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Coal and Energy Efficiency: Policy Initiatives

Rajkiran V Bilolikar

Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad

The Power of Coal: If India Did Not Use More Coal

To meet projected demand, and replace projected incremental coal based electricity generation, India would have to obtain more than 13 Tcf of NG, build 210 nuclear power plants or construct the equivalent of 400 Hoover Dams
1,770 1,736 1,586 1,509

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The Logic of Indias Continuing Reliance on Coal


There are no alternatives to hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future M.Economides, Professor of Engineering, University of Houston, 2008 Access to electricity is strongly correlated with every measurable indicator of human development -Berkeley Science Review, 2008 India has more people without adequate access to energy than any country in the world -National Resources Forum, 2008 Removal of poverty is the greater immediate imperative than global warming P. Ghosh, Secretary of the Environment, India,2007 Clean coal technology is one of the most promising routes for mitigating emissionsIndia [will] benefit IEA, 2007
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The World Bank Agrees

India needs much more power in a short time frame to continue its economic development. India still must rely on (coal) to meet growing demand Gas-based power is not a viable alternative not enough natural gas is available and the power it generates is too expensive Wind power still has limited reliability and its higher cost makes it unsustainable for meeting large scale demand * July,2008

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India Faces Rampant Growth

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The Context and Scale of Growth

By 2030

Growth

Current

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Coal is Indias only Energy Advantage

20.0% 18.0% % of Worlds Proved Reserves 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.2% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Population (1.15 Billion) Oil NG Uranium Coal 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 17.1%

Coal is expected to be the mainstay of power generation in the years to come Indias 11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012)

Indias Share of the Worlds Energy Reserves


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What Coal Conversion Will Do For India


Electricity consumption will nearly triple by 2030 to almost 2,800 terawatt hours (TWh). Liquid fuels India will have over 150 million vehicles in 20 years. Natural Gas demand will increase 170%. Dimethyl Ether (DME) a completely sootless fuel that can greatly reduce dependence on wood and dung in household cooking. Petrochemicals ammonia, formaldehyde, ethylene, propylene, methanol production will add significant value to Indian economy. Manufacturing Energy sources to make iron and steel as well as non-metallic goods, including cement and soda ash.
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Coal is the Cornerstone of Energy in India

By 2030, the 1.5 billion people in India will depend more on coal for energy than any country in the world except for the 1.5 billion people in China.

2005
Other fuel: 61%

2030
Other fuel 52% Coal: 48%

Coal: 39%

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Access to Electricity and the Quality of Life


People in Societies with Greater Access to Electricity:
Survive Childhood Live Longer Drink Cleaner Water Eat Better Are Better Educated

Under Five Death Rate/1000

Life Expectancy (years)

Access to Improved Sources (%)

Under Nourished (%)

Literacy Rate (%)

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We are at the beginning of the road: Indias Electricity Consumption per Capita Compared to Other Nations

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India Will Increasingly Rely Upon Coal for Electricity Generation

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Coal is the only proven source of Thermal Power Generation


COAL Reserves Proven category

: 271 Billion Tonnes : 110 Billion Tonnes

Nearly 87% of the total reserves are thermal coal LIGNITE Reserves : 38.9 Billion Tonnes

Proven category
NATURAL GAS Proven Reserves

: 4.8 Billion Tonnes


: 1.12 TCM

78% domestic coal production is used for power generation


Coal
is going to be the main source of power generation in the country for at least next 25-30 years Source: Geological Survey of India, MOPNG
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Indian Coal Reserve

Billion tonnes

Proven: 35 Indicated: 30 Total : 65

Proven: 7 Indicated: 8 Total : 15 Proven: 5 Indicated: 2 Total : 7

Proven: 11 Indicated: 12 Total : 23 Proven: 14 Indicated: 30 Total : 44 Proven: 9 Indicated: 25 Total : 34

