia cc a l T =80 (cm)


Theo biu H.4.24 [1] th K1 =250

Do
S1l =

226613,9

250

2
( 625 ,6 3,95 ) / 3,95 = 72,25 m

Theo cng thc (4-21) [1]:


S2l = K2.(QL + eS1)
Trong :
K2: h s tra theo biu hnh 4.26 [1]
Vi L - V = 621,65 kg/m 3 ; T = 80 cm th K2= 0,15
2
e : lng lng b li cun t 1 m mt a trong 1 pht v c
tnh theobiu H 4.25 [1].
Ta c:
S1 = 70% A = 0,7.1313154,7 = 919208,3 cm2

S1l

/s1 = 0,79 e =0,0101

S2l = 0,15.(288339,8+0,0101.91,9208)=43251 m2.


Vy thay s ta c :
2

72 ,25
91,92
f =
+

1,2.72 ,25
1,8.91,92

=1,003

f< 1,2.
Nh vy khng sy ra hin tng ngp lt trong thp .v thit k thp nh vy l
hp l .