Proven Indicated Inferred Total

90 110 46 246
14 Proven: 8 Indicated: 6 Total : 14

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Some Facts
In 2008-09 coal contributed to about 53% of the total commercial energy supply In MTOE terms India is the third largest consumer of coal in world after China In 2009 coal consumption in India was 245.8 MTOE India has third largest proven coal reserves totalling to 58600 MT Countrys Reserves to production ratio is 105 False sense of security current and foreseeable technologies can convert only small fraction of these into mineable category

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Challenges

Indian coal industry is beset with problems Dwindling Reserves Increasing demand supply gap Inefficient operations Failure to equitably allocate coal among various consumers

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Indias response to the coal sector


First Phase
Mining of coal in small pockets began in year 1774 Production coal increased to 6 million tonnes at the beginning of 20th century 22.4 million tonnes in 1919 33 million tonnes in 1951 (first five year plan)

Second Phase
Nationalization of coking coal mines in 1971-72 Non coking coal mines in 1973

Coking coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act 1971 Coking Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act 1972 Coal Mines (Taking over of Management) Act 1973 Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act 1973

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Indias response to the coal sector


First comprehensive policy
Fuel Policy Committee (1970), (1975)
Concluded that the Coal should be considered the primary source of energy for the country and recommended the use of coal in preference of oil products Lack of a long term vision for coal development and linkages to the power sector

Under the provisions of coal mines (Nationalisation) Act 1973 public sector companies can mine coal Further in 1976 and in 1993 additional provisions were enacted to allow coal mining for captive end use for steel, cement and power 2005 Expert Committee on Road map for coal sector reforms

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Committee recommendations - Future coal mapping

conventional geological mapping air photo interpretation satellite imagery

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Prognosticated Resources (Regional or Reconnaissance Geological survey)

22400 sq km area out of total surveyed area of 49000 sq km have coal bearing sedimentary formations
Gondwana group

Out of this total potential coal bearing area of 22400 sq km only about 10200 sq km (45%) has been systematically explored through regional / promotional drilling Remaining 12200 sq km area still to be systematically explored
Prognosticated resources of 143 billion tones have been estimated (GSI)

Additionally there are 67 billion toones of coal resources occurring in the Tertiary Cambay basin of Gujarat lying deeper than 1200 meters Energy These prognosticated resources do not form part of the inventory of Indian coal reserves
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Agenda

Wide spaced drilling is undertaken in these selected areas by GSI under regional exploration programme Indicated reserve
If the bore holes are drilled at a spacing of 1km to 2 km

Inferred Reserve
If the drill spacing is even wider

In the 10200 sq km area exploded so far a total of 248 billion tones of inplace Geological Coal reserve has been estimated upto 1200 meters depth as on 1/1/2005 Bulk of these have been estimated to lie within 600 meters depth (230 billion tones Further some 152 billion tones (61.52% of total coal reserves) are estimated to exist within 300 meters depth These are available for open cast mining

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Depth wise Geological Coal Reserves


The reserves assessed on the basis of detailed exploratory drilling (drill spacing of less than 400 meters) are placed in the Proved Reserves Category As a result, 93 billion tones is placed under this category upto depth of 1200 meters These include 91.5 billion tones up to depth of 600 meters and 71 billion tones up to a depth of 300 meters 70% of the proven reserves have been earmarked for CIL Energy Depth (m) Proved (in Bt) 71 6.5 14 1.5 93 Indicated (in Bt) 66.5 39.5 0.5 10.5 117 Inferred (in Bt) In (Bt) 0-300 300-600 0-600 (Jharia) 600-1200 Total 15 17 6 38 15.5
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Total In % 61.5 25 6 7 100

152.5 63 14.5 18 248 100

% 37.5 47 Administrative Staff College of India

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Basis of Categorization
It is based on Indian Standard Procedures adopted in 1957 with a minimum thickness of 0.5 m to be included in coal inventory ISP was modified in 1989 to exclude the reserves in coal seams with thickness less than 0.9 m from coal inventory Leads to distortion between reserves included in the coal inventory and that estimated in the GRs

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Tentative Extractable Reserves of the National Coal Inventory

Area

Geological Reserves Proved Indicated 79.42 97.66 117.08 Inferred 4.56 33.24 37.80 Total 91.69 156.15 247.84

Extractable Reserves 30.03 22.21 52.24

CIL Blocks 67.71 Rest Total 25.25 92.96

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Expert Committee Recommendations


This open up the window of opportunity to speed up the our efforts to accelerate the pace of regional surveys and drilling to complete the comprehensive coal resource assessment exercise and to re-examine the foundations of our energy security policies and programmes A time bound plan to cover the entire country by regional mapping in 15 years Funding for this is commenced from 2006-07 Program on detailed exploration and drilling CMPDIs current capacity of drilling 3 lakh meters per annum must be raised to at least 15 lakh meters per annum Arrangement of revolving fund of Rs 500 Crores for this purpose Envisages an enhancement in the capacity for detailed exploration could potentially add about 20 billion tones of coal to the proven category annually
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New Coal Distribution Policy

Each sector / consumers would be treated on merit keeping in view of regulatory provisions applicable there to Price distribution will be different to different consumers 75% of the quantity as per the normative requirement of the consumers would be through FSA The balance 25% of through e-auction Replacement of linkage system by FUEL Supply Agreement (FSA) It talks about new consumers and provisions made thereof EMD, Letter of Assurance etc It talks about Implementation Schedule

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Some Maps

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Ganga R.

B N L DS A GA E H

n So

A IN BS HL AA AM RJ

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Rajmahal

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Scale 0 50 100 150 km


Umaria Pali Tiki

Karharbari
Bara kar R.
Raniganj

Daltonganj Nidpur

B a ir t R h gai .

SON BA SIN

KOEL BASIN

Dubrajpur

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Parsora Manendragarh

A P U R S A T
N arm ada R.

I N B A S

Jabalpur

DAMODAR BASIN

Durgapur

Da mo dar R.
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Bijori

AH AN AD I

KOLKATA
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BA SI N
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Ma h an

Kamthi Nagpur

Mangli

IN S A B I R A V A D O G A IT H N A R P
Pr an h it a R .

ad i R .

Athgarh Bhubaneswar 20

Go davari

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B E N G A L

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Ramagundam

O F

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HYDERABAD
R.

Kothagudem

Chintalpudi
na K rish

Ptilophyllum Assemblage zone (Jurassic to Lr. Cretaceous Lepidopteris-Dicroidium Assemblage Zone (Triassic) Glossopteris Assemblage Zone (Permian)

B A Y

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Some Maps

P o n n aiy a r

R .

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G E O L O G IC A L M A P P A R T O F T A M IL N A D U
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C U D D A L O R E
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RajMahal Coal Field

G E O L O G I C AL M AP O F R AJ M A H AL AN D B IR B H U M C O AL F IE L D S J H AR K H A ND AN D W E S T B E N G AL
87 00 ' 87 10 ' 87 20 ' 87 30 ' 87 40 ' 10 25 20 ' 87 50 ' 0 10 k m 25 20 ' 88 00 '

Pi r p a in ti R S . Kahalgaon B a ra
25 10 '

S ah i b g a n j

25 10 '

Ma ha ga m a
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R aj m a ha l R S . Ph u l b e r ia
25 00 '

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B a rh ar w a
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H an sd ih a
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P ak u r

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Am r a p a ra
24 30 ' 24 30 '

G o p ika n d ar K a t iku n d
O n go ing b lo c ks Co m p le te d b lo c ks Pr o po se d b loc k C H A UD HA R G A RIA P A N I

Sa ld ah a Du mk a
SA HA R P UR J A M AR P AN I

24 20 '

24 20 '

LE G E N D Al lu viu m R aj m a ha l F o r m a ti o n
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K U L K U L ID AN G A LS IT AS AL

Ram pu rhat
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U p p er G o n d w a na s Lo w er G o n d w a n a s M e ta m o r p h ic s
87 00 ' 87 10 ' 87 20 ' RA M P U R MAL L AR P U R 87 30 '

B O R TA L A M AT HU RA P U R

Fa teh p u r K h ar g r a m
87 40 ' 87 50 ' 88 00 '

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Geological Map of Talcher

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Geological map of Singrauli coal field

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Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency

Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency

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Energy Development and Climate Change


Indias Energy Development and climate change challenges are multipronged
Energy Performance in terms of both quantity and equity is very weak
World India China Brazil USA 1680 kg OE 346 kg OE 1403 kg OE 1130 kg OE 7721 kg OE

Indias challenge is to bridge the access gap in modern energy services It leads to growing contributions of climate change

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Energy Development and Climate Change


Some questions
How the Government policies and regulatory frameworks have evolved over a period of time for promoting energy efficiency? What are the trends observed in energy intensities of Indian economy? Do the trends in energy intensities reflect the influence of energy efficiency policy measures and subsequent actions?

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Energy Development and Climate Change

Indian Government estimates that the energy consumption will rise by 50% by 2015 compared to 2005 levels

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Energy Development and Climate Change

Primary energy consumption as a whole has grown at a CAGR of 4.9% The consumption of coal has grown at 4.2% Oil by 5.5% Natural Gas by 12.8% Hydro and Nuclear power by 8.6% & 4.4%
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Energy Development and Climate Change

The total energy related CO2 emissions have grown at a CAGR of 4.7% to about 1328 Million Tonne in 2007-08 from about 182 Million Tonne in 1965

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Energy Development and Climate Change

The energy intensities have been estimated for each of the primary energy sources / carriers by dividing the energy consumption by the constant 2000 national GDP

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Energy Development and Climate Change

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


First Phase
National Development policy was till the early 1970s focused on puritanical ideals of economic development Early 1970s witnessed the first initiatives towards the integration of energy policy into national development policy Concerns on the fossil fuel long term solution for growing energy demands The fuel policy committee was set up in 1970
Suggestion to set up Energy Board PCRA

The Working group on Energy Policy (WGEP)


Demand Management should form the most important element of oil policy To develop coordination among rail, road and water ways including coastal shipping for optimum us of transportation options To set up standards of fuel efficiency for electrical and diesel pumps, lighting, cooking appliances etc

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Second Phase (6th & 7th five year plan 1980 1989)
GoI Instituted the inter ministerial working group on Energy Conservation in August 1981
The first concrete proposal for reduction in energy consumption in India (IMWGEC 1983) Three major sectors Industry, Transport and Agriculture 5-10% of investment required for new energy supplies and equal amount would be saved by EC

Advisory Board on Energy was set up in 1983 ABE made detailed projection on energy demand ABE commissioned Indian Law Institute in 1987 to prepare a draft of the Energy Conservation Bill for enactment The draft was completed in 1988 The establishment of Nodal Energy Conservation Organisation (NECO) It was soon replaced by Energy Management Centre
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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Second Phase (6th & 7th five year plan 1980 1989)
The establishment of Nodal Energy Conservation Organisation (NECO) It was soon replaced by Energy Management Centre The centre coordinated
Energy Auditing of consumers both in the industrial and commercial sector Both conventional and non conventional energy management systems and energy conservation Education and training Energy generation and conservation based employment and poverty alleviation programmes

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Third Phase (1990s)
National Energy Conservation Day 14th of December National Energy Conservation Award Eco-Mark Voluntary eco-labeling program; MoEF managed the program with the support of CPCB Voluntary programme on energy efficiency
Refrigerators Room Air Conditioners

World Energy Efficiency Association (WEEA) was founded in 1993

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Fourth Phase (Critical to the development of energy policy in India)
The energy conservation bill was passed as an act in September 2001 It facilitated the creation of new body in the name of Bureau of Energy Efficiency popularly known as BEE The Main objectives of BEE were
To exert leadership, provide policy framework and direction to national energy conservation and efficiency efforts To coordinate energy efficiency and conservation policies and programmes and take them to stakeholders To establish systems and procedures to measure, monitor and verify energy efficiency results at sectoral as well as macro level To leverage multi lateral, bi-lateral and private sector support in implementation of EC Act and EE programmes To interpret, plan and manage EC programmes as envisaged in the EC Act

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Fourth Phase (Critical to the development of energy policy in India)
BEE has worked to eliminate market failures arising from quandaries such as information asymmetries
Industry specific task forces Notifying more industries as designated consumers Conduct of energy audit amongst notified designated consumers Recording and publication of best practices in each sector Development of energy consumption norms Monitoring of compliance with mandated provision by designated consumers

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Assessment of Energy Policy regimes


Fifth Phase : the way forward
Integrated Energy Policy (2006) Barriers were analyzed
Energy Pricing Informational asymmetries Consuemers are not aware of the opportunities for improving EE Effective and Comprehensive energy policy

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National Action Plan

The National Action Plan on Climate Change was released by Honorable Prime Minister of India in June 2008 The Action Plan Outlines 8 Missions including National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) The Mission has outlined specific goals
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Missions under NAPCC

National Solar Mission National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency National Mission on Sustainable Habitat National Water Mission National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem National Mission for a Green India National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture National Mission for Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

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Indian Power Supply: Current Situation and Future Projections Installed Capacity in India Approx. 160,000 MW Projected Capacity in 2030 800,000 MW 600 MW capacity addition each week Continued deficit supply in 2007-08 (MOP) Peak power deficit of 16.6% Energy Deficit of 9.9%
Source: Planning Commission of India and Central Electricity Authority

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Electricity Scenario in India

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Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation is achieved when growth of energy consumption is reduced, measured in physical terms Energy Conservation can therefore, be the result of several processes or developments, such as productivity increase or technological progress

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Energy Conservation

Energy conservation refers to


efforts made to reduce energy consumption in order
to preserve resources for the future and reduce environmental pollution.

Energy conservation can be achieved through


increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with
decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources.

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Drivers for Energy Conservation

India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global threat of climate change Increasing gross domestic product (GDP) remains the key target of the Indias economic development strategy; however GDP growth is tied closely to increasing energy consumption Unless economic growth is decoupled from increased energy consumption, the energy shortage situation will continue While per-capita GHG emissions of India are low, in absolute terms Indias GHG emissions very high Energy Security and way towards clean technologies
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Energy Efficiency Measures

Legal or Regulatory Instruments Financial Measures Market Oriented Mechanisms Energy Audits Energy Conservation programmes Demand Side Mangement

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Indias Response towards Energy Efficiency


Legal and Regulatory instruments The Energy Conservation Act 2001 Mandatory energy Efficiency target of 5% by 2012 in 11th five year plan National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEE) PAT (Perform, Achieve and Trade) MTEE (Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency) FEEED (Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development) DSM (Demand Side Management)

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Indias Response towards Energy Efficiency

Financial Measures The State Energy Conservation fund (SECF) is a 70 Crore Rupees fund launched in 2009 under the framework of the 2001 Energy Conservation Act

Energy Audit Energy audits are mandatory for large energy consuming industries. The bureau of Energy Efficiency is responsible for implementation of energy efficiency programmes

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Energy Efficiency Spin offs

Energy Efficiency / conservation measures can reduce peak and average demand One unit saved avoids around 2.5 to 3 times of fresh capacity addition Investment in energy efficiency/ energy conservation is highly cost effective Can be achieved less than Rs. 1.2 Crore/MW Avoids investment in fuel, mining and transportation etc

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Energy Efficiency India Scenario


Savings Potential Supply side savings opportunity : 25000 MW Demand side savings opportunity Agricultural sector : 20% Commercial sector : 20-50 % Industrial sector : 25 %

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Energy Conservation Act 2001

Comprehensive legislation laying roadmap for improvement in energy efficiency in the country Mandatory energy audit for energy intensive industries Minimum energy performance standards for industries & for equipment & appliances Setting up of a Bureau of Energy Efficiency

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Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)

Established in 2002 to provide a policy framework and direction to national energy conservation activities, with following thrust areas:
Indian Industry Programme for Energy Conservation Demand Side Management Standards and Labeling Programme Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Establishments Energy Conservation Building Codes Professional Certification and Accreditation Manuals and Codes Energy Efficiency Policy Research Programme School Education Delivery Mechanisms for Energy Efficiency Services
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Standards and Labeling


The Objectives of Program is to provide the consumer an informed choice about the energy saving ,and thereby the cost saving potential of the marketed household and other equipment. The scheme was launched by the Hon'ble Minister of Power in May,2006 The scheme is currently invoked for equipments/appliances

Frost Free(No-Frost) refrigerator Tubular Fluorescent Lamps Room Air Conditioners Direct Cool Refrigerator

Induction Motors, Pump Sets Ceiling Fans LPG, Electric Geysers Colour TV

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Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)

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Commercial Buildings Sector in India


Commercial Buildings Growth Forecast
Currently, ~ 659 million m2 (USAID ECO-III Internal Estimate Using MOSPI, CEA and Benchmarked Energy Use data) In 2030,~ 1,900 million m2 (estimated) *

66% building stock is yet to be constructed

660 million m2 Year: 2010 * Assuming 5-6% Annual Growth


Source: USAID ECO- III Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

1,930 million m2

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Projected Growth Across Building Sector in India

Source: McKinsey Analysis

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Growth of Electricity Consumption in Commercial Sector in India

SOURCE: Central Electricity Authority (2009).

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Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)


Covers new buildings and ensures minimum energy performance requirements Launched by Govt. of India on May 2007 Building components included
Building Envelope (Walls, Roofs, Windows) Lighting (Indoor and Outdoor) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) System Solar Water Heating and Pumping Electrical Systems (Power Factor, Transformers)

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ECBC Overview
ECBC sets minimum energy efficiency standards for design and construction of commercial buildings ECBC encourages energy efficient design of new buildings and major renovations Addresses local design conditions and helps improve existing construction practices Emphasis on Integrated Building Design approach First generation code ease of use and continuous improvement
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ECBC Compliance
Applicable BUILDING SYSTEMS ENVELOPE Prescriptive HVAC Trade-off option (for ENVELOPE only) COMPLIANCE APPROACHES

LIGHTING Whole Building Performance

ELECTRICAL POWER

SOLAR HOT WATER & PUMPING Required for ALL Compliance Approaches

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ECBC Development
Broad Stakeholder participation Building Industry, Manufacturers, Professionals, Govt. Agencies etc. ECO-II facilitated the development of ECBC ECBC committee of experts An extensive data collection was carried out for construction types and materials, glass types, insulation materials, lighting and HVAC equipment Base case simulation models were developed The stringency analysis was done through detailed energy and life cycle cost analysis
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Relationship of ECBC With Other Programs


Program Organization Compliance Required Building Type Building With Scope Linkage to ECBC

ECBC

Ministry of Power/BEE

Voluntary

Commercial

Connected Load>=500kW Contract Demand >=600kVA

Energy Efficiency

NA

LEED-India

CII-Green Business Center

Voluntary

Commercial/ Institutional

Sustainable design/green building

Refers to ECBC for energy efficiency credits

GRIHA

MNRE

Voluntary

Residential/ Commercial/ Institutional

Sustainable design/green building

Refers to ECBC for energy efficiency credits

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Ministry of Environment and Forests

Mandatory

Commercial/Resi dential

Applicable to Large Projects

Environmental Impact

ECBC and Environmental Clearance requirements are related

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Energy Conservation Act 2001


Government of India - creation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) Powers and Functions of BEE vis--vis ECBC Prescribe ECBC for efficient use of energy Take suitable steps to prescribe guidelines for ECBC Link Energy Performance Index (from the EC Act) to the ECBC Prescriptive Compliance Approach in order to facilitate the implementation of the Code [On Page 5, clause (j) of the EC Act, 2001 currently reads: "energy conservation building codes" means the norms and standards of energy consumption expressed in terms of per square meter of the area wherein energy is used and includes the location of the building]

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Energy Conservation Act 2001

Power of State Government: The State Govt., in consultation with BEE, may amend ECBC to suit the regional and local climatic conditions with respect to use of energy in the buildings direct the owner or occupier of a building (if notified as a Designated Consumer) to comply with the provisions of ECBC

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Benchmarking: Macro Analysis Building Population


N=861

N=760

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Baseline Energy Use in Commercial Buildings

Number of Buildings

Floor Building Type Area (m2) OFFICE BUILDINGS One shift Buildings Three shifts Buildings 16,716 31,226

Annual Energy Consumption (kWh) 20,92,364 88,82,824 18,38,331 44,98,942 15,89,508 24,53,060 13,65,066

Benchmarking Indices kWh/m2/year kWh/m2/hour 149 349 115 258 0.068 0.042 0.045 0.064

145 55 88 224 10 128 22

Public Sector Buildings 15,799 Private Sector 28,335 Buildings Green Buildings 8,382 HOSPITALS Multi-specialty 8721 Hospitals Government Hospitals 19,859 HOTELS

141 2 kWh/m /year kWh/bed/year 378 88 13,890

2,009 kWh/room/yea kWh/m2/year r 279 24,110

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Luxury Hotels (4 and 5 Star)

19,136

48,65,711

SHOPPING MALLS 101 Shopping Malls 10,516 23,40,939

kWh/m2/year kWh/m2/hour 252 0.05642

Source: Building Energy Benchmarking study undertaken by the USAID ECO-III Project

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Building Envelope Design

ECBC Compliant Design Strategy for a Building Heat/Moisture Losses Minimize Conduction Losses Minimize Convection Losses & Moisture Penetration Walls Use insulation with low U-value Reduce air leakage & use vapor barrier Roof Use insulation with low U-value Reduce air leakage & use vapor barrier Use light colored coating with high reflectance Window Use material with low U-factor Use prefabricated windows and seal the joints between windows and walls. Use glazing with low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)

Minimize Radiation Losses

Use light colored coating with high reflectance

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Demand Side Management

Demand Side Management or DSM is defined as a set of initiatives undertaken by the utility on the consumer side of the meter to bring about a desired change in consumer demand and/or demand profile maintaining, or even enhancing the service provided to the consumer in terms of quality, reliability and cost of service. DSM programmes broadly classifies as
Peak Clipping Programme Load Shifting Programme Strategic Conservation Programme

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Demand Side Management

Monetary incentives results in the most effective implementation of any policy ERCs can play a critical role in promoting DSM by appropriate tariff structure
Time of Day Tariffs Power Factor Incentive & Penalty / Reactive Power Charges Load Management Charges Rebates/ incentives for energy efficiency/ fuel switching Differential Pricing for Agricultural Sector

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Thank You
Rajkiran V. Bilolikar, Assistant Professor, Energy Area, Administrative Staff College of India, Bella Vista, Raj Bhavan Road, Hyderabad - 500082 T: +91 40 6653 4390 F: +91 40 6653 4356 M: +91 9704087888 rajkiran@asci.org.in

Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad